There are four main functions of management.

1. Planning.
2. Organizing.
3. Leading.
4. Controlling.
Planning is an important managerial function. It provides the design of a desired future state and the
means of ringing aout that future state to accomplish the organization!s o"ectives. In other #ords$
planning is the process of thin%ing efore doing. To solve the prolems and ta%e the advantages of
the opportunities created & rapid change$ managers must develop formal long' and short'range
plans so that organizations can move to#ard their o"ectives.
It is the foundation area of management. It is the ase upon #hich the all the areas of management
should e uilt. Planning re(uires administration to assess) #here the compan& is presentl& set$ and
#here it #ould e in the upcoming. *rom there an appropriate course of action is determined and
implemented to attain the compan&!s goals and o"ectives
Planning is unending course of action. There ma& e sudden strategies #here companies have to
face. +ometimes the& are uncontrollale. ,ou can sa& that the& are e-ternal factors that constantl&
affect a compan& oth optimisticall& and pessimisticall&. .epending on the conditions$ a compan&
ma& have to alter its course of action in accomplishing certain goals. This %ind of preparation$
arrangement is %no#n as strategic planning. In strategic planning$ management anal&zes inside and
outside factors that ma& affect the compan& and so o"ectives and goals. /ere the& should have a
stud& of strengths and #ea%nesses$ opportunities and threats. *or management to do this efficientl&$ it
has to e ver& practical and ample.
Characteristics of planning.
0 1oal oriented.
0 Primac&.
0 Pervasive.
0 *le-ile.
0 Continuous.
0 Involves choice.
0 *uturistic.
0 2ental e-ercise.
0 Planning premises.
Importance of planning.
3 2a%e o"ectives clear and specific.
3 2a%e activities meaningful.
3 4educe the ris% of uncertaint&.
3 *acilitators coordination.
3 *acilitators decision ma%ing.
3 Promotes creativit&.
3 Provides asis of control.
3 Leads to econom& and efficienc&.
3 Improves adoptive ehavior.
3 *acilitates integration.
*ormal and informal planning.
*ormal planning usuall& forces managers to consider all the important factors and focus upon oth
short' and long'range conse(uences. *ormal planning is a s&stematic planning process during #hich
plans are coordinated throughout the organization and are usuall& recorded in #riting. There are
some advantages informal planning. *irst$ formalized planning forces managers to plan ecause the&
are re(uired to do so & their superior or & organizational rules. +econd$ managers are forced to
e-amine all areas of the organization. Third$ the formalization it self provides a set of common
assumptions on #hich all managers can ase their plans.
Planning that is uns&stematic$ lac%s coordination$ and involves onl& parts of the organizations called
informal planning. It has three dangerous deficiencies. *irst$ it ma& not account for all the important
factors. +econd$ it fre(uenc& focuses onl& on short range conse(uences. Third$ #ithout coordination$
plans in different parts of the organization ma& conflict.
+tages in planning.
The se(uential nature of planning means that each stage must e completed efore the follo#ing
stage is egun. 5 s&stematic planning progress is a series of se(uential activities that lead to the
implementation of organizational plans.
 The first step in planning is to develop organizational o"ectives.
 +econd$ planning specialists and top management develop a strategic plan and communicate
it to middle managers.
 Third$ use the strategic plans to coordinate the development of intermediate plans & middle
 *ourth$ department managers and supervisors develop operating plans that are consistent
#ith the intermediate plans.
 *ifth$ implementation involves ma%ing decisions and initiating actions to carr& out the plans.
 +i-th$ the final stage$ follo#'up and control$ #hich is critical.
The organizational planning s&stem.
5 coordinated organizational planning s&stem re(uires that strategic$ intermediate$ and operating
plans e developed in order of their importance to the organization. 5ll three plans are interdependent
#ith intermediate plans ased on strategic plans and operating planes ased on intermediate plans.
+trategic plans are the first to e developed ecause the& set the future direction of the organization
and are crucial to the organization!s survival. Thus$ strategic plans la& the foundation for the
development of intermediate and operating plans. The ne-t plans to e developed are the
intermediate plans) intermediate plans cover ma"or functional areas #ithin an organization and are the
steppingstones to operating plans. Last come operating plans) these provide specific guidelines for
the activities #ithin each department.
