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Lecture 6.

VCL 155
MANUSCRIPT

INTRODUCTION
There is a manuscript culture which is recognizably
Islamic, written on paper in the Arabic script, with books
laid out in typical Muslim fashion, with symmetrically
decorated double pages and triangular tapered
colophons, often beautifully illuminated.
Manuscripts as unique sources for many aspects of
Malay culture and society
In the Malay manuscript, illumination usually takes the
form of purely ornamental patterns using floral, foliate
and geometric motifs in a range of colours, sometimes
with the addition of gold but rarely with silver.
In Al-Quran manuscript illumination, the interesting area
is in muwajjah page.
Muwajjah or frontispiece as a first page with full page of
design.
Muwajjah without sentence known as a symbolic
meaning
Western researchers named it as a carpet
pages because the concept of carpet represent
a garden Al-Firdausi garden.
Shamsa also important element of Islamic
manuscript.
Shamsa in Arabic language means as a sun.
Shamsa design as a symbolism to concept of
light.


History of malay literature in malay
arhicpelago
Malay Literature was started in the middle of
13
th
century.
Hikayat Raja Pasai, the oldest manuscript was
created in the middle of 14
th
century.
Malay literature was developed in Islam era in
Malay Archipelago.
People in Malay Archipelago started to use Arabic
alphabet and stop to used Palava (normally use in
Hindu literature)
Manuscript was wrote and copied for reading
among the aristocrat or public.

Manuscript Al-Quran
Manuscript Hikayat
Manuscript Syair
Manuscript Hukum Kanun
MANUSCRIPT AL-QURAN

In Southeast Asian, the manuscripts are almost invariably
overshadowed by much larger numbers of older or finer Kufic,
Mamluk, Safavid, Ottoman or Mughal
The art in Al-Quran also defined as a manuscript design.
Characteristics of al- Quran
ornament design in Malay
archipelago
Characteristics:
Colour
Normally used red and gold colours.
Also used blue,green and black. They also used yellow to
replace gold.
Format
Overall composition are simplicity and calm
All layout format in square shape and straight
In straight square shape will full of shape of lines.
Organic shape to represent flora in frame.

Characteristics of al- Quran ornament
design in malay archipelago
Full design format
Full of design until jidar area.
Just only a small area are not been coloured
Each side of Frame layout was draw with waving lines
Format with round frame based from the pages will produce
oval shape.
This format are full with flora motifs with Malay aesthethics.
Motif Sulur in outside, head and tail of jidar
especially in left and right of triangle shape
Normally motif sulur draw in outside jidar
Motif sulur always start from the middle area until in the
middle of text frame
Design in category of motif sulur
With a format of thin panel
Have dome shape in outside,head and tail of jidar.
Dome shape also can be defined as tebar layar

Ilumination AL-Quran ( no date) from Tanoh
Abee,Acheh
Collection : Pesantren Library

1
2
3
4
Inside Jidar
Head Jidar
Outside Jidar
Tail Jidar
Design in category of motif sulur
With a format of thin panel
Have dome shape in head and tail of jidar.
Sulur motif in between dome shape or tebar layar in outside jidar

Ilumination AL-Quran ( no date)
Collection : Tengku Muhammad Daud Zamzani,Banda
Acheh

Design in category of motif sulur
With a format of thin panel
Have dome with neck shape in the middle of outside jidar.
Similar manuscript in Jakarta and Acheh.
Format layout drawn in square frame with three layers

Ilumination AL-Quran ( no date) from Jakarta

1
2
3
Design frame
Texts frame
Design in category of motif sulur
With a format of thick panel
Motif sulur inside dome shape.
Beside jidar surrounding with flora design
Frame shows open window to represent lighting acceptation
This design also can be defined as Malay traditional graveyard every
life creature will be die.



Ilumination AL-Quran ( no date) from East Java

Design in category of motif sulur
Dome draw at the head and tail jidar.
Tebar layar was design at the outside jidar
Motif sulur was used to design in tebar layar and panel.

Illumination AL-Quran ( no date) from West Java

Design in category of free design
Design not followed conventional style such as design with a group of
motif sulur or without sulur.

Illumination AL-Quran ( no date). A gift from a teacher
Abdul Aziz to Alor Gajah District Museum, Malacca.

Design in category of motif sulur
The motifs used at dome shape or tebar layar at the outside jidar.
Shape of potong wajik used as a design frame in the middle of the
layout.
Motif sulur appeared at the potong wajik frame
At the top of the head and tail jidar, the design are normally can be
seen at perahu payang Terengganu carving.

