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TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOME

PESTICIDES IN RELATION TO
THEIR SIDE EFFECTS.

by

SABRY ABDEL-MONEM ABD-ELAAL ABD-


ALLAH
B.Sc. Agric.,(Pesticides), Tanta Univ.,1991

THESIS

Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements


for the degree of Master of Science

In

Department of Pesticides
Faculty of Agriculture, Kafer El-Sheikh
Tanta University

(1998)
TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOME PESTICIDES IN RELATION
TO THEIR SIDE EFFECTS.
by
Sabry Abdel-Monem Abd-El-Aal Abd-Allah
For the degree of
M. Sc. in Pesticides.
Examiners committee Approved by
1-Prof. Dr. Mohamed Aly Ashry. ---------------------------

Prof. of pesticides chemistry, and Vice Dean


of the Facaculty of Agriculure., Kafr El-
Sheikh, Tanta University.
2-Prof. Dr. Ahmed El-Sayed Salama. ---------------------------
Prof. of pesticides, and Chairman of pesticides
Dept. Faculty of Agriculure, Kafr El-Sheikh,
Tanta University.
3-Prof. Dr.Moustafa A. Abbassy. ---------------------------
Prof. of pesticides and Dean of the Faculty of
Agriculure., Damanhour, Alex. University.
4- Dr. Sherif E. El-Hamady. ---------------------------
Asso. Prof. of pesticides, Faculty of
Agriculure., Kafr El-Sheikh
Tanta University.
Date 8 / 3 /1998
Advisors Committee
1-Prof. Dr.Mohamed Aly Ashry.
Prof. of Pesticides, and Vice Dean of the Fac. of Agric., Kafr El-Sheikh,
Tanta University.

2-Prof. Dr. Mohamed A. Abd-Elbaki


Prof. of Pesticides, Fac. of Agric., Kafr El-Sheikh, Tanta University

3- Dr. Sherif E. El-Hamady.


Associate Prof. of Pesticides, Fac. of Agric., Kafr El-Sheikh, Tanta
University.
CONTENTS

CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGMENT.
INTRODUCTION. 1
REVIEW OF LITERATURE. 3
1-Pesticidal efficiency against pests and their natural enemies 3
especially of vegetable crops.
1.1. Cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis. 4
1.2. Aphids. 13
1.3. Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. 29
1.4. Spider mites. 35
1.5. Beneficial arthropodes. 41
2- Mammalian toxicity of pesticides. 50
2.1. The effect on AChE and esterases. 51
2.2. The effect on liver function and other biochemical 63
parameters.
2.2.1. Transaminase. 64
2. 2. 2. Alkaline phosphatase 73
2. 2. 3 Cholesterol, bilirubin, total protien and albumin 78
2.3. Kidney function. 84
2.4. The effect on body weight. 86
2. 5. Histopathological studies. 91
MATERIALS AND METHODS. 95
1- Test insects. 95
1.1. The cotton leafworm: Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd). 95
1.2. Aphids. 95
1.3. Spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus (boisduval). 96
1.4. The predator, paederus alfierii (Kock). 97
2-Test animals. 97
3-Pesticides. 97
4-Laboratory-toxicity tests. 101
4.1. The cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis. 101
4.2. Aphids. 101
4.3. Mites. 102
4.4. The predator, P. alfierii. 102
4.5. L.D.P lines and statistical analysis. 103
5-Field studies. 103
6- Acute toxicity to rats. 104
7-Daily oral dose treatment. 105
7.1. Experimental. 105
7.2. Serum preparation. 106
8- Biochemical analysis. 106
8.1. Determanation of total protien. 106

I
CONTENTS

8.2. Determination of non-specific esterases activity. 107


8.3.Determination of acetylcholinestrase activity. 108
8.4.Determination of transaminases. 110
8.5.Determination of alkaline phosphatase. 112
8.6.Determination of cholesterol. 115
8.7.Determination of total bilirubin. 116
8.8.Detemination of Albumin. 117
8.9.Determination of creatinine. 118
8.10.Determination of uric acid. 119
9.Histopathological studies. 120
10-Statical analysis 123
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. 124
1-Pesticidal activity of tested chemicals. 124
1.1. Laboratory tests. 124
1.1.1. Toxicity to the cotton leafworm, S. littoralis. 124
1.1.2. Toxicity to aphids. 125
1.1.3 Toxicity to the spider mite T. cinnabarinns. 132
1.1.4. Toxicity to the predator Paederus alfirii. 133
1.2. Field studies. 137
1.2.1 The cotton leafworm, S. littoralis. 137
1.2.2 The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. 142
1.2.3. Aphids, A. gossypii. 156
2-Toxicity of chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb to white 161
rats.
2.1. Acute toxicity. 161
2.2. Sub-chronic toxicities. 164
2.2.1 Clinical symptoms and moralities through test period. 164
2.2.2. Effects on ChE and esterases specific activities. 165
2.2.3 The effect on liver function. 167
2.2.4 The effect on kidney function. 190
2.2.5 The effect on body weight gain. 192
2.2.6 Histopathological examination. 195
2.2.6.1 Histopathological effect in livers of treated rats. 195
2.2.6.2 Histopathological effect in kidneys of treated rats. 195
CONCLUSION. 203
ENGLISH SUMMARY. 204
REFERANCES. 209
ARABIC SUMMARY. -------

II
ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I strongly owe my thanks to A L L A H for lighting me the way and


directing me across every success.
The auther wishes to express his thank fulness to Dr. M. A. Ashry prof.
of chemistry of pesticides and Vice Dean of the Fac. of Agric., Tanta
Univ., for his supervision during the course of these studies and during
revision of the manuscript.
I wish to express my deep gratitude to Dr. Ahmed E. Salama Chairman
of the Chemistry of pesticides, Fac. of Agric., Tanta Univ., for his kind
help and advice throut this study.
Deepest and sincere gratitude to Dr. Mohamed A. Abd-Elbaki Prof.
Chemistry of pesticides. Fac. of Agric., Tanta Univ., for suggesting the
problem, supervising the work, desiging the experiment and providing
technical help and valuable scientific assistance.
The authour wishes also to thank Dr. Sherif E. El-Hamady. Associate
Prof. of pesticides, Fac. of Agric., Kafr El-Sheikh, Tanta University, for,
his valuable supervision, scientific suggestions, guidance, and kind help
during the period of the work, efforts in revising the manuscript and
discussing data deserve my gratitude and indebitedness.
Many thanks are also due to Dr. A. Rawash, Lecturer of Fac. of
Veterinary Medecine Kafr El-Sheikh, Tanta Univ., for his kind help in the
part of histopathological study.
Deep thank are also to all members in pesticides Dep., Fac. of Agric.,
Kafr El-Sheikh, Tanta Univ, for their continaous encouragement and
offering all facilities throught this work.
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION
The use of pesticides has enormously increased during the last 30
years in the world causing an obvious increase in the agricultural
production. Chemical control measures are usually effective, potentially
cover the control of most pests and diseases and may be used effectively
under a wide variety of conditions. However they can cause undesirable
non-target effects and leave undesirable residues (Oomen 1992). The
widely spread range of continuously developing insecticides has been
regularly reported as one of the most detrimental agents to human (Zidan
et al, 1996).

Indeed, chemical control measures are the least preferred of all


effective measures. Nevertheless, these measures and non-chemical ones
are very much complementary and there is no reason to expect a major
change in this situation (Oomen 1992).

Different organophosphate and carbamate insecticides are widely


appled in Egypt to control economic pests especially on vegetable for
their broad insecticidal spectrum and short persistence. However, certain
profiles of these pesticides are required to cover the needs of integrated
control particularly on vegetable crops. Pesticides chosen to be applied
should have both desired and undesired effects. Desired means effective
control or prevention of the pest whereas undesired are adverse effects on
beneficial organisms (e.g. natural enemies), on the consumers, (pesticides
residues on the product and their toxicological effects and on the workers
in crop growing (exposure to chemicals and their effects). Thus, the
availability of a number of different pesticides and reliable information
on their activity spectra and their negative side effects to beneficial
INTRODUCTION

arthropods and mammals is the subject of this thesis. Therefore the


following experiments were carried out:

1-Laboratory comparative studies for the toxicity of eight


organophosphate and carbamate insecticides to certain pests (i.e. sucking
pests, cotton leafworm and the beneficial predator, Paederus alfierii )

2- Field studies for evaluating the efficiency of the tested


insecticides against pests on some vegetable crops (i.e. Okra and squash).

3- The most efficient insecticides were subjected to mammalian


toxicological studies. In this respect, acute and subchronic toxicity
studies were performed on white rats.

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REVIEW
OF
LITERATURE
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
1-Pesticidal efficiency against pests and their
natural enemies especially of vegetable crops.
Vegetable crops (e.g. squash and okra) are subjected to severe
infestation with various arthropodal pests. Among of which are sucking
pests (e. g. whitefly, aphids and mites) and lepidopterus insects like
cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis. In Egypt, the whitefly Bemisia
tabaci has been considered as an economic and serious pest which attacks
traditional or protected vegetable crops (Zidan et al. 1994). The whitefly
transmit plant virus that reduces the yield and quality of vegetables. Due
to the extensive application of pesticides against the whitefly, it has
become resistant to many groups of insecticides (Prodbhaker et al. 1985,
& El-Maghraby et al. 1997). Also, Aphis gossypii, A. craccivora and
Myzus persicae are among the most important and destructive pests that
attack several vegetable plants in Egypt. Economic importance of aphids
is attributable to their high reproductive potential and ability to transmit
plant pathogenic viruses (Mansour et al. 1977; Harris and
Maramorosch, 1977 and Darwish et al, 1994).

The phytophagous mites, Tetranychus sp (T. urticae and T.


cinnabarinus) attack the leaves of vegetables especially those of
Cucurbitaceae and as a result of infestation, plants are weakened and give
a very poor yield. Various lepidopteran insects (among of which is S.
littoralis) also attack vegetable plants leading to severe damage in the
foliage.

Continuous usage of several insecticides for controlling agricultural


arthropod pests has inevitably been followed by target pest resurgence,
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

secondary pest outbreaks, and the development of insecticide resistance


in target pests. All of these consequences are related to the disruption of
the natural enemies.
Hence, over the last 40 years, many investigators had annually
bioassayed hundreds of chemical insecticides belonging to different
groups against the perforated pests and also studied the discriminating of
it between pests and their predators , either under field or laboratory
conditions. Some of the above-mentioned studies are reviewed here:
1-1 Cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis

Tantawy et al. (1974), studied the comparative toxicity using


topical application technique for formulated and technical insecticides,
Cyolane, Cytrolane, Nuvacron, and Dursban against Spodoptera littoralis
larvae. They indicated that formulated material are always more toxic
than the corresponding technical ones, and Dursban was the most toxic.

EL-Gayar et al. (1979), evaluated the initial and residual toxic


effect of single and mixture insecticides under field conditions against the
2nd and 4th instar larvae of S. littoralis. According to the average initial
mortality and average mortality during 9 days from spraying, the
insecticides can be grouped into the following groups : (1) Extremely
potent insecticides, i.e. Phosvel, Cyolane, Tamaron + Gusathion, Gardona
SP., and Cytrolane; (2) Highly potent insecticides, i.e. Tamaron, Orthene,
Elsan + EPN, Folaton, and Lannate; (3) Potent insecticides, i.e Gardona
W.P.; 4) Moderately potent insecticides, i.e. CRD; (5) Less potent
insecticides, i.e. Dipterex, Diazinon, Elsan, Actelic, Nuvacron, Galecron
SP, and Galecron EC. The first group showed highly residual effect and
was suggested for the control of S. littoralis in cotton fields. While
Lannate, Folaton, and Dipterex which showed highly initial effect and

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

low residual action were suggested for the control of the same pest in
vegetable plantations.

Watson and Guirguis. (1983), studied the efficiency of granular


insecticides against cotton pests. A granular formulations of aldicarb at
0.38 and 0.5, isazofos at 0.38 and 0.5, profenofos at 0.25-0.42, phosfolan
at 0.1-0.17, chlorpyrifos at 0.25-0.42 and chlorfenvinphos at 0.5-0.76 kg
a.i./ha were applied in the laboratory and field against pests of cotton, The
descending order of effectiveness of the compounds against larvae of S.
littoralis was phosfolan, chlorpyrifos, profenofos, isazofos, aldicarb and
chlorfenvinphos.

Klein (1984), compared the activity of a commercial formulation of


chlorpyrifos (Dursban) with that of 5 of its new slow-release
formulations (C-20A, C-20B, 48H, GGA1 and GGA2) against larvae of
Spodoptera littoralis in the laboratory and against eggs and small larvae
in cotton fields. He found that in the laboratory the commercial
formulation was effective for a maximum of 1 day against young larvae
only (1st- and 2nd-instars). All the slow-release formulations except 48h
gave good results against both small and large larvae, for periods between
-
3-5 days (for 5th and 6th-instar larvae) and 7-9 days (for 2nd-instar larvae).
However, in the field, the slow-release compounds were not superior to
the commercial formulation.

Kassem et al.(1985), found that all tested insecticides gave initial


kill to cotton leafworm of 95-100%, except AC222705, Bactospiene,
Bolstar+GM(0.7 1+1.2 1/f, tank mix), Dowco, KZ143, Padan, PH 66-13,
SIR 455 and Tamaron GM. The descending order of the insecticides
which had high residual activity against cotton leafworm between 70% -
90% mortality after 12 days was CGA74055, AC7802, Sumicidin ( 0.75

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

1/f ) CCN52( 0.6 1/f ), SH 488, Hostathion, Bolstar + GM ( 0.91 + 0.8 1/f
,tank mix ) and Bolstar 720.

Ghattas and EL-Keie (1986), investigated the extent of resistance


to certain organophosphorus insecticides namely sulprofos, chlopyrifos,
phosfolan, tiazophos, and profenofos on a field population of the cotton
leaf-worm collected from Minufiya Governorate, Egypt. They indicated
that the initial kill of all tested insecticides was not less than 90%
mortality during the five control seasons. They observed that the extent of
resistance varied considerably among the different cases investigated, the
population was obviously of high level of resistance by time to sulprofos
and chlopyrifos, moderate to profenofos and triazophos and less
pronounced to phosfolan and mephosfolan.

Zidan et al. (1987),studied the ovicidal efficiency of certain


organic insecticides and three mineral oils against the egg stage of
Spodoptera littoralis under laboratory and field conditions. They proved
that the evaluated organic insecticides varied tremendously in their
ovicidal potencies and cypermethrin seemed to be the most effective
materials, but thiodicarb was the least one in this respect. The mineral oil
KZ 4 showed the highest efficiency among the tested oil preparations.
Most of the tested materials gave satisfactory ovicidal effect under
laboratory conditions, while the efficiency was drastically decreased
under field conditions. Most of the evaluated insecticides-mineral oil
mixtures potentiate the activity in varying degrees. KZ 2 was the most
strong potenting agent among the tested organic insecticides in relation to
their ovicidal activities against S. littoralis. They also showed that adding
mineral oil to each of the most evaluated organic insecticides,
significantly increased the ovicidal effect under field conditions.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

El-Ghareeb and Mannaa (1989), studied the insecticidal potency


and development of resistance in the cotton leafworm in upper Egypt.
They reported that the synthetic pyrethroids, deltamethrin, cypermethrin,
fenvalerate and flucythrinate had respectively the most toxic effect on the
two strains (Sohag and El-Minia) during 1986, 1987, and 1988 seasons.
Among the anticholinestrase insecticides, the oxime-carbamate,
methomyl was more toxic than the organophosphorus insecticides
(chlorpyrifos, phosfolan, profenofos, and sulprofos). In general, the two
strains exhibited higher level of resistance to the tested organophosphates
and methomyl. This was correlated with a slow rate of developing
resistance to the synthetic pyrethroids.

Rizk et al. (1990), investigated the effects of various insecticides


on eggs and larvae of Spodoptera littoralis. Treated cotton leaves were
fed to larvae in the laboratory and egg masses in the field were sprayed
with the insecticides. Hexaflumuron and diflubenzuron were ineffective
as ovicides. Chlorpyrifos (480 g a.i./fed.) gave complete controlthe pest,
irrespective of the age of the eggs to which it was applied. Residues of
hexaflumuron and diflubenzuron persisted longer than residues of
chlorpyrifos and had the greatest residual toxicity to larvae.

El-Dahan. (1991), studied the resistance status of Spodoptera


littoralis Boisd. to insecticides in Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate during
1984-1988 cotton growing seasons. He found that Spodoptera littoralis
field strain developed high resistance to pyrethroids, organophosphates
exemplified by chlorpyrifos, methamidophos and profenofos which were
comparatively more effective . On the other hand, the oxime carbamates
thiodicarb and methomyl were less potent than organophosphate and
produced levels of resistance that exceeded the allowed critical level (10-
folds).

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Marenco et al.(1991), evaluated the residual activity of methomyl


and thiodicarb against fall armyworm; Spodoptera frugiperda larvae at
various post-application intervals in laboratory. Bioassay was done using
leaves of field-treated sweet corn . They reported that mortality of second
and fifth instar larvae were not significantly different from either of the
two insecticides. Foliage fed to larvae 3 hrs. after application (day 0)
resulted in 50-60% mortality for methomyl and >95% mortality for
thiodicarb. Mortality resulting from methomyl residues ranged from 5-
50% and 1-15% at 1 and 2 days post-application, respectively. Larvae
exposed to thiodicarb-treated foliage suffered >90% mortality for the first
4-5 day and 70-80% on day 9. thiodicarb residues induced about 50%
mortality of fifth instar larvae on day 14.

Mourad et al .(1991), studied the efficacy of eighteen insecticides


against the second and fourth instar larvae of the cotton leafworm
Spodoptera littoralis Bosid. in the field using two sprays. They found that
tested pyrethroids were the most toxic based on residual activity,
followed by organophosphorus and carbamate insecticides, Karate was
the most effective pyrethroid while Cybolt was the least in residual
activity. Hostathion was the most effective organophosphorus insecticide
but Dursban was the least, Cyolane, Cytrolane and Curacron were
moderately effective.

The efficacy of pesticides against cotton pests was evaluated by


Shalaby et al.(1991), according to the official methods of the Egyptian
Ministry of Agriculture and Soil Reclamation. They found that Omega
10% (cypermethrin) at 0.3 L/fed. gave the highest mean residual effect for
3 weeks, beside an excellent initial kill, The IGR- traditional insecticides
mixtures showed highly promising effects against 2nd and 4th instar larvae.
Mon 516, furathiocarb + IGR and methidothion + IGR gave excellent
initial and moderate residual effects, being higher than 90%. Field

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

evaluation indicated clearly the superiority of the IGR-profenofos


treatment.

Van Laecke and Degheele. (1991), studied the synergism of


diflubenzuron and teflubenzuron in larvae of Beet armyworm Spodoptera
exigua (Lepidoptera : Noctuidae). The results obtained showed that LC50
for fourth and fifth instars treated with diflubenzuron were 295 and 16
mg/liter, respectively ; for teflubenzuron, LC50` s were 42 and 7 mg/liter,
respectively . The synergists profenofos and s,s,s-tributylphosphoro-
trithioate (DEF) enhanced the toxicity of diflubenzuron in fourth instars
nine and six folds , respectively. diethylmaleate decreased the LC50 five
folds, whereas piperonyl butoxide was responsible for only a three-folds
reduction

Abou-Kahla et al. (1992), studied the impact of several sequences


of insecticides against certain cotton pests and the associated predators in
cotton fields. They found that the sequence which includes Tamaron
combi, Cyanox and Larvin liquid gave the highest reduction percent
against the cotton leafworm (81.93%).The insecticides sequence
programs (Decis, Cyanox, Larvin liquid and Tamaron combi) and (Larvin
liquid, Tamaron combi, Decis and Cyanox) were the leading programs, as
they induced more efficient pest control, low efficacy on predator insects
and gave high cotton yield.

El-Ghareeb. (1992), studied the synergism of five insecticides


representing the pyrethroids, deltamethrin and flucythrinate and
anticholinesterase insecticides, methomyl, phosfolan and profenofos in
both larvae of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) and adult of Coccinella
undecimpunctata L. by two inhibitors of detoxifying enzyme, the oxidase
inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (pb) and the esterase inhibitor TPP (triphenyl

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

phosphate). He indicated that, for the pyrethroid insecticide, deltamethrin,


it was the most toxic insecticide tested against the two species, although
there was no considerable difference in synergistic ratio between the two
pyrethroids on the same species, by using the same synergist. For the
anticholinesterase insecticides, on S. littoralis, methomyl was about 16.0
and 14.0 fold more potent as AChE inhibitor than phosfolan and
profenofos, respectively. Although methomyl was more susceptible for
detoxifying enzymes than phosfolan and profenofos in S. littoralis.
Methomyl exhibited higher toxicity than the two OP insecticides tested to
C. undecimpunctata.

El-Ghareeb and Mannaa.(1992), applied pyrethroids (trans-


permethrin, cis-permethrin, deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and
flucythrinate), an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos) and a carbamate
(methomyl) in the laboratory to 4th-instar larvae of Spodoptera littoralis.
Treated larvae were held at 22, 30 or 38°C and mortalities were recorded
after 24, 48 and 72h. They found that the toxicity of all the pyrethroids
except flucythrinate increased with decreasing temperature. It is
concluded that cyclopropane carboxylic acid esters have a larger negative
temperature coefficient than the methylbutyric acid esters. Chlorpyrifos
and methomyl showed positive temperature-toxicity relationships.

Mannaa and El-Ghareeb. (1992), studied the comparative


efficacy of variable and constant temperatures on the toxicity of certain
insecticides against cotton leafworm. They evidenced that the insecticides
tested, under the constant post-treatment temperatures (22°C, 30°C , 38°C)
and under the four post-treatment temperatures cycles, [each cycle
included four temperature exposure periods , each period took 6 hr's.
cycle I (22°C, 30°C, 38°C, and 30°C), cycle II (30°C, 38°C, 30°C, and
22°C), cycle III (38°C, 30°C, 22°C, 30°C), cycle IV ( 30°C, 22°C, 30°C,
38°C),] could be arranged in descending manner of toxicity as follows:

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

deltamethrin, cypermethrin, cis-permethrin, trans-permethrin, fenvalerate,


flucythrinate, chlorpyrifos and methomyl.

Flucythrinate (cybolt), which had been shown to be strongly


repellent to Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) and highly effective against
Pectinophora gossypiella (Saund.) and Earias insulana (Boisd.), gave
excellent control at application rates of 54-107 g a.i./ha against Aphis
gossypii Glov., Jacobiasca lybica (de Berg.) (Empoasca lybica),
Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.) and Thrips tabaci Lind. in several
vegetable crops (Abdel-Fattah et al. 1993).

Van Laecke and Degheele .(1993), carried out an extended


laboratory test with second instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua on Vicia
faba plants to determine the influence of synergists on the biological
activity of three benzoyl phenyl urea (BPUs).They found that the co-
application of piperonyl, an oxidase inhibitor, did not increase the activity
of diflubenzuron, teflubenzuron (at a concentration which resulted in 43%
survival) with diethyl maleate or dimethoate gave only 6.2 and 8.9%
surviving larvae, respectively. In addition, develotfourth instar larvae was
inhibited. The more stable teflubenzuron was synergized by both
compounds to a much lesser extent than diflubenzuron .None of the
synergists had a significant effect on the activity of hexaflumuron.

Hossain et al. (1994), tested binary mixtures of abamectin with


methidation, prothiofos, sulprofos, quinalphos, pirimiphos-ethyl and
chloropyrifos-methyl, respectively in ratio of 9:1, 4:1, 1.5:1 and 1:1
th
insecticide : abamectin for synergistic activity against the 4 inster larvae
of cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Bosid.). They found that
synergistic action was exhibited by all tested mixtures except the ratio 4:1
The dosage response data recorded after longer exposure period, 72hr.
post treatment revealed improvement in binary mixtures performance .

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Binary mixtures of abamectin with either of prothiofos or/and


chloropyrifos-methyl exhibited remarkable antagonism at 24 and 72hr.
post treatment.

Rizk et al. (1994), studied the variation in susceptibility to


pyrethroids of Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd.) fed on different host plants.
They indicated that larvae reared on bindweed proved to be more
susceptible than those reared on all other hosts. Among the tested
pyrethroides, deltamethrin was the most potent insectcide, exhibiting
LD50 values ranging from 0.0960 to 0.0261 ug/larva. Based on the
relative susceptibility of larvae to pyrethroides, the hosts could be
arranged descendingly : bindweed > cabbage > clover > cotton.

1.2. Aphids

El-Sebae and Saleh. (1970), studied the aphicidial properties of


safer insecticides against Aphis craccivora on cowpea crop . They found
that Sevin, Malathion, Thiocron, and Dimethoate were efficient in
keeping the plants free of infestation for 10 days after spraying.

Mesbah et al. (1981), studied the toxicity of surfactant and


cypermethin surfactant combinations to the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne
brassicae (L.). They reported that the activity of surfactants alone varied
and resulted in LC50 values ranged between 38.3-22000 ppm and 16.8-
1687 ppm at 24 and 48 h. , post treatment, respectively. The most active
compound was egyptal followed by nestapon, spane 20 and hamadol
whereas especrin and tween 20 exhibited the least aphicidal activity .
Tests with surfactant/insecticide combinations indicated higher
synergistic action in their aphicidal activity.

Neubauer et al .(1982), studied the foliar residues and toxicity of


three systemic insecticides to Aphis citricola, applied to soil in a citrus

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

grove . They found that the effectiveness of the treatment was affected
mainly by the rate of accumulation of toxicant in the leaves. At 18 g a.i.
per tree, the greatest residues found in the leaves were 106, 12.2 and 1.3
ug/g fresh weight for aldicarb, ethiofencarb and dimethoate, respectively,
ethiofencarb was the least toxic to the aphids.

Zein et al. (1982), tested nine insecticides related to different


chemical groups against Aphis gossypii (Glov.). They found that insect
location affected its susceptibility to the tested compounds. Also the
susceptible strain of the insect reared on different hosts, varied in its
sensitivity towards the tested insecticides. The temperature also affected
the susceptibility of the insect to the nine tested insecticides.

Jacob and Nair. (1983), showed that cypermethrin at 0.01 and


0.02%, metasystox [demeton-S-methyl] and monocrotophos both at 0.03
and 0.05% were highly effective and persistent against Aphis craccivora
infesting hollyhock. Lindene, phenthoate and phosalone were less
effective.

Kady, et al. (1983) evaluated six formulated insecticides under


laboratory conditions against Aphis gossypii. cypermethrin proved to be
the most toxic compound followed by triazophos , phosalone, methomyl
(Lannate), vamidothion and methomyl (Nudrin) in a descending order.
Two weeks after field application, cypermethrin, triazophos and
phosalone were maintaining excellent aphid moralities although
methomyl (Nudrin) and vamidothion were apparently losing
effectiveness.

Shanab et al. (1983), evaluated the joint effect of six herbicides


and five insecticides on the population density of Aphis gossypii and
Thrips tabaci under field conditions. They found that the application of
herbicides alone slightly decreased the population density of both insect

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

while insecticide treatment greatly suppressed the infestation and all


insecticides seemed to be highly effective. In addition, it was obvious that
the best combined effect on aphids population could be obtained in the
case of pendimethalin as herbicide and cypermethrin, phosalone and
triazophos as insecticides..

Singh and Sircar. (1983), studied the toxicity of insecticides


against 8 species of aphids . The most toxic compounds against Aphis
craccivora, A. gossypii, Brevicoryne brassicae, Dactynotus carthami
[Uroleucon carthami], Lip Aphis erysimi, Myzus persicae and
Rhopalosiphum maidis were phorate, dimethoate, phosphamidon,
dimethoate and carbaryl, respectively. Some evidence of resistance to
insecticides was found, and susceptibility varied with the food-plant.

Sagar and Jindla. (1984), tested various compounds as 0.005%


sprays applied from a knapsack sprayer. The quickest results were
obtained with monocrotophos, which killed 98% of the aphids within 24
h. of treatment, but chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and demeton-s-methyl
(Metasystox) also eliminated the aphid populations within a week.
Malathion and dichlorvos gave less satisfactory results.

Thakkur et al. (1984),studied the chemical control of aphid, Aphis


craccivora Koch. They found that all the insecticides were effective
against the pest as compared with untreated plots. The most effective of
the compounds 72 h. after treatment were dimethoate and phosphamidon,
while demeton-methyl and fenvalerate had an early knockdown effect.
Dimethoate remained the most effective 7 days after treatment.

The chemical control of spotted alfalfa aphid Therio Aphis trifolii


(Monell) on lucerne with reference to conservation of coccinellid
predators was studied by Sandhu. (1986), He found that five days after
spraying, oxydemeton-methyl at 75 and 150 g a.i./ha. and dimethoate and

14
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

phosphamidon at 150 g a.i./ha. were effective. Malathion was relatively


ineffective. The insecticides did not appear to be very toxic to adults of
the predatory coccinellids, Menochilus sexmaculatus, Brumus suturalis
[Brumoides suturalis] and Coccinella septempunctata.

Zein et al.(1987), carried out laboratory and field experiments to


evaluate the toxicity of seven pesticides against red spider mites,
Tetranychus cinnabrinus and aphids, Aphis gossypii. Results of the
laboratory and field studies showed that fenitrothion proved to be more
potent to aphids.

Kansouh et al. (1988), found that the application of oleodiazinon


(10% diazinon + 90 % mineral oil ) at rates of 5,10 and 20 ml /gal. water
was highly effective for controlling aphids and led to the reduction of
mosaic disease on squash plants.