The second function of the management is getting prepared$ getting organized. 2anagement must
organize all its resources #ell efore in hand to put into practice the course of action to decide that
has een planned in the ase function. Through this process$ management #ill no# determine the
inside directorial configuration) estalish and maintain relationships$ and also assign re(uired
6hile determining the inside directorial configuration$ management ought to loo% at the different
divisions or departments. The& also see to the harmonization of staff$ and tr& to find out the est #a&
to handle the important tas%s and e-penditure of information #ithin the compan&. 2anagement
determines the division of #or% according to its need. It also has to decide for suitale departments to
hand over authorit& and responsiilities.
Importance of the organization process and organization structure.
1. Promote specialization.
2. .efines "os.
3. Classifies authorit& and po#er.
4. *acilitators! coordination.
5. 5ct as a source of support securit& satisfaction.
6. *acilitators! adaptation.
7. *acilitators! gro#th.
8. +timulators creativit&.
Directing (Leading).
.irecting is the third function of the management. 6or%ing under this function helps the management
to control and supervise the actions of the staff. This helps them to assist the staff in achieving the
compan&!s goals and also accomplishing their personal or career goals #hich can e po#ered &
motivation$ communication$ department d&namics$ and department leadership.
7mplo&ees those #hich are highl& provo%ed generall& surpass in their "o performance and also pla&
important role in achieving the compan&!s goal. 5nd here lies the reason #h& managers focus on
motivating their emplo&ees. The& come aout #ith prize and incentive programs ased on "o
performance and geared in the direction of the emplo&ees re(uirements.
It is ver& important to maintain a productive #or%ing environment$ uilding positive interpersonal
relationships$ and prolem solving. 5nd this can e done onl& #ith 7ffective communication.
8nderstanding the communication process and #or%ing on area that need improvement$ help
managers to ecome more effective communicators. The finest techni(ue of finding the areas that
re(uires improvement is to as% themselves and others at regular intervals$ ho# #ell the& are doing.
This leads to etter relationship and helps the managers for etter directing plans.
2anagerial control is the follo#'up process of e-amining performance$ comparing actual against
planned actions$ and ta%ing corrective action as necessar&. It is continual) it does not occur onl& at the
end of specified periods. 7ven though o#ners or managers of small stores ma& evaluate performance
at the end of the &ear$ the& also monitor performance throughout the &ear.
T&pes of managerial control9
3 Preventive control.
Preventive controls are designed to prevent undesired performance efore it occurs.
3 Corrective control.
Corrective controls are designed to ad"ust situations in #hich actual performance has alread&
deviated from planned performance.
+tages in the managerial control process.
The managerial control process is composed of several stages. These stages includes
1. .etermining performance standards.
2. 2easuring actual performance.
3. Comparing actual performance against desired performance :performance standards; to
determine deviations.
4. 7valuating the deviations.
5. Implementing corrective actions.
2; .escrie ho# this each function leads to attain the organizational o"ectives.
6hether the s&stem is an organization$ department$ usiness$ pro"ect$ etc.$ the process of planning
includes planners #or%ing ac%#ards through the s&stem. The& start from the results :outcomes and
outputs; the& prefer and #or% ac%#ards through the s&stem to identif& the processes needed to
produce the results. Then the& identif& #hat inputs :or resources; are needed to carr& out the
3 <uic% Loo% at +ome =asic Terms9
Planning t&picall& includes use of the follo#ing asic terms.
>OT79 It is not critical to grasp completel& accurate definitions of each of the follo#ing terms. It is
more important for planners to have a asic sense for the difference et#een goals?o"ectives
:results; and strategies?tas%s :methods to achieve the results;.
 1oals
1oals are specific accomplishments that must e accomplished in total$ or in some comination$ in
order to achieve some larger$ overall result preferred from the s&stem$ for e-ample$ the mission of an
organization. :1oing ac% to our reference to s&stems$ goals are outputs from the s&stem.;
 +trategies or 5ctivities
These are the methods or processes re(uired in total$ or in some comination$ to achieve the goals.
:1oing ac% to our reference to s&stems$ strategies are processes in the s&stem.;
 O"ectives
O"ectives are specific accomplishments that must e accomplished in total$ or in some comination$
to achieve the goals in the plan. O"ectives are usuall& @milestones@ along the #a& #hen
implementing the strategies.
 Tas%s
Particularl& in small organizations$ people are assigned various tas%s re(uired to implement the plan.
