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Reportable
IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
CIVIL ORIGINAL JURISDICTION
WRIT PETITION (C) No. 416 OF 2012

Pramati Educational Cultural
Tru!t " Or!# $ P%tition%r!
Versus
Union o& India Or!# $
R%!'ond%nt!
WITH
WRIT PETITION (C) No. 152 OF 2013,
WRIT PETITION (C) No.1081 OF 2013,
WRIT PETITION (C) No. 60 OF 2014,
WRIT PETITION (C) No. 95 OF 2014,
WRIT PETITION (C) No.106 OF 2014,
WRIT PETITION (C) No.128 OF 2014,
WRIT PETITION (C) No.144 OF 2014,
WRIT PETITION (C) No.145 OF 2014,
WRIT PETITION (C) No.160 OF 2014,
AND
WRIT PETITION (C) No.136 OF 2014
J U D G E N T
A. !. PATNAI!, J.
T(i! i! a r%&%r%nc% mad% )* a t(r%%+Jud,% -%nc( o&
t(i! Court )* ord%r dat%d ./#.0#1.2. in Society for
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Unaided Private Schools of Rajasthan v. Union of India &
Anr# 341.215 / SCC 2.16 to a Con!titution -%nc(# A! '%r
t(% a&or%!aid ord%r dat%d ./#.0#1.2.7 8% ar% call%d u'on
to d%cid% on t(% 9alidit* o& clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(%
Con!titution in!%rt%d )* t(% Con!titution 4Nin%t*+t(ird
Am%ndm%nt5 Act7 1..: 8it( %&&%ct &rom 1.#.2#1../ and
on t(% 9alidit* o& Articl% 12A o& t(% Con!titution in!%rt%d
)* t(% Con!titution 4Ei,(t*+Si;t( Am%ndm%nt5 Act7 1..1
8it( %&&%ct &rom .2#.<#1.2.#
1# Clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution r%ad! a!
&ollo8!=
>Not(in, in t(i! articl% or in !u)+clau!% 4,5
o& clau!% 425 o& articl% 20 !(all 'r%9%nt t(%
Stat% &rom ma?in, an* !'%cial 'ro9i!ion7
)* la87 &or t(% ad9anc%m%nt o& an*
!ociall* and %ducationall* )ac?8ard
cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(% Sc(%dul%d
Ca!t%! or t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! in !o &ar a!
!uc( !'%cial 'ro9i!ion! r%lat% to t(%ir
admi!!ion to %ducational in!titution!
includin, 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution!7
8(%t(%r aid%d or unaid%d )* t(% Stat%7
ot(%r t(an t(% minorit* %ducational
in!titution! r%&%rr%d to in clau!% 425 o&
articl% A.#B

Clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution7 t(%r%&or%7
%na)l%! t(% Stat% to ma?% a !'%cial 'ro9i!ion7 )* la87 &or
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t(% ad9anc%m%nt o& !ociall* and %ducationall* )ac?8ard
cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and
Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! in!o&ar a! !uc( !'%cial 'ro9i!ion! r%lat%
to t(%ir admi!!ion to %ducational in!titution! includin,
'ri9at% %ducational in!titution!7 8(%t(%r aid%d or unaid%d
)* t(% Stat%7 ot(%r t(an t(% minorit* %ducational
in!titution! r%&%rr%d to in clau!% 425 o& Articl% A. o& t(%
Con!titution# T(% con!titutional 9alidit* o& clau!% 4:5 o&
Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution in!o&ar a! it %na)l%! t(%
Stat% to ma?% !'%cial 'ro9i!ion! r%latin, to admi!!ion to
%ducational in!titution! o& t(% Stat% and %ducational
in!titution! aid%d )* t(% Stat% 8a! con!id%r%d )* a
Con!titution -%nc( o& t(i! Court in Ashoka Kumar Thakur
v. Union of India & rs# 341..C5 / SCC 26 and t(%
Con!titution -%nc( (%ld in t(% a&or%!aid ca!% t(at clau!%
4:5 o& Articl% 2: i! 9alid and do%! not 9iolat% t(% >)a!ic
!tructur%B o& t(% Con!titution !o &ar a! it r%lat%! to t(%
Stat%+maintain%d in!titution! and aid%d %ducational
in!titution!# In t(% a&or%!aid ca!%7 (o8%9%r7 t(%
Con!titution -%nc( l%&t o'%n t(% Du%!tion 8(%t(%r clau!%
4:5 o& Articl% 2: 8a! con!titutionall* 9alid or not !o &ar a!
>'ri9at% unaid%dB %ducational in!titution! ar% conc%rn%d7
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a! !uc( >'ri9at% unaid%dB %ducational in!titution! 8%r%
not )%&or% t(% Court# T(i! )atc( o& 8rit '%tition! (a! )%%n
&il%d )* 'ri9at% unaid%d %ducational in!titution! and 8%
ar% call%d u'on to d%cid% 8(%t(%r clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2:
o& t(% Con!titution !o &ar a! it r%lat%! to >'ri9at% unaid%dB
%ducational in!titution! i! 9alid and do%! not 9iolat% t(%
)a!ic !tructur% o& t(% Con!titution#
A# Articl% 12A o& t(% Con!titution r%ad! a! &ollo8!=
>21A. R"#$% %o &'()*%"o+.,,T(% Stat% !(all
'ro9id% &r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation to all
c(ildr%n o& t(% a,% o& !i; to &ourt%%n *%ar! in
!uc( mann%r a! t(% Stat% ma*7 )* la87
d%t%rmin%#E#
T(u!7 Articl% 12A o& t(% Con!titution7 'ro9id%! t(at t(%
Stat% !(all 'ro9id% &r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation to all
c(ildr%n o& t(% a,% o& !i; to &ourt%%n *%ar! in !uc( mann%r
a! t(% Stat% ma*7 )* la87 d%t%rmin%# Parliam%nt (a! mad%
t(% la8 cont%m'lat%d )* Articl% 12A )* %nactin, t(% Ri,(t
o& C(ildr%n to Fr%% and Com'ul!or* Education Act7 1..0
4&or !(ort Ft(% 1..0 ActG5# T(% con!titutional 9alidit* o& t(%
1..0 Act 8a! con!id%r%d )* a t(r%%+Jud,% -%nc( o& t(%
Court in Society for Unaided Private Schools of Rajasthan
v. Union of India & Anr# 341.215 / SCC 26# T8o o& t(% t(r%%
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Jud,%! (a9% (%ld t(% 1..0 Act to )% con!titutionall* 9alid7
)ut t(%* (a9% al!o (%ld t(at t(% 1..0 Act i! not a''lica)l%
to unaid%d minorit* !c(ool! 'rot%ct%d und%r Articl% A.425
o& t(% Con!titution# In t(% a&or%!aid ca!%7 (o8%9%r7 t(%
t(r%%+Jud,% -%nc( did not ,o into t(% Du%!tion 8(%t(%r
clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: or Articl% 12A o& t(% Con!titution i!
9alid and do%! not 9iolat% t(% )a!ic !tructur% o& t(%
Con!titution# In t(i! )atc( o& t(% 8rit '%tition! &il%d )*
'ri9at% unaid%d in!titution!7 t(% con!titutional 9alidit* o&
clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: and o& Articl% 12A (a! to )% d%cid%d
)* t(i! Con!titution -%nc(#
<# -ot( clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: and Articl% 12A 8%r%
in!%rt%d in t(% Con!titution )* Parliam%nt )* %;%rci!% o& it!
'o8%r o& am%ndm%nt und%r Articl% A/C o& t(% Con!titution#
A -%nc( o& t(irt%%n+Jud,%! o& t(i! Court in !is !oliness
Kesavananda "harati Sri#ada$alvaru v. State of Kerala &
Anr# 3420HA5 < SCC 11:6 con!id%r%d t(% !co'% o& t(%
am%ndin, 'o8%r o& Parliam%nt und%r Articl% A/C o& t(%
Con!titution and t(% maIorit* o& t(% Jud,%! (%ld t(at Articl%
A/C do%! not %na)l% Parliam%nt to alt%r t(% )a!ic !tructur%
or &ram%8or? o& t(% Con!titution# H%nc%7 8% ar% call%d
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u'on to d%cid% in t(i! r%&%r%nc% t(% &ollo8in, t8o
!u)!tantial Du%!tion! o& la8=
4i5 J(%t(%r )* in!%rtin, clau!% 4:5 in Articl% 2: o& t(%
Con!titution )* t(% Con!titution 4Nin%t*+t(ird
Am%ndm%nt5 Act7 1..:7 Parliam%nt (a! alt%r%d t(%
)a!ic !tructur% or &ram%8or? o& t(% Con!titution#
4ii5 J(%t(%r )* in!%rtin, Articl% 12A o& t(% Con!titution
)* t(% Con!titution 4Ei,(t*+Si;t( Am%ndm%nt5 Act7
1..17 Parliam%nt (a! alt%r%d t(% )a!ic !tructur% or
&ram%8or? o& t(% Con!titution#
-*."'"%/ o0 ).*(1& (5) o0 A2%").& 15 o0 %$&
Co+1%"%(%"o+
Co+%&+%"o+1 o0 .&*2+&' )o(+1&. 0o2 %$& 3&%"%"o+&214