Illumination AL-Quran ( no date) Terengganu Museum collection
Design in this page used gold ink to shows richest to the motifs and colour combination

Used conventional flipped design but still have unsimilarity of flora
motifs between pages.
In this situation, the style not in a pairs concept.
Its become single design or pola bujang
Illumination AL-Quran ( no date) been sold and the price same as a bufallo
Penghulu Jasin District, Malacca gave this manuscript to Culture Museum, Malacca as
a gift.
Design still followed conventional layout format in Malay World.
Used motifs influenced from India.
Dome or tebar layar draw in small wave .
Full designed in outside , head and tail jidar
Illumination AL-Quran ( 1877) owned by Md Noordin Merican.
Collection : Penang Museum
Design in side pages shows square structure with oval frame
Each sides full with flora and dark colour.
Flora motif draw inside frame.
Viewers will concentrate to the texts
Illumination AL-Quran ( no date) was found in Sanggung Mosque,Temerloh,Pahang.
Owned by Qadi Abu Bakar bin Shabudin (Tuan Sanggung -1850)
Keep in Sekolah Agama Berhala Gantang Library.
In 1983 , this manuscript was give to Sultan Abu Bakar Museum.
This manuscript was produced in the middle of 18
th
century.
A gift from Tuan Haji Hassanuddin bin Muhammad from Berhala Gantang Village,
Termerloh.
Ending pages Surah al Falaq and al-Nas
Center pages : Surat al- Kahf
Opening pages : Surat al Fatithah and beginning of Surah al- Baqarah
Single volume Quran
Mindanao, Philippines
Dated : 1882 AD/1229 AH
2001.1.177
35 cm x 22cm x 6.5cm
Opening pages : Surat al Fatithah and beginning of Surah al- Baqarah
Single volume Quran
Patani, Southern Thailand
Dated : 19
th
century AD / 13
th
century AH
1998.1.3500
22 cm x 18cm x 5cm
Opening pages : Surat al Fatihah and beginning of Surah al- Baqarah
Single volume Quran
Terengganu, Malay Peninsula
Dated : 1871 AD / 1288 AH
1998.1.3427
43 cm x 28cm x 6.5cm
Center pages of Al-Quran
Single volume Quran
Terengganu, Malay Peninsula
Dated : 19
th
century AD / 13
th
century AH
1998.1.3446
30.5 cm x 219.5cm x 5cm
Opening pages : Surat al Fatihah and beginning of Surah al- Baqarah
Single volume Quran
Patani, Southern Thailand
Dated : 19
th
century AD / 13
th
century AH
1998.1.3486
21 cm x 18.5cm x 6.5cm
HIKAYAT

Taj al Salatin, Penang , 1824
Written by Bukhari Johori in 1603.
Copied by Muhammad bin Umar Syeikh Farid in Pulau Pinang,
date in 4 Zulhijjah 1219 (31 July 1824)
Ink colours and gold on burnished English paper,191ff ; 25 x 18 cm
Front and back pages colourful, beatiful design and gold
Written in gold,blue and red frame.
Famous artwork in Arab genre.
An artwork shows law and guideline to the king and government,

Hikayat Hang Tuah, 1882
Dated 1882 in Malacca.
Ink and colours on English Paper , 2 vols
Hikayat Raja Iskandar Dhulkranain, Malacca, 1817
Written by Encik Yahya bin Abdul Wahid on the orders of W.Farhuhar
Date : 28 Rabiulawal 1232 (15 February 1817)
Ink and colours English paper,Raidway 1813,Tstains 1815,3 Vol,202 +112pp,225 x175mm

Hikayat Parang Puting 18810
Copied by Ibrahim fro T.S.Raffles
Dated 29 Syawal 1220 (20 January 1806)
Ink, pencil and colours on European Paper , 63 ff.,300 x184mm
The first Edition of the Hikayat Abdullah,1849
Hikayat Abdullah bin Abdul Kadir Munsyi,Singapore
Lithographed at the Mission Press, 1849.Proudfoot
(1992:93
British Library,ORB 30/445.pp. 1-2
Hikayat Perjalanan Sultan Ahmad
Dated :1805
Collection : National Library and Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka
HUKUM KANUN
Hukum Kanun Pahang
Year : 1592 -1616
Collection : Pahang Museum
Tuhfatun Nafis Naskah Terengganu (1991)
Measurement : 32 x 22.5 sm
Collection : Malaysia Museum Department
Syair Surat kirim kepada perempuan
Copied by Ibrahim
Ink and colours on English papers,1796,G R.ff.36v-45v,200 x 145
mm. RV 91977:123)
British Library,MSS.Malay. B.3,ff.36v-37r
A Papuan Maidservant
Illustration in a Javanese manuscript, Serat Selarasa
Dated : 24 Sapar A.J.1731 (4 June 1804)
Ink,colours and gold on European paper, 148ff.,310 x200mm
British Library. MMS Jav.28,f.52v

Tebar layar
Buah butung