If the scope of the plan is ver& small$ tas%s and activities are often essentiall& the same.
 4esources :and =udgets;
4esources include the people$ materials$ technologies$ mone&$ etc.$ re(uired to implement the
strategies or processes. The costs of these resources are often depicted in the form of a udget.
:1oing ac% to our reference to s&stems$ resources are input to the s&stem.;
=asic Overvie# of T&pical Phases in Planning
6hether the s&stem is an organization$ department$ usiness$ pro"ect$ etc.$ the asic planning
process t&picall& includes similar nature of activities carried out in similar se(uence. The phases are
carried out carefull& or '' in some cases '' intuitivel&$ for e-ample$ #hen planning a ver& small$
straightfor#ard effort. The comple-it& of the various phases :and their duplication throughout the
s&stem; depends on the scope of the s&stem. *or e-ample$ in a large corporation$ the follo#ing
phases #ould e carried out in the corporate offices$ in each division$ in each department$ in each
group$ etc.
1. 4eference Overall +ingular Purpose :@2ission@; or .esired 4esult from +&stem.
.uring planning$ planners have in mind :consciousl& or unconsciousl&; some overall purpose or result
that the plan is to achieve. *or e-ample$ during strategic planning$ it is critical to reference the
mission$ or overall purpose$ of the organization.
2. Ta%e +toc% Outside and Inside the +&stem.
This @ta%ing stoc%@ is al#a&s done to some e-tent$ #hether consciousl& or unconsciousl&. *or
e-ample$ during strategic planning$ it is important to conduct an environmental scan. This scan
usuall& involves considering various driving forces$ or ma"or influences$ that might effect the
3. 5nal&ze the +ituation.
*or e-ample$ during strategic planning$ planners often conduct a @+6OT anal&sis@. :+6OT is an
acron&m for considering the organization!s strengths and #ea%nesses$ and the opportunities and
threats faced & the organization.; .uring this anal&sis$ planners also can use a variet& of
assessments$ or methods to @measure@ the health of s&stems.
4. 7stalish 1oals.
=ased on the anal&sis and alignment to the overall mission of the s&stem$ planners estalish a set of
goals that uild on strengths to ta%e advantage of opportunities$ #hile uilding up #ea%nesses and
#arding off threats.
A. 7stalish +trategies to 4each 1oals.
The particular strategies :or methods to reach the goals; chosen depend on matters of affordailit&$
practicalit& and efficienc&.
B. 7stalish O"ectives 5long the 6a& to 5chieving 1oals.
O"ectives are selected to e timel& and indicative of progress to#ard goals.
C. 5ssociate 4esponsiilities and Time Lines #ith 7ach O"ective.
4esponsiilities are assigned$ including for implementation of the plan$ and for achieving various
goals and o"ectives. Ideall&$ deadlines are set for meeting each responsiilit&.
D. 6rite and Communicate a Plan .ocument.
The aove information is organized and #ritten in a document #hich is distriuted around the s&stem.
E. 5c%no#ledge Completion and Celerate +uccess.
This critical step is often ignored '' #hich can eventuall& undermine the success of man& of &our
future planning efforts. The purpose of a plan is to address a current prolem or pursue a
development goal. It seems simplistic to assert that &ou should ac%no#ledge if the prolem #as
solved or the goal met. /o#ever$ this step in the planning process is often ignored in lieu of moving on
the ne-t prolem to solve or goal to pursue. +%ipping this step can cultivate apath& and s%epticism ''
even c&nicism '' in &our organization. .o not s%ip this step.
To 7nsure +uccessful Planning and Implementation:
5 common failure in man& %inds of planning is that the plan is never reall& implemented. Instead$ all
focus is on #riting a plan document. Too often$ the plan sits collecting dust on a shelf. Therefore$ most
of the follo#ing guidelines help to ensure that the planning process is carried out completel& and is
implemented completel& '' or$ deviations from the intended plan are recognized and managed
 Involve the 4ight People in the Planning Process
1oing ac% to the reference to s&stems$ it is critical that all parts of the s&stem continue to e-change
feedac% in order to function effectivel&. This is true no matter #hat t&pe of s&stem. 6hen planning$
get input from ever&one #ho #ill responsile to carr& out parts of the plan$ along #ith representative
from groups #ho #ill e effected & the plan. Of course$ people also should e involved in the& #ill e
responsile to revie# and authorize the plan.