:# Mr# Mu?ul Ro(at,i7 l%arn%d !%nior coun!%l &or t(%
'%tition%r! in Jrit P%tition 4C5 No#<2/ o& 1.217 !u)mitt%d
t(at in T.%.A. Pai &oundation & rs v. State of Karnataka
& rs# 341..15 C SCC <C26 t(% maIorit* o& t(% Jud,%! o& t(%
%l%9%n+Jud,% -%nc( !'%a?in, t(rou,( Kir'al C#J# (a9% (%ld
t(at t(% &undam%ntal ri,(t to carr* on an* occu'ation
und%r Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution includ%! t(% ri,(t
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to run and admini!t%r a 'ri9at% unaid%d %ducational
in!titution# H% !u)mitt%d t(at in %inerva %ills 'td. & rs.
v. Union of India & rs# 3420C.5 A SCC /1:6 C(andrac(ud7
CJ#7 8ritin, t(% Iud,m%nt &or t(% maIorit* o& t(% Jud,%! o&
t(% Con!titution -%nc(7 (a! (%ld t(at Articl%! 2<7 20 and
12 o& t(% Con!titution con!titut% t(% ,old%n trian,l% 8(ic(
a&&ord! to t(% '%o'l% o& t(i! countr* an a!!uranc% t(at t(%
'romi!% (%ld &ort( )* t(% Pr%am)l% 8ill )% '%r&orm%d )*
u!(%rin, an %,alitarian %ra t(rou,( t(% di!ci'lin% o&
&undam%ntal ri,(t!7 t(at i!7 8it(out %ma!culation o& t(%
ri,(t! to li)%rt* and %Dualit* 8(ic( alon% can (%l'
'r%!%r9% t(% di,nit* o& t(% indi9idual# H% !u)mitt%d t(at
in t(% a&or%!aid ca!%7 t(% Con!titution -%nc( (%ld t(at
S%ction < o& t(% Con!titution 4Fort*+!%cond Am%ndm%nt5
Act i! )%*ond t(% am%ndin, 'o8%r o& Parliam%nt and i!
9oid !inc% it dama,%! t(% )a!ic or %!!%ntial &%atur%! o& t(%
Con!titution and d%!tro*! it! )a!ic !tructur% )* a total
%;clu!ion o& c(all%n,% to an* la8 on t(% ,round t(at it i!
incon!i!t%nt 8it(7 or ta?%! a8a* or a)rid,%! an* o& t(%
ri,(t! con&%rr%d )* Articl% 2< or Articl% 20 o& t(%
Con!titution# Mr# Ro(at,i !u)mitt%d t(at Articl% 204254,5
o& t(% Con!titution i!7 t(%r%&or%7 a )a!ic &%atur% o& t(%
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Con!titution and t(i! )a!ic &%atur% i! d%!tro*%d )*
'ro9idin, in clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution t(at
not(in, in Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution !(all 'r%9%nt
t(% Stat% &rom ma?in, an* !'%cial 'ro9i!ion7 )* la87 &or
t(% ad9anc%m%nt o& an* !ociall* and %ducationall*
)ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%!
or t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! in !o &ar a! !uc( !'%cial 'ro9i!ion!
r%lat% to t(%ir admi!!ion to %ducational in!titution!
includin, 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution!# Mr# Ro(at,i
%;'lain%d t(at a nin%+Jud,% -%nc( o& t(i! Court in I.R.
(oelho )*ead+ ,y 'Rs. v. State of T.-. 341..H5 1 SCC 26
r%l*in, on t(% a&or%!aid Iud,m%nt in Min%r9a Mill! ca!%
4!u'ra5 (a! !imilarl* (%ld t(at Articl%! 2<7 20 and 12 o& t(%
Con!titution !tand on alto,%t(%r a di&&%r%nt &ootin, and
a&t%r t(% %9olution o& t(% )a!ic !tructur% doctrin% in
Kesavananda "harati 4!u'ra57 it 8ill not )% o'%n to
immuni@% l%,i!lation mad% )* Parliam%nt &rom Iudicial
!crutin* on t(% ,round t(at t(%!% &undam%ntal ri,(t! ar%
not 'art o& t(% )a!ic !tructur% o& t(% Con!titution# H%
!u)mitt%d t(at in t(% a&or%!aid Iud,m%nt7 t(i! Court7
t(%r%&or%7 (a! al!o (%ld t(at t(% %;i!t%nc% o& t(% 'o8%r o&
Parliam%nt to am%nd t(% Con!titution at 8ill7 8it( r%Dui!it%
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9otin, !tr%n,t(7 !o a! to ma?% an* ?ind o& la8! t(at
%;clud%! Part III includin, t(% 'o8%r o& Iudicial r%9i%8
und%r Articl% A1 i! incom'ati)l% 8it( t(% )a!ic !tructur% o&
t(% Con!titution and7 t(%r%&or%7 !uc( an %;%rci!%7 i&
c(all%n,%d7 (a! to )% t%!t%d on t(% touc(!ton% o& )a!ic
!tructur% a! r%&l%ct%d in Articl% 12 r%ad 8it( Articl% 2< and
Articl% 20 o& t(% Con!titution# Mr# Ro(at,i !u)mitt%d t(at
-(andari7 J# (a! ta?%n t(% 9i%8 in Ashoka Kumar Thakur v.
Union of India 4!u'ra5 t(at t(% im'o!ition o& r%!%r9ation on
unaid%d in!titution! )* t(% Nin%t*+t(ird Am%ndm%nt (a!
a)ro,at%d Articl% 204254,57 a )a!ic &%atur% o& t(%
Con!titution and7 t(%r%&or%7 t(% Nin%t*+t(ird Am%ndm%nt
o& t(% Con!titution i! ultra vires t(% Con!titution#
/# Mr# R#F# Nariman7 l%arn%d !%nior coun!%l &or t(%
'%tition%r! in Jrit P%tition 4C 5 No#21C o& 1.2<7 !u)mitt%d
t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution i! 9iolati9%
o& Articl% 2< o& t(% Con!titution ina!muc( a! it tr%at!
un%Dual! a! %Dual!# H% ar,u%d t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl%
2: o& t(% Con!titution &ail! to ma?% a di!tinction )%t8%%n
aid%d and unaid%d %ducational in!titution! and tr%at! )ot(
aid%d and unaid%d ali?% in t(% matt%r o& ma?in, !'%cial
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'ro9i!ion! &or ad9anc%m%nt o& !ociall* and %ducationall*
)ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%!
and t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! in!o&ar a! !uc( !'%cial
'ro9i!ion! r%lat% to t(%ir admi!!ion to !uc( %ducational
in!titution!# H% r%&%rr%d to 'ara,ra'( :: o& t(% maIorit*
Iud,m%nt o& t(i! Court in T.%.A. Pai &oundation 4!u'ra5 in
8(ic( t(% di&&%r%nc% in t(% admini!tration o& 'ri9at%
unaid%d in!titution! and ,o9%rnm%nt+aid%d in!titution!
(a! )%%n notic%d# H% ar,u%d t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2:
o& t(% Con!titution a! it! 9%r* lan,ua,% indicat%! do%! not
a''l* to minorit* %ducational in!titution! r%&%rr%d to in
clau!% 425 o& Articl% A. o& t(% Con!titution# H% !u)mitt%d
t(at Articl% 2< i!7 t(u!7 9iolat%d )%cau!% aid%d minorit*
in!titution! and unaid%d minorit* in!titution! cannot )%
tr%at%d ali?%# Clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution7
t(%r%&or%7 i! di!criminator* and 9iolati9% o& t(% %Dualit*
clau!% in Articl% 2< o& t(% Con!titution7 8(ic( i! a )a!ic
&%atur% o& t(% Con!titution#
H# Mr# Nariman n%;t !u)mitt%d t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl%
2: o& t(% Con!titution i! a cl%ar 9iolation o& Articl% 204254,5
o& t(% Con!titution7 ina!muc( a! it com'%l! 'ri9at%
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%ducational in!titution! to ,i9% u' a !(ar% o& t(% a9aila)l%
!%at! to t(% candidat%! c(o!%n )* t(% Stat% and !uc(
a''ro'riation o& !%at! 8ould not )% a r%,ulator* m%a!ur%
and not a r%a!ona)l% r%!triction on t(% ri,(t und%r Articl%
204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution 8it(in t(% m%anin, o& Articl%
204/5 o& t(% Con!titution# H% r%&%rr%d to t(% o)!%r9ation!
o& t(i! Court in P.A. Inamdar & rs. v. State of
%aharashtra & rs# 341..:5 / SCC :AH6 in 'ara,ra'( 21:
at 'a,% /.2 t(at 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution!7 8(ic(
int%nd to 'ro9id% )%tt%r 'ro&%!!ional %ducation7 cannot )%
&orc%d )* t(% Stat% to ma?% admi!!ion! a9aila)l% on t(%
)a!i! o& r%!%r9ation 'olic* to l%!! m%ritoriou! candidat%!
and t(at unaid%d in!titution!7 a! t(%* ar% not d%ri9in, an*
aid &rom Stat% &und!7 !(ould (a9% t(%ir o8n admi!!ion!
&ollo8in, a &air7 tran!'ar%nt and non+%;'loitati9% m%t(od
)a!%d on m%rit# H% 9%(%m%ntl* !u)mitt%d t(at 8(%n
r%!%r9ation in &a9our o& t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and t(%
Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! and ot(%r !ociall* and %ducationall*
)ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! i! mad% in admi!!ion to
'ri9at% %ducational in!titution! and unaid%d 'ri9at%
%ducational in!titution! )* t(% Stat%7 !uc( 'ri9at%
%ducational in!titution! 8ill no lon,%r )% in!titution! o&
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%;c%ll%nc%# H% !u)mitt%d t(at in T.%.A. Pai &oundation
4!u'ra57 t(% maIorit* o& t(% Jud,%! (a9% (%ld t(at 'ri9at%
unaid%d %ducational in!titution! im'art %ducation and t(at
t(% Stat% cannot ta?% a8a* t(% c(oic% in matt%r! o&
!%l%ction o& !tud%nt! &or admi!!ion and clau!% 4:5 o&
Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution in!o&ar a! it %na)l%! t(%
Stat% to ta?% a8a* t(i! c(oic% &or admi!!ion o& !tud%nt! i!
9iolati9% o& &r%%dom o& 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution!
und%r Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution#
C# Mr# Nariman n%;t !u)mitt%d t(at in %ohini .ain )%iss+
v. State of Karnataka & rs. 3420015 A SCC ///67 t(i! Court
(a! (%ld t(at t(% >ri,(t to li&%B i! a com'%ndiou!
%;'r%!!ion 8it( all t(o!% ri,(t! 8(ic( t(% Court! mu!t
%n&orc% )%cau!% t(%* ar% )a!ic to t(% di,ni&i%d %nIo*m%nt
o& li&% and t(at t(% di,nit* o& an indi9idual cannot )%
a!!ur%d unl%!! it i! accom'ani%d )* t(% ri,(t to
%ducation# H% !u)mitt%d t(at und%r Articl% :2A4I5 o& t(%
Con!titution7 it i! a dut* o& %9%r* citi@%n o& India to !tri9%
to8ard! %;c%ll%nc% in all !'(%r%! o& indi9idual and
coll%cti9% acti9it* !o t(at t(% nation con!tantl* ri!%! to
(i,(%r l%9%l! o& %nd%a9our and ac(i%9%m%nt# H% ar,u%d
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t(at %9%r* citi@%n can !tri9% to8ard! %;c%ll%nc% t(rou,(
%ducation )* !tud*in, in %ducational in!titution! o&
%;c%ll%nc%# H% !u)mitt%d t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o&
t(% Con!titution in !o &ar a! it %na)l%! t(% Stat% to ma?%
!'%cial 'ro9i!ion! r%latin, to admi!!ion to 'ri9at%
%ducational in!titution! &or !ociall* and %ducationall*
)ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%!
and t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! 8ill a&&%ct al!o t(i! ri,(t und%r
Articl% 12 r%ad 8it( Articl% :2A4I5 o& t(% Con!titution#
0# Mr# Nariman !u)mitt%d t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o&
t(% Con!titution (a! )%%n )rou,(t in )* an am%ndm%nt to
ac(i%9% t(% Dir%cti9% Princi'l%! o& Stat% Polic* in Part IV o&
t(% Con!titution a! 8%ll a! t(% ,oal! o& !ocial and
%conomic Iu!tic% !%t out in t(% Pr%am)l% o& t(%
Con!titution7 )ut t(% maIorit* o& t(% Jud,%! !'%a?in,
t(rou,( C(andrac(ud7 CJ#7 (a9% (%ld in Min%r9a Mill! ca!%
4!u'ra5 t(at t(% ,oal! !%t out in Part IV o& t(% Con!titution
(a9% to )% ac(i%9%d 8it(out t(% a)ro,ation o& t(% m%an!
'ro9id%d &or )* Part III o& t(% Con!titution# H% !u)mitt%d
t(at in t(% a&or%!aid maIorit* Iud,m%nt in Min%r9a Mill!
ca!% 4!u'ra5 aut(or%d )* C(andrac(ud7 CJ#7 it (a! al!o
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14
)%%n o)!%r9%d t(at Part! III and IV to,%t(%r con!titut% t(%
cor% o& our Con!titution and an*t(in, t(at d%!tro*! t(%
)alanc% )%t8%%n t(% t8o 'art! 8ill i#so facto d%!tro* an
%!!%ntial %l%m%nt o& t(% )a!ic !tructur% o& our
Con!titution# H% !u)mitt%d t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o&
t(% Con!titution ina!muc( a! it i! 9iolati9% o& Articl%! 2<7
204254,5 and 12 o& t(% Con!titution d%!tro*! t(% )a!ic
&%atur% o& t(% Con!titution and i!7 t(%r%&or%7 )%*ond t(%
am%ndin, 'o8%r o& Parliam%nt#
2.# Dr# RaI%%9 D(a9an7 l%arn%d !%nior coun!%l a''%arin,
&or t(% '%tition%r! in J#P#4C5 No#2:1 o& 1.2A7 !u)mitt%d
t(at t8o t%!t! (a9% to )% a''li%d &or d%t%rminin, 8(%t(%r
a con!titutional am%ndm%nt i! 9iolati9% o& )a!ic !tructur%
in !o &ar a! it a&&%ct! &undam%ntal ri,(t!7 and t(%!% t8o
t%!t! ar% t(% Fid%ntit* t%!tG and t(% F8idt( t%!tG# H%
!u)mitt%d t(at t(% Court (a! to !%% 8(%t(%r t(% id%ntit*
o& a &undam%ntal ri,(t a! Iudiciall* d%t%rmin%d i! not
d%!tro*%d )* t(% 8idt( o& t(% 'o8%r introduc%d )* t(%
am%ndm%nt o& t(% Con!titution and i& t(% conclu!ion i!
t(at t(% 8idt( o& t(% 'o8%r o& t(% Stat% 9%!t%d )* t(%
con!titutional am%ndm%nt i! !uc( a! to d%!tro* t(%
Page 15
15
%!!%nc% o& t(% ri,(t7 t(% am%ndm%nt can )% (%ld to
d%!tro* t(% )a!ic !tructur% o& t(% Con!titution# In !u''ort
o& t(i! 'ro'o!ition (% r%li%d on t(% Iud,m%nt o& t(i! Court
in %. -a$araj and thers 9# Union of India and thers
341../5 C SCC 1216#
22# Mr# D(a9an !u)mitt%d t(at in T.%.A. Pai &oundation
ca!% 4!u'ra5 t(% maIorit* Iud,m%nt (a! d%t%rmin%d t(%
cont%nt o& t(% ri,(t o& a 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution
und%r Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution and t(% cont%nt
o& t(i! ri,(t com'ri!%! t(% 4a5 c(arit*7 4)5 autonom*7 4c5
9oluntarin%!!7 4d5 non+!(arin, o& !%at! )%t8%%n t(% Stat%
Go9%rnm%nt! and t(% 'ri9at% in!titution!7 4%5 co+o'tation
and 4&5 r%a!ona)l%n%!! 'rinci'l%!# H% !u)mitt%d t(at
clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution in!%rt%d )*
Parliam%nt )* 8a* o& am%ndm%nt7 (o8%9%r7 'ro9id%! t(at
not(in, in Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution !(all 'r%9%nt
t(% Stat% &rom ma?in, an* !'%cial 'ro9i!ion7 )* la87 &or
admi!!ion to 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution! o& '%r!on!
)%lon,in, to !ociall* and %ducationall* )ac?8ard cla!!%!
o& citi@%n! or &or t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! or t(% Sc(%dul%d
Tri)%!# H% 9%(%m%ntl* ar,u%d t(at )* clau!% 4:5 o& Articl%
Page 16
16
2: o& t(% Con!titution t(% 'o8%r t(at i! 9%!t%d in t(% Stat%
i! !uc( t(at it can d%!tro* t(% %!!%nc% o& t(% ri,(t o&
'ri9at% %ducational in!titution und%r Articl% 204254,5 o& t(%
Con!titution a! d%t%rmin%d )* t(i! Court in T.%.A. Pai
&oundation ca!% 4!u'ra5 and t(%r%&or% t(% con!titutional
am%ndm%nt in!%rtin, clau!% 4:5 in Articl% 2: o& t(%
Con!titution i! d%!tructi9% o& t(% )a!ic !tructur% o& t(%
Con!titution#
21# Mr# Anil -# Di9an7 l%arn%d !%nior coun!%l a''%arin,
&or t(% '%tition%r! in J#P#4C5 No#/. o& 1.2< and J#P#4C5
No#2/. o& 1.2< !u)mitt%d t(at in t(% ca!% o& /d0ard A.
"oyd and 1eor$e !. "oyd 9# Unites States 42CC<5 22/ U#S#
/2/ -radl%* J#7 (a! o)!%r9%d t(at it 8ill )% t(% dut* o& t(%
court! to )% 8atc(&ul &or t(% con!titutional ri,(t! o& t(%
citi@%n! and a,ain!t an* !t%alt(* %ncroac(m%nt! into
t(%!% ri,(t!# H% !u)mitt%d t(at in *0arkadas Shrinivas 9#
The Shola#ur S#inin$ & 2eavin$ (o. 'td. and thers 4AIR
20:< SC 2205 Ma(aIan J#7 (a! (%ld t(at in d%alin, 8it(
con!titutional matt%r! it i! al8a*! 8%ll to )%ar in mind
t(%!% o)!%r9ation! o& -radl%* J# H% !u)mitt%d t(at 8(il%
d%cidin, on 9alidit* o& clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(%
Page 17
17
Con!titution7 8% !(ould )%ar in mind t(% a&or%!aid
o)!%r9ation! o& -radl%* J# H% !u)mitt%d t(at C(andrac(ud7
CJ# in %inerva %ills 'td. & rs. v. Union of India & rs#
4!u'ra5 (a! r%&%rr%d to t(% o)!%r9ation! o& -randi%! J# t(at
t(% n%%d to 'rot%ct li)%rt* i! t(% ,r%at%!t 8(%n t(%
,o9%rnm%nt 'ur'o!%! ar% )%n%&ici%nt 'articularl* 8(%n
'olitical 'r%!!ur%! %;%rci!%d )* num%ricall* lar,% ,rou'!
can t%ar t(% countr* a!und%r )* l%a9in, it to t(%
l%,i!latur% to 'ic? and c(oo!% &a9our%d ar%a! and
&a9ourit% cla!!%! &or 'r%&%r%ntial tr%atm%nt# H% !u)mitt%d
t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution i! an
am%ndm%nt mad% )* Parliam%nt to a''%a!% !ociall* and
%ducationall* )ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! and t(%
Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! or t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! &or 'olitical
,ain! and it i! &or t(% Court to 'rot%ct t(% &undam%ntal
ri,(t o& 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution! und%r Articl% 20425
4,5 o& t(% Con!titution a! int%r'r%t%d )* t(i! Court in
T.%.A. Pai &oundation.
2A# Mr# Di9an n%;t !u)mitt%d t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2:
o& t(% Con!titution a! it! 9%r* lan,ua,% indicat%!7 a''li%!
to non+minorit* 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution! )ut do%!
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18
not a''l* to minorit* %ducational in!titution! r%&%rr%d to in
clau!% 425 o& Articl% A. o& t(% Con!titution# H% ar,u%d t(at
t(%r% i! a)!olut%l* no rational% &or %;%m'tin, t(% minorit*
%ducational in!titution! &rom t(% 'ur9i%8 o& clau!% 4:5 o&
Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution and clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o&
t(% Con!titution r%all* ,i9%! a &a9oura)l% tr%atm%nt to t(%
minorit* %ducational in!titution! and i! 9iolati9% o& t(%
%Dualit* clau!% in Articl% 2< o& t(% Con!titution# H% r%li%d
on t(% d%ci!ion o& t(i! Court in The Ahmeda,ad St.
3avier4s (olle$e Society and Another 9# State of 1ujarat
and Another 3420H<5 2 SCC H2H6 to !u)mit t(at t(% 8(ol%
o)I%ct o& con&%rrin, t(% ri,(t on t(% minorit* und%r Articl%
A. o& t(% Con!titution i! to %n!ur% t(at t(%r% 8ill )% an
%Dualit* )%t8%%n t(% maIorit* and t(% minorit*# H%
!u)mitt%d t(at H#R# K(anna J# in (i! Iud,m%nt in t(%
a&or%!aid ca!% (a! clari&i%d t(at t(% id%a o& ,i9in, !om%
!'%cial ri,(t! to t(% minoriti%! i! not to (a9% a ?ind o& a
'ri9il%,%d or 'am'%r%d !%ction o& t(% 'o'ulation )ut to
,i9% to t(% minoriti%! a !%n!% o& !%curit* and a &%%lin, o&
con&id%nc%# H% !u)mitt%d t(at Kir'al C#J# !'%a?in, &or
maIorit* in T.%.A. Pai &oundation 4!u'ra5 (a! !imilarl* (%ld
t(at t(% %!!%nc% o& Articl% A.425 o& t(% Con!titution i! to
Page 19
19
%n!ur% %Dual tr%atm%nt )%t8%%n t(% maIorit* and t(%
minorit* in!titution! t(at la8! o& t(% land mu!t a''l*
%Duall* to maIorit* in!titution! a! 8%ll a! to minorit*
in!titution! and minorit* in!titution! mu!t )% allo8%d to do
8(at t(% non+minorit* in!titution! ar% '%rmitt%d to do# Mr#
Di9an !u)mitt%d t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(%
Con!titution in!o&ar a! it %;clud%! minorit* in!titution!
r%&%rr%d to in Articl% A.425 o& t(% Con!titution i! al!o
9iolati9% o& !%culari!m 8(ic( i! a )a!ic &%atur% o& t(%
Con!titution# H% r%&%rr%d to t(% Iud,m%nt in *r. %. Ismail
&aru5ui and thers 9# Union of India and thers 34200<5 /
SCC A/.6 in 8(ic( t(i! Court (a! (%ld t(at t(% conc%'t o&
!%culari!m i! on% &ac%t o& ri,(t to %Dualit* 8o9%n a! t(%
c%ntral ,old%n t(r%ad in t(% &a)ric d%'ictin, t(% 'att%rn o&
t(% !c(%m% in our Con!titution#
Co+%&+%"o+1 o0 .&*2+&' )o(+1&. 0o2 %$& U+"o+ o0
I+'"*4
14. Mr# Mo(an Para!aran7 l%arn%d Solicitor G%n%ral7
!u)mitt%d t(at t(i! Court (a! (%ld in Ashoka Kumar
Thakur v. Union of India 4!u'ra5 t(at clau!% 4:5 o&
Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution i! onl* an %na)lin,
'ro9i!ion %m'o8%rin, t(% Stat% to ma?% a !'%cial
Page 20
20
'ro9i!ion7 )* la87 &or t(% ad9anc%m%nt o& !ociall*
and %ducationall* )ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or
t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%!
in!o&ar a! !uc( !'%cial 'ro9i!ion! r%lat% to t(%ir
admi!!ion to %ducational in!titution! includin,
'ri9at% %ducational in!titution!# H% !u)mitt%d t(at it
8ill )% cl%ar &rom 'ara,ra'(! :A and /C o& t(%
Iud,m%nt o& t(% %l%9%n Jud,% -%nc( o& t(i! Court in
T.%.A. Pai &oundation 4!u'ra5 t(at r%!%r9in, a !mall
'%rc%nta,% o& !%at! in 'ri9at% %ducational
in!titution!7 aid%d or unaid%d7 &or 8%a?%r7 'oor%r and
)ac?8ard !%ction! o& !oci%t* did not in an* 8a*
a&&%ct t(% ri,(t o& 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution!
und%r Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution# H% ar,u%d
t(at a&t%r t(% Iud,m%nt o& t(i! Court in T.%.A. Pai
&oundation 4!u'ra5 a &i9%+Jud,% -%nc( o& t(i! Court in
Islamic Academy of /ducation & Anr. v. State of
Karnataka & rs. 341..A5 / SCC /0H 8a! o& t(% 9i%8
t(at a! '%r t(% Iud,m%nt in T.%.A. Pai &oundation
4!u'ra5 in ca!% o& non+minorit* 'ro&%!!ional coll%,%!
a '%rc%nta,% o& !%at! could )% r%!%r9%d )* t(%
Go9%rnm%nt &or 'oor%r and )ac?8ard !%ction!# H%
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21
!u)mitt%d t(at t(i! 9i%8 ta?%n )* t(% &i9%+Jud,%
-%nc( o& t(i! Court in Islamic Academy of /ducation
& Anr. v. State of Karnataka & rs. 4!u'ra57 (o8%9%r7
did not &ind &a9our 8it( a !%9%n+Jud,% -%nc( o& t(i!
Court in P.A. Inamdar 4!u'ra5 8(ic( (%ld t(at t(%r% i!
not(in, in t(% Iud,m%nt o& t(i! Court in T.%.A. Pai
&oundation 4!u'ra5 allo8in, t(% Stat% to r%,ulat% or
control admi!!ion! in t(% unaid%d 'ro&%!!ional
%ducational in!titution! !o a! to com'%l t(%m to ,i9%
u' a !(ar% o& t(% a9aila)l% !%at! to t(% candidat%!
c(o!%n )* t(% Stat% or &or %n&orcin, t(% r%!%r9ation
'olic* o& t(% Stat%# H% !u)mitt%d t(at7 t(%r%&or%7
Parliam%nt introduc%d clau!% 4:5 in Articl% 2: o& t(%
Con!titution )* t(% Con!titution 4Nin%t*+T(ird
Am%ndm%nt5 Act7 1..: 'ro9idin, t(at t(% Stat% ma*
ma?% a !'%cial 'ro9i!ion7 )* la87 &or t(%
ad9anc%m%nt o& !ociall* and %ducationall* )ac?8ard
cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and
t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! in!o&ar a! !uc( !'%cial
'ro9i!ion! r%lat% to t(%ir admi!!ion to %ducational
in!titution! includin, 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution!7
8(%t(%r aid%d or unaid%d )* t(% Stat%# H%
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22
9%(%m%ntl* ar,u%d t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2:
introduc%d )* t(% con!titutional am%ndm%nt i!
con!i!t%nt 8it( t(% ri,(t to %!ta)li!( and admini!t%r
t(% 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution! und%r Articl%
204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution a! int%r'r%t%d )* T.%.A.
Pai &oundation 4!u'ra5 and7 t(%r%&or%7 do%! not
9iolat% t(% ri,(t und%r Articl% 204254,5 o& t(%
Con!titution#
2:# Mr# Para!aran n%;t !u)mitt%d t(at minorit*
in!titution! r%&%rr%d to in Articl% A. o& t(%
Con!titution (a9% )%%n %;clud%d &rom t(% 'ur9i%8 o&
clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution )%cau!%
t(% Con!titution (a! ,i9%n a !'%cial !tatu! to
minorit* in!titution!# H% !u)mitt%d t(at in t(% ca!%
o& Ashoka Kumar Thakur v. Union of India 4!u'ra57
t(i! Court (a! (%ld t(at %;clu!ion o& minorit*
%ducational in!titution! &rom clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2:
o& t(% Con!titution i! not 9iolati9% o& Articl% 2< o& t(%
Con!titution a! t(% minorit* %ducational in!titution!7
)* t(%m!%l9%!7 ar% a !%'arat% cla!! and t(%ir ri,(t!
ar% 'rot%ct%d )* ot(%r con!titutional 'ro9i!ion!# H%
Page 23
23
!u)mitt%d t(at t(% ar,um%nt t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl%
2: o& t(% Con!titution i! 9iolati9% o& %Dualit* clau!% in
Articl% 2< o& t(% Con!titution i! t(%r%&or%
mi!conc%i9%d#
O3"+"o+ o0 %$& Co(2% o+ %$& 5*."'"%/ o0 ).*(1& (5) o0
A2%").& 15 o0 %$& Co+1%"%(%"o+4
2/# J% (a9% con!id%r%d t(% !u)mi!!ion! o& l%arn%d
coun!%l &or t(% 'arti%! and 8% &ind t(at t(% o)I%ct o&
clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: i! to %na)l% t(% Stat% to ,i9% %Dual
o''ortunit* to !ociall* and %ducationall* )ac?8ard cla!!%!
o& citi@%n! or to t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and t(% Sc(%dul%d
Tri)%! to !tud* in all %ducational in!titution! ot(%r t(an
minorit* %ducational in!titution! r%&%rr%d in clau!% 425 o&
Articl% A. o& t(% Con!titution# T(i! 8ill )% cl%ar &rom t(%
Stat%m%nt o& O)I%ct! and R%a!on! o& t(% -ill7 8(ic( a&t%r
%nactm%nt )%cam% t(% Con!titution 4Nin%t*+T(ird
Am%ndm%nt5 Act7 1..: %;tract%d (%r%in)%lo8=
>Gr%at%r acc%!! to (i,(%r %ducation
includin, 'ro&%!!ional %ducation to
a lar,%r num)%r o& !tud%nt! )%lon,in, to
t(% !ociall* and %ducationall* )ac?8ard
cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(% Sc(%dul%d
Ca!t%! and Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! (a! )%%n a
matt%r o& maIor conc%rn# At 'r%!%nt7 t(%
Page 24
24
num)%r o& !%at! a9aila)l% in aid%d or Stat%
maintain%d in!titution!7 'articularl* in
r%!'%ct o& 'ro&%!!ional %ducation7 i! limit%d
in com'ari!on to t(o!% in 'ri9at% unaid%d
in!titution!#
1# It i! laid do8n in articl% </7 a! a dir%cti9%
'rinci'l% o& Stat% 'olic*7 t(at t(% Stat% !(all
'romot% 8it( !'%cial car% t(% %ducational
and %conomic int%r%!t! o& t(% 8%a?%r
!%ction! o& t(% '%o'l% and 'rot%ct t(%m
&rom !ocial inIu!tic%# To 'romot% t(%
%ducational ad9anc%m%nt o& t(% !ociall*
and %ducationall* )ac?8ard cla!!%! o&
citi@%n! or o& t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and
Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! in matt%r! o& admi!!ion o&
!tud%nt! )%lon,in, to t(%!% cat%,ori%! in
unaid%d %ducational in!titution!7 ot(%r t(an
t(% minorit* %ducational in!titution!
r%&%rr%d to in clau!% 425 o& articl% A. o& t(%
Con!titution7 it i! 'ro'o!%d to am'li&*
articl% 2:#
A# T(% -ill !%%?! to ac(i%9% t(% a)o9%
o)I%ct!#B
Clau!% 425 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution 'ro9id%! t(at
t(% Stat% !(all not di!criminat% a,ain!t an* citi@%n on
,round! onl* o& r%li,ion7 rac%7 ca!t%7 !%;7 'lac% o& )irt( or
an* o& t(%m and clau!% 415 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution
'ro9id%! t(at no citi@%n !(all7 on ,round! o& r%li,ion7 rac%7
ca!t%7 !%;7 'lac% o& )irt( or an* o& t(%m7 )% !u)I%ct to an*
di!a)ilit*7 lia)ilit*7 r%!triction or condition 8it( r%,ard to
4a5 acc%!! to !(o'!7 'u)lic r%!taurant!7 (ot%l! and 'lac%!
Page 25
25
o& 'u)lic %nt%rtainm%ntL or 4)5 t(% u!% o& 8%ll!7 tan?!7
)at(in, ,(at!7 road! and 'lac%! o& 'u)lic r%!ort
maintain%d 8(oll* or 'artl* out o& Stat% &und! or
d%dicat%d to t(% u!% o& ,%n%ral 'u)lic# T(%!% 'ro9i!ion!
8%r% mad% to %n!ur% t(at %9%r* citi@%n irr%!'%cti9% o& (i!
r%li,ion7 rac%7 ca!t%7 !%;7 'lac% o& )irt( or an* o& t(%m7 i!
,i9%n t(% %Dual tr%atm%nt )* t(% Stat% and (% (a! %Dual
acc%!! to 'u)lic 'lac%!# D%!'it% t(%!% 'ro9i!ion! in Articl%
2: o& t(% Con!titution a! ori,inall* ado't%d7 !om% cla!!%!
o& citi@%n!7 Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! (a9%
r%main%d !ociall* and %ducationall* )ac?8ard and (a9%
al!o not )%%n a)l% to acc%!! %ducational in!titution! &or
t(% 'ur'o!% o& ad9anc%m%nt# To am'li&* t(% 'ro9i!ion! o&
Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution a! ori,inall* ado't%d and to
'ro9id% %Dual o''ortunit* in %ducational in!titution!7
clau!% 4:5 (a! )%%n in!%rt%d in Articl% 2: )* t(%
con!titutional am%ndm%nt mad% )* t(% Parliam%nt )* t(%
Nin%t*+T(ird Am%ndm%nt Act7 1..:# A! t(% o)I%ct o&
clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution i! to 'ro9id%
%Dual o''ortunit* to a lar,% num)%r o& !tud%nt! )%lon,in,
to t(% !ociall* and %ducationall* )ac?8ard cla!!%! o&
citi@%n! or &or t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and t(% Sc(%dul%d
Page 26
26
Tri)%! to !tud* in %ducational in!titution! and %Dualit* o&
o''ortunit* i! al!o t(% o)I%ct o& clau!%! 425and 415 o&
Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution7 8% cannot (old t(at clau!%
4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution i! an %;c%'tion or a
'ro9i!o o9%rridin, Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution7 )ut an
%na)lin, 'ro9i!ion to ma?% %Dualit* o& o''ortunit*
'romi!%d in t(% Pr%am)l% in t(% Con!titution a r%alit*#