Kassem et al.(1988), carried out a field evaluation of thirteen


insecticides treatments against the cotton thrips, Thrips tabaci (Lind.)and
the cotton aphid , Aphis gossypii (Glover) on the cotton seedlings . They
classified the efficacy of these insecticides to four groups. The first group
had very high effect (90 % reduction),the second group had high effect
(80% reduction ),the third group had moderate effect (70% reduction),
and the fourth group had low effect (less than 70% reduction).Omethoate
gave very highly effect against the cotton aphid, also vamidothion and
thiometon caused high effect while the other insecticides gave moderate
and low effectiveness.

Zidan et al. (1988a), studied the foliar fertilization affecting the


performance of certain aphicides and acaricides under laboratory and field
conditions. They found that the insecticides pirimicarb and malathion
were shown to be very effective against both nymphs and adults of A.

15
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

gossypii. The foliar fertilizers greatly reduced the aphicidal activity of


pirimicarb and malathion.

Hussein and Fong. (1989), found that the LC50s (in mg/ml) of
dimethoate and (in brackets) malathion were 14.8 (17.8) for Menochilus
sexmacu [Cheilomenes sexmaculata], 75.9 (95.5) for Aphis craccivora
and 206.3 (239.8) for A. gossypii. Both insecticides reduced the fecundity
and adult life span of the predator. In the presence of dimethoate, the
level of prey population was influenced by the predator-prey ratio and the
dosage of insecticide used.

Zidan et al.(1989a),studied the relative efficiency of certain


insecticides on different developmental stages of the oat cherry bird
aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.). They found that the synthetic pyrethroid
fenvalerate seemed to be the most superior compound against the
different nymphs and adult stages of oat cherry brid aphid R. padi (L.),
followed by the OP, monocrotophos and dimethoate. Methamidophos was
the inferior insecticide in this respect.

Zidan et al.(1989b), studied the effect of sublethal concentrations


of certain insecticides on the biotic potential of S. graminum during
successive generations. They obtained that, the tested insecticides had no
considerable effects on the nymph duration of S. graminum however , the
adult longevity was generally decreased at different rates according to the
chemical nature of tested compounds. Pirimicarb seemed to be the most
effective insecticide followed by pirimiphos-methyl, but fenvalerate was
the least one in this respect. They proved that also fenvalerate was the
superior insecticide in reducing the reproductive capacity of S.
graminum aphid , both of pirimiphos-methyl and pirimicarb had no
significant influence in this respect.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Ascher and Nemmy. (1990), determined the ovicidal activity of 61


organophosphorus (OPs), 10 carbamate and 13 other insecticides in a
primary screen against 0- to 1-day-old eggs of the Spodoptera littoralis
using an egg-dip bioassay (at 100 mg a.i./litter). Eleven of the OPs
(including Bolstar [sulprofos], Dursban [chlorpyrifos] and Guthion
[azinphos-methyl]) and 2 carbamates (CGA 45156 [thiodicarb] and
Larvin [thiodicarb]) gave 100% mortality. Insecticides which gave >90%
mortality were Baythion [phoxim] and Curacron [profenofos]. Most of the
compounds which were active in the primary screen were retested at
lower concentration ; the best results were obtained with Dursban.

Darwish et al. (1990), studied the efficiency of five chemical


compounds against the duranta aphid, Aphis punicae (Pass.) (Homoptera,
Aphididae) and its predator Cydonaia vicina var. nilotica (Muls.)
(Coleoptera. Coccinellidae). They found that profenofos (Curacron) and
fenvalerate (Sumicidin) were the most pronounced toxicants, XRD 473
was moderate while thuringienisn and phenoxycarb were the least
effective ones. There was a positive relationship between the toxicity of
pesticides used and the effect on the reproductive and survival potentiality
of Aphis punicae (Pass.).

Hogmire et al.(1990), reported that Aphis pomi was more


susceptible to esfenvalerate and methomyl but less susceptible to
azinphos-methyl than was A. spiraecola. The susceptibility to endosulfan
and chlorpyrifos was not significantly different between the 2 species. For
A. pomi, order of insecticide toxicity was esfenvalerate > methomyl >
endosulfan > chlorpyrifos > azinphos-methyl. For A. spiraecola, order of
toxicity was esfenvalerate > methomyl > azinphos-methyl > chlorpyrifos
> endosulfan.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Mcpherson and Bass (1990), investigated the control of red and


green morphs of tobacco aphids Myzus nicotianae (Homoptera:
Aphidididae) in flue-cured tobacco in field and labortory. In field
conditions acephate provided a good control of both morphs at 0.75 and
0.5 lb/acre, and fair to poor control of both morphs at 0.25 and 0.125
lb/acre. Methomyl, endosulfan, and endocide plus (endosulfan plus
parathion) also provided effective control of both morphs. Malathion,
oxamyl, and tralomethrin provided significantly better control of the
green morph than the red morph. Micro-encapsulated methyl parathion
was totally ineffective in controlling either green or red color forms . In
laboratory tests, the residual activity of acephate provided high mortality
and a reduction in live nymphs produced for up to 14 days after
application for both morphs, although these effects were more
pronounced with green aphids.

Rajput et al. (1990), studied the efficacy of systemic insecticides


against aphid on mustard crop. They found that emulsifiable concentrate,
Dimecron and Metasystox were significantly more effective when
compared with Anthio and Pirimor. Temik was comparatively more toxic
and persistent followed by Thimet and Solvirex in the granular
formulation.

Zaman. (1990), studied the evaluation of soil-applied granular


systemic insecticides against the cotton aphid on okra in Swat. Aldicarb
G (2.0 Kg/ha), mephosfolan G (0.9) and thiofanox G (1.25) were
reapplied as side-dressing just at the middle level of ridges after 73 days
of sowing of okra (cv. T-13). All the insecticides significantly reduced the
cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, population during the season. Aldicarb was
superior to the other insecticides in its effect against the aphids.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Zeitoun et al. (1990), determined the effectiveness of 5


insecticides i.e. malathion, dimethoate, profenofos, primiphos- methyl,
omethoate and mixture of pirimiphos-methyl and dimethoate to control
sucking pests of potatoes. They showed that profenofos at rate of 750
cm/F. proved to be the potent on the sucking pests Aphis gossypii,
Bemisia tabaci and Empoasca lypica with an average general reduction of
85.06%. The other compound gave reductions ranged from 69.7 to
82.5%.

Khattak and Hammed.(1991), studied some chemical control trial


against rape aphid, Brevicoyne brassicae L. They found that the
effectiveness of insecticides against rape aphid (B. brassicae) followed
the order: Atabron > Azodrin >Decis-D > Monitor > Trebon . highest
yield of Brassica napus was obtained with Atabron.

Mcleod. (1991) , indicated that at 24°C , application of five


systemic insecticides to the top surface of spinach leaves resulted in rapid
mortality of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), on the ventral
side of treated leaves. Mortalities were generally delayed and reduced at
lower temperatures of 16 and 8° C. Systemic activity of dimethoate,
pirimicarb, phosphamidon, and acephate was low. Dimethoate failed to
provide statisfactory aphid supperssion at any tested temperature.
RH7988 appeared to be translocated rapidly at each tested temperature
and was effective in suppressing aphid on non treated leaves.

Rizk and Kamel. (1991), evaluated the effectiveness of Reldan


bioencapsulated formulation, Reldan EC, Dursban, and Dennet in cotton
field . They found that Dennet and Reldan bioencapsulated at rate of 400
g.a.i./fed. gave an immediate effect on aphids after 3-days of application
in comparison with Reldan EC (reduction percent values of 100, 99.8,
and 67.6 were recorded respectively).

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Shalaby et al. (1991), evaluated the efficacy of pesticides against


cotton pests according to the official methods of the Egyptian Ministry of
Agriculture and Soil Reclamation . They found that Marshal 25 % at 300
g/fed and 900g/fed controlled excellently aphids and thrips (in early
season). However Polo 50% at 200 ml/fed. gave excellent control to
aphids and acceptable control to whitefly in the late season, but failed to
reach an acceptable efficacy level against aphids in the early season.

Sharma et al. (1991), determined the effect of the insecticides,


dimethoate (applied as Rogor at 0.40 kg a.i/ha), endosulfan (applied as
Thiodan at 0.70 kg a.i./ha), monocrotophos (applied as Nuvacron at 0.40
kg a.i./ha), fenvalerate (applied as Sumicidin at 0.20 kg a.i./ha) and
cypermethrin (applied as Ripcord at 0.04 kg a.i./ha) on Aphis craccivora
infesting Lathyrus sativus, lentils and chickpeas, and on its associated
coccinellid predator complex. Cypermethrin was the most effective
insecticide against A. craccivora on all 3 crops, whereas dimethoate was
the most toxic insecticide to coccinellid larvae on all 3 crops. Dimethoate
applied to L. sativus, dimethoate and monocrotophos applied to lentil, and
monocrotophos applied to chickpeas were all highly toxiccoccinellid
adults. Fenvalerate, followed by endosulfan applied to L. sativus,
cypermethrin and endosulfan (applied to lentils), and endosulfan (applied
to chickpeas) were considered to be the most selective insecticides for
aphid control.

Srivastava et al. (1991), evaluated six insecticides viz ,


phosphamidon, methamidophos, monocrotophos, pirimacarb, formothion,
and phenthoate (each at 0.025% concentration) for their relative efficacy
against mustard aphid Lip Aphis erysimi in field condition . They reported
that monocrotophos gave maximum yield followed by phosphamidon.
Maximum cost benefit ratio was recorded in phosphamidon 1:55:39 for
the first year and 1:45:52 for the second year. Therefore,

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Phosphamidonmay be recommended as one of the cheapest insecticides


to combat mustard aphid L. erysimi.

Abdel-Wahab and Mohamed. (1992), evaluated the toxicity of


malathion, pirimiphos-methly, profenofos, carbosulfan and pirimicarb
against field and laboratory strains of the greenbug, Schizaphi graminum
(Rondani). They found that profenofos and malathion were the most
potent compounds against the field population, whereas pirimicarb was
the least toxic one.

Abou-Kahla et al. (1992), studied the impact of several sequences


of insecticides against certain cotton pests and the associated predators in
cotton fields. They found that the sequence which contain
organophosphorus compounds had the higher effects against Empoasca
lybica and Aphis gossypii. while Bemisia tabaci was more affected by
treatments of Tamaron combi, Decis and Cyanox. The insecticides
sequence programs (Decis, Cyanox, Larvin liquid and Tamaron combi)
and (Larvin liquid, Tamaron combi, Decis and Cyanox) were the leading
programs, as they induced more efficient pest control, low efficacy on
predator insects and gave high cotton yield.

Bulut and Kedici. (1992), tested oxydemeton-methyl (Metasystox


25 EC), parathion-methyl (Folidol M-35) and pirimicarb (Pirimor 50 WP)
against Aphis pomi on apples in Turkey during 1988-90. Oxydemeton-
methyl, parathion-methyl and pirimicarb were effective.

Dimetry and Marei. (1992), studied the susceptibility of adults of


the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and two of the most important
predators, Coccinella undecimpunctata and Chrysopa carnea to
pesticides . Most of the organophosphorus and carbamate compounds
tested were toxic to the aphids. Profenophos was highly toxic to the adult

21
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

virginoparous aphid at LC50 level. Malathion demonstrated the highest


toxicity to the aphids. The application of profenophos for the cabbage
aphid at LC50 level exhibited no toxicity for Coccinella but was highly
toxic for Chrysopa. Pirimicarb proved to be the most selective of the
compounds tested for the control of aphids when it was used at a
concentration that caused 50 per cent mortality as it was found to be
unharmful to both Chrysopa and Coccinella. Dimethoate, on the other
hand, was found to be very harmful and highly toxic to both Coccinella
and Chrysopa adults and would probably be destructive to those natural
enemies in the field. Laboratory evaluation indicated that both pirimicarb
and malathion have potentials for use in IPM program for vegetable pest
control.

El-Defrawi and Abd El-Azim. (1992), studied the chemical


control of cowpea aphid ,Aphis craccivora Koch on Faba bean crop .
They found that , Pirimor (pirimicarp) with the two recommended rates,
Sumithion and Ekation displayed similar adequate bioactivity and were
significantly superior to all the tested compounds. The two insecticides ,
Actellic and Oki revealed lower toxicity, Malathion was the least toxic
compound and exhibited poor aphicidal action.

El-Sayed and El- Ghar. (1992), tested five insecticides at standard


and reduced rates against Bemisia tabaci and Aphis gossypii on
cucumbers, and the non target effects on some natural enemies were
assessed. They reported that The aphelinid parasitoids Eretmocerus
mundus and Prospaltella lutea [Encarsia lutea] were the most important
primary parasitoids of pupae of B. tabaci, and percentage parasitism was
slightly affected by insecticide application. However, all insecticides and
dosages caused severe suppression of the emergence of adult parasitoids,
and adult life span was heavily reduced. Populations of the aphid were

22
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

extremely reduced, especially by ethiofencarb and diafenthiuron.


Populations of the predators Chrysopa carnea [Chrysoperla carnea],
Coccinella septempunctata and Syrphus spp. were reduced in all treated
plots. However, ethiofencarb at rates as low as 208.4 g a.i./100 liters
provided equally as effective aphid control and conserved predator
numbers. Prothiofos and chlorpyrifos-methyl as low as 166.7 g a.i./100
liters kept aphid numbers below those in untreated plots and caused a
smaller reduction in the combined population of insect predators.

Gubran et al. (1992), studied the resistante in cotton aphid Aphis


gossypii (Glov) in the Sudan Gezira. They reported that the aphids were
found to be resistant to eight insecticides tested. There was no
enhancement of carboxylesterase activity and thus it was not a cause of
resistance in these species. First-order inhibition Kinetics of AchE with
pirimicarb revealed that resistance towards primicarb in Sudanese strain
was caused by modified AchE which had a reduced affinity (higher K_
value) and poor carbamylation ability (lower K2 value) for pirimicarb.

Kerns and Gaylor.(1992), studied the behavior of cotton aphid


exposed to sub lethal doses of three insecticides. They found that cotton
aphids, Aphis gossypii, that were not exposed to insecticides spent a
greater percentage of time feeding than walking. Aphids, treated topically
or exposed to residues of LC10 doses of cypermethrin or dicrotophos,
spent equal percentages of time walking and feeding. Topical application

and residual exposure to LC10 concentration of sulprofos increased


aphid activity with more spent walking than feeding.

Konar and Rai. (1992),studied the persistence of some


insecticides against insect pests of okra. They found that permethrin and
dimethoate proved to be more effective and persistent than other

23
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

insecticides against jassid and aphid, respectively followed by


dimethoate, carbaryl and malathion against jassid. and permethrin,
carbaryl and malathion against aphid.

Nielsen and King. (1992), showed that Pageant DF (active


ingredient of chlorpyrifos) was as effective for controlling Aphis pomi,
Chionaspis heterophyllae, Fenusa pusilla, larvae of Pyrrhalta luteola and
Neodiprion sertifer, and lepidopteran larvae feeding externally on
ornamental plants as Dursban 4E (another formulation of chlorpyrifos).

Shalaby and Ramadan. (1992), studied the efficiency of


Sumicidin, Meothrin, Cymbush and Palythrin against Aphis gossypii
(Glov.) and Bemisia tabaci (Genn) on okra plants. They found that all the
tested compounds exhibited reasonable insecticidal action against the two
insect species especially against aphids as compared with the whitefly
which was more tolerant. Percentages of reduction in infestation ranged
between 68% - 100% and 55% 81% in case of aphids and whitefly,
respectively, after 11 days form the onset of insecticidal application after
which sharp decrease in activity took place. Meothrin revealed the highest
bioactivity against the two insect species.

Wiles and Jepson. (1992), studied the susceptibility of a cereal


aphid pest and its natural enemies to deltamethrin .They found that the
range of LD50 values varied between 0.8 and 232 ng/arthropod and 0.76
and 66.17 µ g/g body weight for the species tested. The linyphiid spider
Erigone atra (Black wall) was the most intrinsically susceptibility
predator species. There were significant differences in susceptible
between species of different orders, i.e .the Araneae, Hemiptera and
Coleoptera. Differences within the Coleoptera were closely related to
body weight, with the exception of the carabid beetle Demetrias
atricapillus (L.),which seemed to be tolerant to deltamethrin . The aphid

24
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

did , however , demonstrate a broader tolerance distribution than most of


the predators.

Abo El-Ghar et al.(1993), determined the effectiveness of 14


selected insecticides representing four insecticide groups
(organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroides and Insect growth regulator
IGRs ) and four insecticide / IGR mixtures on cowpea insect pests and
their effects on certain beneficial insects . They found that after 3 days of
treatment , with phenthoate , isoxathion , cyanophos, carbaryl and
cypermethrin used at recommended rates . All insecticide treatments
significantly reduced the Bean Aphid, Aphis craccivora Kock, numbers
below that of the control. The prothiofos, isoxathion, pirimicarb and
fenpropathrin treatments provided continuing control to aphids through 21
days after spraying.

El-Hamady (1993) studied the compatibility of insecticides


(Actellic, Reldan, Selecron and Malathion) and chitin synthesis inhibitors
CSI (IKI17899, XRD473, Dowco 439 and SH777) and their interaction in
cowpea aphid Aphis craccivora Koch. He found that apart from SH777
all insecticides/CSI mixtures produced synergistic action at the three
mixing ratios (i.e. 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 insecticide: CSI) against the tested
insect. However, Malathion was synergized when combined with all the
tested CSIs. A striking result is that, Malathion was strongly synergized
when mixed with IKI7899 or XRD473 at ratio 2:1 (LC50 value was
lowered from 480 to 65 and 69 ppm, respectively). In all cases, the
highest level of synergism was achieved at the mixing ratio 2:1 Apart
from malathion, all the tested insecticide/SH777 mixtures exhibited either
additive or antagonistic effect.

El-Maghraby et al.(1993a), studied the effect of pesticidal


application during the early and late season on the abundance of certain

25
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

predators associated with cotton plants . They found that application of


kelthane-s and methomyl against mites and aphids slightly reduced the
population of Orius spp, Chrysoperla carnea, Coccinella
undecmpunctata and Scymnus spp, percent reduction ranged between
10.6-17.9%. Also, they found that Orius spp was the most susceptible
species tolerated the action of the used insecticides.

El-Zemaity et al.(1993), studied the toxic effect and efficiency of


synthetic pyrethroids Sumi-alpha (contain Aα isomer) and Sumicidin
(included 4 isomers; BB, Bα, AB and Aα) against Aphis faba. Also,
compared their efficiency by carbamate insecticide, Pirimor. They
indicated that Sumi-alpha was the most effective insecticide followed by
Sumicidin then pirimor in the bioassay experiments .

Hussein et al. (1993a), studied the selective toxicity of certain


common insecticides used in controlling aphids to the predator,
Coccinella undecimpunctata and its prey cereal aphid, Rhopalosiphum
sp. they reported that the contact toxicity based on LC50 values
demonstrated the selectivity of profenofos, omethoate and alphamethrin
to C. undecimpunctata with selectivity factor (S.F) of 2.75, 1.42, and
1.166, respectively. Methomyl showed slight selectivity (S.F 1.048). The
relative susceptibility of the predator and the aphid varied considerably
among the tested insecticides. The adult of C. undecimpunctata was more
susceptible to chlorpyrifos, malathion, pirimiphos-methyl and pirimicarb.
So they suggested that profenofos, omethoate, and alphamethrin could be
used in development of integrated management.

Park et al. (1993), tested five combinations of insecticides with


acaricides as wettable powders for their properties and use against mites
and aphids on apple trees in Korea Republic. Propargite plus chlorpyrifos,
propargite plus acephate, azocyclotin plus acephate, chlorpyrifos plus

26
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

clofentezine and chlorpyrifos plus bifenthrin, at 20 and 10%, 25 and 15%,


10 and 15%, 15 and 15% and 15 and 1.2%, respectively., chlorpyrifos
plus bifenthrin was found to be effective against Panonychus ulmi,
Tetranychus urticae, Myzus malisuctus [Ovatus malisuctus] and Aphis
spiraecola on apple in 1990-92.

El-Ghareeb and Nasser. (1994), demonstrated the toxicity of


twelve insecticides to five species of aphids collected from the field
during 1993 season. These species were Aphis gossypii (Glover),
Schizophis graminum (Rondoni), Hyalopterus pruni (Geoffroy), Aphis
craccivora (Kock) and Aphis neril (Boywr de fonscolomb). They found
that the toxicity of insecticides tested was different form one species to
another with chlorpyrifos-methyl, profenofos and parathion as the most
toxic compounds and methamidophos as the least toxic ones . The rest of
insecticides carbofuran, furathiocab, methomyl, pirimcarb, chlorpyrifos,
pirimiphos-methyl and flucythrinate occupied a moderate position.
Hyalopterus pruni was the most tolerant species followed by A. gossypii,
S. graminum, A. craccivora and A. nerii an ascending order of
susceptibility.

Abo-Sholoa et al.(1995), evaluated the effect of the application


numbers of three insecticides ; thiodicarb , chlorpyrifos and fenvalerate at
late cotton season against mainly bollworms besides sucking insects;
cotton aphid , Aphis gossypii (Glov), whitefly, Bimesia tabaci (Genn) and
jassed, Emposca lypica (Deberg) in two successive cotton seasons of
1992 and 1993. Each insecticide was applied once ,twice ,triple at two
weeks interval. They showed that both thiodicarb and chlorpyrifos had a
weak to moderate toxic effect and this effect was significantly affected by
the spray numbers . Fenvalerate failed completely as an aphicide.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Ibrahim.(1995), studied the development of insecticide resistance


in field populations of the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) Glover. He found
that resistance ratios and slopes of the probit regressions were variable
among years within insecticides, and resistance was not always consistent
among insecticides within an insecticide class. he indicated also higher
carboxylesterase activity in field population aphids compared with
susceptible aphids.

1.3. Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci :

Yein. (1983), found that applicaof 0.75 kg endosulfan,


monocrotophos, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate or quinalphos/ha. to Vigna
mungo plants was most effective againboth Bemisia tabaci and Pagria
signata [Colposcelis signata], while 0.75 kg phosalone or carbaryl/ha was
effective against Colposcelis signata only. Endosulfan was the most
effective and gave the highest increases in seed yield.

Salama et al. (1984), tested methomyl, decamethrin [deltamethrin],


diflubenzuron, chlorpyrifos and dimethoate in the laboratory , in different
sequences against sucking pests of cotton (Bemisia tabaci, Empoasca
lybica [Jacobiasca lybica], cicadellids, Tetranychus cinnabarinus,
aleyrodids, Aphis gossypii and other aphids) and some of their predators
(Amblyseius spp., Scymnus spp., Coccinella undecimpunctata and
Paederus alfierii). They reported that although more than 1 application of
the same insecticide is not permitted in cotton fields in Egypt for practical
pest control, 3 applications of the same compound were made
experimentally in field tests to ensure that the insecticides would affect
the predators. All combinations of insecticides (especially the repeated
ones) markedly reduced at least some species of predators. In general, P.
alfierii and Scymnus spp. were the most susceptible non-target species,
and deltamethrin was the compound most toxic to the predators. Against

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

the pests, the most effective combination was that of dimethoate,


methomyl and deltamethrin in separate successive applications, which
caused only slight mortality of predators.

Abdallah, et al. (1985), studied the effect of certain pesticides


against some non-target sucking pests infesting cotton .They found that
treatment of DC 702 ( in three sprays ) was the most effective one against
Tetranychus urticae (Koch.), whitefly , Bemisia tabaci (Gennandius),
and the jassid, Emopasca lybica (De Berg). Treatment of Curacron (in
three sprays) was as effective as that of DC 702 against the jassid and
whitefly, but was the least effective one against the spider mite.

El-Serwiy et al.(1985), studied the comparative efficacy of


different insecticides against some stages of whitefly Bemisia tabaci
(Genn) on Cucurbits. They reported that Supracid was more effective than
Actillic or Malathion on adults or eggs and larvae after 7 and 4 days post-
treatment, respectively with significant differences between the means of
their population reductions %.Eggs reduction may be attributed to the
direct effect of the insecticide against adults and newly hatched larvae
from eggs . Supracid spraying with concentration 0.2% four times at
intervals of 15 days led to an increase of 8607.5 Kg/ha. in fall cucumber
yield.

Fahmy et al. (1985), studied the effect of certain pesticides against


some non-target sucking pests infesting cotton. They found that all tested
treatments showed significant reduction in numbers of the considered
pests : the spider mite, Tetranychus utricae (koch.), the whitefly, Bemisia
tabaci (gennandius) and the jassid, Emopasca lybica (De Berg).
Treatment with DC 702 (in the three sprays) was the most effective one
against the examined pests. Treatment of Curacron (in the three sprays )
was as effective as that of DC 702 against the jassid and the whitefly.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Zanaty and El-Hawary.(1988), proved that pyrethroids


diminished the population levels of the whitefly , leaf hopper , aphids and
red spider mite and their predators in cotton fields . The oxime
carbamate , thiodicarb , was moderately effective against the sucking pest
and less effective against their predators.

Zidan et al.(1989c), studied the role of different insecticides


regime on the population density of mature and immature stage of cotton
whitefly , Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) in nursery and permanent field, with
special references to phytotoxicity and virus infection. In this respect,
methamidophos and fenvalerate/dimethoate treatment proved superior
influences / performances among the tested compounds.

Zidan et al.(1989d), studied the bio-residual efficiency of


methomidophos, butacarboxim, fenvalerate / dimethoate and fenvalerate /
fenitrothion mixtures against the adults of cotton whitefly Bemisia tabaci
on caged tomato seedlings in laboratory. They proved that the mixture
fenvalerate/dimethoate superior knock down as well as residual activities,
followed by methamidophos showing the LC50 s of 39.81 and 134.9 ppm,
respectively. Fenvalerate/fenitrothion mixture and butacarboxim showed
lower efficacy revealing the LC50 s of 436.5 & 457.1 ppm, respectively.

Darwish and Farghal. (1990), evaluated nine insecticides against


the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci and associated natural enemies in
cotton fields of Assiut. They found that Buldock, Cyanox, EMA 2784 and
Tamaron combi showed the highest toxic effect against the whitefly.
Birlane and Marshal were the least effective ones. As for natural enemies,
Marshal and Tamaron combi were the least toxic compounds whereas,
Ekalux and Cyanox were the highest toxic ones. According to the relative
toxicity and residual effect of the tested insecticides against the whitefly

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

and associated natural enemies, the pyrethroid insecticide, Buldock gave


the best results.

The effectiveness of Reldan bioencapsulated formulation, Reldan


EC, Dursban, and Dennet in cotton field was evaluated by Rizk and
Kamel. (1991), They indicated that the bioencapsulated formulation of
Reldan gave good control against larval stage of B. tabaci (48.1) and
better than the recommended rate of Dennet (2.4) four weeks postspray.
The residual activity of the bioencapsulated formulation was reduced
considerably against the pupal stage of the whitefly and was similar to
Dennet through the four weeks post spray (Average reduction values were
58.8 and 55.3%).

Sadhakar and Paul. (1991), studied the efficacy of conventional


insecticides for controlling of cotton whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and gram-
pod borer (Heliocoverpa armigera ) on cotton (Gossypium species).They
found that triazophos 0.05% and amitraz 0.05% effectively controlled
whitefly and gram-pod borer resulting in 53% more yield of raw cotton
compared with the control.

El-Sayed and El-Ghar. (1992), tested five insecticides at standard


and reduced rates against Bemisia tabaci and Aphis gossypii on
cucumbers. They reported that eggs of the aleyrodid appeared to be less
susceptible than larvae and pupae, and experienced a maximum of 66%
reduction; larval and pupal populations were significantly reduced in all
treated plots. For example, 10 days after the application of ethiofencarb,
diafenthiuron and chlorpyrifos-methyl, larval populations were reduced to
67, 50 and 68%, respectively., and pupal populations by 68, 69 and 75%.

Abbassy et al. (1993) studied the efficiency of certain natural and


synthetic pesticides in controlling white flies and mites on cucumber
grown under plastic tunnels. They found that Actellic and Reldan, were

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

the most effective pesticides against white flies followed by the


carbamate insecticides.

Abdel-Fattah et al. (1993), showed that flucythrinate (Cybolt)


gave excellent control at application rates of 54-107 g a.i./ha of Bemisia
tabaci (Gennadius) on soyabeans.

Abo El-Ghar et al.(1993), studied the impact of several


insecticides and insect growth regulators against certain insect pests of
cowpea and the associated beneficial insects. They found that most
insecticides treatments were not effective against cotton whitefly,
Bemisia tabaci (Genn.).The best control of the whitefly immature was
obtained after 3 days of spraying in plots received thiodicarb (76%) and
fenpropathrin (60%) .All selected insecticides and rates used had very
low residual effect against B. tabaci immature by 3 days post treatment.

Hussein et al. (1993b), investigated the toxicity of three


pyrethroids i.e. cypermethrin, fenvalerate and alfhamethrin, three
organophosphours insecticides (sulprofos, profenofos, chlorpyrifos) and
one carbamate (carbosulfan) to the adult and larval stages of laboratory
and field populations of Bemisia tabaci (Genn). They found that synthetic
pyrethroids (cypermethrin and fenvalerate ) were most effective against
adult and larval stages of both strains (adult and larvastages) and
appeared more resistante to all tested insecticides except carbosulfan.