 6rite .o#n the Planning Information and Communicate it 6idel&
>e# managers$ in particular$ often forget that others do not %no# #hat these managers %no#. 7ven if
managers do communicate their intentions and plans verall&$ chances are great that others #ill not
completel& hear or understand #hat the manager #ants done. 5lso$ as plans change$ it is e-tremel&
difficult to rememer #ho is supposed to e doing #hat and according to #hich version of the plan.
Fe& sta%eholders :emplo&ees$ management$ oard memers$ founders$ investor$ customers$ clients$
etc.; ma& re(uest copies of various t&pes of plans. Therefore$ it is critical to #rite plans do#n and
communicate them #idel&.
 1oals and O"ectives +hould =e +254T74
+254T74 is an acron&m$ that is$ a #ord composed & "oining letters from different #ords in a phrase
or set of #ords. In this case$ a +254T74 goal or o"ective is9
*or e-ample$ it is difficult to %no# #hat someone should e doing if the& are to pursue the goal to
@#or% harder@. It is easier to recognize @6rite a paper@.
It is difficult to %no# #hat the scope of @6riting a paper@ reall& is. It is easier to appreciate that effort if
the goal is @6rite a 3G'page paper@.
If I am to ta%e responsiilit& for pursuit of a goal$ the goal should e acceptale to me. *or e-ample$ I
am not li%el& to follo# the directions of someone telling me to #rite a 3G'page paper #hen I also have
to five other papers to #rite. /o#ever$ if &ou involve me in setting the goal so I can change m& other
commitments or modif& the goal$ I am much more li%el& to accept pursuit of the goal as #ell.
7ven if I do accept responsiilit& to pursue a goal that is specific and measurale$ the goal #ill not e
useful to me or others if$ for e-ample$ the goal is to @6rite a 3G'page paper in the ne-t 1G seconds@.
Time frame9
It ma& mean more to others if I commit to a realistic goal to @6rite a 3G'page paper in one #ee%@.
/o#ever$ it #ill mean more to others :particularl& if the& are planning to help me or guide me to reach
the goal; if I specif& that I #ill #rite one page a da& for 3G da&s$ rather than including the possiilit&
that I #ill #rite all 3G pages in last da& of the 3G'da& period.
The goal should stretch the performer!s capailities. *or e-ample$ I might e more interested in #riting
a 3G'page paper if the topic of the paper or the #a& that I #rite it #ill e-tend m& capailities.
I am more inclined to #rite the paper if the paper #ill contriute to an effort in such a #a& that I might
e re#arded for m& effort.
 =uild in 5ccountailit& :4egularl& 4evie# 6ho is .oing 6hat and =& 6henH;
Plans should specif& #ho is responsile for achieving each result$ including goals and o"ectives.
.ates should e set for completion of each result$ as #ell. 4esponsile parties should regularl& revie#
status of the plan. =e sure to have someone of authorit& @sign off@ on the plan$ including putting their
signature on the plan to indicate the& agree #ith and support its contents. Include responsiilities in
policies$ procedures$ "o descriptions$ performance revie# processes$ etc.
 >ote .eviations from the Plan and 4eplan 5ccordingl&
It is OF to deviate from the plan. The plan is not a set of rules. It is an overall guideline. 5s important
as follo#ing the plan is noticing deviations and ad"usting the plan accordingl&.
 7valuate Planning Process and the Plan
.uring the planning process$ regularl& collect feedac% from participants. .o the& agree #ith the
planning processH If not$ #hat do not the& li%e and ho# could it e done etterH In large$ ongoing
planning processes :such as strategic planning$ usiness planning$ pro"ect planning$ etc.;$ it is critical
to collect this %ind of feedac% regularl&.
.uring regular revie#s of implementation of the plan$ assess if goals are eing achieved or not. If not$
#ere goals realisticH .o responsile parties have the resources necessar& to achieve the goals and
o"ectivesH +hould goals e changedH +hould more priorit& e placed on achieving the goalsH 6hat
needs to e doneH
*inall&$ ta%e 1G minutes to #rite do#n ho# the planning process could have een done etter. *ile it
a#a& and read it the ne-t time &ou conduct the planning process.