2H# For t(i! 9i%87 8% ar% !u''ort%d )* t(% maIorit*
Iud,m%nt o& t(i! Court in State of Kerala & Anr. v. -.%.
Thomas & rs. 3420H/5 1 SCC A2.6 in 8(ic( t(i! Court (a!
(%ld t(at clau!% 4<5 o& Articl% 2/ o& t(% Con!titution 8(ic(
(a! o'%nin, 8ord! !imilar to t(% o'%nin, 8ord! in clau!%
4:5 o& Articl% 2: i! not an %;c%'tion or a 'ro9i!o to Articl%
2/7 )ut i! a 'ro9i!ion int%nd%d to ,i9% %Dualit* o&
o''ortunit* to )ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! in matt%r! o&
'u)lic %m'lo*m%nt# Similarl*7 in Indra Sa0hney & rs. v.
Union of India & rs# 32001 Su'' 4A5 SCC 12H67 t(i! Court
&ollo8in, t(% maIorit* Iud,m%nt in t(% ca!% o& State of
Kerala & Anr. v. -.%. Thomas & rs. 4!u'ra5 (%ld t(at
clau!% 4<5 o& Articl% 2/ 8a! not an %;c%'tion to clau!% 425
o& Articl% 2/7 )ut i! an %na)lin, 'ro9i!ion to ,i9% %&&%ct to
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27
t% %Dualit* o& o''ortunit* in matt%r! o& 'u)lic
%m'lo*m%nt# T(%!% t8o aut(oriti%! (a9% al!o )%%n cit%d
)* K#G# -ala?ri!(nan7 CJ#7 in (i! Iud,m%nt in Ashoka
Kumar Thakur v. Union of India 4!u'ra5 to (old t(at clau!%
4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution i! not an %;c%'tion to
clau!% 425 o& Articl% 2:7 )ut ma* )% ta?%n a! an %na)lin,
'ro9i!ion to carr* out t(% con!titutional mandat% o&
%Dualit* o& o''ortunit*#
2C# J% ma* no8 con!id%r 8(%t(%r clau!% 4:5 o& Articl%
2: o& t(% Con!titution (a! d%!tro*%d t(% ri,(t und%r
Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution to %!ta)li!( and
admini!t%r 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution!# It i! &or t(%
&ir!t tim% t(at t(i! Court (%ld in T.%.A. Pai &oundation
4!u'ra5 t(at t(% %!ta)li!(m%nt and runnin, o& an
%ducational in!titution >i! occu'ationB 8it(in t(% m%anin,
o& Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution# In 'ara,ra'( 1. o&
t(% maIorit* Iud,m%nt7 8(il% d%alin, 8it( t(% &our
com'on%nt! o& t(% ri,(t! und%r Articl%! 20 and 1/4a5 o&
t(% Con!titution in r%!'%ct o& 'ri9at% unaid%d non+minorit*
%ducational in!titution!7 Kir'al7 CJ# (a! (%ld t(at %ducation
i! #er se r%,ard%d a! an acti9it* t(at i! c(arita)l% in
Page 28
28
natur%# Kir'al7 CJ# (a! &urt(%r (%ld in 'ara,ra'(! :A and
/C=
653. Jit( r%,ard to t(% cor% com'on%nt!
o& t(% ri,(t! und%r Articl%! 20 and 1/4a57 it
mu!t )% (%ld t(at 8(il% t(% Stat% (a! t(%
ri,(t to 'r%!cri)% Duali&ication! n%c%!!ar*
&or admi!!ion7 'ri9at% unaid%d coll%,%!
(a9% t(% ri,(t to admit !tud%nt! o& t(%ir
c(oic%7 !u)I%ct to an o)I%cti9% and rational
'roc%dur% o& !%l%ction and t(% com'lianc%
8it( condition!7 i& an*7 r%Duirin, admi!!ion
o& a !mall '%rc%nta,% o& !tud%nt!
)%lon,in, to 8%a?%r !%ction! o& t(% !oci%t*
)* ,rantin, t(%m &r%%!(i'! or !c(olar!(i'!7
i& not ,rant%d )* t(%
Go9%rnm%nt$$$$$$$##B
>68. It 8ould )% un&air to a''l* t(% !am%
rul%! and r%,ulation! r%,ulatin, admi!!ion
to )ot( aid%d and unaid%d 'ro&%!!ional
in!titution!# It mu!t )% )orn% in mind t(at
unaid%d 'ro&%!!ional in!titution! ar%
%ntitl%d to autonom* in t(%ir
admini!tration 8(il%7 at t(% !am% tim%7
t(%* do not &or%,o or di!card t(% 'rinci'l%
o& m%rit# It 8ould7 t(%r%&or%7 )% '%rmi!!i)l%
&or t(% uni9%r!it* or t(% Go9%rnm%nt7 at
t(% tim% o& ,rantin, r%co,nition7 to r%Duir%
a 'ri9at% unaid%d in!titution to 'ro9id% &or
m%rit+)a!%d !%l%ction 8(il%7 at t(% !am%
tim%7 ,i9in, t(% mana,%m%nt !u&&ici%nt
di!cr%tion in admittin, !tud%nt!# T(i! can
)% don% t(rou,( 9ariou! m%t(od!# For
in!tanc%7 a c%rtain '%rc%nta,% o& t(% !%at!
can )% r%!%r9%d &or admi!!ion )* t(%
mana,%m%nt out o& t(o!% !tud%nt! 8(o
(a9% 'a!!%d t(% common %ntranc% t%!t
(%ld )* it!%l& or )* t(% Stat%Muni9%r!it* and
(a9% a''li%d to t(% coll%,% conc%rn%d &or
admi!!ion7 8(il% t(% r%!t o& t(% !%at! ma*
Page 29
29
)% &ill%d u' on t(% )a!i! o& coun!%llin, )*
t(% Stat% a,%nc*# T(i! 8ill incid%ntall* ta?%
car% o& 'oor%r and )ac?8ard !%ction! o&
t(% !oci%t*# T(% 'r%!cri'tion o& '%rc%nta,%
&or t(i! 'ur'o!% (a! to )% don% )* t(%
Go9%rnm%nt accordin, to t(% local n%%d!
and di&&%r%nt '%rc%nta,%! can )% &i;%d &or
minorit* unaid%d and non+minorit* unaid%d
and 'ro&%!!ional coll%,%!# T(% !am%
'rinci'l%! ma* )% a''li%d to ot(%r non+
'ro&%!!ional )ut unaid%d %ducational
in!titution! 9i@# ,raduation and
'o!t,raduation non+'ro&%!!ional coll%,%!
or in!titut%!#
20# T(u!7 t(% cont%nt o& t(% ri,(t und%r Articl% 204254,5 o&
t(% Con!titution to %!ta)li!( and admini!t%r 'ri9at%
%ducational in!titution!7 a! '%r t(% Iud,m%nt o& t(i!
Court in T.%.A. Pai &oundation 4!u'ra57 includ%! t(%
ri,(t to admit !tud%nt! o& t(%ir c(oic% and autonom* o&
admini!tration7 )ut t(i! Court (a! mad% it cl%ar in
T.%.A. Pai &oundation 4!u'ra5 t(at t(i! ri,(t and
autonom* 8ill not )% a&&%ct%d i& a !mall '%rc%nta,% o&
!tud%nt! )%lon,in, to 8%a?%r and )ac?8ard !%ction!
o& t(% !oci%t* 8%r% ,rant%d &r%%!(i'! or !c(olar!(i'!7 i&
not ,rant%d )* t(% Go9%rnm%nt# T(i! 8a! t(%
c(arita)l% %l%m%nt o& t(% ri,(t to %!ta)li!( and
admini!t%r 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution! und%r
Page 30
30
Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution# H%nc%7 t(% id%ntit*
o& t(% ri,(t o& 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution! und%r
Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution a! int%r'r%t%d )*
t(i! Court7 8a! not to )% d%!tro*%d )* admi!!ion! &rom
amon,!t %ducationall* and !ociall* )ac?8ard cla!!%!
o& citi@%n! a! 8%ll a! t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and t(%
Sc(%dul%d Tri)%!#