Salem (1993), tested six insecticides against immature stages of B.


tabaci. The best control results were achieved with Danitol alone or
Applaud mixed with Actellic followed by Polo and Applaud separate.

Farrag et al. (1994), evaluated the relative toxicity of three


insecticides, Marshal 25% WP, Actellic 50% EC and Trebon 30% EC in
single continuous and alternating applications against the adult of

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) on cabbage plants. They found that


the percentage of reduction (%R) were 41.02, 42.60, and 87.37 with
Marshal, Actellic and Trebon, respectively after 7 days of the first
application. B. tabaci was more susceptible to Trebon in the
2ndapplication than Marshal and Actellic. Also, response of B. tabaci to
Marshal in the 2nd application declined after Trebon in the 1st one. No
reduction was obtained after 5 days of continuous use of Actellic in the
2nd application.

Zidan et al. (1994) studied the bio-residual activity of certain


insecticides against the population density of whitefly, Bemisia tabaci
infesting cucumber plants in plastic houses . They indicated that the
important role of insecticide type and post-treatment period in
determining the population density of whiteflies . They classified the
insecticides into three groups based on their initial and residual
efficiencies against whitefly as follows : Actellic and Prempt which
proved to be the highly effective compounds , revealed 95.10 and 93.13%
reduction percentage, respectively . The second group includes admiral
and polo which gave reduction percentage of 71.12 and 67.3%,
respectively . The third group represent natural oil showing 58.18
reduction percentage. Efficacy of natural oil and insect growth regulator
increased by the elapse of time due to their latent effect.

El-maghraby et al. (1997). compared evisect natural insecticide


with recommended insecticides, Selecron 72% EC, Osbac 50% EC,
Admire 20% SL, Actellic 50% EC and Peldan 40% EC against whitefly
Bemisia tabaci on tomato plants. They found that All insecticides gave
hight efficiency against all whitefly stage ( mean %reduction ranged
between, 87.41 : 91.40- 90.17 : 93.09 and 88.32: 95.85 for adult,
immature and egg stage, respectively), also there were no siginificant
differenceis between insecticides.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

1.4. Spider mites

El-Sebae et al. (1978), studied the toxicity of certain pesticides and


their combination against the red mite species Tetranychus
cucurbitacearum (Sayed). They found that of the chlorinated hydrocarbon
acaricides tested, dicofol was the most effective followed by
chlorobenzilate while tetradifon had the least toxic effect. Tamaron was
the most effective of the organophosphorus material followed by
dimethoate and then zolone which gave the least toxic action. Fundal and
Galecron were two formulation for the same active ingredient, however,
Galecron was nearly 1.5 times more toxic than Fundal. Cyolane was the
most effective insecticide and leptophos was the least while carbaryl
showed no toxicity. Karathan was found to be the most active fungicide
followed by benomyl and then morestan which gave the least among this
group. The two fungicides diathane M-45 and bavistin were non-toxic
and having no acaricidal activity. The higher potentation of pesticides
pairs on T. cucurbitacearum was leptophos + monocrotophos followed by
cyolane + chlorobenzilate and then by monocrotophos + tetradifon in a
descending order.

Mostafa.(1982), determined the susceptibility of eggs and adult


females of a strain of T. urtica originated from Rafah north Sinai
Governorate to seven pesticides. They observed that synthetic pyrethroids
( cypermethrin, decamethrin , and cybolt ) were the most effective as
adulticides, the LC50S for adult females were 0.22, 0.34 and 1.06 ppm.,
respectively .The organophosphorus compound, Birlane showed the
highest ovicidal effect, Kelthane was intermediate in its toxicity to both
tested stages. The other organophosphorus compounds (Sumithion and
Rogor) showed low toxicity to the both stages.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Eissa et al. (1985),studied the impact of six different pesticides


(triflumuron, IKI-7899, isoxathion, Bacillus thuringiensis, carbophos and
phenthoate/oil) upon major citrus trees phytophagous and predatory mites
in Shebin El-Kom , Minufiya Governorate. They revealed that Bacillus
thuringiensis at 0.084%, phenthoate/oil at 1%, IKI-7899 at 0.375% and
triflumuron at 0.375% provided a good control (74-85% reduction) of
phytophagous mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisd.). However, less
reduction of 68-75% in population of Brevipalpus californicus was
manifested by phenthoate/oil at 1%, isoxation at 0.2% and B.
thuringiensis at 0.084%. In general, B. thuringiensis, triflumuron,
phenthoate/oil and isoxathion at the tested rates were less toxic to the
predatory mites than the phytophagous mites.

Zein et al.(1987), carried out laboratory and field experiments to


evaluate the toxicity of seven pesticides against red spider mites ,
Tetranychus cinnabrinus and Aphids, Aphis gossypii . Results of the
laboratory and field studies showed that dicofol was more effective than
other tested compounds against mites.

Zidan et al. (1988a), studied the foliar fertilization affecting the


performance of certain aphicides and acaricides under laboratory and field
conditions. They found that adults of T. urticae were more susceptible
than eggs to dicofol. Tetradifon had a high ovicidal activity. Foliar
fertilizers reduced the performance of the acaricides.

Shoukry et al.(1989), studied the effects of 15 compounds from


different chemical groups against the different developmental stages of
standard colony of spider mite Tetranychus urtica. They found that: (1)
Tetradifon was the most potent compound against all ages of eggs
followed by dicofol. (2) Triflumuron was the most effective one against
the chrysalis stages followed by chlorofluazurn and flufenoxuron,

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

respectively.(3) Dicofol had higher effect against the adult stage followed
by profenofos.

The efficiency and persistence of certain insecticides on soybean


and broad bean plants was studied by Abdel-All et al. (1990), They found
that combinations of either chlorpyrifos or methomyl with two insect
IGRs tested (diflubenzuron and dowco-439) provided longer residual
activity for plant protection than IGRs alone. The efficiency of
chlorpyrifos plus IGRs was higher at 7 and 14 days after application on
aphids. The effectiveness of tested mixtures was in general lower on T.
urticae, at 21 days following application.

Labonowska, B. H. (1990a), studied the effectiveness of new


acaricides and some synthetic pyrethroids in the control of the two-
spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae koch) on strawberries.
Propargite WP formulation, cyhexatin, azocyclotin, bromopropylate and
standard acaricide-tetradifon showed the highest and satisfactory
effectiveness in the control of mites on strawberries. Fenpropathrin,
flucythrinate, flubenzimine, clofentezine and fenbutatin oxide (1 Kg/ha)
showed satisfactory activity, but within shorter time than tetradifon.

Labonowska, B. H. (1990b), reported that cyhexatin, azocyclotin


and fenpropathrin appeared to be very efficient in the control of spider
mites , even with very numerous populations of mites . Propargite ,
bromopropylate and flubenzimine gave better or similar results as the
standard acaricides, tetradifon, but a single spraying of this acaricide on
the bushes with very numerous population of adult mite did not gave
satisfactory reduction of mite population.

Labonowska, G. S. and Jesiotr.(1990), evaluated twenty-six


acaricides for the control of T.urticae on roses . They found that the most

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

effective specific acaricides were dienochlor, flubenzimine and


bromopropylate; and the non specific acaricides metamidophos.

Labonowska, G. S. et al.(1990), evaluated twenty-six pesticides


for the control of spider mites on gerbera. Dienochlor, cyhexatin,
bromopropylate and propagite applied 2-4 times during 90-114 days
controlled the spider mites better than standard acaricides.

Richardson and Lembright. (1990), compared new formulation of


chlorpyrifos (lock-on) at 0.5 lb a.i./acre with Dorsban 4E (chlorpyrifos) at
1.0 lb a.i./acre and Pounce (permethrin) at 0.1 lb a.i./afor the control of
Lygus sp., whitefly; Bemisia tabaci, Bucculatrix thurberiella,
Tetranychus spp. and Heliothis spp. In 1986 Lock-on was compared with
Lorsban, Pydrin (fenvalerate) and Ammo (cypermethrin) for the control
of pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella, Lygus sp. and Tetranychus
spp. Control of Lygus sp., P. gossypiella and Heliothis spp. with Lock-on
was similar to that with the pyrethroids, but Lock-on gave better control
of B. thurberiella.

Smolarz et al . (1990), studied the control of the fruit tree, red


spider mite Panonychus ulmi Koch with fenpropathrin and flucythrinate
in apple orchard. They reported that both fenpropathrin and flucythrimate
showed a strong miticidal activity, which was comparable to that of
organotin acaricides. Thus, both might be recommended for controlling
insect pests in the orchard with no danger of increased mite injury.

Nowakowski and Szufa. (1990), studied the effects of insecticides


on the fruit tree red spider mite population (Panonychus ulmi Kock ).
They found that mite population was much more numerous on
pyrethroids permethrin, flucthrinate, fenpropathrin - treated plots than on
the other insecticide-treated ones. The number of eggs was the greatest in
permethrin-treated plots.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Kadir and Knowles . (1991), studied the toxicity of the thiourea


diafenthiuron to diamondback moths (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), two
spotted spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae), and bulb mites (Acari:
Acaridae). They found that diafenthiuron possessed low toxicity to two
spotted spider mites Tetranychus urticae ( 41.7% mortality at 500 ppm )
and was inactive against bulb mites, Rhizoglyphus echinopus (0 %
mortality at 1000 ppm). On the other hand they found that 3-(2,6-
diisopropyl-4-phenoxyphenyl)-1-tert-butylcarbodiimide(DFCD),
(diafenthiuron photodegredation product) was highly toxic to two spotted
spider mites ( LC50 8.9 ppm ), and bulb mites ( LC50 106.6 ppm ). Bulb
mites converted diafenthiuron-C14 to DFCD and to 3-(2,6-diisopropyl-4-
phenoxyphenyl) -1-tert-butyl urea which was non toxic.

Lawson and Weires. (1991), studied the management of European


red mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) and several aphid species on apple with
petroleum oils and an insecticidal soap . They reported that Sunspary 6E
and Volck supreme oils caused the greatest mortality of all material
tested. Sunspray 6E+ caused less mortality than did the Sunspray 6E and
Volck supreme but greater mortality than safer insecticidal soap
concentration, which caused only slightly greater mortality than the
distillated water check against over wintering Panonychus ulmi eggs .
Field application of the same materials by airblast sprayer and high-
pressure handgun caused less mortality of over wintering eggs than in the
laboratory study. Summer application of these materials were tested for
their ability to suppress mite and aphid populations throughout the
growing season. Applications of all materials provided significant control
of populations of P. ulmi, rose apple aphid, Aphis Plantaginea, and the
apple aphid, Aphis pomi, and the spirea aphid, Aphis Spiraecola.

Abbassy et al. (1993) studied the efficiency of certain natural and


synthetic pesticides in controlling white flies and mites on cucumber

38
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

grown under plastic tunnels. They found that from all of the tested
synthetic insecticides, Reldan only exhibited a considerable potential
acaricidal effect. As a specific acaricide, Tedifol was more potent than
Kelthane against the tested mites.

Fouly et al. (1995), studied the effect of different pesticide


application methods on mites inhabiting apple trees. They found that
spraying was the most suitable method to control the mites infesting plant
leaves where Cidial gave the highest level of effectiveness followed by
Basudin, Atabron and Selecron.

1.5 Beneficial arthropods.

Salman and Abd-El-Raof. (1978), studied the effect of certain


pesticides used against cotton pests on three predaceous insects and
honey bee workers. They found that all insecticides tested were more
toxic to the predaceous insects and honeybees (from 11 to 935 times as
toxic) than to S. littoralis. Similarly, 4 of the acaricides showed greater
toxicity to honeybees than to T. urticae although Curacron [profenofos],
Ekatin [thiometon], Kelthane [dicofol] and SAN 1551 (5-dimethylamino-
1,2,3-trithiane hydrogenoxalate) were more toxic to T. urticae. All tested
acaricides except Carbicron [dicrotophos] were more toxic to
Euteranychus orientalis than to honeybees.

Adashkevich and Kiriyak. (1983), studied the effects of various


insecticides on 2 natural enemies of the peach aphid Myzus persicae
(Sulz.) infesting tobacco and transmitting virus diseases to the crop. The
natural enemies were the seven-spotted ladybird [Coccinella
septempunctata L.] and Diaeretiella sp., and the insecticides were
menazon (Sayfos), phosalone, parathion-methyl (Metaphos), pirimicarb
(Pirimor), dimethoate (Bi 58) and fenitrothion (Metathion). Menazon,
pirimicarb and phosalone were least toxic to adults of C. septempunctata,

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

killing 24, 29 and 33% of individuals, respectively, after 10 days. After


10 h, fenitrothion had killed 83% of beetles, and by the 10th day had
caused total mortality; parathion-methyl and dimethoate caused 23 and
62% and 16 and 88% mortality, respectively.

Broadley. (1983), studied the contact toxicity of insecticides to


adults of the coccinellids Coccinella repanda and Harmonia
octomaculata, The toxicity in ascending order was: endosulfan,
chlorpyrifos, profenofos, methidathion, methomyl, monocrotophos,
cypermethrin and deltamethrin. The ascending order of toxicity for the 6
insecticides tested on Harmonia octomaculata was permethrin, sulprofos,
methidathion, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and deltamethrin. H.
octomaculata was less susceptible to methidathion.

Singh and Sircar. (1983), studied the toxicity of insecticides


against 8 species of aphids and the predacious coccinellid, Coccinella
septempunctata. They found that endosulfan, lindane and aphidan [S-
[(ethylsulfinyl)methyl] O,O-bis(1-methylethyl) phosphorodithioate] were
effective against aphids and relatively safe against C. septempunctata.

Krishnamoorthy. (1985), studied the toxicity of 15 pesticides used


at the recommended field rates to eggs, larvae and adults of Chrysopa
scelestes [Brinckochrysa scelestes], Eggs were sprayed directly, while
larvae and adults were exposed to dried residues on filter paper for 6 h. In
general, eggs were unaffected by the pesticides, but newly-hatched larvae
were susceptible to organophosphate and carbamate compounds.
Quinalphos, chlorpyrifos, malathion and dichlorvos were highly toxic to
both larvae and adults.

Patel and Vyas. (1985), evaluated the comparative toxicity of 10


insecticides to eggs of the neuropteran Chrysopa scelestes Brinckochrysa
scelestes, a predator of the noctuids Heliothis and Spodoptera, in the

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

laboratory . The decreasing order of toxicity of the compounds was


0.15% carbaryl > 0.05% malathion > 0.05% phenthoate > 0.05%
quinalphos > 0.07% endosulfan > 0.0125% permethrin > 0.01%
fenvalerate > 0.05% phosalone > 0.04% monocrotophos > 0.01%
cypermethrin.

Pree and Hagley. (1985), studied the toxicity of pesticides to


Chrysopa oculata Say (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). They found that most
organophosphorus insecticides except phosalone were toxic to both stages
(first instars and adults). The synthetic pyrethroids, with the exception of
fenvalerate and flucythrinate, were generally more toxic than
organophosphorus insecticides. Adults and first instars were equally
susceptible to most insecticides. The acaricides and fungicides were not
toxic at the level tested. Methomyl and carbaryl were toxic to both stages,
but pirimicarb was almost non toxic. DDT and endosulfan were toxic
only at high concentrations. In the field, azinphos-methyl and phosmet
were toxic to larvae for at least 14 days. Permethrin killed larvae caged
on foliage for 10 days, whereas most survived on phosalone-treated
foliage 1 day after app.

Sandhu. (1986), studied the chemical control of spotted alfalfa


aphid Aphis trifolii (Monell) on lucerne with reference to conservation of
coccinellid predators. He found five days after spraying, oxydemeton-
methyl at 75 and 150 g a.i./ha and dimethoate and phosphamidon at 150 g
a.i./ha were effective. Malathion was relatively ineffective. The
insecticides did not appear to be very toxic to adults of the predatory
coccinellids Menochilus sexmaculatus, Brumus suturalis [Brumoides
suturalis] and Coccinella septempunctata.

Upadhyay and Vyas. (1986), studied the comparative toxicity of


various systemic insecticides and Malathion to the predatory coccinellids

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Menochilus sexmaculatus and Coccinella septempunctata associated with


sucking pests Aphis craccivora and Empoasca kerri on groundnut in field
trials. A spray of thiometon applied against these pests at 0.03 and 0.05%
was found to be the least harmful to the coccinellids, followed by
demeton-O-methyl. Malathion at 0.05% was highly toxic to both
coccinellids. The comparative toxicity to coccinellids in ascending order
was thiometon < demeton-O-methyl < phosphamidon < monocrotophos <
dimethoate < malathion.

Wiktelius. (1986), tested the insecticides Pirimor G [pirimicarb],


Metasystox R100 [oxydemeton-methyl], Sumicidin 10 FW [fenvalerate],
Cymbush dg [cypermethrin] and Karate [[1α(S),3alpha(Z)]-isomer of
cyhalothrin] in the laboratory against predators of cereal aphids,
especially Erythraeus spp., lycosid spiders, the staphylinids Tachyporus
spp., the carabids Bembidion lampros, Harpalus rufipes and Pterostichus
melanarius and the Coccinellid Coccinella septempunctata. Pirimicarb
was the least toxic. The effects of the other insecticides differed between
test insects.

Bull et al. (1987), compared the toxicity of several insecticides


applied topically to adults of Microplitis croceipes (Cresson) , a larval
parasite of Heliothis spp . LC50 ranged from 0.008 to 0.658 ugm per
insect ; order of toxicity was: methyl parathion > dieldrin > malathion >
dimethoate > cis-permethrin > DDT > fenvalerate .

Zheng and Wing. (1987), studied the toxicity of pirimicarb,


fenvalerate, dimethoate and γ -BHC [Lindane] to the cereal aphid
Sitobion avenae, its predator Coccinella septempunctata and bracing
parasitoid Aphidius avenae [A. picipes], as well as the effectiveness of the
insecticides against the aphid in the field. The LC50s for pirimicarb,
fenvalerate, dimethoate and lindane were 0.99, 3.03, 6.53 and 109.2

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

p.p.m., respectively. Pirimicarb showed the highest selective ratio (natural


enemies LC50 :aphid LC50) of the 4 insecticides tested. Field trials
indicated that pirimicarb at 105 g a.i./ha gave the best control of the aphid
and was the least harmful to the natural enemies, while fenvalerate at 60 g
a.i./ha was also effective in controlling the aphid and did little damage to
the natural enemies. Dimethoate at 180 g a.i./ha was effective in
controlling the aphid but was harmful to the natural enemies.
Applications of lindane at 225 g a.i./ha were harmful to the natural
enemies and the compound was not recommended for control of the
aphid.

Fayad and Ibrahim. (1988), examined the effect of insecticides on


predator numbers in cotton fields. Coccinella undecimpunctata was
highly affected by the 3 insecticides tested, Rup 962 [deltamethrin], DC
702 [chlorpyrifos and diflubenzuron], and Curacron [profenofos]. The 1st
insecticide was the most critical in the disturbance of Scymnus and Orius
spp. No significant differences were noted between the insecticides or the
interval between treatments. Paederus alfierii and spiders appeared to
tolerate the effects of the insecticides and were encountered in moderate
numbers throughout the study. Chrysopa vulgaris [Chrysoperla carnea]
was highly susceptible to all tested insecticides.

Baspinar and Uygun. (1990), studied the effects of some


insecticides on larvae, pupae and adults of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri
and pupae and adults of Coccinella septempunctata in the laboratory.
Methidathion, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, pirimicarb, fluvalinate and
summer petroleum oil were applied by direct spraying, dipping and film
methods to adults and by direct spraying only to larvae and pupae.
Methidathion, carbosulfan and furathiocarb were toxic, fluvalinate was
slightly harmful, and pirimicarb and summer petroleum oil were harmless

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to all stages of both species. Larvae and pupae of Coccinella


septempunctata were more resistant to the insecticides than the adults of
both species.

Darwish and Farghal. (1990), evaluated nine insecticides against


the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci and associated natural enemies in
cotton fields of Assiut. They found that Buldock, Cyanox, EMA 2784 and
Tamaron combi showed the highest toxic effect against the whitefly.
Birlane and Marshal were the least effective ones. As for natural enemies,
Marshal and Tamaron combi were the least toxic compounds whereas,
Ekalux and Cyanox were the highest toxic ones. According to the relative
toxicity and residual effect of the tested insecticides against the whitefly
and associated natural enemies, the pyrethroid insecticide, Buldock gave
the best results.

The efficiency of five chemical compounds against the duranta


aphid, Aphis punicae (Pass.) (Homoptera, Aphididae) and its predator
Cydonaia vicina var. nilotica (Muls.) (Coleoptera. Coccinellidae) were
studied by Darwish et al. (1990). They found that the application of the
tested compounds on the third larval instar of lady-birds, Cydonaia vicina
var. nilotica (Muls.) ensured that Sumicidin and XRD473 could be used
with a lethal concentration on the pest at 0.1 and 5 ppm., respectively
without any effect on the predator.

Hao et al. (1990) tested the eggs, 4th -instar larvae, pupae and
adults of Coccinella septempunctata with pirimicarb, phosalone and
monocrotophos at various concentrations using the leaf-soaking method.
The results showed that the eggs, larvae, pupae and adults reacted
similarly to the 3 insecticides. The toxicity index of pirimicarb and
phosalone in comparison with that of monocrotophos was 0.0483 and
0.3187, respectively., to eggs at 120h., 0.01088 and 0.4056 to 4th -instar

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

larvae at 24h., 0.0540 and 0.5990 to pupae at 216h., and 0.1406 and
0.0623 to adults at 24h., respectively., suggesting that pirimicarb and
phosalone were highly selective to different developmental stages of the
coccinellid.

Shukla et al. (1990), studied the comparative toxicity of some


insecticides to Coccinella septempunctata Linn. (Coleoptera:
Coccinellidae). They found that oxydemeton-methyl 25 EC at a
concentration of 0.040% was the most toxic and endosulfan 35 EC at a
concentration of 0.070% was the least toxic to both larvae and adults of
the coccinellid. The 4 organophosphate insecticides tended to be more
toxic to the larvae, whereas endosulfan was more toxic to the adults.

Abou-Kahla et al. (1992), studied the impact of several sequences


of insecticides against certain cotton pests and the associated predators in
cotton fields. They found that all predators Coccinella sp., Paederus
aliferii (Koch.) and Metasyrphus corollae (F.) were greatly affected by
the tested insecticides except Chrysoperia carnea (Steph.), The
insecticides sequence programs (Decis, Cyanox, Larvin liquid and
Tamaron combi) and (Larvin liquid, Tamaron combi, Decis and Cyanox)
were the leading programs, as they induced more efficient pest control,
low efficacy on predator insects and gave high cotton yield.

Dimetry and Marei. (1992), studied the susceptibility of adults of


the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae and two of the most important
predators, Coccinella undecimpunctata and Chrysopa carnea to
pesticides. The application of profenophos for the cabbage aphid at LC50
level exhibited no toxicity for Coccinella but was highly toxic for
Chrysopa. Pirimicarb proved to be the most selective of the compounds
tested for the control of aphids when it was used at a concentration that
caused 50 per cent mortality as it was found to be unharmful to both

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Chrysopa and Coccinella. Dimethoate, on the other hand, was fto be very
harmful and highly toxic to both Coccinella and Chrysopa adults and
would probably be destructive to those natural enemies in the field.
Laboratory evaluation indicates that both pirimicarb and malathion have
potentials for use in IPM program for vegetable pest control.

El-Maghraby et al.(1993a), studied the effect of pesticidal


application during the early and late season on the abundance of certain
predators associated with cotton plants . They found that application of
kelthane-s and methomyl against mites and aphids slightly reduced the
population of Orius spp, Chrysopa carnea , Coccinella undecmpunctata
and Scymnus spp , percent reduction ranged between 10.6-17.9% also ,
they found that Orius spp was the most susceptible species tolerated the
action of the used insecticides.

El-Maghraby et al.(1993b), studied the toxicity of cypermethrin,


deltamethrin, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate, methomyl and kelthane-s against
the egg stage and the 1st larval instar of Chrysoperla carnea (Steph).They
revealed that deltamethrin exhibited magnitude bad side effect against the
eggs(the LC90 was 3.35 ppm) as compared with the safest compound

kelthane-s (the LC50 was 144 ppm.). The figures of the other tested
toxicants ranged between 17.6 to 109.2 ppm .They found that also the
larval stage needed higher concentration to achieve similar mortality
percentages; LC90 values ranged between 72.2 - 1176 ppm . Ranking of

toxicity was similar to that of the ovicidal action. The LC50 for the first
instar were 20.84, 18.63, 12.75, 6.32, 12.02 and 16.49 fold more tolerant
than eggs to delta-methrin, cypermeithrin, fenvalerate, fenpropathrin,
methomyl and kelthane-s, respectively. The corresponding number of
folds based on LC90 were 20.93, 20.98, 11.67, 4.83, 8.97 and 8.17 .

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The selective toxicity of certain common insecticides used in


controlling aphids to the predator Coccinella undecimpuncata and its prey
cereal aphid, Rhopalosiphum spp was studied by Hussein et al. (1993a),
they reported that the contact toxicity based on LC50 values demonstrated
the selectivity of profenofos, omethoate and alphamethrin to C.
undecimpunctata with selectivity factor (S.F) of 2.75, 1.42, and 1.166,
respectively. Methmoyl showed slight selectivity (S.F 1.048). The relative
susceptibility of the predator and the aphid varied considerably among the
tested insecticides, The adult of C. undecimpunctata was more
susceptible to chlorpyrifos, malathion, pirimiphos-methyl and pirimicarb.

Fouly et al. (1995),evaluated the toxicity of Cidial and Ataboron


on the predaceous mite species Euseius scutalis (A-H.) and Agisternus
exsertus Gonzalez. The stigmaeid mite A. exsertus was more susceptible
han the phytoselid mite E. scutalis. Moreover, atabron was more effective
on both mite species.

Kaakeh et al.(1996),assessed the relative toxicities of two synthetic


pyrethroids (cypermethrin and fenvalerate), two organophosphorus
insecticides (chlorpyrifos, diazinon), three carbamates (propoxur,
carbaryl, bendiocarb), a phenylpyrazole representative (fipronil), and a
heterocyclic nitromethylene representative (imidacloprid or NTN 33893)
with topical bioassays in the laboratory against the convergent lady
beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guerin Meneville. They found that LD50
values decreased (i.e., toxicity increased) with an increased time after
application of a specific insecticide. The differences between the LD50
values caused by various insecticides were significant. Among tested
insecticides, cypermethrin and bendiocarb were the most toxic; fipronil
was the least toxic. H. convergens responded differently to different
insecticides within the same class. Beetles exhibited similar responses to

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

both organophosphorothionates chlorpyrifos and diazinon 24 to 72 h.


after application. Of the carbamates, propoxur was 2.4 and 3.5 times less
toxic than carbaryl and bendiocarb, respectively. Of the pyrethroids
tested, cypermethrin was significantly more toxic than fenvalerate. At
800 ppm, cypermethrin and bendiocarb were the fastest in killing H.
convergens among the tested insecticides. The ranking of insecticides in
decreasing order of LT50 values was as follows: fipronil > diazinon >
chlorpyrifos > propoxur > carbaryl > fenvalerate and imidacloprid.

2- Mammalian toxicity of pesticides:

Toxicity of pesticides to mammals is one of the most adverse


effects on the environment. Two main types of studies are carried out in
this respect (i. e. acute and subchronic toxicity ). Pharmacologically, the
pesticides (e.g. organophoshorus, carbamate, organochlorine and
pyrethroids) are neuropoisons which effect certain neurological targets.

For example, organophosphorus and carbamates esters may be classified


as anticholinesterases (Heath 1961, and O`Brien 1969) referring to their
ability to bind with AChE. However, it is known that OP compounds are
not only cholinergic agents but also they produce a variety of other
pharmacological and toxicological effects (Eto, 1947). Such effects
include those on liver and kidney functions which could be confirmed by
biochemical and histopathological studies. Many studies have been
frequently reported in this respect.

2.1. The effect on AChE and esterases.

Salem et al. (1979), studied the biochemical disorders due to


subchronic toxicity of Dursban active ingredient. They found that after
the continuous ingestion of Dursban active ingredient at dose levels of
0,40 or 80 ppm to male albino rats for three months. The poisoned

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

animals suffered from a successive depression in the activity of the


whole-blood AChE.

Abbassy et al. (1980), studied the toxicity from feeding


pirimphos-methyl to fayoumi laying hens. They found that no hen
mortality occurred due to treatment but blood plasma cholinesterase
activity was inhibited.

Abbassy et al. , (1981) , studied the toxicity in hens fed single


oral doses of chlorpyrifos (32 mg/kg), and pirimiphos-methyl (35 mg/kg).
These doses produced toxic effects in hens similar to that reported for
other organophosphorus insecticides. Plasma cholinesterase (ChE)
activities were significantly decreased in treated birds, but cholinesterase
activity increased after 7 days from treatment .

Tiefenbach and Wichner. (1985), investigated the acute action


of different doses of the organophoshorus pesticide, methamidophos on
the immune system in mice. After treatment with 1/2 and 1/10th of LD50.
It was observed a decreasing of organ weights. There was also an
inhibition of cholinesterase in plasma and brain.

Kobayashi et al. (1986), studied the cholinergic system of brain


tissue in rats poisoned with the organophosphate, o,o-dimethyl o-(2,2-
dichlorovinyl) phosphate (DDVP),(6 mg/kg,sc , with saline as a control).
They found that actylcholinesterase (AChE)activity decreased to between
12 and 43% of the control over a period of 5 to 180 min. and recovered
almost completely within 24 hr after injection.