 4ecurring Planning Process is at Least as Important as Plan .ocument
*ar too often$ primar& emphasis is placed on the plan document. This is e-tremel& unfortunate
ecause the real treasure of planning is the planning process itself. .uring planning$ planners learn a
great deal from ongoing anal&sis$ reflection$ discussion$ deates and dialogue around issues and
goals in the s&stem. Perhaps there is no etter e-ample of misplaced priorities in planning than in
usiness ethics. *ar too often$ people put emphasis on #ritten codes of ethics and codes of conduct.
6hile these documents certainl& are important$ at least as important is conducting ongoing
communications around these documents. The ongoing communications are #hat sensitize people to
understanding and follo#ing the values and ehaviors suggested in the codes.
 >ature of the Process +hould =e Compatile to >ature of Planners
5 prominent e-ample of this t&pe of potential prolem is #hen planners do not prefer the @top do#n@
or @ottom up@$ @linear@ t&pe of planning :for e-ample$ going from general to specific along the process
of an environmental scan$ +6OT anal&sis$ mission?vision?values$ issues and goals$ strategies$
o"ectives$ timelines$ etc.; There are other #a&s to conduct planning. *or an overvie# of various
methods$ see :in the follo#ing$ the models are applied to the strategic planning process$ ut generall&
are eligile for use else#here;.
Critical '' =ut *re(uentl& 2issing +tep '' 5c%no#ledgement and Celeration of 4esults
It!s eas& for planners to ecome tired and even c&nical aout the planning process. One of the
reasons for this prolem is ver& li%el& that far too often$ emphasis is placed on achieving the results.
Once the desired results are achieved$ ne# ones are (uic%l& estalished. The process can seem li%e
having to solve one prolem after another$ #ith no real end in sight. ,et #hen one reall& thin%s aout
it$ it is a ma"or accomplishment to carefull& anal&ze a situation$ involve others in a plan to do
something aout it$ #or% together to carr& out the plan and actuall& see some results.
Organizing can e vie#ed as the activities to collect and configure resources in order to implement
plans in a highl& effective and efficient fashion. Organizing is a road set of activities$ and often
considered one of the ma"or functions of management. Therefore$ there are a #ide variet& of topics in
organizing. The follo#ing are some of the ma"or t&pes of organizing re(uired in a usiness
5 %e& issue in the design of organizations is the coordination of activities #ithin the organization.
 Coordination
Coordinating the activities of a #ide range of people performing specialized "os is critical if #e #ish
avoid mass confusion. Li%e#ise$ various departments as grouping of specialized tas%s must e
coordinated. If the sales department sells on credit to an&one #ho #ished it$ sales are li%el& to
increase ut ad'det losses ma& also increase. If the credit department approves sales onl& to
customers #ith e-cellent credit records$ sales ma& e lo#er. Thus there is a need to lin% or coordinate
the activities of oth departments :credits and sales; for the good of the total organization.
Coordination is the process of thin%ing several activities to achieve a functioning #hole.
Leading is an activit& that consists of influencing other people!s ehavior$ individuall& and as a group$
to#ard the achievement of desired o"ectives. 5 numer of factors affect leadership. To provide a
etter understanding of the relationship of these factors to leadership$ a general model of leadership
is presented.
The degree of leader!s influence on individuals and group effectiveness is affected & several
energizing forces9
1. Individual factors.
2. Organizational factors.
3. The interaction :match or conflict; et#een individual and organizational factors.
5 leader!s influence over suordinates also affects and is affected & the effectiveness of the group.
3 1roup effectiveness.
The purpose of leadership is to enhance the group!s achievement. The energizing forces ma& directl&
affect the group!s effectiveness. The leader s%ills$ the nature of the tas%$ and the s%ills of each
emplo&ee are all direct inputs into group achievement. If$ for e-ample$ one memer of the group is
uns%illed$ the group #ill accomplish less. If the tas% is poorl& designed$ the group #ill achieve less.
These forces are also comined and modified & leader!s influence. The leader!s influence over
suordinates acts as a catal&st to the tas% accomplishment & the group. 5nd as the group ecomes
more effective$ the leader!s influence over suordinates ecomes greater.
There are times #hen the effectiveness of a group depends on the leader!s ailit& to e-ercise po#er
over suordinates. 5 leader!s ehavior ma& e motivating ecause it affects the #a& a suordinate
vie#s tas% goals and personal goals. The leader!s ehavior also clarifies the paths & #hich the
suordinate ma& reach those goals. 5ccordingl&$ several managerial strategies ma& e used.