1.# In P.A. Inamdar 4!u'ra57 t(i! Court !'%a?in, t(rou,(
La(oti7 CJ#7 8a!7 (o8%9%r7 o& t(% 9i%8 t(at t(%
Iud,m%nt in T.%.A. Pai &oundation 4!u'ra5 (%ld t(at
t(%r% 8a! no 'o8%r 9%!t%d on t(% Stat% und%r clau!%
4/5 o& Articl% 20 to r%,ulat% or control admi!!ion! in t(%
unaid%d %ducational in!titution! !o a! to com'%l t(%m
to ,i9% u' a !(ar% o& t(% a9aila)l% !%at! to t(% Stat% or
to %n&orc% r%!%r9ation 'olic* o& t(% Stat% on a9aila)l%
!%at! in unaid%d 'ro&%!!ional in!titution!# T(i! 8ill )%
cl%ar &rom 'ara,ra'( 21: o& t(% Iud,m%nt in P.A.
Inamdar 4!u'ra57 8(ic( i! %;tract%d (%r%in)%lo8=
>125. A! '%r our und%r!tandin,7 n%it(%r in
t(% Iud,m%nt o& Pai &oundation nor in t(%
Con!titution -%nc( d%ci!ion in Kerala
/ducation "ill 8(ic( 8a! a''ro9%d )* Pai
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31
&oundation i! t(%r% an*t(in, 8(ic( 8ould
allo8 t(% Stat% to r%,ulat% or control
admi!!ion! in t(% unaid%d 'ro&%!!ional
%ducational in!titution! !o a! to com'%l
t(%m to ,i9% u' a !(ar% o& t(% a9aila)l%
!%at! to t(% candidat%! c(o!%n )* t(%
Stat%7 a! i& it 8a! &illin, t(% !%at! a9aila)l%
to )% &ill%d u' at it! di!cr%tion in !uc(
'ri9at% in!titution!# T(i! 8ould amount to
nationali!ation o& !%at! 8(ic( (a! )%%n
!'%ci&icall* di!a''ro9%d in Pai &oundation#
Suc( im'o!ition o& Duota o& Stat% !%at! or
%n&orcin, r%!%r9ation 'olic* o& t(% Stat% on
a9aila)l% !%at! in unaid%d 'ro&%!!ional
in!titution! ar% act! con!titutin, !%riou!
%ncroac(m%nt on t(% ri,(t and autonom*
o& 'ri9at% 'ro&%!!ional %ducational
in!titution!# Suc( a''ro'riation o& !%at!
can al!o not )% (%ld to )% a r%,ulator*
m%a!ur% in t(% int%r%!t o& t(% minorit*
8it(in t(% m%anin, o& Articl% A.425 or a
r%a!ona)l% r%!triction 8it(in t(% m%anin,
o& Articl% 204/5 o& t(% Con!titution# M%r%l*
)%cau!% t(% r%!ourc%! o& t(% Stat% in
'ro9idin, 'ro&%!!ional %ducation ar%
limit%d7 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution!7
8(ic( int%nd to 'ro9id% )%tt%r 'ro&%!!ional
%ducation7 cannot )% &orc%d )* t(% Stat%
to ma?% admi!!ion! a9aila)l% on t(% )a!i!
o& r%!%r9ation 'olic* to l%!! m%ritoriou!
candidat%!# Unaid%d in!titution!7 a! t(%*
ar% not d%ri9in, an* aid &rom Stat% &und!7
can (a9% t(%ir o8n admi!!ion! i& &air7
tran!'ar%nt7 non+%;'loitati9% and )a!%d on
m%rit#
12#T(% r%a!onin, ado't%d )* t(i! Court in P.A. Inamdar
4!u'ra57 t(%r%&or%7 i! t(at t(% a''ro'riation o& !%at! )*
t(% Stat% &or %n&orcin, a r%!%r9ation 'olic* 8a! not a
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32
r%,ulator* m%a!ur% and not r%a!ona)l% r%!triction
8it(in t(% m%anin, o& clau!% 4/5 o& Articl% 20 o& t(%
Con!titution# A! t(%r% 8a! no 'ro9i!ion ot(%r t(an
clau!% 4/5 o& Articl% 20 o& t(% Con!titution und%r 8(ic(
t(% Stat% could in an* 8a* r%!trict t(% &undam%ntal
ri,(t und%r Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution7
Parliam%nt mad% t(% Con!titution 4Nin%t*+t(ird
Am%ndm%nt5 Act7 1..: to in!%rt clau!% 4:5 in Articl% 2:
o& t(% Con!titution to 'ro9id% t(at not(in, in Articl%
204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution !(all 'r%9%nt t(% Stat%
&rom ma?in, an* !'%cial 'ro9i!ion7 )* la87 &or t(%
ad9anc%m%nt o& an* !ociall* and %ducationall*
)ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(% Sc(%dul%d
Ca!t%! or t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! in !o &ar a! !uc( !'%cial
'ro9i!ion! r%lat% to t(%ir admi!!ion to %ducational
in!titution! includin, 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution!7
8(%t(%r aid%d or unaid%d )* t(% Stat%# Clau!% 4:5 in
Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution7 t(u!7 9%!t! a 'o8%r on
t(% Stat%7 ind%'%nd%nt o& and di&&%r%nt &rom7 t(%
r%,ulator* 'o8%r und%r clau!% 4/5 o& Articl% 207 and 8%
(a9% to %;amin% 8(%t(%r t(i! n%8 'o8%r 9%!t%d in t(%
Stat% 8(ic( %na)l%! t(% Stat% to &orc% t(% c(arita)l%
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33
%l%m%nt on a 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution d%!tro*!
t(% ri,(t und%r Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution#
11# Accordin, to Dr# D(a9an7 t(% ri,(t o& a 'ri9at%
%ducational in!titution und%r Articl% 204254,5 o& t(%
Con!titution a! laid do8n )* t(i! Court in T.%.A. Pai
&oundation )su#ra+ (a! a 9oluntar* %l%m%nt# In &act7
t(i! Court in P.A. Inamdar )su#ra+ (a! (%ld in
'ara,ra'( 21/ at 'a,% /.2 o& t(% SCC t(at t(%
o)!%r9ation! in 'ara,ra'( /C o& t(% Iud,m%nt in T.%.A.
Pai &oundation )su#ra+ m%r%l* '%rmit unaid%d 'ri9at%
in!titution! to maintain m%rit a! t(% crit%rion o&
admi!!ion )* 9oluntaril* a,r%%in, &or !%at+!(arin, 8it(
t(% Stat% or ado'tin, !%l%ction )a!%d on common
%ntranc% t%!t o& t(% Stat% and t(at t(%r% ar% al!o
o)!%r9ation! in T.%.A. Pai &oundation )su#ra+ to !a*
t(at t(%* ma* &ram% t(%ir o8n 'olic* to ,i9% &r%%!(i'!
and !c(olar!(i'! to t(% n%%d* and 'oor !tud%nt! or
ado't a 'olic* in lin% 8it( t(% r%!%r9ation 'olic* o& t(%
Stat% to cat%r to t(% %ducational n%%d! o& t(% 8%a?%r
and 'oor%r !%ction! o& t(% !oci%t*# In our 9i%87 all
&r%%dom! und%r 8(ic( Articl% 20425 o& t(% Con!titution7
Page 34
34
includin, t(% &r%%dom und%r Articl% 204254,57 (a9% a
9oluntar* %l%m%nt )ut t(i! 9oluntarin%!! in all t(%
&r%%dom! in Articl% 20425 o& t(% Con!titution can )%
!u)I%ct%d to r%a!ona)l% r%!triction! im'o!%d )* t(%
Stat% )* la8 und%r clau!%! 415 to 4/5 o& Articl% 20 o& t(%
Con!titution# H%nc%7 t(% 9oluntar* natur% o& t(% ri,(t
und%r Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution can )%
!u)I%ct%d to r%a!ona)l% r%!triction! im'o!%d )* t(%
Stat% )* la8 und%r clau!% 4/5 o& Articl% 20 o& t(%
Con!titution# A! t(i! Court (a! (%ld in T.%.A. Pai
&oundation )su#ra+ and P.A. Inamdar )su#ra+ t(% Stat%
can und%r clau!% 4/5 o& Articl% 20 ma?% r%,ulator*
'ro9i!ion! to %n!ur% t(% maint%nanc% o& 'ro'%r
acad%mic !tandard!7 atmo!'(%r% and in&ra!tructur%
4includin, Duali&i%d !ta&&5 and t(% 'r%9%ntion o&
maladmini!tration )* t(o!% in c(ar,% o& t(%
mana,%m%nt# Ho8%9%r7 a! t(i! Court (%ld in t(%
a&or%!aid t8o Iud,m%nt! t(at nominatin, !tud%nt! &or
admi!!ion! 8ould )% an unacc%'ta)l% r%!triction in
clau!% 4/5 o& Articl% 20 o& t(% Con!titution7 Parliam%nt
(a! !t%''%d in and in %;%rci!% o& it! am%ndin, 'o8%r
und%r Articl% A/C o& t(% Con!titution in!%rt%d clau!%
Page 35
35
4:5 in Articl% 2: to %na)l% t(% Stat% to ma?% a la8
ma?in, !'%cial 'ro9i!ion! &or admi!!ion o& !ociall* and
%ducationall* )ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(%
Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! &or t(%ir
ad9anc%m%nt and to a 9%r* limit%d %;t%nt a&&%ct%d t(%
9oluntar* %l%m%nt o& t(i! ri,(t und%r Articl% 204254,5 o&
t(% Con!tituion# J%7 t(%r%&or%7 do not &ind an* m%rit in
t(% !u)mi!!ion o& l%arn%d coun!%l &or t(% '%tition%r!
t(at t(% id%ntit* o& t(% ri,(t o& unaid%d 'ri9at%
%ducational in!titution! und%r Articl% 204254,5 o& t(%
Con!titution (a! )%%n d%!tro*%d )* clau!% 4:5 o& Articl%
2: o& t(% Con!titution#
1A#J% ma* no8 %;amin% 8(%t(%r t(% Nin%t*+T(ird
Am%ndm%nt !ati!&i%! t(% 8idt( t%!t# A 'lain r%adin, o&
clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: 8ould !(o8 t(at t(% 'o8%r o& a
Stat% to ma?% a la8 can onl* )% %;%rci!%d 8(%r% it i!
n%c%!!ar* &or ad9anc%m%nt o& !ociall* and
%ducationall* )ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(%
Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! and not &or
an* ot(%r 'ur'o!%# T(u!7 i& a la8 i! mad% )* t(% Stat%
onl* to a''%a!% a cla!! o& citi@%n 8(ic( i! not !ociall*
Page 36
36
or %ducationall* )ac?8ard or 8(ic( i! not a Sc(%dul%d
Ca!t% or Sc(%dul%d Tri)%7 !uc( a la8 8ill )% )%*ond
t(% 'o8%r! o& t(% Stat% und%r clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2:
o& t(% Con!titution# A 'lain r%adin, o& clau!% 4:5 o&
Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution 8ill &urt(%r !(o8 t(at
!uc( la8 (a! to )% limit%d to ma?in, a !'%cial
'ro9i!ion r%latin, to admi!!ion to 'ri9at% %ducational
in!titution!7 8(%t(%r aid%d or unaid%d7 )* t(% Stat%#
H%nc%7 i& t(% Stat% ma?%! a la8 8(ic( i! not r%lat%d to
admi!!ion in %ducational in!titution! and r%lat%! to
!om% ot(%r a!'%ct! a&&%ctin, t(% autonom* and ri,(t!
o& 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution! a! d%&in%d )* t(i!
Court in T.%.A. Pai &oundation6 !uc( a la8 8ould not )%
8it(in t(% 'o8%r o& t(% Stat% und%r clau!% 4:5 o& Articl%
2: o& t(% Con!titution# In ot(%r 8ord!7 'o8%r in clau!%
4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution i! a ,uid%d 'o8%r
to )% %;%rci!%d &or t(% limit%d 'ur'o!%! !tat%d in t(%
clau!% and a! and 8(%n a la8 i! mad% )* t(% Stat% in
'ur'ort%d %;%rci!% o& t(% 'o8%r und%r clau!% 4:5 o&
Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution7 t(% Court 8ill (a9% to
%;amin% and &ind out 8(%t(%r it i! &or t(% 'ur'o!%! o&
ad9anc%m%nt o& an* !ociall* and %ducationall*
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37
)ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(% Sc(%dul%d
Ca!t%! and t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! and 8(%t(%r t(% la8
i! con&in%d to admi!!ion o& !uc( !ociall* and
%ducationall* )ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(%
Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! to 'ri9at%
%ducational in!titution!7 8(%t(%r aid%d or unaid%d7 and
i& t(% Court &ind! t(at t(% 'o8%r (a! not )%%n
%;%rci!%d &or t(% 'ur'o!%! m%ntion%d in clau!% 4:5 o&
Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution7 t(% Court 8ill (a9% to
d%clar% t(% la8 a! ultra vires Articl% 204254,5 o& t(%
Con!titution# In our o'inion7 t(%r%&or%7 t(% 8idt( o& t(%
'o8%r 9%!t%d on t(% Stat% und%r clau!% 4:5 o& Articl%
2: o& t(% Con!titution )* t(% con!titutional
am%ndm%nt i! not !uc( a! to d%!tro* t(% ri,(t und%r
Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution#
1<#J% ma* no8 %;amin% t(% cont%ntion o& Mr# Nariman
t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution &ail! to
ma?% a di!tinction )%t8%%n aid%d and unaid%d
%ducational in!titution! and tr%at! )ot( aid%d and
unaid%d ali?% in t(% matt%r o& ma?in, !'%cial
'ro9i!ion! &or admi!!ion o& !ociall* and %ducationall*
Page 38
38
)ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(% Sc(%dul%d
Ca!t%! and Sc(%dul%d Tri)%!# T(% di!tinction )%t8%%n
a 'ri9at% aid%d %ducational in!titution and a 'ri9at%
unaid%d %ducational in!titution i! t(at 'ri9at%
%ducational in!titution! r%c%i9% aid &rom t(% Stat%7
8(%r%a! 'ri9at% unaid%d %ducational in!titution! do
not r%c%i9% aid &rom t(% Stat%# A! and 8(%n a la8 i!
mad% )* t(% Stat% und%r clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(%
Con!titution7 !uc( a la8 8ould (a9% to )% %;amin%d
8(%t(%r it (a! ta?%n into account t(% &act t(at 'ri9at%
unaid%d %ducational in!titution! ar% not aid%d )* t(%
Stat% and (a! mad% 'ro9i!ion! in t(% la8 to %n!ur%
t(at 'ri9at% unaid%d %ducational in!titution! ar%
com'%n!at%d &or t(% admi!!ion! mad% in !uc( 'ri9at%
unaid%d %ducational in!titution! &rom amon,!t !ociall*
and %ducationall* )ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or t(%
Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%!# In our
9i%87 t(%r%&or%7 a la8 mad% und%r clau!% 4:5 o& Articl%
2: o& t(% Con!titution )* t(% Stat% on t(% ,round t(at
it tr%at! 'ri9at% aid%d %ducational in!titution! and
'ri9at% unaid%d %ducational in!titution! ali?% i! not
immun% &rom a c(all%n,% und%r Articl% 2< o& t(%
Page 39
39
Con!titution# Clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(%
Con!titution onl* !tat%! t(at not(in, in Articl% 2: or
Articl% 204254,5 8ill 'r%9%nt t(% Stat% to ma?% a !'%cial
'ro9i!ion7 )* la87 &or admi!!ion o& !ociall* and
%ducationall* )ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(%
Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! to
%ducational in!titution! includin, 'ri9at% %ducational
in!titution!7 8(%t(%r aid%d or unaid%d )* t(% Stat%#
Clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution do%! not !a*
t(at !uc( a la8 8ill not com'l* 8it( t(% ot(%r
r%Duir%m%nt! o& %Dualit* a! 'ro9id%d in Articl% 2< o&
t(% Con!titution# H%nc%7 8% do not &ind an* m%rit in
t(% !u)mi!!ion o& t(% Mr# Nariman t(at clau!% 4:5 o&
Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution t(at in!o&ar a! it tr%at!
unaid%d 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution! and aid%d
'ri9at% %ducational in!titution! ali?% it i! 9iolati9% o&
Articl% 2< o& t(% Con!titution#
1:# J% ma* no8 d%al 8it( t(% cont%ntion o& Mr# Di9an
t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution i!
9iolati9% o& Articl% 2< o& t(% Con!titution a! it %;clud%!
&rom it! 'ur9i%8 t(% minorit* in!titution! r%&%rr%d to in
Page 40
40
clau!% 425 o& Articl% A. o& t(% Con!titution and t(%
cont%ntion o& Mr# Nariman t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2:
%;clud%! )ot( unaid%d minorit* in!titution! and aid%d
minorit* in!titution! ali?% and i! t(u! 9iolati9% o& Articl%
2< o& t(% Con!titution# Articl%! 10415 A.425 and A.415
o& t(% Con!titution7 8(ic( ar% r%l%9ant7 &or d%cidin,
t(%!% cont%ntion!7 ar% Duot%d (%r%in)%lo8=
>10# P2o%&)%"o+ o0 "+%&2&1%1 o0