Sheremeta. (1986), reported that cholinesterase activity in the


blood, brain and liver of 30-day-old juveniles of Huso huso and
Acipenser stilettos exposed over 96 h to organophosphorus,
organochlorine and carbamate pesticides. Phosphamide [Dimethoate] at

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1.4 and 2.1 g/liter, 2M-4X [of unstated composition] at 3.2 and 4.8
mg/liter, and benthanal [of unstated composition] at 16.0 and 24.0
mg/litter, were found to produce strong inhibitory effects in all tissues of
both species. Primary changes took place within as little as 3h in the
blood, during the 1st day in the liver, and during the 2nd day of poisoning
in the case of brain tissue. The results showed that total cholinesterase
activity was inhibited in the various tissues. The highest and lowest
inhibitory effects were exhibited by carbamate and organophosphorus
pesticides, respectively, with organochlorine pesticides in an intermediate
position.

Khorunova and Baranova. (1987), reported that in carp exposed


to one-tenth or one-twentieth of the lethal concentration of the insecticide
pirimiphos-methyl for 30 days there was inhibition of serum
cholinesterase.

Singh and Drewes. (1987) studied the neurotoxic effect of low-


level chronic exposure to acephate in rats. They found that no significant
inhibition in the activity of brain AChE at doses of 1.0 or 10.0 mg/kg.
day. Low levels of Acephate exposure (1.0 mg/kg . day), which did not
alter plasma cholinesterase or RBC actylcholinesterase activity levels,
resulted in a significant elevation of plasma epinephrine and
norepinephrine levels. Decreased GABA, dopamine, and tyrosine levels
and glutamic acid decarboxylase activity in brains of these rats. Similar
changes occurred in rats exposed to 10 mg of acephate/kg day; however,
plasma chlinesterase and RBC acetylcholinesterase activities were
inhibited.

Abbassy et al. (1988), studied the side effects of profenophos and


leptophos on hen plasma. Oral administration of profenophos or
leptophos to laying hens as a single oral does, caused significant

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

inhibition of plasma cholinesterase (ChE). While plasma cholinesterase


activity of hens given daily small doses of each compound was
significantly reduced at the end of experiment.

Guthathakurta and Bhattacharya. (1988), treated Channa.


punctatus cultivated under paddy-cum-fish culture programs, with 176
p.p.b. phenthoate, 333 p.p.b. carbofuran, or a mixture of 88 p.p.b.
phenthoate plus 250 p.p.b. carbofuran for 15 days. The rate of mortality
was 10% in all treatments. These xenobiotics caused significant inhibition
of brain acetylcholinesterase.

Abbassy et al. (1989a), studied the effects of organophosphorus


insecticide sulprofos on serum enzymes of white rates. The acute toxicity
in white rats to suplrofos is moderate. The clinical biochemistry of serum
indicated significant changes the activities of ∝-naphthyl esterase and
cholinesterase (ChE).

Guthathakurta and Bhattacharya. (1989), reported that in vitro


inhibition of goat cerebellar acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by pure and
commercial pesticides clearly indicates a remarkably high inhibitory
effect of commercial carbamate (e.g. carbaryl) and organophosphate (e.g.
phenthoate) pesticides containing a lower percentage of the respective
active ingredients comparable to that of the known anti cholinesterase
agents such as diisopropyl fluorophosphate and physostigmine.

Jimmerson et al. (1989) examined the inhibition of cholinesterase


(ChE) activity in the central nervous system of the rat by the potent
organophosphorus compound, soman. They found that at soman doses
greater than 55 mg/kg s.c.(0.5 LD50), there were: (1) dose-related
inhibition of ChE activity in brain regions; (2) variability in the degree of

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ChE inhibition at each soman dose in each brain region. and (3)
variability in the severity of signs of intoxication at each dose.

The chronic effects of a sublethal dose (150 mg/kg body weight)


of dimethoate on blood constituents in rats after exposure of 15 and 30
days was studied by Reena et al. (1989). They found that the activities of
acid phosphatase and cholinesterase were significantly decreased.

Lock and Johnson. (1990), studied delayed neuropathy and acute


toxicity with pirimiphos-methyl in the hen. Hens were given a single
dose of 100 mg/kg pirimiphos-methyl, which was followed by a repeated
dose after 21 days. Tri-o-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), 500 mg/kg, was used
as a positive control. All pirimiphos-methyl-treated hens received
prophylactic doses of N-methylpyridinium-2-aldoxime methanesulphate
(P2S) and atropine sulphate. Hens dosed with pirimiphos-methyl had very
low AChE activities (<20% of control) in both the brain and spinal cord,
24 and 48 h after dosing. In the TOCP-treated hens, the activities were
about 90% of control. All hens dosed with pirimiphos-methyl showed the
expected signs of AChE inhibition and, following recovery, usually by
day 5, no clinical signs of delayed neuropathy were seen.

Matin et al. (1990) studied the role of adrenals in diazinon-


induced changes in carbohydrate metabolism in rats. Treatment of rats
with diazinon (40 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in reduction of brain
actylcholinesterase activity.

Sakai. (1990), studied the effect of chlorpyrifos on cholinesterase


activity in rats. given (20 mg/kg) chlorpyrifos in olive oil i.p. lowered
their plasma, erythrocyte, and brain cholinestrase activity and the plasma
activity alone was recovered within 1 month.

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Yoshikawa et al. (1990), studied the effect of administration with


chlorpyrifos on electroretinograms in rats. They found that chlorpyrifos
caused abnormal ERG characterized by decreased amplitudes and
prolonged latencies of A and B waves and that the abnormal ERG did not
always correspond to the decreased retinochoroid or brain ChE activities.

Banerjee et al. (1991), studied the inhibition of human fetal brain


acetylcholinesterase. They showed that organophosphate were more
neurtoxic than carbamate compounds, as evidenced by a higher degree of
AChE inhibition by DFP and metacid-50 as compared to eserine and
carbaryl. The psychotropic durgs less potent than organophosphate and
carbamatecompounds. They showed that also pure and commercial
organophosphates and carbamates and psychotrpic drugs were all able to
significantly alter the AChE activity. Thus, the exposure of the mother to
these environmental toxicants may adversely affect the fetal neural
function

Cairns et al.(1991) dosed northern bobwhite, Colinus


virginianus , orally with the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos to
examine effects on brain cholinesterase (ChE) activity. They found that a
lag time of 2 to 4 h following exposure was necessary to detect significant
ChE depression caused by chlorpyrifos. The lowest dose that produced
ChE depression was between 30 and 50 mg chlorpyrifos/kg with some
mortality occurring at the high doses. Depression typically persisted for at
least 24h.

El-Harrawie et al. (1991), studied the acute oral toxicity of


methamidophos to male albino rats. Oral administration of a single dose
of LD25 of methamidophos to mature male albino rats caused significant
decrease in ChE when blood samples were taken at 1,3,6, 12, 24, 48 and
72hr after administration. On the other hand, subchronic toxicity through

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

administration of 50 and 100 ppm of methamidophos in drinking water


for 90 successive days resulted in a significant decrease in the plasma
ACh-ase activity.

Kandil et al. (1991) , studied the effect of subchronic doses of


cyanophos in drinking water for 12 weeks ad-libitum at two doses levels
(600 and 1200 ppm), on certain enzyme activity. It was found that the
tested doses inhibited significantly the plasma cholinesterase activity
(ChEp) throughout the experimental period.

Lavandero et al. (1991), studied the ability of fenthion to


increase gizzard erosion in broiler chicks. They found that an inverse
relationship between plasma cholinesterase activity and pesticide
concentration at doses higher than 1 ppm (p<0.05).

Manna. (1991), studied the influence of diazinon and fenitrothion


on acetylcholinestrase activity in digestive gland and central nervous
system of Achatine fulica. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE)
activity in the central nervous system and digestive gland of A. fulica was
directly proportional to the concentration of diazinon and fenitrothion.
The rate of inhibition and recovery of AChE was gradual in diazinon
poisoning while it was fast in fentrothion treatment.

The effect of pesticides on chosen biochemical parameters of the


rat serum and liver was studied by Pawlowska et al. (1991). The
activities of cholinesterase (AChE), aspartate aminotransferase (GOT),
alanine aminotransferase(GPT) level were determined in the blood serum
and/or liver of rates after intragstic of oil or oil solutions of carbaryl,
methyl parathion and bromphenvinphos. They found that a distinct
increases in serum AChE and liver GOT and GPT levels and decreases in
serum GOT and GOT in rats receiving the pesticides.

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Sandhu et al. (1991), studied the acute toxicity and


anticholinesterase effect of monocrotophos in domestic fowels. They
reported that monocrotophos in different doses produced marked
inhibition of erythrocyte (15.2-72.5%) and plasma (12.4-65.4%)
cholinesterase. The inhibition of blood cholinesterase was dose-dependent
and correlated well with the severity of toxic symptoms.

Siddiqui et al. (1991), studied the effects of monocrotophos and


its newly synthesized analogs, RPR-11 and RPR-V on blood chemistry
24hr. post treatment in rats given doses of 0.96, 1.23 and 3.0 mg/kg,
orally, respectively. Only monocrotophos caused a significant inhibition
of the brain acetylcholinesterase activity.

Anam and Maitra. (1992), studied the changed of blood glucose,


liver and muscle glycogen, and actylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in
brain and pancreas of male indian weaver brid (Ploceus philippinus
philippinus:Linnaeus) following treatment with quinalphos. Quinalphos
was given orally to birds at doses 5, 10, or 20 µg/100 g body wt./day for
10 consecutive days , respectively. They found that each dose of
quinalphos caused significant inhibition of AChE activity in brain and
pancreas.

Awal and Malik. (1992), studied the effects of daily


phosphamidon administration on certain blood biochemical
measurements in Bubalus bubalis. They found that a dose-dependent
inhibition of erythrocyte actylcholinesterase following administration of
phosphamidon to buffalo calves.

Groups of beagle dogs, were fed methidathion at constant dietary


concentration of 0-140 ppm for 1 year. The equivalent daily dosages
were approximately 0-4.7 mg/kg. There were no deaths or adverse
clinical sings associated with the treatment. Erythrocyte ChE was

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REVIEW OF LITERATURE

inhibited in males at > 40 ppm and in females at 140 ppm. Brain ChE was
inhibited in both sexes at 140 ppm. The no- observable -effect level was 4
ppm (0.15 mg/kg/day) for ChE inhibition (Chang et al. (1992).

The effects of single acute oral doses of 1, 2.1, and 3.5 mg/kg
oxamyl (a carbamate insecticide) on selected biochemical parameters in
male Sprague-Dawley rats was studied by Fayez and Kilgore. (1992),
They found that the compound inhibited brain and blood
acetycholinesterase significantly in the first few hours of exposure. but
there were absence of statistically significant effects between days 7 and
14 in most of the investigated parameters.

Fossi et al. (1992), studied the serum esterase inhibition in birds:


a nondestructive biomaker to assess organophosphorus and carbamate
contamination. The birds received two single doses treatment of each
compound (azamethiphos and methomyl), i.e., 50 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg,
respectively. In the first treatment, serum butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)
and carboxylesterase (CBE) were drastically inhibited in the
azamethiphos-treated group, 24 h. after the dose. No inhibition was
detected for BChE and ChE activities in the methomyl-treated group 24 h.
after the dose. in the second treatment, the birds died or were sacrificed 3
h. after the dose. Serum BChE and brain acetylcholinestrase (AChE) were
strongly inhibited after treatment with both insecticides. Serum ChE,
hepatic microsomal CBE and 7-ethoxyresorufin dealkyation activities
were also inhibited. A statistically significant correlation between serum
BChE and brain AChE was found at lethal and sublethal doses of these
xenobiotics.

Holmes and Sundaram. (1992), studied insecticides residues and


cholinesterase inhibition in zebra finches orally dosed with fentrothion.
Dosage rates were 1.04, 3.80, and 11.36 mg/kg. Peak brain and plasma

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ChE inhibitions averaged between 50-76% and 79-89%, respectively.


Plasma ChE recovered more rapidly (1-4days) than brain ChE (10 days or
more). Brain and plasma ChE inhibitions were positive, but weakly,
correlated with fenitrothion body burden.

The disposition kinetics, cytotoxicity and residues of fenvalerate


in tissues following oral administration at 5 mg/kg to goats was studied
by Mandal et al. (1992). They found that the fenvalerate did not produce
any significant effect on serum actylcholinesterase, cholesterol or protien
levels in goats.

Pope and Chakraborti. (1992), examined dose-related inhibition


of both brain and plasma cholinesterase activity in neonatal and adult rats
exposed to sublethal doses of three common OP pesticides, methyl
parathion, parathion, and chlorpyifos. They determined the effective dose
50 (i.e., ED50 or dose which would inhibit 50% of the cholinesterase
activity) values and then correlated them with an indicator of acute
toxicity, the maximal tolerated dose (MTD). They found that ED50
estimated for both brain and plasma cholinesterase correlated highly (r =
0.932-0.992) with previously derived MTD values. There was significant
difference between in vivo brain and plasma cholinesterase sensitivity as
expressed by ED50 values. They suggested that in vivo inhibitory potency
of the three OPs towards either brain or plasma ChE activity was highly
correlated with sensitivity to acute toxicity in both neonatal and adult rats.
Additionally, under defined experimental condition, plasma ChE
inhibition may be a useful quantitative index for the degree of brain
cholinesterase following OP exposures.

Pope et al. (1992a), compared the in-vivo cholinesterase


inhibition neonatal and adult rats by three organophosphorothioate

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insecticides, (methyl parathion, parathion, chlorpyrfos.). They indicated


that neonatal rats are more sensitive to acute lethality from these
compounds and the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) exposures produce
extensive brain ChE inhibition in both age groups (7 days and 80-100
days group). They could ensure a significant inhibitor-related and age-
related differences in the duration of ChE inhibition , however, following
such OP exposures.

Pope et al. (1992b), studied the long-term neurochemical and


behavioral effects induced by acute chlorpyrifos treatment. They reported
that a single dose of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF),
at 279 mg/kg, s.c. caused extensive inhibition of cortical and striatal
cholinesterase (ChE) activity in adult rats at 2 (94-96%), 4 (82-83%), and
6 (58-60%) week after treatment. ChE activity was different from control
levels at 12 week after exposure.

Salama et al. (1992), investigated the pharmacokinetics and


anticholinesterase properties of a single oral dose 6 mg/kg of technical
phenamiphos in male rats. They killed the animals at time interval of 0.5-
72h after dosing . They found that the total recovered amount of
phenamiphos from brain and plasma tissues reached high level at the first
time interval and disappeared biexponentially from both to low level at
the end of the experiment. On the other hand, phenamiphos inhibited the
enzyme in both brain and plasma, where the depression of ChE activity
was usually more marked in plasma than in brain.

Vasilic et al. (1992), studied the urinary excretion rates of di-Et


phosphate and di-Et phosphorothioate and changes in blood
cholinesterase activities in fifteen persons self-poisoned either by the
organophosphorus pesticide quinalphos (twelve persons) or by
chlorpyrifos (three persons). They reported that the organophosphate

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poisoning was always indicated by a significant depression of serum


cholinesterase activity in the rang of reference values took more than 30
days and had a different course in different persons.

Abdel Baki (1993), studied the detrimental effects on chickens


fed ration treated with pirimiphos-methyl. He found that the activities of
plasma ChE and total esterases of hens fed treated diet were significantly
inhibited within two months after treatments.

Ammar and El-Sheikh. (1993), studied the effect of confidor on


activity of some enzymes in male albino mice. They found that usage of
confidor as a single dose (1/4 LD50, 52.5 mg/kg B.W) caused severe
inhibition of AchE after 24h of treatment. The enzyme however, started to
regain its normal level after 96h.

The compatibility of insecticides (Actellic, Reldan, Selecron and


Malathion) and chitin synthesis inhibitors CSI (IKI17899, XRD473,
Dowco 439 and SH777) and their interaction in white rats was studied by
El- Hamady (1993). The activity of plasma enzymes, cholinesterase,
total esterase, acid and alkaline phosphatases, GOT and GPT were
determined in treated rats. The levels of these enzymes in the rats treated
with the insecticides, Actellic or Malathion lonely were not significantly
different from those in rats treated with the same insecticides combined
with IKI7899 or XRD473.

Milillo et al. (1993), studied the occasional ingestion of


dimethoate by sheep. They found that when 5 sheeps were given grass
2
sprayed with 40% dimethoate at 4.5 litters/50 m , there was a fall in
serum cholinesterase values for 24h.

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Osman.(1994), studied the interaction of glyphosate with some


mammalian biochemical targets. Female mice treated with 200 mg/Kg
of glyphosate as a single oral doses resulted in a maximally decreased in
AChE activity in kidney (38.9%) , liver (70.7%) and brain (75.3%)
following the single dose treatment .On other hand, following the
multiple oral dose (five doses of 200 mg/Kg glyphosate in 10 day) ,
recovery of AchE in brain and kidney was observed , whereas liver AChE
remained significantly.

2.2. The effect on liver function and other biochemical


parameters:

The liver is the principal organ that converts xenobiotics to


products excretable in the bile, urine and exhaled air. For these functions,
the liver has high activities of diverse enzyme systems involved in
chemical biotransformation. In particular, the liver appears to be capable
of metabolizing every chemical carcinogen, except the few which require
prior alteration by bacterial enzymes. As a consequence of its functional
activity, the liver is often the primary target for the toxic effects of
xenobiotics. Indeed even when another organ suffer the major toxic
effects of a chemical, the liver is frequently affected also, Therefore,
effects on the liver can be used as a general index for the toxicity of
xenobiotics.

The potential of xenobiotics to produce liver cell injury can often


be rapidly detected by testing up high doses. Cell injury ultimately results
in an increased permeability of the cell membrane. For liver cells, this
allows cytoplasmic enzymes such as glutamic oxalacetic transaminase
and lactic dehydrogenase to escape into the blood where their presence in
elevation of blood levels of enzymes, especially alkaline phosphatase and
γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. The assessment of liver enzymes in the blood

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is generally a more sensitive measure of hepatotoxicity than


histopathologic changes and can be assessed within a shorter time
(Cornelius et al, 1959 and Gradwohl,1956).

2.2.1. Transaminases.

Activity of certain enzymes in the blood of carp poisoned with


pirimiphos-methyl was studied by Khorunova and Baranova. (1987), in
carp exposed to one-tenth or one-twentieth of the lethal concentration of
the pirimiphos-methyl for 30 days there was an inhibition of
aminotransferase activities.

Abbassy et al. (1988), studied the effects of profenophos and


leptophos on hen plasma and liver. Single oral or daily dosing of the two
insecticides into hens significantly increased the activity of plasma GOT
and GPT than that of control hens. It was also found that the activity of
plasma GOT was always more higher than GPT in all plasma. GOT was
always more higher than GPT in all plasma samples of normal or treated
hens.

Mohamed et al. (1988), studied the degradation of Meothrin


[fenpropathrin] applied at 20 and 40 p.p.m. to barley grains during storage
for a period of up to 60 days, after which the treated grains were
incorporated into a purified diet and fed to rats for 15 days. In treated rats,
there were increases in serum aminotransferases and alkaline
phosphatase.

Ray et al. (1988), studied the effect of quinalphos (250 .mg/kg


i.p.) treatment for 13 and 26-days on the testicular steroidogenesis in rats.
They found that treatment of quinalphos for 13 days produced no toxic
effect with the exception of a significant increase in serum alkaline

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phosphatase. However, after 26-days of treatment serum transaminases


and phosphatases were significantly increased.

Abbassy et al. (1989a), studied the effects of organophosphorus


insecticide sulprofos on serum enzymes, and liver of white rats. The
clinical biochemistry of serum indicated significant changes values in the
activities of glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic
transaminase (GOT). The results showed that the significant rise in serum
SGOT and SGPT would indicate the presence of incipient liver damage
in the initial stage as a result of exposure, to OP insecticide sulprofos.

The sublethal doses of sulprofos were administered to laying hens.


Serum enzymes, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT) and
glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were measured at different intervals
from administration. Dosed hens showed significant increase of these
serum enzymes (Abbassy et al., 1989b).

Ashour et al.(1989), studied the in vivo effect of sublethal doses


of four synthetic pyrethroids, namely ; fenpropathrin, deltamethrin,
permethrin, and fenvalerate, in male and female white rats. The acute and
subchronic effect on glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and
glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities in liver and brain were
determined. The four insecticides used were poinhibitors of GOT activity
in both liver and brain. The activity of GPT was decreased in brain as a
result of the insecticides treatment, whereas the enzyme level was
elevated in the liver, except with permethrin treatment as the enzyme
activity was decreased.

Reena et al. (1989), studied the hematological changes induced


by a sublethal dose (150 mg/kg body weight) of dimethoate in rats after
exposure of 15 and 30 days. The activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic

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transaminase, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase and amylase markedly


increased.

Zidan et al. (1989), studied the effect of local EC. formulations of


fenvalerate and fenpropathrin pyrethroids on certain liver function
parameters in white albino mice. Mice treated by LD50 through

intarperitoneal injection. The tested pyrethroids when injected at LD50


levels caused no adverse effects on the parametars indicating liver
function, i.e. bilirubin, GOT and GPT enzymes systems.

Increases in blood serum concentrations of alanine and aspartate


aminotransferases were observed in rats after single intragastric dose of
o.5 LD50 of γ-HCH [lindane], Bi-58 [dimethoate], Decies [deltamethrin]
or the herbicide Isophen [chlorpropham + fenuron]. This indicated liver
damage by the pesticides (Kadyrova et al., 1990).

Mohamed et al. (1990), studied the combined effect of Dursban


and Reldan on Nubian goats. They found that goats dosed orally with a
1/1 mixture of Dursban [chlorpyrifos] and Reldan [chlorpyrifos-methyl]
at 300 mg/kg body weight caused more rapid death and severe changes
than in goats dosed with insecticide alone at 150 mg/kg. Hepato-renal
lesions were accompanied by increases in aspartate aminotransferase
activity and urea concentration and by decreases in total serum protein
concentration.

Shakoori et al.(1990), studied the biochemical effects of


bifenthrin on the blood and liver of rabbit. The synthetic pyrethroid,
bifenthrin (talstar), administered to rabbits at a chronic dose of 6 mg/kg
body weight for 30 days, significantly affected the biochemical
environments of blood and liver. Activities of alkaline phosphatase
(AkP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase

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[alanine aminotransferase, AlA] decreased, respectively (11%, 22%, 48%,


33% and 18% after 15 days of insecticide treatment) while glutamate
oxaloacetate transaminase [aspartate aminotransferase, ASA] increased
92% during this exposure. On prolonged exposure for a total of 30 days,
the AkP activity increased 207% Correspondingly in liver, the 30-day
insecticide treatment resulted in increased AkP.

El-Harrawie et al. (1991), studied the acute oral toxicity of


methamidophos to male albino rats. Oral administration of a single dose
of LD25 of methamidophos to mature male albino rats resulted in a
significant elevation in the plasma GOT and GPT when blood samples
were taken at 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72hr after administration .

Hanafy et al. (1991), studied the biochemical and


histopathological effects of the organophosphorus insecticide, Tamaron in
rats. Groups of rats were given either a single large dose of Tamaron
(methamidophos) (20 mg/kg body wt) or repeated oral small doses (2
mg/kg body wt). Both treatments caused a highly significant elevation of
urea, aspartate and alanine aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase in
the blood of treated rats.

Pawlowska et al. (1991), studied the effect of pesticides on


chosen biochemical parameters of the rat serum and liver. The activities
of cholinesterase (AChE), aspartate aminotransferase (GOT), alanine
aminotransferase(GPT) level were determined in the blood serum and/or
liver of rats after intragastric of oil or oil solutions of carbaryl, methyl
parathion and bromphenvinphos. They found distinct increases in serum
AChE and liver GOT and GPT levels and decreases in serum GOT and
GOT in rats receiving the pesticides

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Pradhan and Dasgupta (1991), studied the effect of dimethoate


on GOT and GPT activities in plasma, liver, kidney, and heart muscle of
the male toad. The GOT activity was increased in plasma but decreased
in other organs, whereas GPT activity was decreased in plasma, liver and
heart but increased in kidney. The pesticide caused hepatorenal and
cardiac toxicity, resulting in alteration of transaminase activities.

Rajeev et al. (1991), studied the biochemical effects of phorate


and dimethoate, administered either orally or i.p., in female albino rats.
Phorate administration, in general, resulted in an increase in liver
transaminases and phosphatases. Significant variations were noted in
transaminases and phosphatases when dimethoate was fed.

Shiroishi et al. (1991), determined the serum enzyme activities in


12 farm dusters exposed to pesticides containing 2% fenthion, 2% O-sec-
butyl phenyl methylcarbamate and 1.5% edifenphos. The blood samples
were collected 3 times before exposure and 2-6 h and 4-6 days after
exposure. They found a positive correlation between enzyme activity
before and after dusting and blood concentration of pesticides for
glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, glutamic - oxaloacetic transaminase and
creatine phosphokinase in blood.

Siddiqui et al. (1991), studied the effects of monocrotophos and


its newly synthesized analogs, RPR-11 and RPR-V on blood chemicals .
24 hr. post treatment in rats given doses of 0.96, 1.23 and 3.0 mg/kg,
orally, respectively. The activities of membrane- bound enzymes in serum
were not significantly changed by all 3 compounds, except for a
statistically significant increase of 28% in serum GOT activity by RPR-
11.

Rao et al. (1991), studied the alterations in the rat brain


carbohydrate and related metabolism during acute and chronic acephate

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toxicity. They found that activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT),


and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) were decreased in activity
significantly during chronic treatment. However AAT, and AlAT
activities showed a significant increase during acute treatment.

Zidan et al. (1991a) , studied the biochemical effects of


Sumicidin and Sumithion, at 1,2,3,4,5 and 6 weeks after oral
administration to male mice. The results indicated clearly that Sumicidin
was a potent inhibitor of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and
glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activity at 1/20 and 1/10 LD50.
These changes were related to type of insecticide used, dose and time
elapsed.

The interaction of insecticides, Sumialpha, Sumicidin and Cyanox


with the blood plasma enzymes of male albino mice was tested by Zidan
(1991b) . Plasma glutamic oxaloacelic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic
pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activities increased depending on the dose
used and time after treatment.

Groups of beagle dogs, four/sex/dose, were fed methidathion at


constant dietary concentration of 0-140 ppm for 1 year. The equivalent
daily dosages were approximately 0-4.7 mg/kg. They found that no deaths
or adverse clinical sings were associated with the treatment. Moderate
increase in serum bile acids and enzyme activities (alanine
aminotransferase, aspartate aminotansferase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, and
alkaline phosphatase) in all dogs receiving >40 ppm (Chang et al. 1992).

Mandal et al. (1992), studied the disposition kinetics, cytotoxicity


and residues of fenvalerate in tissues following oral administration at 5
mg/kg to goats. Both GOT and GPT activities in kidney tissue, and only

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GPT activities in liver tissue had decreased significantly 4, 8 and 22 days


post-administration.

Shakoori et al. (1992), administered a sublethal dose of karate


[lambda-cyhalothrin] to rabbits. They found that the transaminases
[aminotransferases] (glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase [aspartate
aminotransferase], GOT [aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] and GPT
[alanine aminotransferase (ALT)] increased after 15 days treatment. ALT
activity increased 119% and 60% after 15 and 30 days, respectively.

Swamy and Mohan. (1992), studied the effect of sublethal daily


dosing of monocrotophos on activities of aminotransferasand glutamate
dehydrogenase in rat brain. They found that monocrotophos caused
elevation in aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), and alanine
aminotransferase (ALAT) activities.

Tarrant et al. (1992), study the biochemical and histological


effects of the aphicide demeton-S-methyl on house sparrows (Passer
domesticus) under field condition. They found that exposure of house
sparrows to demeton-s-methyl was indicated by inhibition of serum
butyryl cholinesterase (BChE) activity and also resulted in slight
inhibition of actylcholinesterase (AChE) and raised serum glutamate-
oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) levels in some birds.

Abedl Baki (1993), studied the detrimental effects on chickens


fed treated ration with pirimiphos-methyl. He found that plasma GPT
activity was always higher in hens fed treated ration than those of non
treated ones.

Abdel Baki et al. (1993) studied the acute toxicity of some


fungicides to rats and their effects on the structure and function of the rat
liver. Single oral doses of the tested fungicides (each equivalent to 10000

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mg/kg b.w) did not exhibit any sings of toxicity symptoms but led to a
significant increase in the activity of plasma acid and alkaline
phosphatase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) while
glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) activity increased significantly in
the rats treated with the fungicide, trimeltox-forte.

Ammar and El- Sheikh. (1993), administered imidacloprid


(confidor) orally to male albino mice, using either single dose (1/4 LD50

52.5 mg/kg B.W.) or repeated doses (1/10 LD50 21 mg/kg). They found
that there was no significant inhibitory action on GOT activity in all
tested tissues, GPT level declined in both brain and kidney tissues under
various treatment conditions.

The compatibility of insecticides and chitin synthesis inhibitors


CSI and their interaction in white rats was studied by El- Hamady
(1993). The activity of plasma enzymes, cholinesterase, total esterase,
acid and alkaline phosphatases, GOT and GPT were determined in treated
rats. He found that the levels of these enzymes in rats treated with the
insecticides, actellic or malathion lonely were not significantly different
from those in rats treated with the same insecticides combined with
IKI7899 or XRD473.