*irst$ the leader ma& partiall& determine #hich re#ards :pa&$ promotion$ recognition; to associate #ith
a given tas% goal accomplishment. Then the leader uses the re#ards that have the highest value for
the emplo&ee. 1iving sales representatives onuses and commissions is an e-ample of lin%ing
re#ards to tas%s. These onuses and commissions generall& are related to sales goals.
+econd$ the leader!s interaction #ith the suordinate can increase the suordinate!s e-pectations of
receiving the re#ards for achievement.
Third$ & matching emplo&ee s%ills #ith tas% re(uirements and providing necessar& support$ the
leader can increase the emplo&ee!s e-pectation that effort #ill lead to good performance. The
supervisor can either select (ualified emplo&ees or provide training for ne# emplo&ees. In some
instances$ providing other t&pes of support$ such as appropriate tools$ ma& increase the proailit&
that emplo&ee effort leads to tas% goal accomplishment.
*ourth$ the leader ma& increase the suordinate!s personal satisfaction associated #ith doing a "o
and accomplishing "o goals &
1. 5ssigning meaningful tas%s)
2. .elegating additional authorit&)
3. +etting meaningful goals)
4. 5llo#ing suordinates to help set goals)
5. 4educing frustrating arriers)
6. =eing considerate of suordinates! need.
6ith a leader #ho can motivate suordinates$ a group is more li%el& to achieve goals) and therefore it
is more li%el& to e affective.
Control$ the last of four functions of management$ includes estalishing performance standards #hich
are of course ased on the compan&!s o"ectives. It also involves evaluating and reporting of actual
"o performance. 6hen these points are studied & the management then it is necessar& to compare
oth the things. This stud& on comparison of oth decides further corrective and preventive actions.
In an effort of solving performance prolems$ management should higher standards. The& should
straightfor#ardl& spea% to the emplo&ee or department having prolem. On the contrar&$ if there are
inade(uate resources or disallo# other e-ternal factors standards from eing attained$ management
had to lo#er their standards as per re(uirement. The controlling processes as in comparison #ith
other three$ is unending process or sa& continuous process. 6ith this management can ma%e out an&
proale prolems. It helps them in ta%ing necessar& preventive measures against the conse(uences.
2anagement can also recognize an& further developing prolems that need corrective actions.
5lthough the control process is an action oriented$ some situations ma& re(uire no corrective action.
6hen the performance standard is appropriate and actual performance meets that standard$ no
changes are necessar&. =ut #hen control actions are necessar&$ the& must e carefull& formulated.
5n effective control s&stem is one that accomplishes the purposes for #hich it #as designed.
Controls are designed to affect individual actions in an organization. Therefore control s&stems have
implications for emplo&ee ehavior. 2anagers must recognize several ehavioral implications and
avoid ehavior detrimental to the organization.
 It is common for individuals to resist certain controls. +ome controls are designed to constrain
and restrict certain t&pes of ehavior. *or e-ample$ .ress codes often evo%e resistance.
 Controls also carr& certain status and po#er implications in organizations. Those responsile
for controls placed on important performance areas fre(uentl& have more po#er to implement
corrective actions.
 Control actions ma& create intergroup or interpersonal conflict #ithin organizations. 5s stated
earlier$ coordination is re(uired for effective controls. >o (uantitative performance standards
ma& e interpreted differentl& & individuals$ introducing the possiilit& of conflict.
 5n e-cessive numer of controls ma& limit fle-iilit& and creativit&. The lac% of fle-iilit& and
creativit& ma& lead to lo# levels of emplo&ee satisfaction and personal development$ thus
impairing the organization!s ailit& to adapt to a changing environment.
2anagers can overcome most of these conse(uences through communication and proper
implementation of control actions. 5ll performance standards should e communicated and
Control s&stems must e implemented #ith concern for their effect on people!s ehavior in order to e
in accord #ith organizational o"ectives. The control process generall& focuses on increasing an
organization!s ailit& to achieve its o"ectives.
7ffective and efficient management leads to success$ the success #here it attains the o"ectives and
goals of the organizations. Of course for achieving the ultimate goal and aim management need to
#or% creativel& in prolem solving in all the four functions. 2anagement not onl& has to see the needs
of accomplishing the goals ut also has to loo% in to the process that their #a& is feasile for the

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