7"+o2"%"&1+425
$$$$$$$$$$$$$#
415 No citi@%n !(all )% d%ni%d admi!!ion
into an* %ducational in!titution
maintain%d )* t(% Stat% or r%c%i9in, aid
out o& Stat% &und! on ,round! onl* o&
r%li,ion7 rac%7 ca!t%7 lan,ua,% or an* o&
t(%m#
30. R"#$% o0 7"+o2"%"&1 %o &1%*8."1$
*+' *'7"+"1%&2 &'()*%"o+*.
"+1%"%(%"o+1+425 All minoriti%!7 8(%t(%r
)a!%d on r%li,ion or lan,ua,%7 !(all
(a9% t(% ri,(t to %!ta)li!( and
admini!t%r %ducational in!titution! o&
t(%ir c(oic%#
42A5 $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$
415 T(% !tat% !(all not7 in ,rantin, aid to
%ducational in!titution!7 di!criminat%
a,ain!t an* %ducational in!titution on
t(% ,round t(at it i! und%r t(%
mana,%m%nt o& a minorit*7 8(%t(%r
)a!%d on r%li,ion or lan,ua,%#B
Page 41
41
On t(% Du%!tion 8(%t(%r t(% ri,(t o& minorit* in!titution!
und%r Articl% A.425 o& t(% Con!titution 8ould )% a&&%ct%d
)* admi!!ion o& !tud%nt! 8(o do not )%lon, to t(%
minorit* communit* 8(ic( (a! %!ta)li!(%d t(% in!titution!7
Kir'al C#J# 8ritin, t(% maIorit* Iud,m%nt in T.%.A. Pai
&oundation 4!u'ra5 con!id%r%d t(% 'r%9iou! Iud,m%nt! o&
t(i! Court and t(%n (%ld in 'ara,ra'( 2<0 at 'a,% :C1
and :CA o& t(% SCC=
>2<0# Alt(ou,( t(% ri,(t to admini!t%r
includ%! 8it(in it a ri,(t to ,rant
admi!!ion to !tud%nt! o& t(%ir c(oic%
und%r Articl% A.4257 8(%n !uc( a
minorit* in!titution i! ,rant%d t(% &acilit*
o& r%c%i9in, ,rant+in+aid7
Articl% 10415 8ould a''l*7 and
n%c%!!aril*7 t(%r%&or%7 on% o& t(% ri,(t
o& admini!tration o& t(% minoriti%! 8ould
)% %rod%d to !om% %;t%nt#
Articl% A.415 i! an inIunction a,ain!t t(%
!tat% not to di!criminat% a,ain!t t(%
minorit* %ducational in!titution and
'r%9%nt it &rom r%c%i9in, aid on t(%
,round t(at t(% in!titution i! und%r t(%
mana,%m%nt o& a minorit*# J(il%7
t(%r%&or%7 a minorit* %ducational
in!titution r%c%i9in, ,rant+in+aid 8ould
not )% com'l%t%l* out!id% t(% di!ci'lin%
o& Articl% 10415 o& t(% Con!titution )* no
!tr%tc( o& ima,ination can t(% ri,(t!
,uarant%%d und%r Articl% A.425 )%
anni(ilat%d# It i! t(i! cont%;t t(at !om%
int%r'la* )%t8%%n Articl% 10415 and
Page 42
42
Articl% A.425 i! r%Duir%d# A! o)!%r9%d
Duit% a'tl* in St# St%'(%nN! ca!% Et(%
&act t(at Articl% 10415 a''li%! to
minoriti%! a! 8%ll a! non+minoriti%! do%!
not m%an t(at it 8a! int%nd%d to nulli&*
t(% !'%cial ri,(t ,uarant%%d to
minoriti%! in Articl% A.425#E T(% 8ord
Eonl*E u!%d in Articl% 10415 i! o&
con!id%ra)l% !i,ni&icanc% and (a! )%%n
u!%d &or !om% a9o8%d 'ur'o!%# D%n*in,
admi!!ion to non+minoriti%! &or t(%
'ur'o!% o& accommodatin, minorit*
!tud%nt! to a r%a!ona)l% %;t%nt 8ill not
)% onl* on ,round! o& r%li,ion %tc#7 )ut
i! 'rimaril* m%ant to 'r%!%r9% t(%
minorit* c(aract%r o& t(% in!titution and
to %&&%ctuat% t(% ,uarant%% und%r
Articl% A.425 # T(% )%!t 'o!!i)l% 8a* i! to
(old t(at a! lon, a! t(% minorit*
%ducational in!titution '%rmit!
admi!!ion o& citi@%n! )%lon,in, to t(%
non+minorit* cla!! to a r%a!ona)l%
%;t%nt )a!%d u'on m%rit7 it 8ill not )%
an in&raction o& Articl% 104157 %9%n
t(ou,( t(% in!titution admit! !tud%nt! o&
t(% minorit* ,rou' o& it! o8n c(oic% &or
8(om t(% in!titution 8a! m%ant# J(at
8ould )% a r%a!ona)l% %;t%nt 8ould
d%'%nd u'on 9aria)l% &actor!7 and it
ma* not )% ad9i!a)l% to &i; an* !'%ci&ic
'%rc%nta,%# T(% !ituation 8ould 9ar*
accordin, to t(% t*'% o& in!titution and
t(% natur% o& %ducation t(at i! )%in,
im'art%d in t(% in!titution# U!uall*7 at
t(% !c(ool l%9%l7 alt(ou,( it ma* )%
'o!!i)l% to &ill u' all t(% !%at! 8it(
!tud%nt! o& t(% minorit* ,rou'7 at t(%
(i,(%r l%9%l7 %it(%r in coll%,%! or in
t%c(nical in!titution!7 it ma* not )%
'o!!i)l% to &ill u' all t(% !%at! 8it( t(%
!tud%nt! o& t(% minorit* ,rou'#
Ho8%9%r7 %9%n i& it i! 'o!!i)l% to &ill u'
all t(% !%at! 8it( !tud%nt! o& t(%
Page 43
43
minorit* ,rou'7 t(% mom%nt t(%
in!titution i! ,rant%d aid7 t(% in!titution
8ill (a9% to admit !tud%nt! o& t(% non+
minorit* ,rou' to a r%a!ona)l% %;t%nt7
8(%r%)* t(% c(aract%r o& t(% in!titution
i! not anni(ilat%d7 and at t(% !am% tim%7
t(% ri,(t! o& t(% citi@%n %n,ra&t%d und%r
Articl% 10415 ar% not !u)9%rt%d# It i! &or
t(i! r%a!on t(at a 9aria)l% '%rc%nta,% o&
admi!!ion o& minorit* !tud%nt!
d%'%ndin, on t(% t*'% o& in!titution and
%ducation i! d%!ira)l%7 and ind%%d7
n%c%!!ar*7 to 'romot% t(% con!titutional
,uarant%% %n!(rin%d in )ot(
Articl% 10415 and Articl% A.#B
T(u!7 t(% la8 a! laid do8n )* t(i! Court i! t(at t(%
minorit* c(aract%r o& an aid%d or unaid%d minorit*
in!titution cannot )% anni(ilat%d )* admi!!ion o& !tud%nt!
&rom communiti%! ot(%r t(an t(% minorit* communit*
8(ic( (a! %!ta)li!(%d t(% in!titution7 and 8(%t(%r !uc(
admi!!ion to an* 'articular '%rc%nta,% o& !%at! 8ill
d%!tro* t(% minorit* c(aract%r o& t(% in!titution or not 8ill
d%'%nd on a lar,% num)%r o& &actor! includin, t(% t*'% o&
in!titution#
1/#Clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution %na)l%! t(%
Stat% to ma?% a !'%cial 'ro9i!ion7 )* la87 &or t(%
ad9anc%m%nt o& !ociall* and %ducationall* )ac?8ard
cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and
Page 44
44
Sc(%dul%d Tri)%!# Suc( admi!!ion! o& !ociall* and
%ducationall* )ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! or &or t(%
Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! 8(o ma*
)%lon, to communiti%! ot(%r t(an t(% minorit*
communit* 8(ic( (a! %!ta)li!(%d t(% in!titution7 ma*
a&&%ct t(% ri,(t o& t(% minorit* %ducational in!titution!
r%&%rr%d to in clau!% 425 o& Articl% A. o& t(%
Con!titution# In ot(%r 8ord!7 t(% minorit* c(aract%r o&
t(% minorit* %ducational in!titution! r%&%rr%d to in
clau!% 425 o& Articl% A. o& t(% Con!titution7 8(%t(%r
aid%d or unaid%d7 ma* )% a&&%ct%d )* admi!!ion! o&
!ociall* and %ducationall* )ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n!
or t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! and
it i! &or t(i! r%a!on t(at minorit* in!titution!7 aid%d or
unaid%d7 ar% ?%'t out!id% t(% %na)lin, 'o8%r o& t(%
Stat% und%r clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: 8it( a 9i%8 to
'rot%ct t(% minorit* in!titution! &rom a la8 mad% )*
t(% maIorit*# A! (a! )%%n (%ld )* t(% Con!titution
-%nc( o& t(i! Court in Ashoka Kumar Thakur v. Union
of India 4!u'ra57 t(% minorit* %ducational in!titution!7
)* t(%m!%l9%!7 ar% a !%'arat% cla!! and t(%ir ri,(t!
ar% 'rot%ct%d und%r Articl% A. o& t(% Con!titution7 and7
Page 45
45
t(%r%&or%7 t(% %;clu!ion o& minorit* %ducational
in!titution! &rom Articl% 2:4:5 i! not 9iolati9% o& Articl%
2< o& t(% Con!titution#
1H# J% ma* no8 con!id%r t(% cont%ntion o& Mr# Di9an
t(at clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution i!
9iolati9% o& !%culari!m in!o&ar a! it %;clud%! r%li,iou!
minorit* in!titution! r%&%rr%d to in Articl% A.425 o& t(%
Con!titution &rom t(% 'ur9i%8 o& clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2:
o& t(% Con!titution# In *r. %. Ismail &aru5ui and thers
9# Union of India and thers 4!u'ra57 t(i! Court (a!
(%ld t(at t(% Pr%am)l% o& t(% Con!titution r%ad in
'articular 8it( Articl%! 2: to 1C %m'(a!i! t(i! a!'%ct
and indicat%! t(at t(% conc%'t o& !%culari!m %m)odi%d
in t(% con!titutional !c(%m% i! a cr%%d ado't%d )* t(%
Indian '%o'l%# H%nc%7 !%culari!m i! no dou)t a )a!ic
&%atur% o& t(% Con!titution7 )ut 8% &ail to a''r%ciat%
(o8 clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution 8(ic(
%;clud%! r%li,iou! minorit* in!titution! in clau!% 425 o&
Articl% A. o& t(% Con!titution i! in an* 8a* 9iolati9% o&
t(% conc%'t o& !%culari!m# On t(% ot(%r (and7 t(i!
Court (a! (%ld in T#M#A# Pai Foundation 4!u'ra5 t(at t(%
Page 46
46
%!!%nc% o& !%culari!m in India i! t(% r%co,nition and
'r%!%r9ation o& t(% di&&%r%nt t*'%! o& '%o'l%7 8it(
di9%r!% lan,ua,%! and di&&%r%nt )%li%&! and Articl%! 10
and A. !%%? to 'r%!%r9% !uc( di&&%r%nc%! and at t(%
!am% tim% unit% t(% '%o'l% o& India to &orm on% !tron,
nation# 4!%% 'ara,ra'( 2/2 o& t(% maIorit* Iud,m%nt o&
Kir'al7 C#J#7 in T#M#A# Pai Foundation at 'a,% :CH o& t(%
SCC5# In our con!id%r%d o'inion7 t(%r%&or%7 )*
%;cludin, t(% minorit* in!titution! r%&%rr%d to in clau!%
425 o& Articl% A. o& t(% Con!titution7 t(% !%cular
c(aract%r o& India i! maintain%d and not d%!tro*%d#
1C# J% ma* no8 com% to t(% !u)mi!!ion o& Mr# Nariman
t(at t(% &undam%ntal ri,(t und%r Articl% 12 r%ad 8it(
Articl% :2A4I5 o& t(% Con!titution i! 9iolat%d )* clau!%
4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution# Accordin, to Mr#
Nariman7 %9%r* '%r!on (a! a ri,(t und%r Articl% 12 and
a dut* und%r Articl% :2A4I5 to !tri9% to8ard! %;c%ll%nc%
in all !'(%r%! o& indi9idual and coll%cti9% acti9it*7 )ut
t(i! 8ill not )% 'o!!i)l% i& 'ri9at% %ducational
in!titution! in 8(ic( a '%r!on !tudi%! &or t(% 'ur'o!% o&
ac(i%9in, %;c%ll%nc% ar% mad% to admit !tud%nt! &rom
Page 47
47
amon,!t )ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! and &rom t(%
Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%!# T(i!
cont%ntion7 in our con!id%r%d o'inion7 i! not &ound%d
on t(% %;'%ri%nc% o& %ducational in!titution! in India#
Educational in!titution! in India !uc( a! K%ndri*a
Vid*ala*a!7 Indian In!titut% o& T%c(nolo,*7 All India
In!titut% o& M%dical Sci%nc%! and Go9%rnm%nt M%dical
Coll%,%! admit !tud%nt! in !%at! r%!%r9%d &or )ac?8ard
cla!!%! o& citi@%n! and &or t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and
t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! and *%t t(%!% Go9%rnm%nt
in!titution! (a9% 'roduc%d %;c%ll%nt !tud%nt! 8(o
(a9% ,ro8n u' to )% ,ood admini!trator!7
acad%mician!7 !ci%nti!t!7 %n,in%%r!7 doctor! and t(%
li?%# Mor%o9%r7 t(% cont%ntion t(at %;c%ll%nc% 8ill )%
com'romi!%d )* admi!!ion &rom amon,!t t(%
)ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! and t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%!
and t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%! in 'ri9at% %ducational
in!titution! i! contrar* to t(% Pr%am)l% o& t(%
Con!titution 8(ic( 'romi!%! to !%cur% to all citi@%n!
>&rat%rnit* a!!urin, t(% di,nit* o& t(% indi9idual and
t(% unit* and int%,rit* o& t(% nationB# T(% ,oal! o&
&rat%rnit*7 unit* and int%,rit* o& t(% nation cannot )%
Page 48
48
ac(i%9%d unl%!! t(% )ac?8ard cla!!%! o& citi@%n! and
t(% Sc(%dul%d Ca!t%! and t(% Sc(%dul%d Tri)%!7 8(o
&or (i!torical &actor!7 (a9% not ad9anc%d ar% int%,rat%d
into t(% main !tr%am o& t(% nation# J%7 t(%r%&or%7
&ind no m%rit in t(% !u)mi!!ion o& Mr# Nariman t(at
clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution 9iolat%! t(%
ri,(t und%r Articl% 12 o& t(% Con!titution#
10#J% accordin,l* (old t(at non% o& t(% ri,(t! und%r
Articl%! 2<7 204254,5 and 12 o& t(% Con!titution (a9%
)%%n a)ro,at%d )* clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(%
Con!titution and t(% 9i%8 ta?%n )* -(andari7 J# in
Ashoka Kumar Thakur v. Union of India 4!u'ra5 t(at t(%
im'o!ition o& r%!%r9ation on unaid%d in!titution! )* t(%
Nin%t*+t(ird Am%ndm%nt (a! a)ro,at%d Articl% 20425
4,57 a )a!ic &%atur% o& t(% Con!titution i! not corr%ct#
In!t%ad7 8% (old t(at t(% 4Nin%t*+t(ird Am%ndm%nt5
Act7 1..: o& t(% Con!titution in!%rtin, clau!% 4:5 o&
Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution i! 9alid#
-*."'"%/ o0 A2%").& 21A o0 %$& Co+1%"%(%"o+
Co+%&+%"o+ o0 %$& .&*2+&' )o(+1&. 0o2 %$&
3&%"%"o+&214
Page 49
49
A.#T(% !%cond !u)!tantial Du%!tion o& la8 8(ic( 8% ar%
call%d u'on to d%cid% i! 8(%t(%r )* in!%rtin, Articl%
12A )* t(% Con!titution 4Ei,(t*+Si;t( Am%ndm%nt5 Act7
1..17 t(% Parliam%nt (a! alt%r%d t(% )a!ic !tructur% or
&ram%8or? o& t(% Con!titution# -%&or% 8% r%&%r to t(%
cont%ntion! o& t(% l%arn%d coun!%l &or t(% '%tition%r!7
8% mu!t r%it%rat% !om% &act!# Articl% 12A i! titl%d
FRi,(t to EducationG and it 'ro9id%! t(at t(% Stat% !(all
'ro9id% &r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation to all c(ildr%n
o& t(% a,% o& !i; to &ourt%%n *%ar! in !uc( mann%r a!
t(% Stat% ma*7 )* la87 d%t%rmin%# Accordin,l*7 t(%
1..0 Act 8a! %nact%d )* Parliam%nt to 'ro9id% &r%%
and com'ul!or* %ducation to all c(ildr%n o& t(% a,% o&
!i; to &ourt%%n *%ar!# T(% 9alidit* o& t(% 1..0 Act 8a!
c(all%n,%d and con!id%r%d in Society for Unaided
Private Schools of Rajasthan v. Union of India & Anr#
4!u'ra5 )* a t(r%%+Jud,% -%nc( o& t(i! Court# T8o
l%arn%d Jud,%! S#H# Ka'adia C#J# and S8atant%r Kumar
J# (%ld t(at t(% 1..0 Act i! con!titutionall* 9alid and
!(all a''l* to t(% &ollo8in,=
Page 50
50
4i5 a !c(ool %!ta)li!(%d7 o8n%d or
controll%d )* t(% a''ro'riat%
Go9%rnm%nt or a local aut(orit*L
4ii5 an aid%d !c(ool includin, aid%d
minorit* !c(ool4!5 r%c%i9in, aid or
,rant! to m%%t 8(ol% or 'art o& it!
%;'%n!%! &rom t(% a''ro'riat%
Go9%rnm%nt or t(% local aut(orit*L
4iii5 a !c(ool )%lon,in, to !'%ci&i%d
cat%,or*L and
4i95 an unaid%d non+minorit* !c(ool not
r%c%i9in, an* ?ind o& aid or ,rant! to
m%%t it! %;'%n!%! &rom t(% a''ro'riat%
Go9%rnm%nt or t(% local aut(orit*#
T(% t8o l%arn%d Jud,%!7 (o8%9%r7 (%ld t(at t(% 1..0 Act7
in 'articular S%ction! 214254c5 and S%ction 2C4A57 in&rin,%
t(% &undam%ntal ri,(t! ,uarant%%d to unaid%d minorit*
!c(ool! und%r Articl% A.425 o& t(% Con!titution and