Katayama.(1993), reported that feeding of 0.1% DDT containing


diet for 13-14 days to rats caused a reduction in growth rate, which was
significantly ameliorated by dietary addition of myo-inositol. Dietary
DDT increased liver weight, serum cholesterol, and activities of serum
glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate - pyruvate
transaminase (GPT). The increases in liver weight, liver cholesterol,
serum cholesterol and serum GOT activity due to DDT were significantly
suppressed by dietary addition of myo-inositol. In addition, dietary myo-
inositol caused a decreasing trend in serum GPT activity in DDT-fed

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animals. In the animals without receiving DDT, dietary myo-inositol


caused no significant effect on these metabolic parameters These results
suggest that rats fed DDT containing diet may require an exogenous
source of myo-inositol.

Male immature Wistar rats treated with a tolerated dose of (2


mg/kg/day) orally for 90 days (during the period of growth to maturity).
Twenty-four h after the termination of the treatment, organ weight and
protein concentrations were determined. Food consumption and body
weight gain decreased parallely. No changes occurred in the body tissues
but for liver which was enlarged and its protein, glutamic oxalacetic
transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase concentrations increased
(Paul et al., 1993).

Interaction of glyphosate with some mammalian biochemical


targets was studied by Osman (1994). Transaminases (GPT & GOT)
activity were elevated in brain and liver while GPT or GOT activity of
kidney remained unchanged following a single oral dose (200 mg/Kg of
glyphosate). however, the multiple oral dose (200 mg/Kg of glyphosate
five times in 10 days) elevated the GPT and GOT activities of brain and
kidney, while a reduction in liver GPT and GOT activities were observed.

The acute toxicity of Ivermectin in laboratory animals studied by


Eweis et al. (1995). Three doses representing 0.5, 0.25, 0.1 of the LD50
were administered orally for 4 weeks in drinking water. The tissue-
specific enzymes, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate
pyruvate transaminase (GPT), the amount of urea and total protiens of
liver and kidney were significantly decreased.

2. 2. 2. Alkaline phosphatase

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Khalifa et al. (1986), investigated the effect of determined


amounts of methyl bromfenvinphos histochemically on the liver and
spleen of hens. The liver of the treated hens has shown general increase in
the intensity of alkaline and acid phosphatases. The spleen has displayed
mild increase in the alkaline phosphatase while the acid phosphatase
activity was unaffected. It appears that the adverse changes caused by
methyl bromofenvinphos was due to its toxic effects . The toxicity has
affected the liver more than the spleen .

Khorunova and Baranova. (1987), studied the activity of certain


enzymes in the blood of carp poisoned with pirimiphos-methyl . They
found that in carp exposed to one-tenth or one-twentieth of the lethal
concentration of the insecticide for 30 days, there was an increase in
alkaline phosphatase activity.

Abbassy et al. (1988), studied the side effects of profenofos and


leptophos on hen plasma and liver. Oral administration of profenofos or
leptofos to laying hens as a single oral dose, increased the activity of
both plasma acid and alkaline phosphatases. The enzymatic activity was
significantly higher than that of the control through the experiment.

Mohamed et al. (1988), studied the degradation of Meothrin


[fenpropathrin] applied at 20 and 40 p.p.m. to barley grains during storage
for a period up to 60 days, after which the treated grains were
incorporated into a purified diet and fed to rats for 15 days. In treated rats,
there were increases in serum aminotransferases and alkaline
phosphatase.

Ray et al. (1988), studied the effect of quinalphos at dose 250


.mg/kg i.p. for 13 and 26-days on the tesicular steroidogenesis in rats.
They found that treatment of quinalphos for 13 days produced no toxic
effect with the exception of a significant increase in serum alkaline

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phosphatase. However, after 26-days of treatment, toxicity was


significantly increased on serum transaminases and phosphatases.

Abbassy et al. (1989a), studied the effects of organophosphorus


insecticide sulprofos on serum enzymes, and liver of white rats. Results
revealed that a significant increase in serum acid and alkaline
phosphatases. The significant rise in serum acid and alkaline
phosphatases indicated the presence of incipient liver damage in the
initial stage as a result of exposure to the OP insecticide.

Abbassy et al. (1989b), studied the effect of sulprofos on liver of


laying hens. Sublethal doses of Sulprofos were administered to laying
hens. Serum enzymes, glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT) and
glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) were measured at different intervals
from administration. Sulethal doses showed significant increase of serum
enzymes.

The in vivo effect of sublethal doses of four synthetic pyrethroids,


namely : fenpropathrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, and fenvalerate, in male
and female white rats. were studied by Ashour et al.(1989). The acute
and subchronic effect on alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity in liver and
brain were determined. The enzyme activity of (AP) in liver was
increased with fenpropathrin, permethrin, and fenvalerate while it was
decreased with deltamethrin. AP activity in brain was inhibited in all
treatments.

The oxidative desulfuration of the 3 phosphorothionate


insecticides chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and leptophos in rat brain
and liver was studied by Chambers and Chambers. (1989), They found
significant depletion of alkaline phosphatase.

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The Biochemical changes induced by the insecticide fenvalerate


in the male gonads of albino rat was studied by Ghosh (1990).
Fenvalerate administration at sublethal doses (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) for
30 days. caused significant depletion of alkaline phosphatase, resulted at
all doses.

Shakoori et al.(1990), studied the biochemical effects of


bifenthrin on the blood and liver of rabbit. The synthetic pyrethroid
bifenthrin (talstar), administered to rabbits at a chronic dose of 6 mg/kg
body weight for 30 days, significantly affected the biochemical
environments of blood and liver. Activities of alkaline phosphatase
(AkP), acid phosphatase (ACP) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase
[alanine aminotransferase, AlA] decreased to 11%, 22%, 48%, 33% and
18% of normal value after 15 days for the measured parameters of
insecticide treatments, while glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase
[aspartate aminotransferase, ASA] increased 92% during this exposure.
On prolonged exposure for a total of 30 days, the AkP activity increased
207%. Correspondingly in liver, the 30-day insecticide treatment resulted
in increased AKP, LDH [Lactic dehydrogenase], ALA activities 10%,
19%, and 40% respectively, while the hepatic ASA activity, decreased
33%.

Sivaswamy and Balachandran. (1990), studied the effect of


dimethoate on Wistar rats. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased in
liver and kidneys, and decreased in the intestines.

El-Harrawie et al. (1991), studied the acute oral toxicity of


methamidophos to male albino rats. Oral administration of a single dose
of LD25 resulted in a significant elevation in the plasma alkaline
phosphatase (AP), when blood samples were collected at 1,3,6, 12, 24,48
and 72hr after administration. On the other hand, subchronic toxicity

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through administration of 50 and 100 ppm of methamidophos in drinking


water for 90 successive days resulted in a significant increase in AP
activity at both concentrations.

Hanafy et al. (1991), studied the biochemical and histological


effects of the organophosphorus insecticide, Tamaron in rats. Groups of
rats were given either a single large dose of Tamaron (20 mg/kg B W.) or
repeated oral small doses (2 mg/kg B W.). Both treatments caused highly
significant elevation of urea, GOT, GPT and alkaline phosphatase in
blood of treated rats.

Kandil et al. (1991), studied the effect of subchronic doses of


cyanophos in drinking water for 12 weeks ad-libitum at levels (600 and
1200 ppm), on certain enzymes activity. The results showed a significant
increase in the activity of plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid
phosphatase (ACP).

Pradhan and Dasgupta (1991) estimated the acid phosphatase


(ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in male toads plasma,
liver, kidney, and testis after exposure to dimethoate for period of seven
days. ACP activity increased in plasma and kidney but decreased in liver
and testis. On the other hand ALP activity increased in liver and testis but
decreased in plasma and kidney. Alteration of enzyme activities indicates
that long exposure of this systemic pesticide affects function of liver,
kidney and testis.

Rajeev et al. (1991), studied the effect of phorate and dimethoate


on growth and liver metabolism in rats. Phorate treatment generally
resulted in alterations in liver phosphatases. Animals fed dimethoate,
alkaline phosphatase decreased significantly.

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The carcinogenic potential of dimethoate was studied by


Sivaswamy. (1991), Wistar rats treated with dimethoate (10-60 mg/kg
body weight). He found that alkaline phosphatase activity increased in the
liver and kidneys, but declined in the intestines.

Sandhu et al. (1992), found that single oral doses of 20 and 40


mg/kg of monocrotophos insecticide caused almost complete depletion of
fine granular alkaline phosphatase (AKPase) activity in the buffalo
hepatocytes.

Effect of prolonged administration of insecticide (cyhalothrin/


karate) was studied by Shakoori et al. (1992), They found hepatic
alkaline phosphatase activity decreased 30% after 15 and 30 days.

Abdel Baki (1993), studied the detrimental effects on chickens


fed pirmiphos-methyl treated ration. He found that the activities of plasma
acid and alkaline phosphatases were significantly increased in the hens
fed pirmiphos- methyl- treated ration stored up to 3 months from
treatment.

Ammar and El-Sheikh. (1993), studied the effect of Confidor on


activity of some enzymes in male albino mice. They administered
imidacloprid (Confidor) orally to male albino mice, using either single
dose (1/4 LD50 52.5 mg/kg B.W.) or repeated doses (1/10 LD50 21
mg/kg). ALKpase enzyme activity was reduced greatly in all tested
tissues under different dosing treatments. Though after 24h post
treatment, its level increased significantly in both liver, and kidney
tissues.

2. 2. 3. Cholesterol, bilirubin, total protien and albumin

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El-Harrawie et al. (1986), studied the toxicity of fenvalerate and


methomyl to male albino mice. Oral administration of doses
corresponding to 1/4 or 1/2LD50 from either insecticide caused an
increase in the serum total protein level.

Saleh et al. (1986), studied the comparative toxicity of


flucythrinate and fenvalerate to albino rats. Fenvalerate and their
commercial formulations 30% EC and 20% EC, respectively, were tested
for their subchronic dermal toxicity to albino rats at different
concentrations. Either flucythrinate or fenvalerate caused a significant
reduction in serum protien level after 2 weeks of the treatment.

Mohamed et al. (1988), studied the degradation profile and


residual toxicity of meothrin during storage of barley grains. Meothrin
[fenpropathrin] applied at 20 and 40 p.p.m. to barley grains during storage
for a period up to 60 days, after which the treated grains were
incorporated into a purified diet and fed to rats for 15 days. In treated rats,
there were reductions in serum albumin and total proteins, increases in
serum bilirubin and kidney function was also affected.

The sub lethal effects of baygon [propoxur] up to 0.375% and


nuvan [dichlorvos] up to 0.1% on the tadpoles of Rana.
hexadactyla(Lesson) was studied by Raj et al. (1988), They found that
total body protein and liver glycogen were reduced in all of the pesticide-
exposed tadpoles.

Ray et al. (1988), studied the effect of quinalphos on testicular


steroidogenesis in rats. They observed an increased cholesterol level in
testis rats treated by 250 mg/kg i.p quinalphos for 13 day.

Zidan et al. (1988), studied the effect of ready and locally


prepared formulation of fenvalerate and fenprothrin pyrethorids on the

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acute toxicity, haematological and some biochemical changes in blood of


albino mice after interapritoneal injection by the median lethal dosage.
Results indicated that the tested formulations when used at LD50 by
intraperitoneally injection caused no adverse effect on protien contents of
male mice plasma.

Rao. (1989), studied the phenthoate impact on the ammonia and


nitrogen metabolism in the body fluid of the snail, Pila globosa
(Swainson). They found that treatment of the snail Pila globosa with
phenthoate at lethal and sub lethal rates resulted in a reduction in total
proteins.

Reena et al. (1989), studied the hematological changes induced


by a sublethal dose (150 mg/kg body weight) of dimethoate in rats after
exposure of 15 and 30 days. After 30 days of exposure, the level of
cholesterol markedly increased. But there was no effect on total plasma
protien content.

Ali and Shakoori.(1990), fed aldrin-mixed diet to Sprague


Dawley rats at a dose of 20 mg, 8 mg and 2.5 mg/kg body wt./day for 48
hours, 15 days, and 18months, respectively . The certain phosphokinase
activity increased (83%) in 15 day treatment. Bilirubin content increased
also in 15 day.

Kadyrova et al.(1990), study the effect of acute pesticide


poisoning on lipid, protien, and carbohydrate metabolism in experimental
animals. They found that an increase in blood serum concentrations of
cholesterol in rats after single intragastric dose of o.5 LD50 of γ-HCH
[lindane], Bi-58 [dimethoate], Decies [deltamethrin] or the herbicide
Isophen [chlorpropham + fenuron].

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Saleh. (1990) studied the effect of oral administration of


methomyl on protein metabolism in male albino rats after 1, 2, 3, and 4
weeks of treatment. Serum total proteins, albumin, albumin/globulin's
ratio were significantly decreased while urea and uric acid were increased
in a cumulatively dose-related manner. There were significant decreases
in serum total globulins and creatinine levels which were only evident in
the third and fourth week respectively. These results were discussed in
relation to liver and kidney functions.

The biochemical effects of bifenthrin on the blood and liver of


rabbit was studied by Shakoori et al.(1990). The synthetic pyrethroid
bifenthrin (Talstar) was administered to rabbits at a chronic dose of 6
mg/kg body weight for 30 days, on prolonged exposure for a total of 30
days, concentration of glucose, cholesterol, bilirubin and protein
decreased 18%, 19%, 35% and 34%, respectively. Correspondingly in
liver, the 30-day insecticide treatment resulted in concentration of
glycogen and protein decreased 60% and 12% respectively.

Sivaswamy and Balachandran. (1990), studied the effect of


dimethoate on Wistar rats. There were appreciable changs in urea and
protein levels .

Zaidi et al.(1990), reported that the levels of total lipids,


phospholipids, cholesterol were estimated in the cerebral hemisphere,
cerebellum and brain stem of rats administered with monocrotophos at 2,
3 and 4 mg/kg body weight i.p. daily for 10 days. All levels were
depleted following this treatment.

El-Harrawi et al. (1991), studied the acute and subchronic


toxicity of methamidophos to male albino rats. Oral administration of a
single dose of LD25 of methamidophos to mature male albino rats resulted

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in a significant elevation in the plasma total protein at 1, 3, 6, 12, 48, and


72hr after administration. On the other hand, subchronic toxicity through
administration of 50 and 100 ppm of methamidophos in drinking water
for 90 successive days resulted in a significant increase in total protien at
both concentrations in biweekly samples.

Vandana et al. (1991), studied the biochemical effects of phorate


and dimethoate in female albino rats. They found that liver proteins
decreased with both pesticides.

Zidan (1991), determined the biochemical damages in male white


albino mice after intrapretoneal injection with LD50 and 1/2LD50 of
Sumicidin and Sumithion. Sumicidin increased total protein 48hr.
following treatment while Sumithion decreased it.

The biochemical effects of Sumicidin and Sumithion, at 1, 2, 3, 4,


5 and 6 weeks after oral administration to male mice were studied by
Zidan et al. (1991a),. Sumicidin at 1/20 LD50 ( 32.78 mg/kg ) caused
increased of total protien after oral application at 4, 5 and 6 weeks
recording 116.7, 121.21, and 106.25 %, respectively. Where Sumithion
was more effective on total protien.

Zidan et al. (1991b), studied the effect of Sumi-alpha, Sumicidin


and Cyanox insecticides to male white albino mice on total protein and
total free amino acids. All pesticides at LD50 decreased total protein after
4 hours from treatment recording 47.50, 57.78, and 51.22 % of control on
intestine, respectively. This effect was more marked at LD100 of Sumi-
alpha and Sumicidin was used recording 62.50, and 62.55%, respectively,
maximum effect was shown by dosing LD100 of Sumi-alpha and Cyanox
recording 98.86 and 100 % respectively. The obtained results revealed

78
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

decreased in total protien according to the type of insecticide and the


dosage used.

Awal and Mailk. (1992), studied the effects of daily


phosphamidon administration on certain blood biochemical
measurements in Bubalus bubalis. Phosphamidon exerted less
pronounced effect on blood glucose and total serum protien.

The effects of single acute oral doses of 1, 2.1, and 3.5 mg/kg
oxamyl (a carbamate insecticide) on selected biochemical parameters in
male Sprague-Dawley rats were investigated by Fayez and Kilgore
(1992), They found significant changes in serum total lipids and glucose
when oxamyl was given at 2.1 and 3.5 mg/kg, but serum protein was not
affected at any dose level.

The disposition kinetics, cytotoxicity and residues of fenvalerate


in tissues following oral administration at 5 mg/kg to goats was studied
by Mandal et al. (1992). They found that fenvalerate did not produce
any significant effect on serum actylcholinesterase, cholesterol or protien
levels in goats.

Shakoori et al. (1992), studied the effect of prolonged


administration of insecticide (cyhalothrin / karate) to rabbits. They found
that the glucose content increased 17% and 185%, while cholesterol
decreased 40% and 66%, and bilirubin 84% and 61% after 15 and 30
days, respectively.

Agrawal and Sultana. (1993), observed the changes in


biochemical constituents of rat erythrocyte membranes after a single ip
exposure to 300mg commercial HCH /kg body weight (one-third of the
LD50). The phospholipid: cholesterol ratio was altered. The phospholipid
content was increased while cholesterol was significantly decreased.

79
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Eissa and El-Sheikh. (1993), studied the genotoxicity of the


systemic insecticide Confidor in male albino mice. They indicated that
toxic effects on genetic material (DNA and RNA) and total protien
(albumin and globulin), regardless of dose quantity or duration post
treatment.

Male immature Wistar rats treated with a tolerated dose of 2


mg/kg/day endosulfan orally for 90 days (during the period of growth to
maturity). Twenty-four h. after the termination of the treatment, food
consumption and body weight gain were decreased parallely. No changes
occurred in the body tissues but for liver, it was enlarged and its protein,
glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase
concentrations were increased.(Paul et al; 1993).

The changes of some serum parameters and amino acids content


in rats after chronic sub lethal doses of dimethoate was studied by
Hassan et al. (1994) An intraperitoneal repeated doses of dimethoate
(O,O-dimethyl S-(N-methyl carbamoyl methyl) phosphorodithioate) was
injected to male Wistar rats for 8 successive days. Body weight and liver
weight decreased significantly while liver/body weight ratio and mg
protein/g liver remained unchanged.

The acute toxicity of Ivermectin in laboratory animals was studied


by Eweis et al. (1995). Three doses representing 0.5, 0.25, 0.1 of the
LD50 were administered orally for 4 weeks in drinking water. The tissue-
specific enzymes glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate
pyruvate transaminase (GPT), the amount of urea and total protiens of
liver and kidney were significantly decreased.

2.3. Kidney function:

80
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The kidney of mammals is an extremely complex organ, both


anatomically and functionally. One primary renal function is execration
of wastes, but the kidney also plays a significant role in the regulation of
total body homeostasis . The kidney is the predominant organ involved in
regulation of extracellular volume and in controlling electrolyte and acid-
base balance. This organ is also the major site of formation of hormones
that influence systemic metabolic function. A toxicological insult to
kidney could affect any or all of these functions. However, the effects
usually reported following toxic insult reflect decreased elimination of
wastes, i.e. an increase in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) or an increase in
plasma creatinine (Punia et al. 1987 ; Dheranetra et al. 1988 ; Zidan et
al. 1989 and Ogata and Izushi, 1991).

Hamza et al. (1981), studied the toxicity of fenpropathrin in dogs.


The formulated product of this insecticide was administered twice weekly
fa period of 10 weeks. Biochemical changes of these dogs during the
course of toxicity were investigated. The picture of blood urea nitrogen in
control group ranged from 25 and 26 mg/100ml blood. There were no
changing the treated group although the histopathological picture showed
degenerative change in the kidneys.

Saleh et al. (1986), studied the biochemical disorders attributable


to repeated dermal application of two synthetic pyrethroids, flucythrinate
and fenvalerate. Each of the insecticides caused elevation in both blood
urea and blood glucose levels after 2weeks of treatment.

Punia et al.(1987), studied the effect of phenthoate on


haematological and biochemical parameters in young male rats following
the administration of 12.5 and 25 mg/kg i.p. daily for 28 days. They
observed a significant increase in blood creatinine level by day 28 at 25
mg/kg.

81
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Dheranetra et al. (1988). administered a single oral dose (20-40


mg/kg) of O,S,S-trimethyl phosphorodithioate, a malathion impurity with
delayed toxic properties, to rats. They observed that blood urea
nitrogen/creatinine ratios were less than 15:1. The effect of oral
administration of methomyl on protein metabolism in male albino rats
after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of treatment was studied by Saleh (1990).
Serum total proteins, albumin, albumin/globulin's ratio were significantly
decreased while urea and uric acid increased in a cumulatively dose-
related manner. There were significant decreases in serum total globulins
and creatinine levels which were only evident in the third and fourth week
respectively. These results were discussed in relation to liver and kidney
functions.

Rabbits exposed to prolonged exposure at dose 6 mg/kg of the


pyrethriod bifenthrin for a total of 30 days showed increase in the
concentration of urea (Shakoori et al. , 1990)

Hanafy et al. (1991), studied the biochemical effects of OP


insecticide, Tamaron in rats. Rats were given either a single large dose of
Tamaron (20 mg/kg.) or repeated oral small doses (2 mg/kg.). Both
treatment caused a highly significant elevation of blood urea.

Rats receiving abamectin in drinking water at concentration 63 or


90 ppm for two months showed hepatic and renal toxicity as indicated by
the significant elevation of certain biochemical parameters in serum (i. e.
alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine
aminotransferase, total bilirubin, creatinine, urea and uric acid (El-
Hamady,1997).

2.4. The effect on body weight:

82
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The effect of pesticides on body weight is important when


discussing the toxicity to mammals as it reflects the general physiological
and hygienic state of the organism. Several studies were performed in this
respect.

Abbassy et al. (1981) , studied the toxicity and residues in hens


fed single oral doses of chlorpyrifos (32 mg/kg), and pirimiphos-methyl
(35 mg/kg). These doses produced toxic effects in hens similar to that
reported for other organophosphorus insecticides. Feed consumption,
body weight gain, egg production, egg weight and shell thickness were
greatly reduced. The livers of treated chickens were normal, while the
ovaries were significantly lighter than those of the control group.

Lapadula et al. (1985), studied characterization of delayed


neurotoxicity in the mouse following chronic oral administration of Tri-o-
cresyl phosphate. They found that a daily dosing of 225 mg/kg TOCP for
270 days caused a decrease in body weight gain.

The acute action of different doses of the organophoshorus


pesticide methamidophos on the immune system in mice was studied by
Tiefenbach and Wichner (1985). They found that after treatment with
1/2 and 1/10th of LD50 there was observed decreas of organ weights.

El-Harrawie et al. (1986), studied the toxicity of fenvalerate and


methomyl to albino mice. Oral administration of doses corresponding to
3/4 or 1/2 the LD50 of either insecticide caused reduction of body weight.

Ray et al. (1988), studied the effect of quinalphos (250 .m.g/kg


i.p.) treatment for 13 and 26-days on the testicular steroidogenesis in rats.
They found that treatment of quinalphos for 13 days failed to produce any
effect on the relative weights of testes and accessory sex glands. But the

83
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

rats treated for 26 days showed a reduction in the relative weights of


testes and accessory sex glands.

Pillai et al. (1989), studied the effect of subacute levels of Naled


on glutathione levels in liver and kidneys of rats. Rats were given 12.5,
25.0 and 50.0 mg Naled in food for 90 days. They observed a decrease in
body weight gain in male rats fed Naled. Female rats did not show any
change in body weight gain.

Agarwal et al. (1990), studied the effect of sub acute insecticide


exposure in male albino mice treated with phosphamidon, propoxur or
aldrin at 1/40 LD50 that was dosed intraperitoneally daily for 8 weeks.
Body weight was not affected by the insecticides.

El-Gendy. (1991), studied the effect of daily oral administration


of sub-lethal doses of lindane (5 mg/kg) and deltamethrin (2 mg/kg) for
three weeks on male mice after one hour and after three weeks of last
dose. The treated mice showed reduction of body weight. There was also
a significant increase in liver, kidney and brain : body weight ratio after
three weeks of last dose. In contrast, there was a significant decrease in
spleen : body weight ratio.

Effects of chlordane on parameters of liver and muscle toxicity in


man and experimental animals was studied by Ogata and Izushi(1991).
In a simultaneous study, rats were administered 100 mg/kg body wt. of
chlordane by stomach tube once a day for 4 days, whereas 50 mg/kg body
wt. of chlordane was injected intraperitoneally once a day for 4 days. The
data showed that a significant increase in liver weight,

The biochemical effects of phorate and dimethoate, administered


either orally or i.p., in female albino rats were studied by Rajeev et al.
(1991). They found that there was an increase in body weight in phorate-

84
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

fed rats and a decrease in body weight in dimethoate-fed rats. They


observed also an increase in liver, kidney, spleen and brain weights in rats
fed with phorate and dimethoate.

Sivaswamy (1991), studied the carcinogenic potential of


dimethoate in wistar rats treated with dimethoate (10-60 mg/kg body
weight).They found an increase in weight over a 3-month period.

Groups of beagle dogs, were fed methidathion at constant dietary


concentration of 0-140 ppm for 1 year. The equivalent were
approximately 0-4.7 mg/kg. There were no deaths or adverse clinical
sings associated with doses in treatments. Weekly body weights and
weight gain were not affected (Chang et al. 1992).

Fayez and Kilgore. (1992), studied the effects of single acute oral
doses of 1, 2.1, and 3.5 mg/kg of oxamyl on selected biochemical
parameters in male Sprague-Dawley rats. They found that the animals
exhibited significantly decreased weight gain when compared to control
animals.

Feeding of 0.1% DDT containing diet for 13-14 days to rats


caused a reduction in growth rate, which was significantly ameliorated by
dietary addition of myo-inositol. Dietary DDT increased liver weight. The
increases in liver weight due to DDT were significantly suppressed by
dietary addition of myo-inositol. In the animals without receiving DDT,
dietary myo-inositol caused no significant effect Katayama,(1993).

Male immature Wistar rats were treated with a tolerated dose of (2


mg/kg/day) of endosulfan orally for 90 days (during the period of growth
to maturity). Twenty-four h after the termination of the treatment, organ
weight, was determined. Food consumption and body weight gain were
decreased parallely. No changes occurred in the body tissues but for liver

85
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

which was enlarged and its protein, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase and
glutamic pyruvic transaminase concentrations increased (Paul et
al.,1993).

The influence of bromfenvinphos alone, and in mixture with


methoxychlor, on levels of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase,
ceruloplasmin and cholesterol in the blood plasma of laboratory mice was
studied by Zaleska and Wolewicz (1993). Bromfenvinphos (BrV), 12.33
mg/kg/day alone and in combination with methoxychlor(MeOCl), at
24.66 mg/kg/day were administered daily (intragastrically) in pure olive-
oil for 6 weeks to male laboratory mice. The relative weight of liver was
higher in mice receiving both drugs in combination, than in control and in
mice BrV alone. The relative weight of spleen was significantly higher in
animals receiving BrV alone, than in other groups.

Hassan et al. (1994), studied the changes of some serum


parameters and amino acids content in rats after chronic exposure to sub
lethal doses of dimethoate. An intraperitoneal repeated doses of
dimethoate [(O,O-dimethyl S-(N-methylcarbamoyl methyl)
phosphorodithioate)] was injected to male Wistar rats for 8 successive
days. Body weight and liver weight were decreased significantly while
liver/body weight ratio and mg protein/g liver remained unchanged.

Abdel-Nasser.(1995), evaluated the immunotoxic effect of


diazinon , carbofuran and cypermethrin in female mice. Mice was dosed
by giving with 0.01 , 0.001 and 0.0001 of the oral LD50 of each technical
insecticide .No changes in body weight except with high dose of
cypermethrin. Reduction in spleen celluiarity and weight of intoxicated
mice were found.

86
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

Attia (1995),studied the effect of dimethoate on rat pineal and


serum melatonin and hepatic glutathion levels. He reported that
lowerbody weight gain on male albino rats was due to the effect of
dimethoate (5 and 10 mg/Kg/day oral dose for 6 successive days) .

Eweis et al. (1995), studied the acute toxicity of Ivermectin in


laboratory animals. Body weight gain and food consumption were
decreased clearly at 0.5 LD50 of Ivermectin. In contrast organs
weight/body weight ratio was higher than that observed in non treated
animals.

Danielson and Golsteyn(1997) studied the body weight and food


consumption in Hereford steers, under feedlot conditions, for 10 week
after exposure to diazinon. Daily weight gain and feed utilization in
treated animals with diazinon, during the 70-days study, were not
altered.

2. 5. Histopathological studies:

Khalifa et al. (1986), investigated the effect of determined


amounts of methylbromfenvinphos histochemically on the liver and
spleen of hens. Histological examination of the liver showed cellular
hypertrophy, intraytoplsmic vaculations and sinusoidal dilations. Spleen
also showed a loss of the clear distinction between the red and white
pulps. Mean time the white pulps are found more disrupted. The red
puple were more dilated and engorged with blood.

Gajdova et al. (1988) studied the oestrogenic effects of the


organophosphate pesticide phosmet on the uterus of neonatal rats.
Compared to controls, the relative weight of the uterus was significantly
increased after administration of 1/25 and 1/50 LD50 of phosmet and of

87
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

diethylstilbestrol dipropionate. Histological examination of the uterus


revealed changes indicative of oestrogenic stimulation of the uterus.

