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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
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Objectives
Compensated Neutron
Objectives
Compensated Neutron
JFE will gather sufficient knowledge to efficiently
operate compensated neutron tool and explain its
operational basic theory.
JEF will review standard procedures for handling
the neutron sources.
JFE will be able to calibrate the compensated
neutron tool.
JEF will identify different neutron log responses.
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1. You will improve your skills
2. After this chapter, you be able to operate one of
the most popular Open Hole tool in the Oil
Industry.
3. Finally, all this represent money ($..)for you.
Benefits
Compensated Neutron
Benefits
Compensated Neutron
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Module 1. Introduction
Neutron Radiation
Neutron Source
Neutron Interaction.
Module 2. Compensated Neutron
Module 3 Hardware
Module 4 Calibration / Verification
Module 5 Logging Operation
Agenda
Compensated Neutron
Agenda
Compensated Neutron
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Introduction
Compensated Neutron
Introduction
Compensated Neutron
Compensated Neutron instrument is a radiation logging
device that indicates formation porosity in open or cased hole.
Use an induced chemical radioactive source that emits
neutrons.
Two proportional counters act as detectors.
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Introduction
Compensated Neutron
Introduction
Compensated Neutron
Neutron logs respond to the fundamental formation property of
hydrogen richness.
If all of the formation's hydrogen is contained in the form of
liquids, and if these liquids completely occupy the total pore
volume, hydrogen richness is an index of porosity.
Hence, a neutron log is used to determine Porosity Index.
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Neutron Radiation
Compensated Neutron
Neutron Radiation
Compensated Neutron
Neutron radiation is induced or man-made and occurs when a very excited
nucleus emits a neutron in order to become more stable.
Neutrons have the following physical characteristics:
Mass of 1
No charge
Varying speed varying kinetic Energy
E
k
=1/2 mv
2
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Neutron Radiation
Compensated Neutron
Neutron Radiation
Compensated Neutron
Neutrons are classified by the amount of energy they possess.
This energy is directly related to their speed of travel.
1. Fast neutrons > 100 KeVof energy
2. Intermediate neutrons - between 100 KeVand 100 eVof energy
3. Slow neutrons < 100 evof energy
a) Epithermal neutrons - between .1 and 100 eVof energy
b) Semi-epithermal neutrons
c) Thermal neutrons - < 0.025 eVof energy
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Neutron Source
Neutron Radiation
Neutron Source
Neutron Radiation
Typically neutron logging sources are mixtures of isotopes, which when
combined decay in such a manner that neutrons result.
The chemical source most commonly used contains Beryllium (Be) and
Americium 241 (Am) which is an alpha emitting radioactive element.
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Neutron Source
Neutron Radiation
Neutron
Source
Containers
(WEP)
Neutron Source
Am-241/Be - 666
GBq(18 Ci)
9 inches / 22.7 cm
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Neutron Source
Neutron Radiation
Neutron Source
Neutron Radiation
As Americium spontaneously decays to neptunium, it emits sizeable
quantities of alpha particles.
This decreases the atomic weight by 4 and the atomic number by 2.
The alpha particle is captured by the Be which becomes C13 (Carbon
13).
The carbon 13 atom is very unstable and emits a 4.5 MeV neutron,
which is a Fast neutron.
237
93
4
2
241
95
: Decay Americium Np Am +
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Neutron Source
Neutron Radiation
Neutron Source
Neutron Radiation

241
95 93
237
4
2
Am Np + + 4.5 Mev
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Neutron Source
Neutron Radiation
Neutron Source
Neutron Radiation
Isotopic Neutron Sources Isotopic Neutron Sources
Mixing Alpha emitter with an appropriate target material.
2
4
4
9
0
1
Be
6
12
C n + +
6
13
C* *
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Features of the neutron source
Neutron Radiation
Features of the neutron source
Neutron Radiation
Isotope:
Americium241- Beryllium (Am241Be)
Source Type:
S17S20
Activity:
666 GBq(18 Ci) activity - produces about 40 million n/sec,
Energy level
4.5 MeV.
Radioactive half life
432 years.
