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AB22

Class B Amplifier
(Push-Pull Emitter Follower)
Analog Lab
Experiment Board
er! "!#
$%AL&'( P)L&C(
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*n IS+ ,--./ 0--- company
AB22
,1-.-., Electronic Comple2, Pardesipura &*+),E-130-.-, India#
'el!/ ,.-45.-034-5-. Fax- ,.-45.-0333615
Email/ info7scientec!#b8 .eb/ www#scientec!#b8
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AB22
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! 2
AB22
Class B Amplifier
Push-Pull Emitter Follower
AB22
'able of Contents
"!Introduction 5
2! T!eory 3
2!E2periment
To study t!e operation of Class 9 *mplifier#
:Pus!-Pull Emitter ;ollower< ..
3!=atas!eet .5
4! $arranty .3
5!List of Service Centers .6
6!List of *ccessories .4
7! >otes
.?
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! 3
AB22
&ntrodu0tion
AB22 is a compact, ready to use Class B Amplifier (Push-Pull Emitter
Follower) e2periment board# T!is is useful for students to understand t!e
worin" and operation of various power amplifier cate"ories# It can be used
as stand alone unit wit! e2ternal =C power supply or can be used wit!
/C&E*'EC8 Analog Lab /'25"2 w!ic! !as built in =C power supply,
*C power supply, function "enerator, modulation "enerator, continuity
tester, to""le switc!es, and potentiometer#
List of Boards -
9odel *ame
AB#" =iode c!aracteristics :Si, @ener, LE=<
AB#2 Transistor c!aracteristics :C9 >P><
AB#2 Transistor c!aracteristics :C9 P>P<
AB#3 Transistor c!aracteristics :CE >P><
AB#4 Transistor c!aracteristics :CE P>P<
AB#5 Transistor c!aracteristics :CC >P><
AB#6 Transistor c!aracteristics :CC P>P<
AB#7 ;ET c!aracteristics
AB#: %ectifier Circuits
AB"# $!eatstone 9rid"e
AB"" &a2wellAs 9rid"e
AB"2 =e SautyAs 9rid"e
AB"2 Sc!erin" 9rid"e
AB"3 =arlin"ton Pair
AB"4 Common Emitter *mplifier
AB"5 Common Collector *mplifier
AB"6 Common 9ase *mplifier
AB"7 Cascode *mplifier
AB": %C-Coupled *mplifier
AB2# =irect Coupled *mplifier
AB2" Class * *mplifier
AB22 Class C Tuned *mplifier
AB24 P!ase Loced Loop :;& =emodulator B ;requency
=ivider C &ultiplier<
AB27 &ultivibrator :&ono stable C *stable<
AB2: ;-D and D-; Converter
AB2# D-I and I-D Converter
AB2" @ener Dolta"e %e"ulator
AB22 Transistor Series Dolta"e %e"ulator
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! 4
AB22
AB22 Transistor S!unt Dolta"e %e"ulator
AB24 =C *mmeter
AB2: Instrumentation *mplifier
AB3" =ifferential *mplifier :Transistori8ed<
AB32 +perational *mplifier :Invertin" C >on-invertin" C
=ifferentiator<
AB32 +perational *mplifier :*dderCScalar<
AB33 +perational *mplifier :Inte"ratorC =ifferentiator<
AB34 Sc!mitt Tri""er and Comparator
AB3: E =erived ;ilter
AB4" *ctive filters :Low Pass and )i"! Pass<
AB42 *ctive 9and Pass ;ilter
AB43 Tsc!ebysc!eff ;ilter
AB45 ;iber +ptic *nalo" Lin
AB46 +wenAs 9rid"e
AB47 *ndersonAs 9rid"e
AB4: &a2wellAs Inductance 9rid"e
AB53 %C F Coupled *mplifier wit! ;eedbac
AB54 P!ase S!ift +scillator
AB55 $ien 9rid"e +scillators
AB56 Colpitt +scillator
AB57 )artley +scillator
AB7# %LC Series and %LC Parallel %esonance
AB72 T!eveninAs and &a2imum power Transfer T!eorem
AB72 %eciprocity and Superposition T!eorem
AB73 Telle"enAs T!eorem
AB74 >ortonAs t!eorem
AB77 =iode Clipper
AB7: =iode Clampers
AB:# Two port networ parameter
AB:" +ptical Transducer :P!otovoltaic cell<
AB:2 +ptical Transducer :P!otoconductive cellCL=%<
AB:2 +ptical Transducer :P!ototransistor<
AB:5 Temperature Transducer :%T= B IC553<
AB:6 Temperature Transducer :T!ermocouple<
AB"#" =S9 &odulator and =emodulator
AB"#2 SS9 &odulator and =emodulator
AB"#5 ;& &odulator and =emodulator
GGGG and many more
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! 5
AB22
'heor;
T!e power amplifiers are t!e amplifiers w!ic! deliver ma2imum
undistorted symmetrical output volta"e swin" to t!e low impedance load#
Generally any system :lie a stereo, radio or television< consists of several
sta"es of amplification# $!en t!e si"nal passes t!rou"! t!ese sta"es, t!e
power level of si"nal rises so muc! t!at t!e later sta"es require !i"! power