Abbassy et al. (1989), studied The effect of sulprofos on liver of


laying hens. Sublethal doses of sulprofos were administered to laying
hens. Liver of sulprofos-treated hens revealed marked degeneration and
fatty change in the hepatic cells.

Hanafy et al. (1991), gave groups of rats either a single large dose
of Tamaron (methamidophos) (20 mg/kg body wt) or repeated oral small
doses (2 mg/kg body wt). They found that both treatments caused
degenerative and vascular changes in the liver, kidney, heart, testis and
brain of rats.

Ogata and Izushi (1991),compared the toxic effects of the


organochlorine insecticide 'chlordane' in man and rats. They administered
100 mg/kg body wt. of chlordane by stomach tube once a day for 4 days,
or injected intraperitoneally 50 mg/kg body wt. of chlordane once a day
for 4 days to rats. They reported that histological examination of the liver
confirmed fatty infiltration induced by chlordane in rats.

Sahai et al. (1991), studied the effect of sublethal doses (1 ml/kg)


of Malathion administered every fifth day for 30 days on hepatic cells of
rats. They reported that hypertrophy in hepatic cells and their nuclei and
in intralobular vein etc. were observed.

Shakoori et al. (1992), reported that administered of sublethal


dose of karate [lambda-cyhalothrin] to rabbits produced a histological
changes, were marked by atrophied hepatic cells, and hypertrophied
nuclei and nucleoli. also a trend towards necrosis of hepatic cells was
observed.

88
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

The disposition kinetics, cytotoxicity and residues of fenvalerate


in tissues following oral administration at 5 mg/kg to goats was studied
by Mandal et al. (1992). They found that fatty changes in periphery of
lobule, congestion in sinusoid, haemolysis in central vein, necrosis and
periphery fibrosis around the central vein of liver, and necrosis in kidney
of fenvalerate treated goats.

Agrawal and Sultana. (1993), studied the changes in


biochemical constituents of rat erythrocyte membranes after a single ip
exposure to 300 mg commercial HCH /kg body weight (one-third of the
LD50). They reported that the erythrocytes showed morphological
change(cell deformity and echinocyte formation.).

Baronia and Sahai (1993), studied the effects of sublethal dose


(500 mg/kg body weight) of DDT on the testis of albino rat up to six
weeks. They reported that necrosis in seminiferous tubules, hypertrophy
in germinal epithelium and sperms, shrinkage of sertoli cells,
spermatogonia, spermatocytes and spermatids.

Chowdhury et al. (1993) reported that intraperitoneal treatment


with lindane in male mature rats weighing 150± 5g at doses of 4 and 8 mg/kg
caused marked regression in cellular and pharmacological properties of accessory organs. The
decrease of weight in accessory organs was conspicuous after lindane treatment. Morphological
degeneration of accessory organs (epididymis, seminal vesicle, vas deferens) was markedly evident
with 8 mg/kg lindane treated group. Contractile property of vas deferens and seminal vesicle was also
inhibited by in vitro lindane treatment. Morphological regression in male accessory organs and
inhibition of contractile property were in agreement and thus shows the adverse effects of lindane.

89
MATERIALS
AND
METHODS
MATERIALS AND METHODS
1- Test insects:
1.1. The cotton leafworm: Spodoptera littoralis (Boisd)

Egg - masses of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis


(Lepidoptera: Agrotidae) were brought from the laboratory of Sakha
Agricultural Research station. Rearing of this strain was continued in the
laboratory as described by El - defrawi et al.(1964). The method
consisted of rearing the larvae on castor oil-bean leaves Ricinus
communis under conditions of 25° C and 70% relative humidity. Three
days old larvae were transferred to large glass containers, covered with
muslin secured with rubber bands, and supplied daily with fresh castor
bean leaves for feeding.The number of larvae per jar were adjusted
according to the larval instar. 300, 100, 30 and 15 for the frist, second,
third and fourth instars, respectivily, while, 10 larvae were used for each
fifth and sixth instar. Five to ten of the survived sixth instar larvae were
transferred to clean jars containing sow - dust for pupation. Pupae were
transferred to petridishes and kept in cages for the emergence of adults
which were then supplied with leaves of Nerium oleander as a suitable
site for oviposition and 10% sugar solution for feeding. The egg hatches
were daily collected and reared as mentioned before. The fourth instar
larvae were used for laboratory experiments.

1.2.Aphids:

The adults stages of aphids { Aphis gossypii (Glover), Aphis


craccivora(Kock) and Brevicoryne brassicae(L.) [Homoptera:
Aleyrodidae]}, were obtained from okra, beans, and cabbage plants,
respectively from Kafr - El-Sheikh Governorate.Cultures were maintained
MATERIALS AND METHODS

under laboratory conditions on suitable plants for six months free from
pesticidel contamination. Kenaf Hibiscus cannabinus, broad bean Vicia
faba and cabbage Brassica oleracea var capitata seedlings were used for
rearing aphids (Aphis gossypii, Aphis craccivora and Brevicoryne
brassicae, respectively. Aphids were always transferred weekly or after
two weeks from old to young seedlings by cutting the heavily infested
leaves and were placed on the new plants. Contamination between
cultures was prevented by placing these seedlings in special chambers
50x50x60 cm. covered on their sides with muslin. These cultures were
maintained in a breeding room under the temperature 25± 2°C and 65± 5
R.H and 12 hours daily illumination by 2 fluorescent bulbs of 40 wts.
each.

1.3. Spider mite Tetranychus cinnabarinus (boisduval):


Spider mite T. cinnabarinus (Acarina:Tetranychidae) colonies were
obtained from castor bean plants from Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate and
reared under laboratory conditions on castor bean Ricinus communis (L.)
for about six months away from any contamination of pesticides before
starting the experiments. About 6-10 seeds of castor bean were planted in
one pot (30 cm.diameter) and left under the green house conditions for 7-
10 days for germination. After 7-10 days, the seedlings were infested by
clean culture of red mites. Mites were always transferred from old to
young plants by cutting heavily infested leaves into small sections which
were then placed on new plants. Contamination was prevented by placing
these seedlings in special chambers 50x50x60 cm. covered with muslin.
These cultures were maintained in a breeding room under the temperature
25± 2° C and 65± 5 RH and 12 hours daily illumination by 2 fluorescent
bulbs of 40 wts each. Mites were collected by placing the infested castor-
oil bean leaves on white paper, then the full mature individuals were
chosen and transferred by a fine brush to discs for treatements.

96
MATERIALS AND METHODS

1.4. The predator, paederus alfierii (Kock):


The tested predator P. alfierii (Staphylinidae: Coleoptera) was
collected from untreated vegetable fields in Kafr - EL-Sheikh
Governorate by using an insect trap and was transferred to the laboratory.
Predators were placed in glass jars each of one littre covered with muslin.
New preys ( aphis sp, eggs of Spodoptera littorals) were offered every
day to the predator to keep a constant supply of food. Predators were kept
under laboratory conditions ( temperature 25± 2 °C and 65± 5 RH and 12
hours daily illumination by fluorescent light) for at least 2 weeks before
testing.
2-Test animals:
A pure strain of healthy white albino male and female rats were
purchased from Faculty of Medicine, Tanta Univ., and reared in the
laboratory .The animals were housed in metallic cages, provided ad
libitum with balanced ration consisted of bread, carrot and milk. Male rats
of 3-4 months age and 150-180 gm weight were chosen for the
experiments.
3-Pesticides
• Trade name :Marshal.
Common name :Carbosulfan.
Mol. Formula :C20H32N2O3S.
Chemical name :2,3-dihydro -2,2-dimethyl benzofuran -7-yl
(dibutylaminothio) methyl carbamate.

Structural formula

97
MATERIALS AND METHODS

CH3

OCON S N[(CH2)3CH3]2
O CH3

CH3
Formulation : W.P 25 %
Introduced by :FMC Corparation Agriculfural Chemical Group.
Philadlefhia, Pennsylvania.

• Trade name :Pirimor.


Common name :Pirimicarb.
Mol. Formula :C11H18N4O2.
Chemical name :2-dimethyl amino-5,6-dimethyl pyrimidin-4-yl
dimethyl carbamate.
Structural formula :
CH3 N N(CH3)2

N
CH3
OCON(CH3)2
Formulation :WP 50 %.
Introduced by :ICI plant protection Division. England.

• Trade name : Unden.


Common name :Propoxur.
Mol. Formula :C11H15N03
Chemical name :2-isopropoxyphenyl methyl carbamate.
Structural formula :

98
MATERIALS AND METHODS

OCONHCH3
OCH(CH3)2

Formulation :EC 50 %.
Introduced by :Bayer, Agrochemical Division.Leverkusen, Germany.

• Trade name :Reldan.


Common name :Chlorpyrifos-methyl.
Mol. Formula :C7H7Cl3NO3PS
Chemical name :O,O-dimethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl
phosphorothioate.
Structural formula :
S

Cl N O P(OCH3)2

Cl Cl

Formulation :EC 50 %
Introduced by :DOW. Elanco, USA.

• Trade name : Dimethoate.


Common name :Dimethoate.
Mol. Formula :C5H12NO3PS2
Chemical name :O,O-dimethyl S-methyl carbamoyl methyl
phosphorodithioate .
Structural formula :

99
MATERIALS AND METHODS

S
CH3NHCOCH2SP(OCH3)2
Formulation :EC 40 %.
Introduced by :Kafr El - Zayat Company.

• Trade name :Cidial.


Common name :Phenthoate.
Mol. Formula :C12H17O4PS2.
Chemical name :S-ethoxy carbonyl benzyl O,O-dimethyl
phosphorodithioate.
Structural formula :
S

CHSP(OCH3)2

CO2CH2CH3

Formulation :EC 50 %
Introduced by :ISAGRO - MILANO - Italy.

• Trade name :Actellic.


Common name :Pirimiphos-methyl.
Mol. Formula :C11H20N3O3PS
Chemical name :O-2-diethyl amino -6-methylpyrimidin -4-yl O,O-
dimethyl phosphorothioate
Structural formula :

100
MATERIALS AND METHODS

CH3 N N(CH2CH3)2

OP(OCH3)2

S
Formulation :EC 50 %.
Introduced by :ICI plant protection Division. England.

• Trade name :Selecron.


Common name : Profenofos.
Mol. Formula :C11H15BrClO3PS.
Chemical name : O-4-bromo-2-chlorophenyl O-ethyl S-propyl
phosphorothioate.
Structural formula :
Cl O

Br O P OCH2CH3

Cl SCH2CH2CH3
Formulation : EC 72 %.
Introduced by : CIBA. GEIGY Limited. Basle, Switzerland.

4-Laboratory-toxicity tests:-
4.1. The cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis:-

The leaf dipping technique was used. Serial concentrations of the


tested pesticides were prepared in water. Leaves of castor bean were
immersed for 2 seconds in the prepared concentrations. Leaves were left
for dryness. Ten of fourth instar larvae were allowed to feed on the

101
MATERIALS AND METHODS

treated leaves for 24 hrs. Three replicates were made for each
concentration. Mortality counts were recorded.
4.2. Aphids

The slide dipping technique described by El- Sayed et al. (1978) was
applied to assay the toxicity of different pesticides against aphids. A piece
of double faced scotch tape was pressed tightly to the surface of a glass
slide. Using a moist brush, ten adults (1-2 days old) were stuk to the tape
on their backs so that thier legs and antennae were free. The infested
slides were then dipped in the pesticides dilutions and gently agitated for
five seconds. Any excess of the solutions was removed using a filter
paper and kept under the same conditions of the breeding room. Four
replicates were used for each concentration. Forty of insects was also
dipped in water according to the same technique and considered as
control check. Mortality counts were recorded 24 hours following
treatments. Aphids responding to touch of a fine brush were considered
alive.

4.3. Mites:
A leaf-disc dipping method described by Abo EL -Ghar and El-
Rafie (1961) was applied to evaluate the susceptibility of adult female
mites to different pesticides. Four castor bean leaf discs (1.5 cm in
diameter) were placed upside down on a filter paper over a wet cotton
pad in petri-dish, 9 cm in diameter. Treatments were carried out by
immersing the leaf disc in the tested pesticidal dilution for five seconds,
and the treated discs were left to dry and returend to the petri-dishes. Ten
adult mites were placed on the exposed surface of each disc and kept
under the same conditions of breeding room. Each dish contained four
discs and this was replicated 4 times. Using microscopical examination,
mortality was counted after 24 hours, and mites responding to touch of
brush were considered alive.

102
MATERIALS AND METHODS

4.4. The predator, P. alfierii :

Surface deposit technique was used to determine the toxicity of


pesticides to the predator as described by Mostafa et al (1980). The dry
film of pesticides was prepared by applying 1 ml. acetone containing the
desired concentration of each pesticide on 9 cm. diameter petri dish, after
the solvent was evaporated, ten adults of the predators were transferred to
treated petri dishes and this was replicated 4 times. Prior to use, the
predators were exposed to low temperature ( 4 °C for 10 min.). Mortality
counts were recorded after 24 hours from treatment.

4.5. L.D.P lines and statistical analysis:

For all insects, mortality percentages were corrected according to


Abbott`s formula (1925), and plotted on probit graph paper against
pesticides concentration. Results were statistically analyzed according to
the method of Litchfield and Wilcoxon (1949). The obtained data
including slopes of the regression lines and LC50 values with thier 95%
confidence limits were recorded.

5-Field studies:
Pestesides used in the laboratory were subjected to further
evaluation at the Experimental Farm of Faculty of Agric., Kafr El-Sheikh,
Tanta Univ. during the growing season, summer 1995. A cultivated area
grown with okra and squash was divided into plots of 1/60 fed. each.
Treatments were distributed in a complete randomized block desigen with
3 replicates. Pesticides used and their application rates are showin in
Table 1.
Table (1): Pesticides used in the field experiment, their formulations and application
rates.
Pesticides used Formulation Rate/ fed.
Carbosulfan Marshal WP 25% 600 gm.
Pirimicarb Pirimor WP 50% 500 gm.

103
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Propoxur Unden EC 50% 1L.


Chlorpyrifos-methyl Reldan EC 50% 1 L.
Dimethoate Dimethoate 40% 1L.
Phenthoate Cidial EC 50% 0.800 L.
Pirimiphos-methyl Actellic EC 50% 1.5 L.
-methyl
Profenofos Selecron EC 72% 0.750 L.

Pesticides were diluted with water at rate of 200 litter / F. Mature


plants were sprayed with the tested chemicals using a knapsack sprayer
(Model CP3) fitted with one nozzle. Three sprays were applied each
separated by 9 days interval. The first spray was done when insect
infestation was observed on plants. For each crop, three plots were left
untreated as a control check. Inspection of insect infestation was carried
out before spraying and continued 1,3,5, and 7 days after each spray. For
each plot (representing one replicate), the number of larvae of cotton
leafworm, aphids and immature stage (nymphs) & adults of whitefly on 5
leaves (in squash) and 10 (in okra) were recorded. The examined leaves
were randomly collected from each plot.The efficiency of pesticides was
calculated according to the Hinderson and Tilton equation (1955).

  a c
%Reduction = 1-  ×   × 100
  b d
a = Counts in treatments after spraying.
b = Counts in treatments before spraying.
c = Counts in control before spraying at the same interval of 1, 3, 5, 7
days.
d = Counts in control after spraying.
The data were statistically analysed using complete randomized block
design.

6- Acute toxicity to rats:


The LD50 was assessed according to the method of Weil (1952),
owing to its simplicity and few number of experimental animals required.
For the determination of LD50, exploratory trials were performed in order

104
MATERIALS AND METHODS

to find the smallest dose of toxic effect to start with. Four dosages each of
2 animals were tested for each insecticides (n=2). Rats were given single
oral doses each of 1 ml of corn oil containing the specified amount of the
tested insecticide using special syringe needle equipped with a ball
tip.Mortality rates for rats were recorded after 24 hours from treatment.
The LD50 values and thier confidence limits, were calculated as follows:
log m = log Da + d(F+1).
as log m = the log of the LD50.
log Da = the log of the lowest dosage level.
d = the log of the constant ratio between dosage levels.
F = Factor obtained from the tables according to the number of animals
dosed per level and number of dose levels used.

In an estimation of a confidence interval that will encompass the


LD50 ( 95 times in 100), we take the value that bounded by anti log (log m
± 2σ log m). The following formula was used with the σƒ value from
the table where: σlog m=d. σƒ.

7-Daily oral dose treatment:


7.1. Experimental:
Six groups of male rats each of seven animals were used for each
insecticide. Additional three groups each of seven rats were reserved as a
control check. For each insecticide, rats were orally given single daily
doses each equivalent to 1/10 or 1/30 LD50. Administration of doses
continued for 30, 60 or 90 days. Rats of control groups were only given
corn oil . All doses were prepared and adminisetred in corn oil using
syringe equipped with needle that has a ball tip. Rats of the last group

105
MATERIALS AND METHODS

were served as control and given corn oil only. Throughout the
experimental period, rats were observed for any mortalities or any
clinical signs. After each specified period rats were weighted, slaughtered
and blood samples were collected. Kidneys and livers were obtained and
kept in formalin 10%.
7.2. Serum preparation:
Blood samples were collected in clean sterile vials, left till clotting
occurred and centrifuged at 5000 r. p. m for 15 min. The obtained sera
were separated and kept frozen till use.
8- Biochemical analysis:
The sera of treated rats were subjected to biochemical analysis that
included, total protien, non-specific esterase, cholinesterase (ChE) ,
glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase
(GOT), alkaline phosphatase, albumin, cholesterol, creatinine, billirubin
and uric acid.

8.1. Determination of total protien:


Determination of total protien was carried out by the method of
Henry (1964) using commercial kits of Diamond Diagnostics, Egypt.
This method is based on the fact that protien forms a colored complex
with cupric ions in an alkaline medium.
Reagents:

Reagent(1): protien standard 6 gm/dl.


Reagent(2) (BuretReagent) : sodium hydroxide 0.2 N.
1 sodium, potassium tartarate 18 mmol/l.
1 potassium iodide 6 mmol/l.
1 cupric sulfate 6 mmol/l.

106
MATERIALS AND METHODS

Procedure:
Three tubes, blank, standard and sample tubes were set up. 50 µ l of
regeant 1 was added to the standard tube while 50 µl of serum was added
to the sample tube. 2.5 ml of reagent 2 were added to each of the three
tubes. Tubes were mixed well, incubated for 5 min. at 20-25° C and the
produced colour was measured at 546 nm. The absorbance of the sample
(A sample) and the standard (A standard) were read aginst the blank.
Calculation:

A sample
Serum protien concentration (g / dl) = ×6
A standard
8.2 Determination of non-specific esterases activity:
Non-specific esterases were determined according to the method of
Van Asperen (1962). The method depends on the enzymatic hydrolysis
of α or β -naphthyl acetate producing α or β-naphthols. The naphthols
were colorimetrically determined by azo coupling. Because of the
excessive insolubility of naphtholic azo dyes, it was found that , azo dyes
may be kept in a perfectly clear colloidal solution by the use of
detergents. Sodium lauryl sulphate detergent proved to be very efficient.
This detergent had an additional advantage of stopping enzymatic
reaction immediately.
Reagents:
1- 3× 10-4 M α-naphthyl acetate containing 1% acetone and 0.04
M phosphate buffer pH 7.
2- Diazoblue - sodium lauryl sulphate solution (2parts of fast
blue B 1% + 5 parts of 5% solution sodium lauryl sulphate)
(DBLS).
Standard cruve for α -naphthol:
Standard curve was obtaind by reacting 6 ml naphthol solution (in
1% acetone and 0.04 M phosphate buffer pH 7 ) of different

107
MATERIALS AND METHODS

concentrations with 1 ml solution of the diazoblue lauryl sulphate


(DBLS). A violet colour immediately develops and quickly changes into
stable colour for α-naphthol which was measured at 600 nm. Blank
contained 6 ml phosphate buffer 0.04 M and 1% acetone and 1 ml DBLS.
α-naphthol concentration was plotted against the obatined optical density
to calculate K value (Fig.1 ).
Measurement of esterase activity :
Five ml of substrate solution (3 × 10-4 M α-naphthyl acetate
containing 1% acetone and 0.04 M phosphate buffer pH 7 ) was mixed
well with 0.05 ml of serum and the volume was completed to 6 ml with
buffer. After 30 minutes of incubation at 27° C, 1 ml of DBLS was added
and after 5 min., the stable blue colour developed was measured at 600
nm. The specific activity was calculated as µ mole α- naphthol /min. /mg
protien.

8.3:Determination of cholinestrase activity:


Cholinesterase of serum was determined according to the method
of Ellman et. al., (1961). This method is based on the hydrolysis of
acetylthiocholine Iodide(ASChI) as substrate by the enzyme ChE to
produce thiocholine and acetic acid. Thiocholine reacts with dithiobis-2-
nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) to produce the yellow color anion of 5-thio-2-
nitrobenzoic acid. The rate of color formation as a function of enzyme
activity is measured spectrophotometrically at 412 nm.
Reagents:
ChE substrate solution:
The solution was prepared by dissolving 10-3M ASChI and 10-3 M
DTNB in a buffer solution containing 100 mM NaCl, 20 mM MgCl2,

108
MATERIALS AND METHODS

0.8

Optical Density. 0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

Fig.(1): standard cruve of α -naphthol.

109
20mM Na2HPO4 and the volume was completed with distilled water to
500 ml (pH 7).
Blank solution:
The blank solution was identical to substrate solution except that the
substrate (ASChI) was ommitted.
Procedure:
1- 4 ml of substrate solution were added to two tubes and 4 ml of
the blank solution to a third tube.
2- Tubes were preheated to 37°C in water bath and 50 µl of
serum sample were added.
3- O.D readings were taken at two time points 1 minute a part at
412 nm.. Thus, changes of optical density per minute
(∆O.D/min.) were obtained.
Calculation:
The activity in µ moles ASCh/min/mg protein was calculated by using the
following equation:
( ∆O.D Average sample - ∆ O.D blank) × fv × 10 6
Activity =
32258 × pc × sv × t
Where : fv = final volume (0.004 L)
pc = protein concentration (mg/ml).
sv = sample volume
t = time of incubation (1 minute).
8.4.Determination of transaminases:
The colorimetric method of Reitman and Frankel (1957) was used for the
determination of Aspartate aminotransferase (formerly Glutamate
oxaloacetate transaminase GOT) and Alanine aminotranasferase (formerly,
Glutamate pyruvate transaminase, GPT) activity. Commercial kits of

110
bioMérieux, France were used. The principle of determination was based
on the following reactions:
GOT
GOT:Asparate+α -keto-glutarate oxaloacetate+ glutamate
GPT
GPT: Alanine+α-keto-glutarate pyruvate+glutamate
The pyruvate or oxaloacetate formed is measured in its derivative form,
2,4- dinitrophenylhydrazone.
Reagents:
Reagent 1(GOT substrate): Phosphate buffer pH 7.5 85 mol/L
aspartate 200 m.mol/L
α - ketoglutarate 2.0 m.mol/L
Reagent 2 (GPT) Phosphate buffer pH 7.5 95 m.mol/L
substrate): alanine 200 m.mol/L
α-keto glutarate 2.0 m.mol/L.
Reagent 3 (Color reagent): 2,4 dinitro phenyl hydrazine 1 m.mol/L.
Reagent 4 (Standard): Pyruvate
Procedure:
a- Standard curve:
Different aliquots of distilled water, reagent 1; reagent 4 and
reagent 3 were pipetted into each of six test tubes as shown in the
following table:

Tube No. 1 2 3 4 5 6
Distilled water: 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
Reagent 1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5
Reagent 4 -- 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
Reagent 3 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
The mixture of each tube was shaken well and let stand for 20
minutes at room temperature, then 10 ml of NaOH 0.4 N was added to
each tube and the contents of each tube were mixed well and let to stand

111
for 5 minutes. The developed color was measured at 505 nm. The
standard curve was drawn by plotting the number of units/ml on the
abscissa and the optical denisty on the ordinate.
Tube No.: 1 2 3 4 5 6
GOT units/ml: 0.0 22 55 95 150 215
GPT units/ml : 0.0 25 50 83 126 ----
Measurment:
Two test tubes were set up for serum samples as following:
1- One ml of reagent 1 (GOT substrate) was pipetted into one tube and one
ml of reagent 2 (GPT substrate) was pipetted in the second tube, then the
tubes were incubated for 5 minutes at 37°C.
2- 0.2 ml of serum was added to each tube and the contents were mixed well
and incubated at 37°C for exactly one hour (GOT tube) and 30 minutes
(GPT tube), then 1 ml of reagent 3 was added to each tube. The contents of
each tube were let to stand for 20 minutes at room tepmerature.
3- After that, 10 ml NaOH 0.4 N were added to each tube and the contents
were mixed well.
4- After 5 minutes the devloped colour was measured under the same
conditions used for the standard curve.
Calculation:
The number of GOT and GPT units/ml of serum was calculated from
the standard curve as shown in figure 2 and 3.
8.5.Dtermination of alkaline phosphatase:
The method of Bessey et al (1946) were used for the determination of
alkaline phosphatase. The determination was done using commercial kits of

112
0.5

0.4
Optical Density.

0.3

0.2

0.1

0
0 50 100 150 200

(Units/ml.)

Fig. ( 2): Standard cruve of GOT.

113
1

0.8
Optical Density.

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0 50 100 150
(Units/ml.)

Fig ( 3): standard cruve of GPT.

114
Biocon Diognostik, Germany . This method is based on the following
reaction:
P-nitrophenyl phosphate+H2O AP Phosphate +P-nitrophenol
Reagents:
Reagent 1 : (Buffer). glycine buffer pH 10.5 50 mmol/l
MgCl2 0.5 mmol/l.
Reagent 3:(Substrate solution): p- nitrophenyl phosphate 5.5 mmol/l.
Reagent 4 : (Standard ): 4-nitro phenol 900 umol/l.
Additional reagent solution : Sodium hydroxide 0.02 N.
Procedure:
1- Preparing working solution:
10 volumes buffer (R1) + 1 volume substrate solution (R3) . This working
solution is stable for one week at +2 to +8° C .
2- Two tubes were prapared for blank and sample. 500µ l working solution
were added to each tube. 50µl serum were added to sample tube only. Tubes
were mixed well, incubated for exactly 30min. in water bath at +37 ° C.
3- After that 5 ml of sodium hydroxide solution were added to tubes of
sample and blank.50 µl serum were added to blank tube. Tubes were mixied
well and poured into cuvettes. Absorbance (A) of sample at 405 nm was
recorded.
Calculation:
Akaline phosphatase activity (U/l) = A405nm × 200
8.6.Determination of cholesterol:
Commercial kits of Biocon Diagnostik, Germany were used. The
enzymatic colorimetric method of Flegg (1973) as modified by Richmond
(1973) and Thomas et al. (1992) was used for cholesterol determination.
The determination is based on the principle that cholesterol and its esters are
released from lipoproteins by detergents. Cholesterol esterase hydrolizes the
esters and H2O2 is formed in the subsequent enzymatic oxidation of
cholesterol by cholesterol-oxidase according to the following reaction:
Cholesterol Esterase
Cholesterol ester + H2O Cholesterol + fatty acids

115
Cholesterol Oxidase
Cholesterol + O2 Cholesten-3-on + H2O2/2 H2O2 +
Phenol + 4-aminophenazone Peroxidase
quinoneimine dye + 4H2O
Reagents:
Reagent(1):(Buffer): pipes buffer, pH 6.9 90mmol/l.
1 phenol 26 mmol/l.
Reagent(2): (Enzyme reagent): cholesterol oxidase 200 U/l.
cholesterol esterase 300 U/l.
4-amino phenazone 0.4 mmol/l.
Reagent (4): (Standard): cholesterol 200 mg/dl
Procedure:
1-Contents of enzyme reagent (R2) were dissolved with the
corresponding volume of buffer (R1). This working solution was stable 2
weeks at +20 to
+25 °C or 8 weeks at +2 to +8 °C.
2- Three tubes, sample tube, standard tube and blank tube were prepared.
10 µ l of reagent 4 (standard) were added in stanadard tube. 10 µl of
serum were added in sample tube. 1000 µl working reagent were added to
all tubes. Tubes were mixed well, incubated at: 37 °C for 5 minutes and
the developed colour was measured spectrophotometrically at 546 nm.
Calculation:
∆Α sample
Cholesterol in mg / dl = × standard concentration
∆Α standard
Standared concentration: 200 mg/dL.

8.7.Determination of total bilirubin:


Commercial kits of Diamond Diagnostics, Egypt, were used.The
determination was carried out according to the method described by
Jendrassik et al. (1938). The determination is based on the idea that
bilirubin is coupled with diazotized sulfanilic acid in the presence of
caffeine to gave an azo dye.