t(%r%&or% t(% 1..0 Act !(all not a''l* to !uc( unaid%d
minorit* !c(ool!# Di&&%rin, &rom t(% maIorit* o'inion
%;'r%!!%d )* t(% t8o l%arn%d Jud,%!7 Rad(a?ri!(nan J#
(%ld t(at Articl% 12A ca!t! an o)li,ation on t(% Stat% and
not on unaid%d non+minorit* and unaid%d minorit* !c(ool!
to 'ro9id% &r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation to c(ildr%n o&
t(% a,% o& !i; to &ourt%%n *%ar!# A&t%r t(% a&or%!aid
Iud,m%nt o& t(i! Court in Society for Unaided Private
Page 51
51
Schools of Rajasthan v. Union of India & Anr# 4!u'ra57 t(%
1..0 Act 8a! am%nd%d )* t(% Ri,(t o& C(ildr%n to Fr%%
And Com'ul!or* Education Act7 1..0 4Am%ndm%nt Act7
1.215 and )* t(% am%ndm%nt7 it 8a! 'ro9id%d in !u)+
!%ction 4<5 o& S%ction 2 o& t(% 1..0 Act t(at !u)I%ct to t(%
'ro9i!ion! o& Articl%! 10 and A. o& t(% Con!titution7 t(%
'ro9i!ion! o& t(% 1..0 Act !(all a''l* to con&%rm%nt o&
ri,(t! on c(ildr%n to &r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation#
A2#Mr# Ro(at,i7 l%arn%d !%nior coun!%l &or t(% '%tition%r!
in Jrit P%tition 4C5 No#<2/ o& 1.217 !u)mitt%d t(at
Articl% 12A o& t(% Con!titution cr%at%! o)li,ation onl*
u'on t(% Stat% and it! in!trum%ntaliti%! a! d%&in%d in
Articl% 21 o& t(% Con!titution and do%! not ca!t an*
o)li,ation on a 'ri9at% unaid%d %ducational in!titution#
H% !u)mitt%d t(at t(% minorit* o'inion o&
Rad(a?ri!(nan J# in Society for Unaided Private Schools
of Rajasthan v. Union of India & Anr# 4!u'ra5 i!7
t(%r%&or%7 a corr%ct int%r'r%tation o& Articl% 12A# H%
!u)mitt%d t(at i& Articl% 12A i! int%r'r%t%d to includ%
t(% 'ri9at% unaid%d %ducational in!titution! 8it(in it!
!8%%' t(%n it 8ould a)ro,at% t(% ri,(t und%r Articl%
Page 52
52
204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution to %!ta)li!( and admini!t%r
'ri9at% %ducational in!titution! 8(ic( i! a )a!ic &%atur%
o& t(% Con!titution#
A1#Mr# Nariman7 l%arn%d !%nior coun!%l &or t(% '%tition%r!
in Jrit P%tition 4C5 No#21C o& 1.2<7 !u)mitt%d t(at
8ord >Stat%B u!%d in Articl% 12A o& t(% Con!titution
8ould m%an t(% Stat% a! d%&in%d in Articl% 21 o& t(%
Con!titution and t(%r%&or% 8ould includ% t(%
Go9%rnm%nt and Parliam%nt o& India and t(%
Go9%rnm%nt and t(% L%,i!latur% o& %ac( o& t(% Stat%!
and all local or ot(%r aut(oriti%! 8it(in t(% t%rritor* o&
India or und%r t(% control o& t(% Go9%rnm%nt o& India#
H% !u)mitt%d t(at t(i! Court (a! (%ld in P.*.
Shamdasani 9# The (entral "ank of India 'td. 4AIR 20:1
SC 20:15 t(at t(% lan,ua,% and !tructur% o& Articl% 20
and it! !%ttin, in Part III o& t(% Con!titution cl%arl*
!(o8 t(at t(% Articl% 8a! int%nd%d to 'rot%ct t(o!%
&r%%dom! a,ain!t Stat% action onl* and (%nc% 9iolation
o& ri,(t! o& 'ro'%rt* )* indi9idual! i! not 8it(in t(%
'ur9i%8 o& Articl% 20 o& t(% Con!titution# H% !u)mitt%d
t(at t(i! Court (a! al!o (%ld in Smt. Vidya Verma 9# *r.
Page 53
53
Shiv -arain Verma 4AIR 20:/ SC 2.C5 t(at t(%
&undam%ntal ri,(t o& '%r!onal li)%rt* und%r Articl% 12
o& t(% Con!titution i! a9aila)l% a,ain!t onl* t(% Stat%
and not a,ain!t 'ri9at% indi9idual!# H% !u)mitt%d t(at7
t(%r%&or%7 t(% 8ord >Stat%B in Articl% 12A o& t(%
Con!titution 8ould not includ% 'ri9at% unaid%d
%ducational in!titution! or 'ri9at% indi9idual!#
AA#Mr# Nariman !u)mitt%d t(at )%&or% t(% Con!titution
4Ei,(t*+Si;t( Am%ndm%nt5 Act7 1..17 Articl% <:
'ro9id%d t(at t(% Stat% !(all %nd%a9our to 'ro9id%7
8it(in a '%riod o& t%n *%ar! &rom t(% comm%nc%m%nt
o& t(% Con!titution7 >&orB &r%% and com'ul!or*
%ducation &or all c(ildr%n until t(%* com'l%t% t(% a,%
o& &ourt%%n *%ar!# H% !u)mitt%d t(at 8(at Articl% <:
t(%r%&or% m%ant 8a! t(at t(% Stat% alon% !(all
%nd%a9our to 'ro9id% >&orB &r%% and com'ul!or*
%ducation to all c(ildr%n u'to t(% a,% o& &ourt%%n
*%ar!# H% !u)mitt%d t(at )* t(% Con!titution 4Ei,(t*+
Si;t( Am%ndm%nt5 Act7 1..17 Articl% <: 8a! d%l%t%d
and in it! 'lac% Articl% 12A 8a! in!%rt%d in t(%
Con!titution# H% !u)mitt%d t(at in Articl% 12A o& t(%
Page 54
54
Con!titution7 t(% 8ord >&orB i! mi!!in, )ut t(i! do%! not
m%an t(at t(% o)li,ation o& t(% Stat% to &und &r%% and
com'ul!or* %ducation to all c(ildr%n u'to t(% a,% o& 2<
*%ar! could )% 'a!!%d on )* t(% Stat% to 'ri9at%
unaid%d %ducational in!titution!# H% !u)mitt%d t(at
Articl% 12A7 i& con!tru%d to m%an t(at t(% Stat% could
)* la8 'a!! on it! o)li,ation und%r Articl% 12A to
'ro9id% &r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation to all c(ildr%n
u'to t(% a,% o& &ourt%%n *%ar! to 'ri9at% unaid%d
!c(ool!7 Articl% 12A o& t(% Con!titution 8ould a)ro,at%
t(% ri,(t o& 'ri9at% %ducational !c(ool! und%r Articl%
204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution a! int%r'r%t%d )* t(i! Court
in T.%.A. Pai &oundation 4!u'ra5#
A<#Mr# Nariman !u)mitt%d t(at t(% O)I%ct! and R%a!on!
o& t(% -ill 8(ic( )%cam% t(% 1..0 Act %;'licitl* !tat%d
t(at t(% 1..0 Act i! 'ur!uant to Articl% 12A o& t(%
Con!titution )ut did not ma?% an* r%&%r%nc% to clau!%
4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution# H% !u)mitt%d t(at
t(% 9alidit* o& t(% 'ro9i!ion! o& t(% 1..0 Act 8ill7
t(%r%&or%7 (a9% to )% t%!t%d onl* )* r%&%r%nc% to
Articl% 12A o& t(% Con!titution and not )* r%&%r%nc% to
Page 55
55
clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution# Accordin,
to )ot( Mr# Ro(at,i and Mr# Nariman7 S%ction 21424c5
o& t(% 1..0 Act in!o&ar a! it 'ro9id%! t(at a 'ri9at%
unaid%d !c(ool !(all admit in Cla!! I to t(% %;t%nt o& at
l%a!t 1:O o& t(% total !tr%n,t( o& t(% cla!!7 c(ildr%n
)%lon,in, to 8%a?%r !%ction! and di!ad9anta,%d ,rou'
in t(% n%i,()or(ood and 'ro9id% &r%% and com'ul!or*
%ducation till it! com'l%tion i! 9iolati9% o& t(% ri,(t o&
'ri9at% unaid%d !c(ool! und%r Articl% 204254,5 o& t(%
Con!titution a! int%r'r%t%d )* t(i! Court in T.%.A. Pai
&oundation 4!u'ra5 and P.A. Inamdar 4!u'ra5# T(%*
!u)mitt%d t(at t(% maIorit* o'inion o& t(% t(r%%+Jud,%
-%nc( in Society for Unaided Private Schools of
Rajasthan v. Union of India & Anr# 4!u'ra5 i!7 t(%r%&or%7
not corr%ct#
A:# Mr# AImal K(an7 l%arn%d !%nior coun!%l a''%arin, &or
t(% '%tition%r! in Jrit P%tition 4C5 No#2.C2 o& 1.2A
4Mu!lim Minorit* Sc(ool! Mana,%r!G A!!ociation5 and
Mr# T#R# And(*aruIina7 l%arn%d !%nior coun!%l
a''%arin, &or int%r9%n%r in Jrit P%tition 4C5 No#/. o&
1.2< 4La Martin%ir% Sc(ool!5 t(at und%r Articl% A.425 o&
Page 56
56
t(% Con!titution all minoriti%!7 8(%t(%r )a!%d on
r%li,ion or lan,ua,%7 !(all (a9% t(% ri,(t to %!ta)li!(
and admini!t%r %ducational in!titution! o& t(%ir c(oic%#
T(%* !u)mitt%d t(at t(% Stat% 8(il% ma?in, t(% la8 to
'ro9id% &r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation to all c(ildr%n
o& t(% a,% o& !i; to &ourt%%n *%ar! cannot )% allo8%d to
%ncroac( on t(i! ri,(t o& t(% minorit* in!titution! und%r
Articl% A.425 o& t(% Con!titution# T(%* r%&%rr%d to t(%
d%ci!ion! o& t(i! Court ri,(t &rom t(% K%rala
Educational -ill ca!% to t(% T#M#A# Pai ca!% 4!u'ra5 to
ar,u% t(at admittin, c(ildr%n ot(%r t(an t(o!% o& t(%
minorit* communit* 8(ic( %!ta)li!( t(% !c(ool cannot
)% &orc%d u'on t(% minorit* in!titution!7 8(%t(%r aid%d
or unaid%d# T(%* !u)mitt%d t(at 1..0 Act7 i& mad%
a''lica)l% to minorit* !c(ool!7 aid%d or unaid%d7 8ill
)% ultra vires Articl% A.425 o& t(% Con!titution# T(%*
!u)mitt%d t(at t(% maIorit* Iud,m%nt o& t(i! Court in
Society for Unaided Private Schools of Rajasthan v.
Union of India & Anr# 4!u'ra57 (a! ta?%n a 9i%8 t(at t(%
1..0 Act 8ill not a''l* to unaid%d minorit* !c(ool! )ut
8ill a''l* to aid%d minorit* !c(ool!# T(%* !u)mitt%d
t(at accordin,l* !u)+!%ction 4<5 o& S%ction 2 o& t(%
Page 57
57
1..0 Act 'ro9id%! t(at !u)I%ct to t(% 'ro9i!ion! o&
articl%! 10 and A. o& t(% Con!titution7 t(% 'ro9i!ion! o&
t(% Act !(all a''l* to con&%rm%nt o& ri,(t! on c(ildr%n
to &r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation# T(%* !u)mitt%d
t(at t(i! !u)+!%ction 4<5 o& S%ction 2 o& t(% 1..0 Act
!(ould )% d%clar%d a! ultra vires Articl% A.425 o& t(%
Con!titution#
9(87"11"o+1 o0 .&*2+&' )o(+1&. 0o2 %$& U+"o+ o0
I+'"*4
A/#In r%'l*7 Mr# K#V# Vi!(8anat(an7 l%arn%d Additional
Solicitor G%n%ral7 !u)mitt%d t(at t(% Stat%m%nt o&
O)I%ct! and R%a!on! o& t(% -ill7 8(ic( 8a! %nact%d a!
t(% Con!titution 4Ei,(t*+Si;t( Am%ndm%nt5 Act7 1..17
!tat%d t(at t(% ,oal !%t out in Articl% <: o& t(%
Con!titution o& 'ro9idin, &r%% and com'ul!or*
%ducation &or c(ildr%n u'to t(% a,% o& 2< *%ar! could
not )% ac(i%9%d %9%n a&t%r :. *%ar! o& ado'tion o& t(%
'ro9i!ion and in ord%r to &ul&ill t(i! ,oal7 it 8a! &%lt t(at
a n%8 'ro9i!ion in t(% Con!titution !(ould )% in!%rt%d
a! Articl% 12A 'ro9idin, t(at t(% Stat% !(all 'ro9id%
&r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation to all c(ildr%n o& t(%
Page 58
58
a,% o& !i; to &ourt%%n *%ar! in !uc( mann%r a! t(%
Stat% ma*7 )* la87 d%t%rmin%# H% !u)mitt%d t(at in
accordanc% 8it( Articl% 12A o& t(% Con!titution7 t(%
1..0 Act (a! )%%n %nact%d 8(ic( 'ro9id%! t(% mann%r
in 8(ic( !uc( &r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation &or
c(ildr%n u'to t(% a,% o& 2< *%ar! !(all )% 'ro9id%d )*
t(% Stat% and it 'ro9id%! in S%ction 214254c5 t(at
'ri9at% unaid%d !c(ool! !(all admit in Cla!! I &rom
amon,!t 8%a?%r !%ction! o& !oci%t* and &rom
di!ad9anta,%d ,rou'! at l%a!t t8%nt*+&i9% '%r c%nt o&
t(% !tr%n,t( o& t(% cla!! and 'ro9id% &r%% and
com'ul!or* %ducation#
AH# Mr# Vi!(8anat(an !u)mitt%d t(at 'ri9at% %ducational
in!titution! cannot (a9% an* ,ri%9anc% in t(i! r%,ard
)%cau!% t(%* ar% '%r&ormin, a &unction a?in to t(%
&unction o& t(% Stat%# H% !u)mitt%d t(at a''l*in, t(%
&unctional t%!t 'ri9at% %ducational in!titution! ar% al!o
Stat% 8it(in t(% m%anin, o& Articl% 21 o& t(%
Con!titution and7 t(%r%&or%7 t(% ar,um%nt o& Mr#
Nariman t(at t(% o)li,ation o& 'ro9idin, &r%% and
com'ul!or* %ducation to all c(ildr%n o& t(% a,% o& !i;
Page 59
59
to &ourt%%n *%ar! cannot )% 'a!!%d on )* t(% Stat% to
'ri9at% %ducational in!titution! (a! no !u)!tanc%# Mr#
Vi!(8anat(an !u)mitt%d t(at in 'ara,ra'( :A o& t(%
Iud,m%nt in T.%.A. Pai &oundation 4!u'ra5 t(i! Court
(a! (%ld t(at 8(il% 'ri9at% unaid%d %ducational
in!titution! (a9% t(% ri,(t to admit !tud%nt! o& t(%ir
c(oic%7 admi!!ion o& a !mall '%rc%nta,% o& !tud%nt!
)%lon,in, to 8%a?%r !%ction! o& t(% !oci%t* )* ,rantin,
t(%m &r%%!(i'! or !c(olar!(i'!7 i& not ,rant%d )* t(%
Go9%rnm%nt !(ould al!o )% don%# H% !u)mitt%d t(at in
'ara,ra'( /C o& T.%.A. Pai &oundation 4!u'ra57 t(i!
Court (a! al!o (%ld t(at a !mall '%rc%nta,% o& !%at!
ma* al!o )% &ill%d u' to ta?% car% o& 'oor%r and
)ac?8ard !%ction! o& t(% !oci%t*# H% !u)mitt%d t(at
t(% 1..0 Act7 t(%r%&or%7 (a! 'ro9id%d in S%ction 21425
4c5 t(at an unaid%d 'ri9at% !c(ool !(all admit in Cla!! I7
to t(% %;t%nt o& at l%a!t t8%nt*+&i9% '%r c%nt o& t(%
!tr%n,t( o& t(at cla!!7 c(ildr%n )%lon,in, to 8%a?%r
!%ction and di!ad9anta,%d ,rou' in t(% n%i,()our(ood
and 'ro9id% &r%% and com'ul!or* %l%m%ntar*
%ducation till it! com'l%tion and t(i! 'ro9i!ion o& t(%
Page 60
60
1..0 Act7 t(%r%&or%7 i! not ultra vires Articl% 204254,5 o&
t(% Con!titution#
AC#R%,ardin, minorit* in!titution!7 Mr# Vi!(8anat(an
!u)mitt%d t(at und%r Articl% A5425 o& t(% Con!titution
t(%* (a9% %Dual !tatu! and accordin,l* t(i! Court (a!
(%ld in Society for Unaided Private Schools of
Rajasthan v. Union of India & Anr# 4!u'ra5 t(% 1..0 Act
8ill not a''l* to unaid%d minorit* !c(ool! )ut 8ill a''l*
to aid%d minorit* !c(ool!# H% !u)mitt%d t(at
accordin,l* t(% 1..0 Act 8a! am%nd%d )* t(% Ri,(t o&
C(ildr%n to Fr%% And Com'ul!or* Education
4Am%ndm%nt5 Act7 1.217 !o a! to 'ro9id% in !u)+
!%ction 4<5 o& S%ction 2 o& t(% 1..0 Act t(at !u)I%ct to
t(% 'ro9i!ion! o& Articl%! 10 and A. o& t(% Con!titution7
t(% 'ro9i!ion! o& t(% 1..0 Act !(all a''l* to
con&%rm%nt o& ri,(t! on c(ildr%n to &r%% and
com'ul!or* %ducation#
O3"+"o+ o0 %$& Co(2% o+ A2%").& 21A o0 %$&
Co+1%"%(%"o+ *+' o+ %$& 5*."'"%/ o0 2009 A)%4
A0# J% (a9% con!id%r%d t(% !u)mi!!ion! o& l%arn%d
coun!%l &or t(% 'arti%! and 8% &ind t(at t(i! i! 8(at it i!
Page 61
61
!tat%d in t(% Stat%m%nt o& O)I%ct! and R%a!on! o& t(%
Con!titution 4Ei,(t*+T(ird Am%ndm%nt5 -ill7 200H7 8(ic(
ultimat%l* 8a! %nact%d a! t(% Con!titution 4Ei,(t*+Si;t(
Am%ndm%nt5 Act7 1..1=
>T(% Con!titution o& India in a Dir%cti9%
Princi'l% contain%d in articl% <:7 (a!
Nmad% a 'ro9i!ion &or &r%% and
com'ul!or* %ducation &or all c(ildr%n u'
to t(% a,% o& &ourt%%n *%ar! 8it(in t%n
*%ar! o& 'romul,ation o& t(%
Con!titution# J% could not ac(i%9% t(i!
,oal %9%n a&t%r :. *%ar! o& ado'tion o&
t(i! 'ro9i!ion# T(% ta!? o& 'ro9idin,
%ducation to all c(ildr%n in t(i! a,%
,rou' ,ain%d mom%ntum a&t%r t(%
National Polic* o& Education 4NPE5 8a!
announc%d in 20C/# T(% Go9%rnm%nt o&
India7 in 'artn%r!(i' 8it( t(% Stat%
Go9%rnm%nt!7 (a! mad% !tr%nuou!
%&&ort! to &ul&il t(i! mandat% and7 t(ou,(
!i,ni&icant im'ro9%m%nt! 8%r% !%%n in
9ariou! %ducational indicator!7 t(%
ultimat% ,oal o& 'ro9idin, uni9%r!al and
Dualit* %ducation !till r%main!
un&ul&ill%d# In ord%r to &ul&il t(i! ,oal7 it i!
&%lt t(at an %;'licit 'ro9i!ion !(ould )%
mad% in t(% Part r%latin, to
Fundam%ntal Ri,(t! o& t(%
Con!titution#