!andlin" circuit elements suc! as power transistors# *lso as t!e load
impedance of t!ese later sta"es is very small :of t!e order of ? o!m for
stereo amplifier speaers<, !eavy collector current flows# To !andle t!is,
transistors !eavin" power ratin" of .$ or more are used in power
amplifiers#
Power amplifiers are broadly classified as /
"! Class * :Dolta"e *mplifier<
2! Class 9 :Pus!-Pull Emitter ;ollower<
2! Class C
Class B Amplifier -
Class 9 amplifier is a circuit in w!ic! transistor conducts :collector current
flows< for only .?- of input *C si"nal# $!en a si"nal is applied, one !alf
cycle will forward bias t!e base-emitter Hunction and I
C
will flow# T!e ot!er
!alf cycle will reverse bias t!e base-emitter Hunction and I
C
will be cut off#
Fig! "
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! 6
AB22
;or class 9 amplifiers t!e ' point is located near t!e cutoff point of t!e *C
load line# T!us, to amplify entire input *C si"nal a combination of two
Class - 9 amplifiers are used# +ne of w!ic! amplifies positive !alf cycle of
input *C si"nal and t!e ot!er amplifies ne"ative !alf cycle of input *C
si"nal# T!is amplifier confi"uration is nown as pus!-pull or
complementary symmetry# In t!e pus!-pull confi"uration it is important to
matc! t!e two transistors carefully for t!e proper amplification of bot! t!e
!alves#
$!ile t!e input si"nal bein" amplified t!rou"! class 9 amplifier t!e input
si"nal !as to rise to about -#4D to overcome t!e barrier potential of
amplifyin" transistor# =urin" t!is period no current flows t!rou"! t!e
circuit and output is 8ero# T!e action is similar for bot! t!e transistors#
T!us, followin" c!aracteristic is obtained for input and output volta"es/
Fig! 2
T!e output si"nal no lon"er remains sine wave and "ets distorted# Since t!e
clippin" occurs between t!e time one transistor cuts off and t!e time t!e
ot!er one comes on we call it crossover distortion#
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! 7
AB22
Input and output waveforms illustratin" t!e deed-8oneCcrossover distortion
Fig! 2
To remove t!e crossover distortion a sli"!t forward bias is applied to eac!
emitter diode i#e# we locate t!e ' point of bot! t!e transistors sli"!tly above
t!e cutoff# T!us collector current in bot! t!e transistors flows for more t!an
.?- but less t!an 56-# Sometimes we call suc! an amplifier as Class *9
amplifier#
Fig! 3
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! :
AB22
)perating parameters of Class B Amplifier -
oltage <ain -
It is t!e ratio of output volta"e :D
out
< obtained to input volta"e :D
in
<#
*v I D
out
C D
in
Fig! 4
&nput &mpedan0e -
It is t!e ratio of Input volta"e :D
in
< to Input Current :I
i
<#
@
in
I D
in
C I
i
To measure t!e input impedance a nown resistor :%
s
< is placed in series
before t!e input couplin" capacitor and t!e impedance could be calculated
usin" t!e equation#
@
in
I %
S
C J*
D
C :*
DK
-I<L
$!ere,
*
D
I volta"e "ain wit!out t!e resistor :%
S
<
*
DK
I volta"e "ain wit! t!e resistor :%
S
<
)utput &mpedan0e -
It is t!e ratio of +utput volta"e :D
out
< to +utput Current :I
+
<#
@
out
I D
out
C I
o
To measure t!e output impedance a nown resistor :%
S
< is placed from
output to "round and t!e output impedance could be calculated usin" t!e
equation#
@
out
I J*
D
C :*
DK
-I<L M %
S
$!ere,
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! "#
AB22
*
D
I volta"e "ain wit!out t!e resistor :%
S
<
*
DK
I volta"e "ain wit! t!e resistor :%
S
<
Current gain -
It is t!e ratio of output current :I
o
< to Input current :I
i
<#
*
i
I I
o
C I
i
T!e Current "ain could be calculated usin" t!e equation
*
i
I -*
D
M @
in
C %
L
Power <ain -
It is t!e ratio of output *C power :P
o
< to input *C power :P
i
<#
P
+
I D
o:P-P<
0
C :? M %
L
< I D
rms
0
C %
L
P
i
I D
in :p-p<
0

C :? M @
in
< I D
in:rms<
0
C @
in
T!e Power Gain can be calculated usin" t!e equation
*
p
I P
o
C P
i
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! ""
AB22
Experiment
)b=e0ti1e -
'o stud; the operation of Class B Amplifier!