116
Reagents:
Reagent(1): Sulfanillic acid 31 mmol/l
1 HCl 0.2 N
reagent(2): Sodium nitrite 28 mmol/l.
Reagent(3): Caffeine 0.28 mol/l.
1 sodium benzoate 0.55 mol/l.
Reagent(4): Tartarate 0.99 mol/l.
1 NaoH 2.0N.
Procedure:
1- Two clean and dry tubes for sample blank and sample were prepared.
0.2 ml of reagent 1 was added to sample blank and sample, 1 drop of
reagent 2 was added to sample tube, 1 ml of reagent 3 were added to each
of sample blank and sample tubes.
2- 0.2 ml of serum was added to each of sample blank and sample tubes.
Tubes were mixed and incubated for 10 min. at 20-25 °C. after that 1 ml
of reagent 4 was added to each of tubes. Tubes were mexid and incubated
for 5 min. at 20-24 °C.
3- Absorbance of sample against sample blank (A sample) was read at
the wave lenghth 578 nm.
Calculation:
Total bilirubin (mg/dl)= (A sample)× 10.8
8.8.Detemination of Albumin:
The colorimetric method of Doumas and Watson (1971) as
modified by Webster (1974) was used for assaying Albumin using
bromcresol green (BCG) at pH 4.2. Commercial kits of Biocon
Diagnostik, Germany were used.
Reagents:
Reagent(1):(BCG reagent): succinate buffer, pH 4.2 75 mmol/l.
1 Bromcresol green 0.15 mmol/l.
1 Brij 35 7ml/l.
Reagent(4):(Standard): bovine albumin 5g/100 ml.

117
Procedure:
Three tubes, blank tube, standard tube and sample tube were set up
and treated as follows:
1- 20µl of serum was transferred into sample tube. 20µl of reagent 4
(standard) was transferred into standard tube.
2- 4000 µl of reagent 1 was added to each tube of sample, standard and
blank, mixed well and measured after 10 minutes. Results against reagent
blank were read at 628 nm.
Calculation:
∆A sample
Albumin in g / dl = × standard concentration
∆A standard
Concentration of standard: 5gm/100 ml.
8.9.Determination of creatinine:
The determination was carried out according to the method of Henry
(1974).Commercial kits of Diamond Diagnostics, Egypt, were used.The
detemination is based on the idea that creatinine in alkaline solution
reacts with picrate to form a colored complex.

Reagents:
Reagent(1): Creatinine standard 2mg/dl.
Reagent(2): color reagent: picric acid 38 mmol/l.
Reagent(3):alkaline reagent: sodium hydroxide 1.2 mmol/l.
Reagent(4): equal volumes of solution 2and 3 were mixed.
Additional reagent: Trichloro acetic acid (TCA) 1.2 mol/l.
Procedure:
1- The serum was firstly deprotenized by pipetting 1 ml of trichloroacetic
acid and 1 ml of serum into centrifuge tube. The mixture was mixed well

118
and centrifuged for 10 min. at 3000 r.p.m, then the clear supernatant was
porured into dry test tube.
2- Three clean and dry tubes for blank, standard and serum supernatant
were prepared. 0.5 ml of distilled water was added to the blank tube and
0.5 ml of reagent 1 was added to the standard tube. 0.5 ml of
trichloroacetic acid was added to each of blank and standard tubes while 1
ml of serum supernantant was added to serum tube.
3- For all tubes, 1 ml of reagent 4 was added to each, mixed and
incubated for 10 min. at 37° C. The absorbances of sample (A sample)
and standard (A standard) were measured against the blank at 520 nm.
Calculation:
A sample
Creatinine (mg / dl) = ×2
A standard

8.10.Determination of uric acid:


The enzymatic colorimetric test of Pileggi and Barthelmai (1962)
as modified by Trinder (1964) was used for determination of uric
acid.Commercial kits of Biocon Diagnostik, Germany were used. The
determination is based on Trinder reaction:
Uricase
Uric Acid + O2 + H2O Allantion + CO2 + H2O2
2H2O2 + 4 Aminophenazone + 2-4 Dichloro-phenol-Sulfonate
Quinoneimini Dye + 4H2O
Reagents:
Reagent(1):(buffer): hepes buffer pH 7.4 50mmol/l.
1 2,4 HDCBS 4 mmol/l.
Reagent(2):(Enzyme reagent):uricase 60 U/l.
peroxidase 660 U/l.
1 4-Aminophenazone 1mm ml/l.
Reagent(4):(standard): uric acid 6 mg/dl

119
Procedure:
1-Contents of enzyme reagent (2) were dissolved with the corresponding
volume of buffer(R1). This working solution was stable 2 weeks at +20 to
+25 °C
2- Three tubes were prapared for blank, standerd and sample. 1000 µl of
working solution were added to each tube. 20 µl serum were added to
sample tube only, 20 µl of reagent 4 were added to standard tube. Tubes
were mixed well, incubated for exactly 5 min. in water bath at +37 °C.
Absorbance (A) of sample against blank at 546 nm.was read.
Calculation:
∆Α sample
Uric acid in mg / dl = × standard concentration.
∆Α standard
Standard concentration: 6mg/dl.
9.Histopathological studies:
This experiment was conducted to study the histopathological
lesions of liver and kidney tissues of rats treated with 1/10 and 1/30 LD5 0
of chloropyrifos methyl or pirimicarb as daily oral dose for 30, 60 or 90
days. The livers and kidenys of slaughtered rats were removed and
prepared for histopathological examination according to Lillie and
Fullman (1976) .
Chemicals and apparatus:
1-Alcohol of different concentrations (i.e.. 70%, 80%, 90%, 96%
and100%)
2-Formalin 10%, 3-Xylol, 4-Paraffin wax(melting point of 50-56 °C),
5- Mercuric oxide 6- acetic acid 7- Canda balsam, 8-Water bath, 9-
Glass slides, 10-Cover glass, 11-Microtome (Model MR52, Russian).
12-Microscope. 13-Incubator.
Haematoxylin stain
The components of Harris alum hematoxylin-stain were prepared
as follows:

120
A- Haematoxylin crystal 5 gm
Absolute alcohol 50 ml
B- Potassium alum 100 gm
Distilled water 1000 ml
The solution B was boiled, and added to solution A, then 2.5 gm of
mercuric oxide were added, stirred , boiled for 1-2 min.and cooled
quickly by immersing the container into cold water. The mixture was
allowed to stand overnight and acidiffied by adding 30-50 ml acetic acid
to inhibit staining of cytoplasm. Finally it was filtered and stored in a
tightly stoppered bottle.
Eosin 1%:
1- Preparation of stock solution:
Eosin 1 gm
Alcohol (80%) 100 ml.

2- Working Eosin solution


Eosin 1% stock solution 1 part.
Alcohol 80% 3 part
Procedure:
1- Fixing , hardening and dehydration:
Specimens, from kidneys, and livers of rats were excised, collected
and fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin.The tissues were passed
through ascending grades of alcohol (70%, 80%, 90%, 96% and 100%).
The dehydration was not done rapidly in order to avoid distoration and to
add more hardness to the tissues. Tissues were mascerated in xylol.
2- Embedding in paraffin wax and sectioning:
Tissues were mascerated in xylol/ paraffin wax mixture (1:3). After
complete infiltration, a solid rectangular block of paraffin was made.
Microtome was used for cutting blocks into sections each of thickness 5
µm.
3- Mounting paraffin sections and staining:

121
The ribbons were mounted on clean glass slides pretreated with thin
film of Mayer`s albumin fixative. The slides were put on a hot plate (50
°C) over nigh to dry. The sections were then stained with differentially
double stain, Ehrlish haematoxylin for nuclei and Eosin for cytoplasm and
cell wall. The staining process was carried out as follows:
The slides were dipped in xylol for 20-30 minutes to remove the
wax from the sections, then dipped again in fresh xylol for 15 minutes to
ensure complete removal of wax. The slides were then dipped in a series
of different alcohol solutions each for 5 minutes starting with absolute
ethanol, 95, 90, 80, and 70% ethanol. Then the slides were rinsed in
distilled water and became ready for staining. They were dipped in the
solution of Ehrilish stain for 2 minutes. The excess stain was washed in
distilled water, 70% acidic alcohol until the sections became reddish, then
treated with alkaline alcohol 70% until the sections turned blue. Then
slides were dipped in 80, 90 and 95% alcohol each for 3 minutes,
respectively, then in Eosin for a few seconds. Excess Eosin was removed
with 95% alcohol. To remove any traces of water, the slides were dipped
in absolute ethanol for 5 minutes then in a series of xylol until perfectly
clear sections were obtained. The sections were covered with Canada
balsam and glass covers were placed properly on the slides. Finally
sections were examined under the microscope. Nuclei appeared blue,
while cytoplasm had the red color.
10-Statistical analysis:-
Statistical analysis of all data was carried out according to: Duncan`s
multiple range test (Duncan, 1955.).

122
RESULTS
AND
DISCUSSION
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1-Pesticidal activity of tested chemicals:
1.1 Laboratory tests:

The insecticides were evaluated for their toxicity against the cotton
leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis; three species of aphids (i.e. Aphis
gossypii, Aphis craccivora and Brevicoryne brassicae), the spider mite,
Tetranychus cinnabarinus and the predator Paederus alfierii.

1.1.1 Toxicity to the cotton leafworm, S. littoralis:-

The leaf dipping technique was adopted to evaluate the toxicity


of the insecticides to the fourth instar larvae. Results are recorded in
Table (2) and depicted in Fig. (4). According to LC50 values,
chloropyrifos-methyl exhibited the highest toxicity to S. littoralis
followed by profenofos (LC50`s: 74.53 and 133.35 ppm, respectively).
Weak toxicities was exhibited by pirimiphos-methyl, phenthoate and
carbosulfan (LC50`s: 1485.7, 3949.3 and 4855.4 ppm, respectively). As
for pirimicarb, propoxur and dimethoate, they were nearly non-toxic to S.
littoralis (LC50`s:>10000 ppm).The results are somewhat in agreement
with those of other authors. El- Dahan (1983) evaluated five synthetic
pyrethroids, three OP compounds and one carbamate insecticide for their
toxicity against the fourth instar larvae of S. littoralis. The OP compound,
profenofos was found to be the most toxic one. Chloropyrifos-methyl and
profenofos were found also to be effective against the same insect in
other work (Ghattas and El-Keie, 1986; Ascher and Nemmy, 1990 and
El- Dahan, 1991). Of four insecticides tested against S. littoralis,
dimethoate was the least effective one (Fahmy, et al. 1979). El-Gayar et
al. (1979) found that, pirimiphos-methyl was classified among other
insecticides as less potent against 2 nd and 4 th instar larvae of S. littorallis.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

1.1.2. Toxicity to aphids:-

Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the toxicity of the


tested insecticides to the aphids, Aphis gossypii, Aphis craccivora and
Brevicorne brassicae. The slide dipping technique was applied. Results
are recorded in Tables (3, 4, 5) and probit regression lines are shown in
Fig. (5, 6, 7). These results revealed that, the toxicity to aphids greatly
varied depending on the type of insecticide and/or the species of the
tested aphid. Against A. gossypii, profenofos had the highest toxicity
followed by dimethoate, phenthoate, chloropyrifos-methyl, carbosulfan
and pirimicarb (LC50`s values: 0.004, 0.01, 0.05, 0.11, 0.125 and 0.55
ppm, respectively). Propoxur and pirimiphos-methyl showed very weak
toxicity (LC50`s: 26.4 and 66.78 ppm, respectively). For the aphid, B.
brassicae, chloropyrifos-methyl was the most toxic compound followed
by profenofos, pirimicarb, propoxur and carbosulfan (LC50`s: 1.44, 2.40,
2.95, 4.37 and 5.88 ppm, respectively). Dimethoate, phenthoate and
pirimiphos-methyl were of weak toxicity (LC50`s: 32.46, 18.5 and 8.64,
respectively). The aphid, A. cracivora was the least susceptible to the
tested insecticides. The most toxic compound was profenofos followed by
pirimiphos-methyl and dimethoate (LC50`s: 5.45 and 8.25, 11.56 ppm,
respectively). Phenthoate showed very weak toxicity (LC50: 1632.42
ppm). When the toxicity against the three species of aphids is taken in
consideration, profenofos, dimethoate and chloropyrifos-methyl were
considered to be the most toxic compounds among the tested insecticides.
The results partly agreed with those of El-Sebae and Saleh, (1970);
Singh and Sircar, 1983; Salama et al, 1984; Thakur et al. 1984;
Sandhu, 1986; Zheng and Wing, 1987; Zidan 1989b; Gao et al.

Table (2): Toxicity of the tested pesticides against Spodoptera littoralis using leaf
dipping technique.

126
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Pesticides LC50 (ppm.) Confidence limits. Slope.

Lower Upper
Carbosulfan. 4855.42 3564.54 6613.79 2.66

Pirimicarb. >10000

Propoxur. >10000

Chlorpyrifos-methyl. 74.53 62.58 88.77 3.33

Dimethoate. >10000

Phenthoate. 3949.29 3175.22 4912.07 5.34

Pirimiphos-methyl. 1485.68 1191.04 1853.21 5.27

Profenofos. 133.35 114.61 155.15 4.44

Table (3): Toxicity of the tested pesticides against Aphis gossypii using slide dipping
technique.
Pesticides LC50 (ppm.) Confidence limits Slope.

Lower Upper
Carbosulfan. 0.125 0.1043 0.15 3.87

Pirimicarb. 0.55 0.32 0.93 0.96

Propoxur. 26.40 18.02 38.68 1.32

Chloropyrifos-methyl. 0.11 0.074 0.16 1.56

Dimethoate. 0.01 0.0037 0.03 0.54

Phenthoate. 0.051 0.024 0.11 0.57

Pirimiphos-methyl. 66.78 53.60 83.20 2.29

Profenofos. 0.0044 0.0037 0.0051 3.76

Table (4): Toxicity of the tested pesticides against Brevicoryne brassicae using slide
dipping technique.
Pesticides LC50 (ppm.) Confidence limits. Slope.

Lower Upper

127
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Carbosulfan. 5.88 2.79 12.41 1.35

Pirimicarb. 2.95 1.70 5.12 1.83

Propoxur. 4.37 2.93 6.52 1.79

Chloropyrifos-methyl. 1.44 1.05 1.97 3.22

Dimethoate. 32.46 20.34 51.80 2.16

Phenthoate. 18.50 10.58 32.35 1.28

Pirimiphos-methyl. 8.64 6.08 12.24 2.36

Profenofos. 2.40 1.75 3.29 3.20

Table (5): Toxicity of the tested pesticides against Aphis craccivora using slide
dipping technique.
Pesticides LC50 (ppm.) Confidence limits. Slope.

Lower Upper
Carbosulfan. 34.22 24.89 47.04 1.83

Pirimicarb. 17.50 12.68 24.14 3.13

Propoxur. 153.90 101.89 232.46 1.73

Chloropyrifos-methyl. 8.83 6.08 12.81 1.91

Dimethoate. 11.56 7.50 17.82 2.33

Phenthoate. 1632.42 818.10 3257.28 1.03

Pirimiphos-methyl. 8.25 4.70 14.48 1.79

Profenofos. 5.45 4.34 6.85 3.13

128
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

100 8

  7
 

 6
 
 

% Mortality.

Probit.
50  5
  

  4

carbosulfan
  pirimiphos-methyl
chlorpyrifos-methyl 3
phenthoate
profenofos
0 2
10 100 1000 10000 100000

Concentration (ppm).

Fig. (4) Probit regression lines for the toxicities of various pesticides to Spodoptera littoralis.

129
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

100 8

 7

 
  

  6
 
 
   
% Mortality.

  
  

Probit.
50  5

    carbosulfan

 
 pirimicarb
  propoxur 4
   pirimiphos-methyl

 chlorpyrifos-methyl
  phenthoate
3
profenofos
dimethoate

0 2
0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000

Concentration (ppm).

Fig. (5) Probit regression lines for the toxicities of various pesticides to Aphis gossypii .

130
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

100 8


   7
 


   6


 

% Mortality.

 

Probit.
50  5

 carbosulfan
 pirimicarb


  propoxur 4
  pirimiphos-methyl
  chlorpyrifos-methyl

 phenthoate
 3
  profenofos
dimethoate

0 2
0.1 1 10 100 1000

Concentration (ppm).

Fig. (6) Probit regression lines for the toxicities of various pesticides to Brevicoryne brassicae.

131
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

100 8
carbosulfan
pirimicarb
propoxur  
pirimiphos-methyl 
 7

chlorpyrifos-methyl
phenthoate 
profenofos  6
  
dimethoate
% Mortality.

 

Probit.
50  5
 
 

 

   4

 

  3
 

0 2
0.1 1 10 100 1000 10000

Concentration (ppm).

Fig. (7) Probit regression lines for the toxicities of various pesticides to Aphis craccivora.

132
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

1990; Zeitoun et al. 1990; Sharma et al, 1991; Mourad, 1991 & Konar
and Rai, 1992 who showed that dimethoate was effective against aphids.
Against A. gossypii, profenofos proved to be the potent among the tested
chemicals (Zeitoun et al 1990). Dimetry and Marei, (1992). Also they
found that, profenofos was highly toxic to the cabbage aphid, B.
brassicae.Rizk and Kamel (1991) found that, chloropyrifos-methyl
proved to have an immediate effect on aphids. For pirimicarb, Zidan et
al, 1988a and 1989b reported that the compound have shown to be very
effective against A. gossyppii and Schizaphi graminum aphids. However
Abdel-Wahab and Mohamed, (1992) found that profenfos was the most
potent compound against S. graminum aphid whereas pirimicarb was the
least toxic one.
Results of the present investigation show that A. gossypii was
the most susceptible species to carbosulfan. Similar results were obtained
by Shalaby et al. 1991; Halawa et al. 1992; Mourad, 1991; Shaheen et
al 1992 and Nassef, et al. 1995 who found that, carbosulfan was among
the most effective pesticides against A. gossypii.

1.1.3 Toxicity to the spider mite, T. cinnabarinus:

The leaf disc dipping technique was used to evaluate the toxicity of
the tested insecticides to adults of mites Teteranychus cinnabarinus.
Results are recorded in Table (6) and probit regression lines are shown in
Fig(8). Results show that, profenofos was the most toxic compound
followed by pirimiphos-methyl and phenthoate (LC50`s: 186.54, 223.16
and 688.15 ppm, respectively). The rest of the tested insecticides showed
very weak toxicity against the spider mite. Thomson, (1983) reported
that, profenofos and phenthoate had acaricidal properties.
In general, the very weak toxicity exhibited by the tested
insecticides is something logical since these toxicants are not specific
acaricides.

133
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

1.1.4. Toxicity to the predator, Paederus alfierii:

Surface deposit technique was used to determine the toxicity of the


insecticides to the adults of predator, P. alfierii. LC50 values and their
confidence limits are recorded in Table (7) and probit regression lines are
shown in Fig.(9). The toxicity of the compounds could be arranged
descendingly as follows: Propoxur> phenthoate> dimethoate>
carbosulfan> pirimicarb> pirimiphos-methyl> chloropyrifos-methyl>
profenofos (LC50`s: 0.0027, 0.0029, 0.0039, 0.0062, 0.1015, 0.1148,
0.5485 and 0.8113 µg/cm2, respectively. Based on the obtained data, the
insecticides could be classified into two groups according to their
toxicities to the predator P. alfierii: The first group includes the
insecticides that exhibited high toxicity (i.e. propoxur, phenthoate,
dimethoate and carbosulfan). The second group includes the insecticides
that showed moderate to low toxicity (i.e. pirimicarb, pirimiphos-methyl,
chloropyrifos-methyl and profenofos). Similar results were obtained by
Zeitoun et al. (1990) and Hussein et al. (1993a) who found that
profenofos (among other insecticides) had the least toxic effect against
the Coccinellid predator, Coccinella undecimpunctata when applied in
the field. Against the aphidivorous coccinellid Coccinella
septempunctata, chlorpyrifos-methyl was among the most safe
compounds when applied topically under laboratory conditions (Hussein
et al. 1981). In contrast to the results of the present investigation,
carbosulfan was much safer on natural enemies (including P. alfierii)
under field conditions (Darwish and Farghal 1990).

Table (6):Toxicity of the tested pesticides against Tetranychus cinnabarinus exposed


to leaf disk dipping technique.
Pesticides LC50 (ppm.) Confidence limits Slope.

134
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Lower Upper
Carbosulfan. 5494.52 3911.38 7718.44 1.48

Pirimicarb. 16471.34 11795.8 23000 1.51

Propoxur. 36065.23 23137.9 56215.1 1.31

Chloropyrifos-methyl. 2525.23 1962.24 3249.75 2.83

Dimethoate. 1079.19 830.96 1401.59 2.72

Phenthoate. 688.15 545.86 867.55 2.51

Pirimiphos-methyl. 223.16 155.84 319.57 1.99

Profenofos. 186.54 124.96 278.46 1.78

Table (7): Toxicity of the tested pesticides against Paederus alfierii using surface
deposit technique.
Pesticides LC50 (µ g/cm2) Confidence limits Slope.

Lower Upper
Carbosulfan. 0.0062 0.00450 0.0087 2.04

Pirimicarb. 0.1015 0.08223 0.1253 3.90

Propoxur. 0.0027 0.00194 0.0039 2.30

Chloropyrifos-methyl. 0.5485 0.40518 0.7427 3.84

Dimethoate. 0.0039 0.00305 0.0050 3.23

Phenthoate. 0.0029 0.00161 0.0055 0.84

Pirimiphos-methyl. 0.1148 0.07857 0.1677 1.77

Profenofos. 0.8113 0.59927 1.0985 2.71

135
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

100 8
Carbosulfan
Pirimicarb


Propoxur 7
Pirimiphos-methyl 
Chlorpyrifos-methyl 
phenthoate  
Profenfos 6
 
dimethoate  
 
% Mortality.

Probit.
50  5
    

    
 4
  
 
 
 
 3

0 2
10 100 1000 10000 100000

Concentration (ppm).

Fig. (8) Probit regression lines for the toxicities of various pesticides to Tetranychus cinnabarinus .

136
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

100 8
carbosulfan
pirimicarb

propoxur 
  7
pirimiphos-methyl
chlorpyrifos-methyl 
phenthoate 

   
profenofos   6
dimethoate
  
% Mortality.

Probit.
50    5
 

 

 4
 
 

  
 3

(µg/cm 2).
0 2
0.0001 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10

Concentration

Fig. (9) Probit regression lines for the toxicities of various pesticides to Paederus alfierii.

137
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Larvae of the three predators, Chrysopa carnea, Coccinella


undecimpunctata and Paederus alfierii were highly susceptible to
dimethoate (Shaheen and Kaddy, 1987). Generally, it is well known
that, the wide and unwise application of different pesticides leads to
harmful effects on the beneficial insects especially entomophagous. One
of the solutions of this problem is the use of selective pesticides as a
possible method of integrated control. So, the studies connected with the
impact of different pesticides on predators and parasites can facilitate the
determination of selectivity of these pesticides. Such studies are therefore
helpful for planning more effective IPM programs.
Data of toxicity of the tested insecticides (calculated as LC50`s and
toxicity indexes) against different pests and the tested predator are
summarized in Table (8).
1.2. Field studies:
The insecticides were further evaluated under field conditions.
Three sprays (each separated by 9 days intervals) were applied on squash
and okra plants. Plants were examined before and after each spray for
their infestation with cotton leafworm, aphids, mites and whitefly.
Percents of pest reduction were determined using Hinderson and Tilton
equation (1955). Aphids, A. gossypii and whitefly, B. tabaci were mainly
observed and detected on squash plants while the white fly and the cotton
leafworm S. littoralis could be observed on okra plants.

1.2.1 The cotton leafworm, S. littoralis:

The cotton leafworm could be observed only on okra plants.


Results are recorded in Tables 9,10 and depicted in Fig 10.
These results revealed that, profenofos and chloropyrifos-methyl
had the highest effects against the cotton leafworm (Average of %
reduction throughout the experiment period were 83.52 and 81.5 ,

138
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table(8): Toxicity of the tested pesticides against certain pests and the beneficial predator, P. alfierii.
Insects
S.littorals A. gossypii. A. craccivora. B.brassica. T.cinnabarinus. P. alfierii
Pesticides LC50 Toxicity LC50 Toxicity LC50 Toxicity LC50 Toxicity LC50 Toxicity LC50 Toxicity
(ppm) index. (ppm) index. (ppm) index. (ppm) index. (ppm) index. (µ g/cm )2
index.
Carbosulfan. 4855.42 1.53 0.125 3.52 34.22 15.92 5.88 24.48 5494.52 3.3950 0.00626 44.40
Pirimicarb. >10000 0.55 0.8 17.50 31.14 2.95 48.81 16471.3 1.1325 0.10153 2.738
Propoxur. >10000 26.40 0.016 153.90 3.54 4.37 32.95 36065.2 0.51722 0.00278 100
Chloropyrifos-methyl. 74.53 100 0.11 4 8.83 61.72 1.44 100 2525.23 7.3870 0.54858 0.5027
Dimethoate. >10000 0.01 44 11.56 47.14 32.46 4.43 1079.19 17.2851 0.00393 70.73
Phenthoate. 3949.29 1.887 0.051 44.56 1632.42 0.33 15.50 9.29 688.15 27.10 0.00298 93.28
Pirimiphos-methyl. 1485.68 5.01 66.78 0.006 8.25 66.06 8.64 16.66 223.16 83.59 0.11482 2.421
Profenofos. 133.35 55.89 0.0044 100 5.45 100 2.40 60 186.54 100 0.81139 0.342
Toxicity index calculated according to Sun equation, 1950.
Toxicity index =LC50 of the most toxic one/ LC50 of the insecticides × 100.

Table ( 9): Efficiency of certain pesticides against the population density of cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis larvae in okra plants.

139
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Chemical Average no. of larvae/3leaves ± S.D at days:-


used Before
1st 1 3 5 7 9* 10 12 14 16 18** 19 21 23 25
spray.
Carbosulfan 12.25 1.25 4.25 3.11 0.28 4.42 1.43 4.35 6.10 5.42 7.33 0.67 5.05 4.36 3.54
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.20 0.11 0.11 0.11 0.01 0.38 0.18 0.15 0.19 0.19 0.21 0.07 0.65 0.14 0.04
Pirimicarb 2.70 1.70 1.36 0.70 0.08 3.83 4.35 4.30 5.51 4.25 5.54 5.45 4.96 3.61 2.63
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.26 0.31 0.03 0.02 0.01 0.20 0.30 0.17 0.08 0.19 0.33 0.12 0.58 0.85 0.14
Propoxur 4.47 1.42 1.74 1.16 0.10 2.31 2.42 2.68 3.48 2.93 4.39 2.75 3.54 2.45 2.98
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.36 0.06 0.06 0.03 0.01 0.23 0.28 0.26 0.15 0.21 0.33 0.48 0.86 0.64 0.31
Chlorpyrifos 2.56 0.01 0.02 0.11 0.02 4.29 0.08 0.19 1.40 1.92 4.52 0.17 0.15 0.35 0.64
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.23 0.001 0.002 0.01 0.002 0.29 0.001 0.01 0.17 0.06 0.27 0.15 0.08 0.10 0.10
Dimethoate 9.02 5.97 3.92 2.50 0.31 3.74 4.33 4.52 5.21 4.93 5.70 5.86 3.89 4.52 2.92
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.21 0.45 0.16 0.16 0.02 0.29 0.10 0.17 0.34 0.28 0.39 0.91 0.39 1.13 0.47
Phenthoate 10.23 1.19 1.52 1.43 0.18 2.67 0.80 1.03 2.43 0.96 2.33 0.45 0.60 0.85 0.85
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.36 0.08 0.25 0.18 0.01 0.21 0.02 0.04 0.14 0.06 0.13 0.14 0.26 0.13 0.12
Pirimiphos 2.63 0.25 0.51 0.41 0.05 2.34 0.34 1.28 2.03 2.36 4.79 1.25 1.80 1.45 2.21
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.24 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.27 0.05 0.26 0.04 0.19 0.39 0.19 0.30 0.22 0.24
Profenofos 16.85 0.05 0.02 0.12 0.10 3.44 0.06 0.49 0.99 0.95 4.39 0.24 0.06 0.04 0.15
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.46 0.002 0.003 0.003 0.13 0.17 0.01 0.06 0.03 0.10 0.30 0.21 0.01 0.01 0.03
Control 9.86 4.66 3.61 2.56 0.23 3.59 4.24 4.45 5.41 4.72 5.65 6.10 4.63 3.69 2.83
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.68 0.38 0.17 0.29 0.02 0.35 0.13 0.20 0.13 0.10 0.24 0.73 0.34 0.92 0.36
* the second spray (population density just before spraying) ,** the third spray(population density just before spraying) . S.D: Standard deviation.