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Neutron Source
Neutron Radiation
Neutron Source
Neutron Radiation
Am
241
Compounds: Americium241 -Beryllium(Am 241 Be)
Denomination: S17S20
Activity: 18 Ci Energy: 4.5 MeV
Radioactive 1/2 life: 432 years
decays
95

4
+ Np
237
2
93
Captured by Be to become
C
13
(unstable)
6
decays
FAST
NEUTRONS
+ C
12
6
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Neutron Interaction
Neutron Radiation
Neutron Interaction
Neutron Radiation
The Neutron source emits high energy neutron radiation.
Immediately upon entering the borehole-formation environment, neutrons
start undergoing a continuous de-energizing process.
This energy reduction occurs when the neutron collides with nucleus of
borehole and formation elements.
A neutron loses some of its total kinetic energy each time it is involved in
either an elastic or inelastic collision.
Neutrons with low energy can be absorbed or capture by the target
nucleus become a excited stated.
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Elastic Collision
Neutron Interaction
Elastic Collision
Neutron Interaction
Remember your last billiard game
Remember your last billiard game
1
1
2
2
1 1
1
v m
E E
k k
= =
Before
Before
V
1
1
1
2
2
V

1
V
2
2 2
' '
'
2
2 2
2
1 1
2
v m v m
E
E E E
k
k k k
+ =
+ =
After
After =
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Elastic Collision
Neutron Interaction
Elastic Collision
Neutron Interaction
N
N
V
1
H
H
V
1
= V
2
The neutron transfer 100 % of
its Energy to the Hydrogen
The neutron transfer 100 % of
its Energy to the Hydrogen
Head-on collision between particles of the same masse:
neutronand hydrogen
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Elastic Collision
Neutron Interaction
Elastic Collision
Neutron Interaction
Conservation of the kinetic Energy.
The best transfer appears with a particle of same masse:
HYDROGEN.
Hydrogen is primarilyresponsible for the reduction of the neutron
energy.
The matrix has a significant effect.
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2
2
1 1
1
v m
E E
k k
= =
Before
Before
Inelastic Collision
Neutron Interaction
Inelastic Collision
Neutron Interaction
1
1
V
1
1
1
2
2

V
1
V
2
emitting -ray
emitting -ray
Atom 2 is in an excited state
Atom 2 is in an excited state
2 1
'
k k k
E E E + =
After
After

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Inelastic Collision
Neutron Interaction
Inelastic Collision
Neutron Interaction
No conservation of the kinetic energy.
The struck nucleus is left in an excited state.
Emission of -ray so the excited nucleus comes back to its ground
state.
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Neutron Capture
Neutron Interaction
Neutron Capture
Neutron Interaction
N
N
V
1
2
2
V
2
= 0
The neutron is absorbed by the
target nucleus, and this nucleus,
emits instantaneously a gamma
ray
The neutron is absorbed by the
target nucleus, and this nucleus,
emits instantaneously a gamma
ray
The Neutron incident has low energy
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Neutron Interaction
Compensated Neutron
Neutron Interaction
Compensated Neutron
Since hydrogen atoms are both relatively abundant and nearly equal in mass to the neutron,
they are primarily responsible for reducing high energy neutrons to their thermal state.
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Compensated Neutron Module 2
Detecting Hydrogen and relation sheet with Porosity
Reading with high porosity and low porosity conditions.
Position of detectors
Ratio SSN/LSN
Eccentricity
LithologyEffects
Gas Effects
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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
The two thermal neutron detectors
are positioned at different spacing
from an 18 Curie Americium 241
Beryllium neutron source.
- The near detector is referred to
as the "short-spaced" (SS)
detector.
- The far detector is referred to
as the "long-spaced" (LS)
detector.
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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
The neutron source continuously
emits fast neutrons.
When fast neutrons collide with the
various nuclei in the formation they
lose energy, slowing to an
epithermal energy level, then to a
thermal energy level.
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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
Therefore a decreasing detector count indicates an increasing amount of
hydrogenous material between the source and the detectors.
This in turn indicates a higher formation porosity.
The count rates from the long-spaced detector and the short-spaced
detector are each processed in the instrument and transmitted to the
surface.
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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
Whether the detector type used is responsive to capture gamma rays or
to slow neutrons
the measurement is indicative of the relative amount of hydrogenin
the formation.
When formation liquids are the primary source of formation hydrogen
neutron measurements are correlative to the quantity of liquid
existing in the pore space.
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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
In high porosity, liquid-filled formations, the neutron flux is thermalised
close to the source, so that relatively few neutrons or capture gamma
rays are detected.
Thus high porosity is indicated by a low neutron counting rate.