1# Jit( a 9i%8 to ma?in, ri,(t to &r%%
and com'ul!or* %ducation a
&undam%ntal ri,(t7 t(% Con!titution
4Ei,(t*+t(ird Am%ndm%nt5 -ill7 200H 8a!
introduc%d in Parliam%nt to in!%rt a n%8
articl%7 nam%l*7 articl% 12 A con&%rrin,
on all c(ildr%n in t(% a,% ,rou' o& / to
2< *%ar! t(% ri,(t to &r%% and
Page 62
62
com'ul!or* %ducation# T(% !aid -ill 8a!
!crutini!%d )* t(% Parliam%ntar*
Standin, Committ%% on Human
R%!ourc% D%9%lo'm%nt and t(% !u)I%ct
8a! al!o d%alt 8it( in it! 2/:t( R%'ort
)* t(% La8 Commi!!ion o& India#

A# A&t%r ta?in, into con!id%ration t(%
r%'ort o& t(% La8 Commi!!ion o& India
and t(% r%comm%ndation! o& t(%
Standin, Committ%% o& Parliam%nt7 t(%
'ro'o!%d am%ndm%nt! in Part III7 Part IV
and Part IVA o& t(% Con!titution ar%
)%in, mad% 8(ic( ar% a! &ollo8!=+