Apparatus re>uired -
"! *nalo" board of AB22
2! Dariable =C power supplies N3D and -3D from e2ternal source or
/'25"2 Analog Lab
2! ;unction Generator
3! +scilloscope#
Cir0uit diagram -
Circuit used to s!ow t!e Class 9 *mplifier operation is as s!own below /
Fig! 5
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! "2
AB22
Pro0edure -
Connect N3D and -3D =C power supplies at t!eir indicated position
from e2ternal source or /'25"2 Analog Lab#
Connect 0D
p-p
*C si"nal :. E)8< at t!e D
in
input of t!e AB22#
"! Put t!e pot P. to its minimum position i#e# rotate it fully
anticlocwise# :T!is is t!e condition w!en no bias volta"e is applied
to t!e emitter diodes of bot! t!e transistors#<
2! Connect +scilloscope at t!e output terminals of AB22 and observe
t!e output waveform# T!e crossover distortion can be clearly
observed on t!e oscilloscope#
2! Gradually increase t!e bias volta"e by increasin" bias resistance :i#e#
rotate t!e pot in clocwise direction< up to t!e value w!en t!e
crossover distortion is completely removed and ma2imum
amplification of t!e input si"nal is obtained#
3! Connect t!e input *C si"nal to t!e Class 9 amplifier t!rou"! .--
o!ms series resistance#
4! &easure t!e input and output volta"e amplitude and also input and
output impedance as describe earlier#
5! &easure t!e power "ain of class 9 amplifier usin" t!e operatin"
parameters as described in class 9 t!eory#
,esults -
Input *C volta"e amplitude :D
in
< / ###########################D
p-p
Input Impedance :@
in
< / ##########################################+!ms
Input Current :I
i
< / ########################################################*
+utput *C volta"e amplitude :D
out
< / #######################D
p-p
+utput impedance :%
L
< / #########################################o!ms
+utput current :I
o
< / ######################################################*
Power "ain :*
p
< / #############################################################
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! "2
AB22
+atasheet
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! "3
AB22
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! "4
AB22
.arrant;
") $e "uarantee t!e instrument a"ainst all manufacturin" defects durin"
01 mont!s from t!e date of sale by us or t!rou"! our dealers#
2) T!e "uarantee covers manufacturin" defects in respect of indi"enous
components and material limited to t!e warranty e2tended to us by t!e
ori"inal manufacturer, and defect will be rectified as far as lies wit!in
our control#
2) T!e "uarantee will become &*AL&+!
a) If t!e instrument is not operated as per instruction "iven in t!e
instruction manual#
b) If t!e a"reed payment terms and ot!er conditions of sale are not
followed#
0) If t!e customer resells t!e instrument to anot!er party#
d) Provided no attempt !ave been made to service and modify t!e
instrument#
3) T!e non-worin" of t!e instrument is to be communicated to us
immediately "ivin" full details of t!e complaints and defects noticed
specifically mentionin" t!e type and sr# no# of t!e instrument, date of
purc!ase etc#
4) T!e repair wor will be carried out, provided t!e instrument is
dispatc!ed securely paced and insured wit! t!e railways# To and fro
c!ar"es will be to t!e account of t!e customer#
+E/PA'C8 P,)CE+%,E F), /E,&CE
S!ould it become necessary to send bac t!e instrument to factory please
observe t!e followin" procedure/
") 9efore dispatc!in" t!e instrument please write to us "ivin" full details
of t!e fault noticed#
2) *fter receipt of your letter our repairs dept# will advise you w!et!er it
is necessary to send t!e instrument bac to us for repairs or t!e
adHustment is possible in your premises#
=ispatc! t!e instrument :only on t!e receipt of our advice< securely paced
in ori"inal pacin" duly insured and frei"!t paid alon" wit! accessories and
a copy of t!e details noticed to us at our factory address#
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! "5
AB22
List of /er1i0e Centers
"! Scientec! Tec!nolo"ies Pvt# Ltd#
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Pardesipura, Email / info7scientec!#b8
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;#I#E#, Patpar"anH Industrial *rea, ;a2 / :-..< 00.3456,
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2! Scientec! Tec!nolo"ies Pvt# Ltd#
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floor >o . Earpa"am Gardens P! / :-11< 10.?431?, 10.?431,
&ain %oad *dyar ;a2 / :-11< 10.?431,
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t!
main street P! / :-?-< 3.0?3-..
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=ada Sa!eb P!ale road, ;a2 / :-00< 01.6?464
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Lilua!, )+$%*)-4..0-1 $#9#
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PCA win", Street >o# .4,
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AB22
List of A00essories
"! 0mm Patc! cord :red< #########################################################. >os#
2! 0mm Patc! cord :blac< ######################################################5 >os#
2! 0mm Patc! cord :blue< ########################################################5 >os#
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! "7
AB22
*otes
/0iente0h 'e0hnologies P1t! Ltd! ":
AB22
*otes
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AB22
*otes
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