The reverse reasoning will relate low porosity to a high count rate.
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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
Can be divided in 3 zones
Can be divided in 3 zones
Higher porosity,
More Hydrogen
around the
source,
Neutrons
thermalized
closer from the
source,
Detector is
closed to the
source Higher
count rate
More porosity,
more hydrogen
COUNTS
DECREASE
QUICKER
Further away
from the
source
LESS
COUNTS
Reading
INCREASE
when porosity
DECREASE
SAME READING
whatever value is
the porosity
High reading,
Reading decrease
when porosity
decrease
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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
The far spacing zone provides:
1. Increased depth of investigation
formation porosity is emphasized over borehole effects.
2. Improved porosity resolution
fractional change in count rate per unit porosity change.
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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
The Compensated Neutron tool is the standard used for open hole
logging.
A fast neutron source is located near the bottom of the tool,
and two thermal neutron detectors are spaced ~1 and ~1.5 ft above
it, both are in the far field.
The ratio of the count rates from the near and far detectors, SSN/LSN is
related to formation porosity
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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
The ECLIPS acquisition system uses the ratio of the short-spaced (SS)
count rate to the long-spaced (LS) count rate to compute an apparent
limestone porosity curve.
The computed curve may be further corrected for environmental and
formation effects.
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2435 CN Porosity Response
Compensated Neutron
2435 CN Porosity Response
Compensated Neutron
SSN / LSNis presented
on the X-axis.
THE RATIO
INCREASES WITH
POROSITY.
Remember : bothSSN
and LSN decreasewith
porosity but LSN
decreases more.
Need to be link to
porosity
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Tool Eccentricity
Compensated Neutron
Tool Eccentricity
Compensated Neutron
Neutron count rates increase as the tool approaches contact with the
borehole wall from a center hole position.
To aid in this the tool is normally run with a decentralizer in place.
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Lithology Effects
Compensated Neutron
Lithology Effects
Compensated Neutron
While the SSN/LSN ratio depends primarily on porosity, there is also a
significant dependence on lithology because the matrix contributes
some to the slow down and capture of the neutrons.
Therefore to derive porosity from the count ratio with any accuracy the
lithology must be known.
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Lithology Effects
Compensated Neutron
Lithology Effects
Compensated Neutron
The ratio-porosity relationship used to derive CN is normally limestone
matrix, and is referred to as:
Apparent Limestone Porosity
For different lithology such as
sandstone and dolomite correction
charts have been derived.
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Lithology Effects
Compensated Neutron
Lithology Effects
Compensated Neutron
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Gas Effect
Compensated Neutron
Gas Effect
Compensated Neutron
The measurement of porosity is only valid in rocks filled with oil or water
both fluids have the same volumetric hydrogen contents.
Gas filled formations will show too low a value for porosity
the number of hydrogen atoms per unit volume in gas is much
lower than that of water or liquid hydrocarbons.
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Hardware Module 3
Compensated Neutron
Hardware Module 3
Compensated Neutron
Detectors SSN and LSN
Electronic
Main components
Data transmission
Subset
Sample rate
Computed Curves
General parameters
Compensated Neutron Logs presentations
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LS and SS detectors
Compensated Neutron-Hardware
LS and SS detectors
Compensated Neutron-Hardware
The detectors are proportional
counters encased in nylon
moderator sleeves.
The counters consist of two
electrodes mounted in a metal
cylinder and pressurised with
active helium gas (He3).
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Proportional Counter
Compensated Neutron -Hardware
Similar to ionization chamber. The operating voltage between the
anode (center wire) and cathode (cylinder) is more than 1000
volts.
Primarily used as epithermal and thermal neutron detectors.
The cylinder is filled with an active gas (He ) pressurized to 10
atmospheres.
The cylinder is encased in a nylon sleeve which acts as a
moderator and has a cadmium shield.
Detection begins with the absorption of neutrons by the atoms of
He .
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Proportional Counter
Compensated Neutron -Hardware
Advantages
Fairly rugged and temperatures to 400 F tolerated
Signal pulses large enough to be easily counted
Pulse strength proportional to the energy level of the radiationparticles
detected by the counter.
Disadvantage
Dead Time
Application
2418, 2435, 2438, 2446 Compensated Neutron
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Deadtimeof detectors
Compensated Neutron -Hardware
Its defined simply as the amount of time that must elapse before
another event can be detected.