4a5 to 'ro9id% &or &r%% and com'ul!or*
%ducation to c(ildr%n in t(% a,% ,rou' o&
/ to 2< *%ar! and &or t(i! 'ur'o!%7 a
l%,i!lation 8ould )% introduc%d in
Parliam%nt a&t%r t(% Con!titution
4Nin%t*+t(ird Am%ndm%nt5 -ill7 1..l i!
%nact%dL

4)5 to 'ro9id% in articl% <: o& t(%
Con!titution t(at t(% Stat% !(all
%nd%a9our to 'ro9id% %arl* c(ild(ood
car% and %ducation to c(ildr%n )%lo8
t(% a,% o& !i; *%ar!L and

4c5 to am%nd articl% :lA o& t(%
Con!titution 8it( a 9i%8 to 'ro9idin,
t(at it !(all )% t(% o)li,ation o& t(%
'ar%nt! to 'ro9id% o''ortuniti%! &or
%ducation to t(%ir c(ildr%n#

<# T(% -ill !%%?! to ac(i%9% t(% a)o9%
o)I%ct!#


MURLI MANOHAR JOSHI#
NEJ DELHIL
T(% 2/t( No9%m)%r7 1..2#B
Page 63
63
It 8ill7 t(u!7 )% cl%ar &rom t(% Stat%m%nt o& O)I%ct! and
R%a!on! %;tract%d a)o9% t(at alt(ou,( t(% Dir%cti9%
Princi'l% in Articl% <: cont%m'lat%d t(at t(% Stat% 8ill
'ro9id% &r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation &or all c(ildr%n u'
to t(% a,% o& &ourt%%n *%ar! 8it(in t%n *%ar! o&
'romul,ation o& t(% Con!titution7 t(i! ,oal could not )%
ac(i%9%d %9%n a&t%r :. *%ar! and7 t(%r%&or%7 a
con!titutional am%ndm%nt 8a! 'ro'o!%d to in!%rt Articl%
12A in Part III o& t(% Con!titution# -%arin, in mind t(i!
o)I%ct o& t(% Con!titution 4Ei,(t+Si;t( Am%ndm%nt5 Act7
1..1 in!%rtin, Articl% 12A o& t(% Con!titution7 8% ma* no8
'roc%%d to con!id%r t(% !u)mi!!ion! o& l%arn%d coun!%l &or
t(% 'arti%!#
<.# Articl% 12A o& t(% Con!titution7 a! 8% (a9% notic%d7
!tat%! t(at t(% Stat% !(all 'ro9id% &r%% and com'ul!or*
%ducation to all c(ildr%n o& t(% a,% o& !i; to &ourt%%n *%ar!
in !uc( mann%r a! t(% Stat% ma*7 )* la87 d%t%rmin%# T(%
8ord FStat%G in Articl% 12A can onl* m%an t(% FStat%G 8(ic(
can ma?% t(% la8# H%nc%7 Mr# Ro(at,i and Mr# Nariman
ar% ri,(t in t(%ir !u)mi!!ion t(at t(% con!titutional
o)li,ation und%r Articl% 12A o& t(% Con!titution i! on t(%
Page 64
64
Stat% to 'ro9id% &r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation to all
c(ildr%n o& t(% a,% o& / to 2< *%ar! and not on 'ri9at%
unaid%d %ducational in!titution!# Articl% 12A7 (o8%9%r7
!tat%! t(at t(% Stat% !(all )* la8 d%t%rmin% t(% >mann%rB
in 8(ic( it 8ill di!c(ar,% it! con!titutional o)li,ation und%r
Articl% 12A# T(u!7 a n%8 'o8%r 8a! 9%!t%d in t(% Stat% to
%na)l% t(% Stat% to di!c(ar,% t(i! con!titutional o)li,ation
)* ma?in, a la8# Ho8%9%r7 Articl% 12A (a! to )%
(armoniou!l* con!tru%d 8it( Articl% 204254,5 and Articl%
A.425 o& t(% Con!titution# A! (a! )%%n (%ld )* t(i! Court in
Venkataramana *evaru v. State of %ysore 4AIR 20:C SC
1::5=
>T(% rul% o& con!truction i! 8%ll !%ttl%d
t(at 8(%n t(%r% ar% in an %nactm%nt
t8o 'ro9i!ion! 8(ic( cannot )%
r%concil%d 8it( %ac( ot(%r7 t(%* !(ould
)% !o int%r'r%t%d t(at7 i& 'o!!i)l%7 %&&%ct
could )% ,i9%n to )ot(# T(i! i! 8(at i!
?no8n a! t(% rul% o& (armoniou!
con!truction#B
J% do not &ind an*t(in, in Articl% 12A 8(ic( con&lict! 8it(
%it(%r t(% ri,(t o& 'ri9at% unaid%d !c(ool! und%r Articl%
204254,5 or t(% ri,(t o& minorit* !c(ool! und%r Articl%
A.425 o& t(% Con!titution7 )ut t(% la8 mad% und%r Articl%
Page 65
65
12A ma* a&&%ct t(%!% ri,(t! und%r Articl%! 204254,5 and
A.425# T(% la8 mad% )* t(% Stat% to 'ro9id% &r%% and
com'ul!or* %ducation to t(% c(ildr%n o& t(% a,% o& / to 2<
*%ar! !(ould not7 t(%r%&or%7 )% !uc( a! to a)ro,at% t(%
ri,(t o& unaid%d 'ri9at% %ducational !c(ool! und%r Articl%
204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution or t(% ri,(t o& t(% minorit*
!c(ool!7 aid%d or unaid%d7 und%r Articl% A.425 o& t(%
Con!titution#
<2# J(il% di!cu!!in, t(% 9alidit* o& clau!% 4:5 o& Articl%
2: o& t(% Con!titution7 8% (a9% alr%ad* notic%d t(at in
'ara,ra'(! :A and /C o& t(% Iud,m%nt in T#M#A# Pai
Foundation 4!u'ra57 t(i! Court (a! (%ld t(at admi!!ion o& a
!mall '%rc%nta,% o& !tud%nt! )%lon,in, to 8%a?%r !%ction!
o& t(% !oci%t* )* ,rantin, t(%m &r%%!(i'! or !c(olar!(i'!7
i& not ,rant%d )* t(% Go9%rnm%nt and t(% admi!!ion to
!om% o& t(% !%at! to ta?% car% o& 'oor%r and )ac?8ard
!%ction! o& t(% !oci%t* ma* )% '%rmi!!i)l% and 8ould not
)% incon!i!t%nt 8it( t(% ri,(t! und%r Articl%! 204254,5 o&
t(% Con!titution# In P.A. Inamdar )su#ra+6 (o8%9%r7 t(i!
Court %;'lain%d t(at t(%r% 8a! not(in, in t(i! CourtG!
Iud,m%nt in T.%.A. Pai &oundation )su#ra+ to !a* t(at !uc(
Page 66
66
admi!!ion o& !tud%nt! &rom amon,!t 8%a?%r7 )ac?8ard
and 'oor%r !%ction! o& t(% !oci%t* in 'ri9at% unaid%d
in!titution! can )% don% )* t(% Stat% )%cau!% t(% 'o8%r
9%!t%d on t(% Stat% in clau!% 4/5 o& Articl% 20 o& t(%
Con!titution i! to ma?% onl* r%,ulator* 'ro9i!ion! and t(i!
'o8%r could not )% u!%d )* t(% Stat% to &orc% admi!!ion!
&rom amon,!t 8%a?%r7 )ac?8ard and 'oor%r !%ction! o&
t(% !oci%t* on 'ri9at% unaid%d %ducational in!titution!#
J(il% di!cu!!in, t(% 9alidit* o& clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2:7 8%
(a9% al!o (%ld t(at t(%r% i! an %l%m%nt o& 9oluntarin%!! o&
all t(% &r%%dom! und%r Articl% 20425 o& t(% Con!titution7
)ut t(% 9oluntarin%!! in t(%!% &r%%dom! can )% !u)I%ct%d
to la8 mad% und%r t(% 'o8%r! a9aila)l% to t(% Stat% und%r
clau!% 415 to 4/5 o& Articl% 20 o& t(% Con!titution#
<1# In our con!id%r%d o'inion7 t(%r%&or%7 )* t(%
Con!titution 4Ei,(t*+Si;t( Am%ndm%nt5 Act7 a n%8 'o8%r
8a! mad% a9aila)l% to t(% Stat% und%r Articl% 12A o& t(%
Con!titution to ma?% a la8 d%t%rminin, t(% mann%r in
8(ic( it 8ill 'ro9id% &r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation to t(%
c(ildr%n o& t(% a,% o& !i; to &ourt%%n *%ar! a! t(i! ,oal
cont%m'lat%d in t(% Dir%cti9% Princi'l%! in Articl% <:
Page 67
67
)%&or% t(i! con!titutional am%ndm%nt could not )%
ac(i%9%d &or &i&t* *%ar!# T(i! additional 'o8%r 9%!t%d )*
t(% Con!titution 4Ei,(t*+Si;t( Am%ndm%nt5 Act7 1..1 in
t(% Stat% i! ind%'%nd%nt and di&&%r%nt &rom t(% 'o8%r o&
t(% Stat% und%r clau!% 4/5 o& Articl% 20 o& t(% Con!titution
and (a! a&&%ct%d t(% 9oluntarin%!! o& t(% ri,(t und%r
Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution# -* %;%rci!in, t(i!
additional 'o8%r7 t(% Stat% can )* la8 im'o!% admi!!ion!
on 'ri9at% unaid%d !c(ool! and !o lon, a! t(% la8 mad%
)* t(% Stat% in %;%rci!% o& t(i! 'o8%r und%r Articl% 12A o&
t(% Con!titution i! &or t(% 'ur'o!% o& 'ro9idin, &r%% and
com'ul!or* %ducation to t(% c(ildr%n o& t(% a,% o& / to 2<
*%ar! and !o lon, a! !uc( la8 &orc%! admi!!ion o& c(ildr%n
o& 'oor%r7 8%a?%r and )ac?8ard !%ction! o& t(% !oci%t* to
a !mall '%rc%nta,% o& t(% !%at! in 'ri9at% %ducational
in!titution! to ac(i%9% t(% con!titutional ,oal! o& %Dualit*
o& o''ortunit* and !ocial Iu!tic% !%t out in t(% Pr%am)l% o&
t(% Con!titution7 !uc( a la8 8ould not )% d%!tructi9% o&
t(% ri,(t o& t(% 'ri9at% unaid%d %ducational in!titution!
und%r Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution#
Page 68
68
<A# To ,i9% an id%a o& t(% ,oal! Parliam%nt int%nd%d to
ac(i%9% )* %nactin, t(% 1..0 Act7 8% %;tract 'ara,ra'(!
<7 : and / o& t(% Stat%m%nt o& O)I%ct! and R%a!on! o& t(%
-ill 8(ic( 8a! %nact%d a! t(% 1..0 Act (%r%in)%lo8=
><# T(% 'ro'o!%d l%,i!lation i! anc(or%d
in t(% )%li%& t(at t(% 9alu%! o& %Dualit*7
!ocial Iu!tic% and d%mocrac* and t(%
cr%ation o& a Iu!t and (uman% !oci%t*
can )% ac(i%9%d onl* t(rou,( 'ro9i!ion
o& inclu!i9% %l%m%ntar* %ducation to all#
Pro9i!ion o& &r%% and com'ul!or*
%ducation o& !ati!&actor* Dualit* to
c(ildr%n &rom di!ad9anta,%d and
8%a?%r !%ction! i!7 t(%r%&or%7 not
m%r%l* t(% r%!'on!i)ilit* o& !c(ool! run
or !u''ort%d )* t(% a''ro'riat%
Go9%rnm%nt!7 )ut al!o o& !c(ool! 8(ic(
ar% not d%'%nd%nt on Go9%rnm%nt
&und!#
:# It i!7 t(%r%&or%7 %;'%di%nt and
n%c%!!ar* to %nact a !uita)l% l%,i!lation
a! %n9i!a,%d in Articl% 12A o& t(%
Con!titution#
/# T(% -ill !%%?! to ac(i%9% t(i!
o)I%cti9%#B
It 8ill )% cl%ar &rom t(% a&or%!aid %;tract t(at t(% 1..0 Act
int%nd%d to ac(i%9% t(% con!titutional ,oal o& %Dualit* o&
o''ortunit* t(rou,( inclu!i9% %l%m%ntar* %ducation to all
and al!o int%nd%d t(at 'ri9at% !c(ool! 8(ic( did not
r%c%i9% ,o9%rnm%nt aid !(ould al!o ta?% t(% r%!'on!i)ilit*
Page 69
69
o& 'ro9idin, &r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation o& !ati!&actor*
Dualit* to c(ildr%n &rom di!ad9anta,%d and 8%a?%r
!%ction!#
<<# J(%n 8% %;amin% t(% 1..0 Act7 8% &ind t(at und%r
S%ction 214254c5 r%ad 8it( S%ction 14n54i95 o& t(% Act7 an
unaid%d !c(ool not r%c%i9in, an* ?ind o& aid or ,rant! to
m%%t it! %;'%n!%! &rom t(% a''ro'riat% Go9%rnm%nt or
t(% local aut(orit* i! r%Duir%d to admit in cla!! I7 to t(%
%;t%nt o& at l%a!t t8%nt*+&i9% '%r c%nt o& t(% !tr%n,t( o&
t(at cla!!7 c(ildr%n )%lon,in, to 8%a?%r !%ction and
di!ad9anta,%d ,rou' in t(% n%i,()our(ood and 'ro9id%
&r%% and com'ul!or* %l%m%ntar* %ducation till it!
com'l%tion# J% &urt(%r &ind t(at und%r S%ction 21415 o&
t(% 1..0 Act !uc( a !c(ool !(all )% r%im)ur!%d
%;'%nditur% !o incurr%d )* it to t(% %;t%nt o& '%r+c(ild+
%;'%nditur% incurr%d )* t(% Stat%7 or t(% actual amount
c(ar,%d &rom t(% c(ild7 8(ic(%9%r i! l%!!7 in !uc( mann%r
a! ma* )% 'r%!cri)%d# T(u!7 ultimat%l* it i! t(% Stat%
8(ic( i! &undin, t(% %;'%n!%! o& &r%% and com'ul!or*
%ducation o& t(% c(ildr%n )%lon,in, to 8%a?%r !%ction!
and !%9%ral ,rou'! in t(% n%i,()our(ood7 8(ic( ar%
Page 70
70
admitt%d to a 'ri9at% unaid%d !c(ool# T(%!% 'ro9i!ion! o&
t(% 1..0 Act7 in our 9i%87 ar% &or t(% 'ur'o!% o& 'ro9idin,
&r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation to c(ildr%n )%t8%%n t(%
a,% ,rou' o& / to 2< *%ar! and ar% con!i!t%nt 8it( t(%
ri,(t und%r Articl% 204254,5 o& t(% Con!titution7 a!
int%r'r%t%d )* t(i! Court in T.%.A. Pai &oundation 4!u'ra5
and ar% m%ant to ac(i%9% t(% con!titutional ,oal! o&
%Dualit* o& o''ortunit* in %l%m%ntar* %ducation to
c(ildr%n o& 8%a?%r !%ction! and di!ad9anta,%d ,rou'! in
our !oci%t*# J%7 t(%r%&or%7 do not &ind an* m%rit in t(%
!u)mi!!ion! mad% on )%(al& o& t(% non+minorit* 'ri9at%
!c(ool! t(at Articl% 12A o& t(% Con!titution and t(% 1..0
Act 9iolat% t(%ir ri,(t und%r Articl% 204254,5 o& t(%
Con!titution#
<:# Und%r Articl% A.425 o& t(% Con!titution7 all minoriti%!7
8(%t(%r )a!%d on r%li,ion or lan,ua,%7 !(all (a9% t(%
ri,(t to %!ta)li!( and admini!t%r %ducational in!titution!
o& t(%ir c(oic%# R%li,iou! and lin,ui!tic minoriti%!7
t(%r%&or%7 (a9% a !'%cial con!titutional ri,(t to %!ta)li!(
and admini!t%r %ducational !c(ool! o& t(%ir c(oic% and t(i!
Court (a! r%'%at%dl* (%ld t(at t(% Stat% (a! no 'o8%r to
Page 71
71
int%r&%r% 8it( t(% admini!tration o& minorit* in!titution!
and can ma?% onl* r%,ulator* m%a!ur%! and (a! no 'o8%r
to &orc% admi!!ion o& !tud%nt! &rom amon,!t non+minorit*
communiti%!7 'articularl* in minorit* !c(ool!7 !o a! to
a&&%ct t(% minorit* c(aract%r o& t(% in!titution!# Mor%o9%r7
in Kesavananda "harati Sri#ada$alvaru v. State of Kerala
& Anr# 4!u'ra5 Si?ri7 CJ#7 (a! %9%n ,on% to t(% %;t%nt o&
!a*in, t(at Parliam%nt cannot in %;%rci!% o& it! am%ndin,
'o8%r a)ro,at% t(% ri,(t! o& minoriti%!# To Duot% t(%
o)!%r9ation! o& Si?ri7 CJ# in Kesavananda "harati
Sri#ada$alvaru v. State of Kerala & Anr# 4!u'ra5=
>2HC. T(% a)o9% )ri%& !ummar* o& t(%
8or? o& t(% Ad9i!or* Committ%% and t(%
Minoriti%! Su)+committ%% !(o8! t(at no
on% %9%r cont%m'lat%d t(at &undam%ntal
ri,(t! a''%rtainin, to t(% minoriti%! 8ould
)% lia)l% to )% a)ro,at%d )* an
am%ndm%nt o& t(% Con!titution# T(% !am%
i! tru% a)out t(% 'roc%%din,! in t(%
Con!titu%nt A!!%m)l*# T(%r% i! no (int
an*8(%r% t(at a)ro,ation o& minoriti%!G
ri,(t! 8a! %9%r in t(% cont%m'lation o& t(%
im'ortant m%m)%r! o& t(% Con!titu%nt
A!!%m)l*# It !%%m! to m% t(at in t(%
cont%;t o& t(% -riti!( 'lan7 t(% !%ttin, u'
o& Minoriti%! Su)+committ%%7 t(% Ad9i!or*
Committ%% and t(% 'roc%%din,! o& t(%!%
Committ%%!7 a! 8%ll a! t(% 'roc%%din,! in
t(% Con!titu%nt A!!%m)l* m%ntion%d
a)o9%7 it i! im'o!!i)l% to r%ad t(%
%;'r%!!ion >Am%ndm%nt o& t(%
Page 72
72
Con!titutionB a! %m'o8%rin, Parliam%nt to
a)ro,at% t(% ri,(t! o& minoriti%!#B

T(u!7 t(% 'o8%r und%r Articl% 12A o& t(% Con!titution
9%!tin, in t(% Stat% cannot %;t%nd to ma?in, an* la8
8(ic( 8ill a)ro,at% t(% ri,(t o& t(% minoriti%! to %!ta)li!(
and admini!t%r !c(ool! o& t(%ir c(oic%#
</# J(%n 8% loo? at t(% 1..0 Act7 8% &ind t(at S%ction
214254)5 r%ad 8it( S%ction 14n5 4iii5 'ro9id%! t(at an aid%d
!c(ool r%c%i9in, aid and ,rant!7 8(ol% or 'art7 o& it!
%;'%n!%! &rom t(% a''ro'riat% Go9%rnm%nt or t(% local
aut(orit* (a! to 'ro9id% &r%% and com'ul!or* %ducation to
!uc( 'ro'ortion o& c(ildr%n admitt%d t(%r%in a! it! annual
r%currin, aid or ,rant! !o r%c%i9%d )%ar! to it! annual
r%currin, %;'%n!%!7 !u)I%ct to a minimum o& t8%nt*+&i9%
'%r c%nt# T(u!7 a minorit* aid%d !c(ool i! 'ut und%r a
l%,al o)li,ation to 'ro9id% &r%% and com'ul!or*
%l%m%ntar* %ducation to c(ildr%n 8(o n%%d not )%
c(ildr%n o& m%m)%r! o& t(% minorit* communit* 8(ic( (a!
%!ta)li!(%d t(% !c(ool# J% al!o &ind t(at und%r S%ction
214254c5 r%ad 8it( S%ction 14n54i957 an unaid%d !c(ool (a!
to admit into t8%nt*+&i9% '%r c%nt o& t(% !tr%n,t( o& cla!! I
Page 73
73
c(ildr%n )%lon,in, to 8%a?%r !%ction! and di!ad9anta,%d
,rou'! in t(% n%i,()our(ood# H%nc%7 unaid%d minorit*
!c(ool! 8ill (a9% a l%,al o)li,ation to admit c(ildr%n
)%lon,in, to 8%a?%r !%ction! and di!ad9anta,%d ,rou'! in
t(% n%i,()our(ood 8(o n%%d not )% c(ildr%n o& t(%
m%m)%r! o& t(% minorit* communit* 8(ic( (a!
%!ta)li!(%d t(% !c(ool# J(il% di!cu!!in, t(% 9alidit* o&
clau!% 4:5 o& Articl% 2: o& t(% Con!titution7 8% (a9% (%ld
t(at m%m)%r! o& communiti%! ot(%r t(an t(% minorit*
communit* 8(ic( (a! %!ta)li!(%d t(% !c(ool cannot )%
&orc%d u'on a minorit* in!titution )%cau!% t(at ma*
d%!tro* t(% minorit* c(aract%r o& t(% !c(ool# In our 9i%87 i&
t(% 1..0 Act i! mad% a''lica)l% to minorit* !c(ool!7 aid%d
or unaid%d7 t(% ri,(t o& t(% minoriti%! und%r Articl% A.425
o& t(% Con!titution 8ill )% a)ro,at%d# T(%r%&or%7 t(% 1..0
Act in!o&ar it i! mad% a''lica)l% to minorit* !c(ool!
r%&%rr%d in clau!% 425 o& Articl% A. o& t(% Con!titution i!
ultra vires t(% Con!titution# J% ar% t(u! o& t(% 9i%8 t(at
t(% maIorit* Iud,m%nt o& t(i! Court in Society for Unaided
Private Schools of Rajasthan v. Union of India & Anr#
4!u'ra5 in!o&ar a! it (old! t(at t(% 1..0 Act i! a''lica)l%
to aid%d minorit* !c(ool! i! not corr%ct#
Page 74
74
<H# In t(% r%!ult7 8% (old t(at t(% Con!titution 4Nin%t*+
t(ird Am%ndm%nt5 Act7 1..: in!%rtin, clau!% 4:5 o& Articl%
2: o& t(% Con!titution and t(% Con!titution 4Ei,(t*+Si;t(
Am%ndm%nt5 Act7 1..1 in!%rtin, Articl% 12A o& t(%
Con!titution do not alt%r t(% )a!ic !tructur% or &ram%8or?
o& t(% Con!titution and ar% con!titutionall* 9alid# J% al!o
(old t(at t(% 1..0 Act i! not ultra vires Articl% 204254,5 o&
t(% Con!titution# J%7 (o8%9%r7 (old t(at t(% 1..0 Act
in!o&ar a! it a''li%! to minorit* !c(ool!7 aid%d or unaid%d7
co9%r%d und%r clau!% 425 o& Articl% A. o& t(% Con!titution
i! ultra vires t(% Con!titution# Accordin,l*7 Jrit P%tition
4C5 No#2.C2 o& 1.2A &il%d on )%(al& o& Mu!lim Minorit*
Sc(ool! Mana,%r!G A!!ociation i! allo8%d and Jrit P%tition
4C5 No!#<2/ o& 1.217 2:1 o& 1.2A7 /. o& 1.2<7 0: o& 1.2<7
2./ o& 1.2<7 21C o& 1.2<7 2<< o& 1.2<7 2<: o& 1.2<7 2/.
o& 1.2< and 2A/ o& 1.2< &il%d on )%(al& o& non+minorit*
'ri9at% unaid%d %ducational in!titution! ar% di!mi!!%d# All
I#A!# !tand di!'o!%d o&# T(% 'arti%!7 (o8%9%r7 !(all )%ar
t(%ir o8n co!t!#
#####$$$$$##$$$$$$$$CJI#
4R#M# Lod(a5
Page 75
75
#####$$$$$##$$$$$$$$$#J#
4A# K# Patnai?5
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4Sud(an!u J*oti Mu?(o'ad(a*a5

#####$$$$$##$$$$$$$$$#J#
4Di'a? Mi!ra5

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$$$$$$$$$##J#
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Ma* ./7 1.2<#

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