Any events that occur during the deadtimeof a detector are missed.
The deadtimefor 2446XAs detectors is 20 microseconds for the
short space and 24 microseconds for the long space.
Deadtimecorrection is applied to 2446XAs detectors using the next
formula:
count rate raw/(1-count rate raw*t)=count rate deadtimecorrected
where t is the deadtimeknown for each detector.
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123906
NEUTRON
PREAMP
LS
DETECTOR
SS
DETECTOR
133906
NEUTRO
N
PREAMP
1
5
5
0
1
1
8
M
I
C
R
O
C
O
N
T
R
O
L
E
R
H
H
L
E
C
B
A
M
133913
NEUTRON
SIGNAL PROCESSOR
B00
BZ0
UDI
+ 5
+24V
GND
LSCNT
SSCNT
L
S
C
N
T
S
S
C
N
T
G
N
D
+
H
V
+
2
4
V
Boost the pulses
Boost the pulses
Detectors
low output signal
Detectors
low output signal
Signal Processing board
1. Buffer
2. Voltage reference
3. Discriminator
4. Scaler ( SS/16 LS/4)
5. Pulse shaping
Signal Processing board
1. Buffer
2. Voltage reference
3. Discriminator
4. Scaler ( SS/16 LS/4)
5. Pulse shaping
Micro-
Controller
WTS M2 comms
Voltage monitor
Frequency counter
Micro-
Controller
WTS M2 comms
Voltage monitor
Frequency counter
DIAGRAM OF THE CIRCUIT Compensated Neutron -Hardware
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Neutron Curves
Compensated Neutron -Hardware
Neutron Curves
Compensated Neutron -Hardware
Raw curves
Computed curves
ssnr : raw short space count
lsnr : raw long space count
ssnr : raw short space count
lsnr : raw long space count
CN : compensated neutron porosity
CNC : borehole size corrected CN
CNCF : Field normalized CNC (made
to look like Schlumberger curve for high porosity)
CN : compensated neutron porosity
CNC : borehole size corrected CN
CNCF : Field normalized CNC (made
to look like Schlumberger curve for high porosity)
Presented
Presented
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Data Transmission
Compensated Neutron -Hardware
Data Transmission
Compensated Neutron -Hardware
All data is transmitted to surface via the 3514 using the WTS telemetry
scheme.
The total long space/short space counts and diagnostic curves
are sent to surface via M2.
The tool commands are sent from surface to the tool via M2.
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Subset
Compensated Neutron -Hardware
Subset
Compensated Neutron -Hardware
The tool can acquire only one subset:
Subset #0:
LSN (Long space counts),
SSN (Short space counts),
W0AF (flask temperature) and
W0AP (+24V power supply).
M2 telemetry only.
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Sample Rate
Compensated Neutron -Hardware
Sample Rate
Compensated Neutron -Hardware
Data is typically acquired at
4 samples/foot (13.12 samples/meter),
which is a finer resolution than the vertical bed resolution of the instrument.
Other sample rates are available as defined by the ACTs
available within the OCT being used, these are normally 2/ft or
8/ft.
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General Parameters in Eclips
Compensated Neutron
General Parameters in Eclips
Compensated Neutron
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Limestone Matrix Limestone Matrix
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Limestone Matrix Limestone Matrix
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Sandstone Matrix Sandstone Matrix
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Sandstone Matrix Sandstone Matrix
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Calibration and Verification Module 4
Compensated Neutron
API neutron calibration pit
2437XB Calibrator Tank
2446XA Rod Moderators used in the calibrator tank.
Normalized Ratio for 2446XA
Normalized Ratio for 2438XA
Primary Calibration, Primary Verification
Safety Procedures handling Neutron source.
Inserting the Radioactive Source
Extracting the Source
Emergency Removal Procedure
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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
The standard unit of
measurement for neutron logs
is the API Porosity Unit.
Test pit in Houston university.
3 references: 1.9%, 19%, 26%.
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2437XB CN Calibrator 2437XB CN Calibrator
We use a calibratorand
moderator rod.
It is filled with
water/propylene glycol.
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2446XA Compensated Neutron 2446XA Compensated Neutron
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2446XA Compensated Neutron 2446XA Compensated Neutron
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2438XA Compensated Neutron 2438XA Compensated Neutron
C arrangement.
Reading depends of tool
series.
Ratio SSN / LSN is 8.31
(2438XA).
Tolerance is +/-0.15.
Corresponds to a porosity of
25.738 % API.
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2435XA Compensated Neutron 2435XA Compensated Neutron
READ THE TOOL ANSWER
Read a value for SSN/LSN with the
Rods in the C arrangement.
7.9 in this case
7.9 in this case
Ratio SSN/LSN
Ratio SSN/LSN
P
o
r
o
s
i
t
y
P
o
r
o
s
i
t
y
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2435XA Compensated Neutron 2435XA Compensated Neutron
CHECKS THE RATIO IS IN TOLERANCE
Acceptable Ratio Range : 7.63 to 9.09
7.9 in this case
7.9 in this case
P
o
r
o
s
i
t
y
P
o
r
o
s
i
t
y
Ratio SSN/LSN
Ratio SSN/LSN
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SHIFT THE POINT
Determination of the multiplicative
calibration factor
MCF = Nominal Ratio
Normalized ratio = tool reading * MCF
NORMALIZES THE ANSWER
Ratio SSN/LSN
Ratio SSN/LSN
P
o
r
o
s
i
t
y
P
o
r
o
s
i
t
y
Normalizedratio
Normalizedratio
SSN / LSN
SSN / LSN
2435XA Compensated Neutron 2435XA Compensated Neutron
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Primary Calibration Primary Calibration
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Primary Calibration Primary Calibration
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Primary Verification Primary Verification
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Primary Verification Primary Verification
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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
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Compensated Neutron Compensated Neutron
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Compensated Neutron (Source Insertion) Compensated Neutron (Source Insertion)
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Compensated Neutron (Source Insertion) Compensated Neutron (Source Insertion)
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Compensated Neutron (Source Insertion) Compensated Neutron (Source Insertion)
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Compensated Neutron (Source Extraction) Compensated Neutron (Source Extraction)
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Compensated Neutron (Source Extraction) Compensated Neutron (Source Extraction)
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Compensated Neutron (Source Extraction) Compensated Neutron (Source Extraction)
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Compensated Neutron (Source Extraction) Compensated Neutron (Source Extraction)
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Compensated Neutron source sub side door screws Compensated Neutron source sub side door screws
P/N f091715000
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P/N F097409000.
Compensated Neutron source sub side door screws Compensated Neutron source sub side door screws
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Screw damaged and can not be released?
Do not pry on source door !!!
Do not pry on source door !!!
Use source-sub punch and hammer to shear screws!
Order material
# f091715000!
Compensated Neutron (Emergency Removal Procedure) Compensated Neutron (Emergency Removal Procedure)
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Logging Operation Module 5
Compensated Neutron
Main Factors
Matrix
Mud Salinity
Hole Diameter
Mud Density
Mud Cake Thickness
Gas
Casing.
Curves
Matching Neutron and Density Scales
Neutron Density curves response
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OPERATION
Factor affecting the log Solution
Tool position:
Any gaps between the formation and tool
housing will cause reading error. (Higher
values of porosity).
Aneutron Decentralisermust be used.
Exists in different sizes.
It has a SPECIFICposition.
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Attach it where you install
the tool clamp (Hex head)
Attach it where you install
the tool clamp (Hex head)
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Neutron Decentralizer
Compensated Neutron
Neutron Decentralizer
Compensated Neutron
The decentralizer must be below or above of neutron tool, and when run
with z-density, the decentralizer must be aligned with the arm of z-density
tool, not confuse with the pad !!!
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THE MATRIX :
the matrix contribute to the slowdown and
capture of the neutron.
Parameter : select the matrix (limestone,
sandstone, dolomite).
Curve is recorded in the APPARENT
MATRIX POROSITY
Depending of the formation the
reading need to be corrected
OPERATION
Factor affecting the log Solution
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Correction Correction
For a 15 % reading
For a 15 % reading
If the matrix isLimestone
the porosity of the formation is
15 %
If the matrix isLimestone
the porosity of the formation is
15 %
If the matrix isSandstone
the porosity of the formation is
19 %
If the matrix isSandstone
the porosity of the formation is
19 %
If the matrix isDolomite
the porosity of the formation is
8 %
If the matrix isDolomite
the porosity of the formation is
8 %
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MUD SALINITY
Cl- capture thermal neutron very well.
There could be a high content in the
mud.
PARAMETER section :
found the value of NaCl in the mud report.
Enter Cl- concentration calculated from chart.
OPERATION
Factor affecting the log Solution
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HOLE DIAMETER :
Large borehole will show a false high
porosity.
CN tool is calibrated in a 7-7/8 in
hole.
PARAMETER section :
use CALIPERfor correction if available
Use FIXED Size if not caliper is run in
combination or failed.
FIXED Size = BIT SIZE.
OPERATION
Factor affecting the log Solution
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MUD DENSITY
High density mud will show a slightly
lower porosity.
POST PROCESSING:
use environmental correction menu.
Most of the time negligible.
OPERATION
Factor affecting the log Solution
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Software to
use
Software to
use
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MUD CAKE THICKNESS
Thick mud cake might show a slightly
lower porosity.
Most of the time negligible
OPERATION
Factor affecting the log Solution
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GAS
Neutron will read very low.
None, sign of a gas zone.
If plotted with ZDEN , this separation
is known as Negative Separation
OPERATION
Factor affecting the log Solution
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CASING :
Iron is a good neutron absorber.
Cement behind casing affecting
counts.
PARAMETER section :
Select casing correction ONand casing
parameter.
Select Bit Size behind casing.
Set the expected casing thickness.
OPERATION
Factor affecting the log Solution
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Where To Enter The Correction? Where To Enter The Correction?
Default values
Default values
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Other Corrections Other Corrections
Default values
Default values
Affect the neutron
processing
Affect the neutron
processing
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Neutrons Curves
Compensated Neutron
Neutrons Curves
Compensated Neutron
Raw curves
Computed curves
ssnr : raw short space count
lsnr : raw long space count
ssnr : raw short space count
lsnr : raw long space count
CN : compensated neutron porosity
CNC : borehole size corrected CN
CNCF : Field normalized CNC (made
to look like Schlumberger curve for high porosity)
CN : compensated neutron porosity
CNC : borehole size corrected CN
CNCF : Field normalized CNC (made
to look like Schlumberger curve for high porosity)
Presented
Presented
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Ratio ss/ls
P
o
r
o
s
i
t
y
cnc
nplm
cncf
nphi
+/- 25 %
Neutron Curves
Compensated Neutron
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No Magic
How to match neutron and density scale?
No Magic
How to match neutron and density scale?
Formula of porosity =
Formula of porosity =

ma
-
fluid

ma
-
fluid

ma
-
bulk

ma
-
bulk
For limestone, Density curve is presented from 1.95 to 2.95 g/cc
We want the neutron curve to stackwith the density one in water.
For limestone, Density curve is presented from 1.95 to 2.95 g/cc
We want the neutron curve to stackwith the density one in water.
=
=
2.71- 1
2.71- 1
2.71- 1.95
2.71- 1.95
= 0.4444 very close to 45 %
= 0.4444 very close to 45 %
=
=
2.71- 1
2.71- 1
2.71- 2.95
2.71- 2.95
= - 0.1403 very close to - 15 %
= - 0.1403 very close to - 15 %
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Few Value To Remember Few Value To Remember
Sandstone read - 4 pu lower
dolomite read + 7 pu higher
anhydride read - 2 pu
Salt read - 3 pu
Recorded in limestone matrixand presented on limestone scale
Recorded in limestone matrixand presented on limestone scale
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Neutron / Density
Curve Response
Neutron / Density
Curve Response
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MOST LOGS ARE RECORDED
ON LIMESTONE SCALES WITH
A LIMESTONE MATRIX
Because a the CN tool
is calibrated for water
filled limestone, the
CNC curve will read
the porosity of
limestone correctly
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MOST LOGS ARE RECORDED
ON LIMESTONE SCALES WITH
A LIMESTONE MATRIX
For example:
10% porosity water filled limestone
reads 10 p.u.s
25% porosity water filled limestone
reads 25 p.u.s
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HOWDOES THIS LOOK ON A LOG? HOWDOES THIS LOOK ON A LOG?
LETS LOOK AT THE CNC SCALE
45 pu
30 pu
15 pu
0 pu
-15 pu
EACH CHART DIVISION IS 3 PUS
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HOWDOES THIS LOOK ON A LOG? HOWDOES THIS LOOK ON A LOG?
REMEMBER THE SCALES ARE
SUCH THAT THE ZDEN AND
CNC CURVES OVERLAY IN A
WATER FILLED LIMESTONE
Limestone 10%
Water Filled
Limestone 20%
Water Filled
Limestone 30%
Water Filled
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HOWDOES HYDROCARBON LOOK? HOWDOES HYDROCARBON LOOK?
HYDROCARBON WILL AFFECT
BOTH THE CNC AND ZDEN
RESPONSES
LETS LOOK AT A 10% POROSITY
LIMESTONE FORMATION
Limestone 10%
Gas Filled
Limestone 10%
Oil Filled
Limestone 10%
Water Filled
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HOWDOES HYDROCARBON LOOK? HOWDOES HYDROCARBON LOOK?
Limestone 10%
Gas Filled
Limestone 10%
Oil Filled
Limestone 10%
Water Filled
This is known
as negative
separation
This is large
negative separation
and indicates gas
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WHY DOES IT BEHAVE IN THIS WAY? WHY DOES IT BEHAVE IN THIS WAY?
Limestone 10%
Gas Filled
Limestone 10%
Oil Filled
Limestone 10%
Water Filled
= (0.9 x 2.71) +
(0.1 x 0.8)
= 2.52 g/cc
= (0.9 x 2.71) +
(0.1 x 0)
= 2.44 g/cc
Here, pore space is filled
with gas CNC tends
towards zero p.u.
Limestone Matrix
Limestone Scales
ZDEN overlays
CNC at 10 pu
LETS HAVE A LOOK AT THE
ZDEN RESPONSE FIRST
NOW LETS LOOK AT THE
CNC RESPONSE
Oil in the pore space
reduces the CN porosity
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WHAT ABOUT INCREASED POROSITY? WHAT ABOUT INCREASED POROSITY?
Limestone 10%
Gas Filled
Limestone 10%
Oil Filled
Limestone 10%
Water Filled
AN INCREASE IN POROSITY
INCREASES THE
SEPERATION CAUSED BY H-C
Limestone 20%
Gas Filled
Limestone 20%
Oil Filled
Limestone 20%
Water Filled
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HOWDOES A SANDSTONE LOOK? HOWDOES A SANDSTONE LOOK?
Sandstone 15%
Gas Filled
Sandstone 15%
Oil Filled
Sandstone 15%
Water Filled
LETS BRING UP THE
CORRECTION CHART FOR
LITHOLOGY
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HOWDOES A SANDSTONE LOOK? HOWDOES A SANDSTONE LOOK?
Sandstone 15%
Gas Filled
Sandstone 15%
Oil Filled
Sandstone 15%
Water Filled
15 % WATER FILLED
SANDSTONE READS 10 P.U.
BY THE CNC CURVE
15%
CNC=10 pu
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HOWDOES A SANDSTONE LOOK? HOWDOES A SANDSTONE LOOK?
Sandstone 15%
Gas Filled
Sandstone 15%
Oil Filled
Sandstone 15%
Water Filled
HERES THE 15 PU
LINE
15 % WATER FILLED
SANDSTONE READS 10 P.U.
BY THE CNC CURVE
zden = (0.85 x 2.65)
+ (0.15 x 1)
= 2.4 g/cc
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HOWDOES A SANDSTONE LOOK? HOWDOES A SANDSTONE LOOK?
Sandstone 15%
Gas Filled
Sandstone 15%
Oil Filled
Sandstone 15%
Water Filled
THE 2.5 CHART DIVISION
SEPERATION IS A TYPICAL
WATER FILLED SANDSTONE
RESPONSE ON LIMESTONE
MATRIX/SCALES
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HOWDOES A SANDSTONE LOOK? HOWDOES A SANDSTONE LOOK?
Sandstone 15%
Gas Filled
Sandstone 15%
Oil Filled
Sandstone 15%
Water Filled
2.25 g/cc
2.37 g/cc
2.4 g/cc
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WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS? WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS?
SHALE
Dolomite 15%
Water Filled
Anhydrite
Salt
Coal
Salt:
Zden = 2.08 g/cc
Cnc = -3 pu
2.08 g/cc
-3 pu
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WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS? WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS?
SHALE
Dolomite 15%
Water Filled
Anhydrite
Salt
Coal
Shale:
Zden = 2.3 -2.7 g/cc
Cnc = High
2.08 g/cc
-3 pu
2.3-2.7 g/cc
High
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WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS? WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS?
SHALE
Dolomite 15%
Water Filled
Anhydrite
Salt
Coal
2.08 g/cc
-3 pu
2.3-2.7 g/cc
High
Positive separation
High water content
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WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS? WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS?
SHALE
Dolomite 15%
Water Filled
Anhydrite
Salt
Coal
Anhydrite:
Zden = 2.98 g/cc
Cnc = -2 p.u.
2.08 g/cc
-3 pu
2.3-2.7 g/cc
High
2.98 g/cc -2 pu
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WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS? WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS?
SHALE
Dolomite 15%
Water Filled
Anhydrite
Salt
Coal
Type of evaporite
Hence very dense
2.08 g/cc
-3 pu
2.3-2.7 g/cc
High
2.98 g/cc -2 pu
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WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS? WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS?
SHALE
Dolomite 15%
Water Filled
Anhydrite
Salt
Coal
2.08 g/cc
-3 pu
2.3-2.7 g/cc
High
2.98 g/cc -2 pu
FOR DOLOMITE LETS BRING
UP THE CORRECTION CHART
FOR LITHOLOGY AGAIN
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WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS? WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS?
SHALE
Dolomite 15%
Water Filled
Anhydrite
Salt
Coal
2.08 g/cc
-3 pu
2.3-2.7 g/cc
High
2.98 g/cc -2 pu
15 % WATER FILLED
DOLOMITE READS 22 P.U. BY
THE CNC CURVE
15%
CNC=22 pu
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WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS? WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS?
SHALE
Dolomite 15%
Water Filled
Anhydrite
Salt
Coal
2.08 g/cc
-3 pu
2.3-2.7 g/cc
High
2.98 g/cc -2 pu
15% Dolomite:
Zden = 2.58 g/cc
Cnc = 22 p.u.
2.58 g/cc 22 pu
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WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS? WHAT ABOUT OTHER FORMATIONS?
SHALE
Dolomite 15%
Water Filled
Anhydrite
Salt
Coal
2.08 g/cc
-3 pu
2.3-2.7 g/cc
High
2.98 g/cc -2 pu
Coal (Anthracite):
Zden = 1.6 g/cc
Cnc = 46 p.u.
2.58 g/cc 22 pu
46 pu 1.6 g/cc
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HOWDOES THIS LOOK ON A LOG? HOWDOES THIS LOOK ON A LOG?
LETS LOOK AT THE CNC SCALE
60 pu
45 pu
30 pu
15 pu
0 pu
EACH CHART DIVISION IS 3 PUS
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HOWDOES THIS LOOK ON A LOG? HOWDOES THIS LOOK ON A LOG?
Sandstone 15%
Gas Filled
Sandstone 15%
Oil Filled
Sandstone 15%
Water Filled
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OTHER LITHOLOGIES? OTHER LITHOLOGIES?
Dolomite 15%
Water Filled
Limestone 15%
Water Filled
Sandstone 15%
Water Filled
SHALE
Using the Lithology
Correction Chart
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OTHER LITHOLOGIES? OTHER LITHOLOGIES?
Dolomite 15%
Water Filled
Limestone 15%
Water Filled
Sandstone 15%
Water Filled
SHALE
2.5 cds
+ve separation
8 cds
+ve separation
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Cnc-zden Crossplots Cnc-zden Crossplots
Cnc-Zden crossplots
are used to determine
two important factors:
1. Lithology
2. Porosity
They can also give an
indication to how much
shale is in the
formation
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Cnc-zden Crossplots Cnc-zden Crossplots
For Lithology, three
lines are drawn on the
crossplot relating to:
Sandstone
Limestone
Dolomite
Sandstone
Limestone
Dolomite
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Cnc-zden Crossplots Cnc-zden Crossplots
For Lithology, three
lines are drawn on the
crossplot relating to:
Sandstone
Limestone
Dolomite
Where the CN vs
ZDEN points plot
indicates the type of
lithology, or
combination of
lithologies
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Cnc-zden Crossplots Cnc-zden Crossplots
Shale pulls the
points down:
Sandstone
Limestone
Dolomite
Gas or light
hydrocarbon
pushes the
points up
Shale effect
H-C effect
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Cnc-zden Crossplots Cnc-zden Crossplots
Sandstone
Limestone
Dolomite
To determine an
accurate porosity, the
lithology lines have the
porosities marked on
them.
These can just be read
straight off the cross
plot
Porosities