140
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table (10): Efficiency of certain pesticides against larvae of cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis in okra plants .
Chemical Rate/ Average % reduction ± S.D. at days:- Average
used fed. 1 3 5 7 9* 10 12 14 16 18** 19 21 23 25 reduction
Carbosulfan 600 gm. 78.34 5.13 2.19 0.35 72.17 19.95 7.845 6.21 81.59 15.73 7.28 1.42 22.66
± ± ± ± 0.00 a ± ± ± ± 0.00 a ± ± ± ±
2.17 d 0.91 a 2.56 a 0.24 a 5.51 b 8.24 b 10.13 a 7.06 a 6.95c 0.57c 1.88a 0.60a
Pirimicarb 500 gm. 0.14 3.83 9.42 2.29 8.09 8.88 0.22 5.22 2.72
0.00a 0.00a ± 0.00 a 0.00 a ± ± 0.00 a ± ± ± 0.00 a ± ±
0.01 a 0.26 a 0.38 a 0.14 a 0.35 a 0.13 a 0.01 a 0.45 a
Propoxur 1L. 32.78 0.05 4.09 11.29 6.40 3.52 41.97 1.59 14.54 8.30
± 0.00 a ± ± 0.00 a ± ± 0.00 a ± 0.00 a ± ± ± 0.00 a
2.36b 0.01 a 0.95 0.59 a 0.36 a 0.47 a 2.35b 0.01 a 0.16 a
Chlorpyrifos 1 L. 98.88 97.52 82.65 62.79 51.07 98.33 96.4 86.95 72.7 38.65 90.72 95.11 84.57 75.96 81.52
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.32 f 0.47 d 2.01 c 7.38 b 4.52c 0.15 d 0.43 c 1.39c 1.099c 7.76c 0.25d 2.44f +2.35 3.08c
Dimethoate 1L. 1.97 2.50 3.16 4.77 16.71 2.07
0.00a 0.00 a 0.00 a 0.00a 0.00 a ± ± 0.00 a 0.00 a ± ± ± 0.00 a 0.00 a
0.01 a 0.19 a 0.23 a 0.14 a 0.28b
Phenthoate 0.800 L. 75.29 59.25 45.97 24.60 21.31 77.90 63.35 49.61 34.02 19.16 76.58 61.27 52.55 37.63 49.89
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
2.39 c 7.55 c 8.43 b 1.58 a 3.38b 1.53b 0.94c 2.48b 4.71b 1.65b 1.20c 1.30d 3.72b 2.52b
Pirimiphos 1.5 L. 80.11 47.15 40.08 11.63 87.40 55.53 41.69 21.99 75.86 53.71 53.12 7.55 41.13
-methyl ± ± ± ± 0.00 a ± ± ± ± 0.00 a ± ± ± ±
1.70d 3.978 b 7.01 b 11.10 b 2.56 c 9.85 c 8.13 b 14.91 ab 1.81 c 11.16 d 11.10 b 13.24 a
Profenofos 0.750 L. 99.33 99.63 97.36 93.63 43.88 98.64 88.35 80.81 79.00 21.60 99.72 94.08 89.52 83.81 83.52
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.046 f 0.03 d 0.11 d 0.15e 4.31c 0.12 d 2.02 d 0.78 c 1.44 c 4.38b 0.25d 2.90f 1.18c 1.28c
L.S.D0.95 2.9791 6.9930 9.3038 28.2074 10.9737 8.1949 3.9962 8.8272 8.10106 12.9775 10.4526 5.9390 9.6575 9.8823
* the second spray. ** the third spray. S.D: Standard deviation. Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level)

141
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

20


15
Average number of insects/3 leaves

10 



 

    
5       
      
  
 
    
   
  
  

    
  
      
      
   
 
  
   
0 
   
      
 
 
0 1 3 5 7 9 10 12 14 16 18 19 21 23 25
Time (days).

pirimiphos-methyl pirimicarb propoxur dimethoate chlorpyrifos-methyl


phenthoate profenofos carbosulfan Control.
Fig. (10) :The average number of larvae of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis / 3 leaves infesting okra
plants.

142
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

respectively). Although pirimiphos-methyl, carbosulfan and phenthoate


exhibited a reasonable initial efficiency (% reduction after 24 hours were
80.11, 78.34 and 75.29, respectively) but their effects were greatly
decreased after 3 days of spraying (% reduction: 47.15, 5.13 and 59.25,
respectively). In general, the vegetable crops are commonly infested and
attacked by several insect species particularly those belonging to order
Lepidoptera (e.g. S. littoralis). El- Dahan (1991) studied the survey of
insecticide resistance in the cotton leafworm, S. littoralis which was
collected from Kafr El-sheikh Governorate during the years 1984-1988.
The results indicated that, field strains developed high resistance level to
pyrethroids while the organophosphates, chloropyrifos and profenofos
were more effective. It is worthwhile to mention that, chloropyrifos-
methyl and profenofos are still officially recommended to control S.
littoralis on vegetable plants (National program of Agricultural pests
control, 1997, Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation, Egypt).

1.2.2 The whitefly, Bemisia tabaci:

Okra and squash plants were heavily infested with the whitefly, B.
tabaci. The insect was abundantly existed on plants throughout the
examination period which lasted more than three weeks. For okra plants
results were recorded in Table (11-18) and illustrated in Fig 11-14.
From the obtained results, it is clear that, apart from pirimiphos-
methyl, profenofos and carbosulfan whose efficiency were relatively
moderate (Average % reduction ranged 64-78), the tested insecticides
were of poor efficacy. The insecticides retained their moderate toxicities
up to 9 days after spraying. On squash plants, pirimiphos-methyl,
profenofos and phenthoate were moderately effective. Although
chloropyrifos-methyl was poorly effective against whitefly on okra plants
(average of % reduction: 31.49 and 35.56 for adult and immature stage,
respectively), it was of relatively high effect on immature stages of

143
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

whitefly infesting squash plants(average % reduction: 83.13). Results


showed also that, the tested insecticides varied in their efficiency
depending on the tested stage ( nymph or adult) and the type of plants
carrying the insect (i.e. okra or squash). The obtained results agreed with
those of many authors. Zeitoun et al (1990) reported that profenofos at
rate of 750 ml/F. was potent against B. tabaci on potatoes with an average
reduction of 85% . Chloropyrifos-methyl gave acceptable control to
whitefly on cucumber plants (El- Sayed and El-Ghar, 1992; Abbassy et
al, 1993). Pirimiphos-methyl achieved a good control against white flies
infesting cucumber plants in plastic houses (Abbassy et al. 1993; Zidan,
et al. 1994). On cotton plants, carbosulfan gave acceptable control to B.
tabaci (Rizk and Kamel, 1991). However, carbosulfan and pirimiphos-
methyl failed to give effective control against the whitefly on cabbage
plants (Percentages of reduction were 41 and 42 for carbosulfan and
pirimiphos-methyl, respectively) (Farrag et al. 1994). El- Maghraby, et
al. (1997) found that profenofos, pirimiphos-methyl and chloropyrifos-
methyl successfully reduced the population of various stages of the
whitefly, B. tabaci on tomato plants.
Generally, the cotton whitefly, B. tabaci is considered one of the most
serious pests attacking plants. In Egypt, it is well known as a key pest on
vegetable crops especially tomatoes and squash in traditional or protected
plantations. Some investigators attributed the increase of whitefly in the
last few years to changes in ecosystem such as intensification and
diversitification of the cropping system which has provided more hosts
and the use of broad spectrum and persistent chemicals which suppressed
the natural enemies (Darwish and Farghal 1990). On the other hand,

144
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table (11): Efficiency of certain pesticides against the population density of nymphs of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in okra plants .
Chemical Average No. of nymphs/3 leaves ± S.D. at days:-
used Before 1 3 5 7 9* 10 12 14 16 18** 19 21 23 25
1 st
spray.
Carbosulfan 18.94 2.77 4.73 5.71 9.88 11.30 1.21 2.37 3.01 4.35 5.51 0.54 1.08 1.00 1.42
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.48 0.17 0.17 0.20 0.29 0.05 0.14 0.09 0.15 0.21 0.34 0.10 0.09 0.03 0.03
Pirimicarb 19.40 10.38 13.27 16.72 20.56 23.89 13.74 13.76 15.96 20.60 25.94 14.45 14.46 12.81 15.95
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
1.13 0.19 0.72 0.38 0.44 0.75 0.65 0.32 0.52 0.47 0.50 0.42 0.92 0.33 0.46
Propoxur 12.69 5.21 7.44 8.55 16.19 19.55 7.77 9.76 12.07 19.68 22.20 8.69 8.75 7.62 14.77
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.85 0.20 0.06 0.27 0.64 0.79 0.67 0.54 0.68 1.05 1.41 0.31 0.41 0.22 0.19
Chlorpyrifos 15.40 7.73 10.58 13.34 16.88 20.61 9.25 11.68 14.51 18.55 22.15 9.06 9.66 8.52 10.38
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.73 0.24 0.36 0.53 0.29 0.75 0.10 0.77 0.40 0.82 0.04 0.50 0.17 0.23 0.13
Dimethoate 10.69 2.71 5.52 6.20 13.96 16.65 3.44 6.65 10.41 16.40 18.00 4.27 6.34 4.42 10.63
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.58 0.20 0.32 0.23 0.32 0.86 0.25 0.99 2.44 0.57 1.79 0.32 0.27 0.26 0.21
Phenthoate 11.01 6.45 8.70 12.21 15.46 17.90 9.18 11.77 14.67 18.80 21.71 12.54 12.39 11.43 14.44
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.53 0.44 0.21 0.32 0.16 0.58 0.19 0.46 0.74 0.16 0.66 0.21 0.23 0.16 0.23
Pirimiphos 26.31 0.96 3.88 9.17 12.43 14.09 0.16 2.21 4.26 5.01 6.60 0.03 0.94 1.20 1.47
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
1.59 0.09 0.29 0.51 0.07 0.59 0.01 0.22 0.21 0.15 0.28 0.001 0.04 0.04 0.21
Profenofos 10.78 1.36 1.69 2.56 3.51 4.30 0.50 0.74 1.05 1.56 2.56 0.23 0.38 0.35 0.47
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.30 0.29 0.18 0.08 0.25 0.39 0.12 0.03 0.20 0.07 0.29 0.01 0.04 0.04 0.02
Control 14.68 12.56 15.91 18.76 23.43 25.82 20.56 22.87 25.83 31.10 33.65 29.29 27.73 22.25 25.88
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.18 0.29 0.32 0.27 0.78 0.66 0.78 0.29 0.40 0.79 0.75 0.28 2.10 0.72 0.53
• the second spray (population density just before sprying) ,** the third spray (population density just before sprying) . S.D: Standard deviation.

145
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table ( 12 ): Efficiency of certain pesticides against nymphs of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci i n okra plants
Chemical Rate/ Average % reduction ± S.D. at days:- Average
used fed. 1 3 5 7 9* 10 12 14 16 18** 19 21 23 25 reduction
Carbosulfan 600 gm. 82.85 76.93 76.39 67.3 66.06 86.59 76.32 73.38 68.07 62.57 88.73 76.09 72.36 66.31 74.28
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
1.49 e e 1.17 0.33ef 1.60 c 0.91d 1.49 d 1.01 e 1.17 e 1.40 d 2.47d 2.51 f 3.27 d 2.56 f 2.42 e
Pirimicarb 500 gm. 37.30 36.61 32.31 33.39 29.84 27.73 34.90 33.16 28.35 16.65 36.00 32.29 25.3 20.03 30.27
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
3.20 b 6.52 b 5.55 b 5.35 b 4.40c 2.58 a 2.97 b 3.14 b 2.73 c 1.19b 0.62 b 5.57 b 3.11 b 1.54 c
Propoxur 1 L. 51.75 45.75 47.03 19.71 12.33 50.13 55.04 38.28 16.43 12.89 54.88 51.98 47.93 13.27 36.96
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
4.92 c 3.20 c 4.89 c 8.33 a 2.68a 2.84d 4.24ef 0.97b 1.75b 2.05ab 3.94b 4.69b 4.31d 4.62a
Chlorpyrifos 1 L. 41.2 36.54 32.09 31.21 23.83 43.60 35.99 29.60 25.29 17.46 53.02 47.10 41.85 39.05 35.56
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
3.76 b 2.73 b 4.31 b 3.73 b 3.03b 1.88c 4.85d 2.20b 1.80c 2.83b 2.53b 0.86b 1.58c 0.87c
Dimethoate 1L. 70.23 52.28 54.5 17.97 11.32 74.02 43.64 37.22 18.12 17.17 72.45 56.97 62.67 22.66 43.66
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
3.00 d 1.58 d 2.80 d 5.71 a 5.06a 1.03e 4.25c 16.25b 2.49b 3.84b 4.29c 4.34c 3.00e 7.64b
Phenthoate 0.800 L. 31.45 27.01 12.96 11.85 7.51 35.55 25.79 18.10 12.73 6.94 33.57 30.69 20.31 13.48 20.57
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
3.53 a 2.76 a 6.15 a 5.07 a 1.5b 1.34b 0.86b 1.54a 2.57a 0.28a 2.86a 3.34a 3.40a 1.42a
Pirimiphos 1.5 L. 95.70 86.35 72.62 70.32 69.51 98.56 82.3 69.69 70.41 64.03 99.41 82.67 72.46 70.89 78.92
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.63 f 1.51 f 2.74 e 1.69 c 0.887d 0.05 e 1.50 f 2.68 e 1.99 d 1.22d 0.047g 0.13 e 2.04 f 4.93 f
Profenofos 0.750 L. 85.19 85.55 81.37 79.61 77.36 85.33 80.40 75.72 69.71 53.77 89.47 81.91 79.49 75.76 78.62
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
3.56 e 1.20 f 1.11 f 1.55 d 1.60e 3.98f 1.11a 2.52c 1.48d 9.65c 1.04 f 1.53 e 0.44 g 2.39 g
L.S.D 0.95 5.6527 5.3161 6.9177 8.1661 5.0488 3.8346 4.7029 10.5491 3.6093 6.927 4.5931 6.0202 4.8304 6.7199
* the second spray . ** the third spray . S.D: Standard deviation. Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level).

146
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

35


30


    
Average number of insects/3 leaves
25
 
  

20    

  
 
 
 
  
    
15      

    
       
   
    
10
    
  
  
   
    
    
5      
  
    

       
0 
  
   
0 1 3 5 7 9 10 12 14 16 18 19 21 23 25
Time (days).

pirimiphos-methyl pirimicarb propoxur dimethoate chlorpyrifos-methyl


phenthoate profenofos carbosulfan Control.
Fig.(11): The average number of immature stage of whitefly Bemisia tabaci/ 3 leaves infesting okra plants.

147
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table (13): Efficiency of certain pesticides against the population density of the adults of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in okra plants .
Chemical No of adults whitefly/3 leaves ± S.D. at days:-
used Before 1 3 5 7 9* 10 12 14 16 18** 19 21 23 25
1st
spray.
Carbosulfan 26.45 3.57 3.44 5.67 7.39 8.51 0.72 0.84 0.95 1.73 2.58 0.27 0.44 0.97 1.66
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
2.53 0.35 0.15 0.21 0.44 0.34 0.11 0.11 0.09 0.18 0.12 0.03 0.05 0.06 0.08
Pirimicarb 13.90 3.45 5.34 6.45 4.39 5.61 1.09 1.67 1.25 1.69 2.59 0.62 1.35 2.43 3.32
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.88 0.15 0.29 0.19 0.34 0.28 0.04 0.27 0.14 0.21 0.20 0.03 0.05 0.18 0.2 b
Propoxur 8.61 4.53 5.57 8.10 5.33 6.74 2.03 3.54 3.67 4.11 5.150 2.30 4.59 8.39 9.13
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.15 0.18 0.21 0.09 0.29 0.14 0.05 0.18 0.27 0.12 0.13 0.16 0.20 0.12 0.39
Chlorpyrifos 11.25 4.62 5.43 11.27 7.07 8.53 1.92 3.06 4.48 5.30 6.69 2.31 4.56 11.28 11.55
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.29 0.26 0.09 0.26 0.08 0.34 0.07 0.06 0.23 0.14 0.26 0.17 0.19 0.22 0.39
Dimethoate 7.62 0.74 0.67 3.71 3.51 3.74 0.40 0.32 1.16 1.95 2.54 0.15 0.25 2.07 3.54
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.36 0.05 0.04 0.20 0.24 0.1 d 0.23 0.09 0.05 0.07 0.12 0.02 0.01 0.12 0.32
Phenthoate 17.43 2.65 3.60 5.23 9.70 10.22 1.14 1.61 1.71 5.57 6.80 0.87 1.62 3.22 10.74
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.45 0.18 0.36 0.22 0.17 0.26 0.05 0.14 0.18 0.10 0.32 0.06 0.18 0.19 0.34
Pirimiphos 9.72 2.24 1.83 3.02 3.49 4.57 0.54 0.84 0.93 1.60 2.47 0.44 0.64 1.41 2.81
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.46 0.15 0.06 0.08 0.43 0.32 0.05 0.02 0.09 0.18 0.42 0.12 0.19 0.25 0.58
Profenofos 16.56 2.27 2.28 4.57 4.52 4.67 0.34 0.57 0.80 1.49 2.05 0.15 0.45 1.09 1.75
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.39 0.26 0.02 0.23 0.24 0.19 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.10 0.03 0.19 0.12 0.28
Control 36.68 45.37 35.78 39.27 24.52 24.46 28.85 19.97 16.83 18.25 18.82 20.56 24.56 34.67 36.18
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.82 0.28 0.39 0.73 0.40 0.15 0.65 0.52 1.43 0.64 0.11 0.68 0.95 0.97 2.34

• the second spray (population density just before sprying) ,** the third spray (population density just before sprying) . S.D: Standard deviation.

148
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table ( 14 ): Efficiency of certain pesticides against adults of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in okra plants.
Chemical Rate/ Average % reduction ± S.D. at days:- Average
used fed 1 3 5 7 9* 10 12 14 16 18** 19 21 23 25 reduction
Carbosulfan 600 gm. 89.00 86.57 79.80 57.95 51.48 92.85 87.82 83.66 72.74 60.52 90.41 86.78 79.66 66.45 77.54
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
1.72 d 1.77 e 2.57 e 5.03 e 4.82f 0.80 e 1.93 f 2.08 d 1.93 f 3.19e 0.99 d 1.95 fig 0.40 d 2.81 d
Pirimicarb 500 gm. 79.9 60.53 56.6 52.75 39.17 83.57 63.68 67.76 59.74 40.07 78.1 59.78 49.05 33.29 58.82
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.61 c 3.40 c 2.4 c 1.27 de 6.57c 0.58 c 4.38 c 2.42 c 3.39 e 4.59d 1.73c 2.58c 0.23b 0.79d
Propoxur 1 L. 57.44 33.66 12.13 7.38 74.42 35.79 20.96 18.29 59.05 31.64 11.43 7.62 26.42
± ± ± ± 0.00 a ± ± ± ± 0.00 a ± ± ± ±
2.30 a 2.46 a 2.54 b 3.54 a 0.74 a 2.10 a 4.72 a 4.00 a 1.87 a 4.23 a 1.00 a 5.64 a
Chlorpyrifos 1 L. 66.82 50.48 6.4 6.01 80.88 56.04 23.38 16.61 68.39 47.62 8.31 9.95 31.49
-methyl ± ± ± ± 0.00 a ± ± ± ± 0.00 a ± ± ± ±
1.86 b 0.89 b 3.85 a 3.31 a 1.33 b 2.13 b 6.85 a 1.34 a 1.37 b 3.58 b 4.88 a 6.57 a
Dimethoate 1L. 92.15 90.94 54.46 30.85 26.17 90.97 89.47 54.93 29.91 11.82 94.47 92.33 55.73 27.36 60.11
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.42 e 0.51 f 3.12 c 6.82 c 5.58c 5.35c 2.71f 1.52b 5.40b 2.36b 0.72 d 0.70 g 3.74 bc 7.65 ab
Phenthoate 0.800 L. 87.71 78.83 71.95 16.72 11.98 90.54 80.76 75.67 26.93 13.5 88.26 81.74 74.30 17.71 58.32
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.80 d 2.37 d 1.41 d 1.73 b 4.29b 0.60 d 1.38 de 1.98 c 0.51 b 6.05b 1.032e 2.24d 1.13d 2.987ab
Pirimiphos 1.5 L. 81.39 80.66 70.95 45.95 29.16 89.93 77.32 70.21 53.08 30.05 84.01 80.46 68.95 40.71 64.48
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.80 c 1.24 d 0.72 d 9.04 d 8.17c 0.14 d 2.12 d 4.97 c 4.54 d 7.03c 1.54d 2.62d 4.07ec 7.47d
Profenofos 0.750 L. 88.91 85.90 74.18 59.13 57.69 93.93 80.00 75.17 26.93 42.90 93.32 83.21 71.19 55.37 70.56
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
1.51 d 0.42 e 1.88 d 2.43 e 2.08f 1.50c 2.04ff 3.58c 0.51c 3.45d 0.99 d 2.70 ef 1.95 d 9.28 cd
L.S.D 0.95 2.4354 3.3027 4.3055 8.37924 9.9334 3.5984 4.3191 6.7884 5.9851 8.4309 2.3118 4.776 4.766 10.4726
* the second spray . ** the third spray. S.D: Standard deviation. Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level).

149
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

50

40


Average number of insects/3 leaves
 

30


  
20  
 

 

   

10    

   
   
 

  
   

   
   
  
       

  
 
   
 
0    
  
 
0 1 3 5 7 9 10 12 14 16 18 19 21 23 25
Time (days).

pirimiphos-methyl pirimicarb propoxur dimethoate chlorpyrifos-methyl


phenthoate profenofos carbosulfan Control.
Fig. (12):The average number of adult of whitefly Bemisia tabaci / 3 leaves infesting okra plants.

150
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table (15 ): Efficiency of certain pesticides against the population density of nymphs of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in squash plants .
Chemical No of nymphs /leaf ± S.D. at days:-
used Before 1 3 5 7 9* 10 12 14 16 18** 19 21 23 25
st
1
spray.
Carbosulfan 18.88 0.01 2.46 17.35 13.93 14.71 14.71 2.66 8.21 11.45 12.39 0.16 1.61 7.21 8.46
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.72 0.01 0.32 0.34 0.50 0.63 0.63 0.23 0.21 0.20 0.53 0.02 0.25 0.05 0.32
Pirimicarb 23.78 8.55 10.95 25.31 17.32 18.80 6.60 9.69 12.35 16.34 17.15 4.00 6.28 10.47 11.53
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.71 0.37 0.44 1.13 0.85 0.71 0.24 0.60 0.20 0.20 1.19 0.70 0.20 0.24 0.57
Propoxur 37.34 17.39 29.67 53.14 37.23 38.89 19.44 33.58 33.71 43.95 44.79 17.80 27.05 37.57 42.25
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
1.03 2.13 0.32 0.93 1.14 0.57 0.44 0.40 0.51 0.62 0.87 0.31 0.55 1.37 0.30
Chlorpyrifos 44.27 3.12 7.26 14.78 11.91 13.41 0.64 1.82 2.74 4.51 4.89 0.22 0.67 1.04 1.29
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
2.23 0.14 0.27 0.48 0.85 0.50 0.02 0.25 0.26 0.24 0.24 0.09 0.14 0.02 0.11
Dimethoate 34.65 5.55 15.03 29.59 25.61 26.94 4.10 11.63 12.79 20.70 22.64 3.61 8.06 11.51 15.48
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
1.15 0.37 0.95 0.57 0.90 0.33 0.95 0.74 0.71 0.25 0.52 0.29 0.29 0.16 0.45
Phenthoate 48.70 0.52 8.42 25.34 23.84 25.08 25.08 5.10 9.41 14.11 15.75 0.16 1.86 4.83 7.26
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.52 0.04 0.04 1.17 0.37 0.31 0.31 0.08 0.15 0.61 0.70 0.09 0.08 0.11 0.75
Pirimiphos 36.44 7.09 9.51 38.69 26.65 27.90 5.24 8.63 18.80 23.86 25.50 3.03 5.23 17.17 17.51
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.84 0.12 0.08 0.89 0.70 0.51 0.20 0.28 0.63 0.62 1.01 0.12 0.23 0.63 0.33
Profenofos 22.51 0.01 4.60 8.61 10.67 11.68 11.68 2.32 2.72 5.52 6.06 0.05 1.00 1.59 2.71
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
1.09 0.01 0.35 0.29 0.30 0.72 0.72 0.11 0.29 0.36 0.44 0.03 0.14 0.16 0.14
Control 33.05 36.83 39.45 59.75 41.01 40.67 40.67 49.38 43.44 55.01 54.61 49.21 48.77 58.05 60.28
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.50 1.17 0.67 0.35 0.73 0.75 0.75 1.07 0.95 1.98 1.44 0.52 0.34 0.49 0.90

• the second spray (population density just before sprying) ,** the third spray (population density just before sprying). S.D: Standard deviation.

151
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table ( 16): Efficiency of certain pesticides against nymphs of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in squash plants.
Chemical Rate/ Average % reduction ± S.D. at days:- Average
used fed. 1 3 5 7 9* 10 12 14 16 18** 19 21 23 25 reduction
Carbosulfan 600 gm. 99.97 89.05 49.10 40.43 36.67 99.40 85.05 47.69 42.38 37.19 98.56 85.37 45.20 38.00 63.26
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.05 e 1.73 e 2.61 c 4.11 b 2.08 b 0.08 f 1.87 e 2.20 c 2.31 c 3.96 b 0.23 e 2.90 d 2.62 c 5.06 b
Pirimicarb 500 gm. 67.70 61.39 41.03 41.27 35.72 68.80 57.46 38.43 35.70 32.11 73.99 58.86 42.30 38.83 49.54
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
2.18 b 1.46 b 4.28 b 3.41 b 3.01 b 0.23 b 4.01 b 2.96 b 1.90 b 2.17 b 5.15 b 3.74 b 5.19 c 6.38 b
Propoxur 1 L. 58.09 33.37 21.2 19.54 15.32 55.55 28.87 18.83 16.42 14.23 55.88 32.37 21.04 14.53 28.95
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
6.28 a 2.55 a 3.54 a 4.70 a 1.29 a 1.63 a 1.82 a 2.02 a 2.38 a 0.74 a 0.83 a 1.56 a 4.14 a 1.04 a
Chlorpyrifos 1 L. 93.67 86.26 81.51 78.28 75.33 95.77 88.76 80.79 75.14 72.80 94.97 84.00 79.90 76.05 83.13
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.06 d 0.37 de 0.76 e 1.91 d 1.83 b 0.11 e 1.86 f 2.45 e 1.39 f 2.21 e 1.89 e 3.98 d 0.63 f 2.27 d
Dimethoate 1 L. 85.63 63.6 52.73 40.42 36.75 86.51 64.48 55.56 43.19 37.43 82.27 60.16 52.13 38.04 57.06
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.50 c 3.23 b 1.99 c 0.97 b 2.01 b 2.99 c 1.86 c 2.11 d 1.02 c 1.51 1.85 c 0.75 b 1.26 d 1.69 b
Phenthoate 0.800 L. 99.03 85.52 71.21 60.54 58.15 99.97 83.26 64.85 58.39 53.21 98.1 86.74 71.10 58.25 74.88
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.08 e 0.10 de 1.45 d 0.82 c 0.75 c 0.023 f 0.45 e 0.97 d 2.18 d 2.62 c 0.62 e 0.43 d 1.53 e 3.99 c
Pirimiphos 1.5 L. 82.53 78.14 41.22 41.00 37.77 83.32 74.53 36.89 36.75 31.94 86.79 76.97 36.54 37.72 55.865
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.70 c 0.33 c 2.67 b 2.88 b 1.18 b 0.52 c 1.06 d 2.55 b 2.07 b 1.96 b 1.00 d 1.89 c 4.75 b 3.32 b
Profenofos 0.750 L. 99.97 82.84 78.79 61.69 57.84 98.55 83.61 78.08 64.87 61.19 98.99 81.51 75.3 59.47 77.34
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±. ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.02 e 1.92 d 1.72 e 2.94 c 0.64 c 0.16 f 0.52 e 3.66 e 4.37 e 5.18 d 0.67 e 1.167 d 1.85 ef 0.89 c
L.S.D 0.95 4.1002 3.122 4.5110 5.2239 3.0477 2.1212 3.4294 4.2850 4.1378 4.9611 3.6778 4.1636 5.5156 6.2153
* the second spray . ** the third spray . S.D: Standard deviation. Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level).

152
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

70

60  

 

50  
Average number of insects/leaf
 
  
 
  
40   

   
  

30  
 
 
   

   
20  
       
 
 
     
   
     
 
10
 
  
 
 
     
    
 
 
    

 
   

0  
   
0 1 3 5 7 9 10 12 14 16 18 19 21 23 25
Time (days).

pirimiphos-methyl pirimicarb propoxur dimethoate chlorpyrifos-methyl


phenthoate profenofos carbosulfan Control.
Fig. (13):The average number of immature stage of Bemisia tabaci/ leaf infesting squash plants.

153
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table (17): Efficiency of certain pesticides against the population density of adults of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in squash plants
Chemical Average no.of adults whitefly/leaf ± S.D. at days:-
used Before 1 3 5 7 9* 10 12 14 16 18** 19 21 23 25
spray.
Carbosulfan 6.63 5.55 6.66 9.24 8.25 10.46 5.63 5.73 6.58 7.52 8.49 5.67 4.76 5.70 4.88
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.30 0.31 0.10 0.18 0.24 0.36 0.18 0.28 0.13 0.42 0.28 0.25 0.16 0.19 0.12
Pirimicarb 5.49 3.53 6.38 9.63 9.08 10.65 4.60 7.22 8.59 10.26 12.00 5.94 8.87 10.42 9.73
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.32 0.11 0.46 0.21 0.09 0.34 0.37 0.19 0.35 0.53 0.17 0.49 0.28 0.15 0.16
Propoxur 4.57 2.56 4.28 5.66 5.50 7.32 2.64 3.78 4.45 5.43 6.62 2.79 3.55 4.05 4.09
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.33 0.21 0.36 0.16 0.19 0.44 0.29 0.05 0.15 0.43 0.24 0.28 0.04 0.18 0.40
Chlorpyrifos 4.57 1.87 5.43 8.46 7.69 8.86 2.11 5.71 7.50 9.07 9.97 2.64 6.58 8.91 8.44
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.33 0.08 0.09 0.13 0.20 0.42 0.14 0.27 0.45 0.45 0.29 0.12 0.14 0.18 0.31
Dimethoate 3.68 1.71 4.53 6.64 6.25 6.99 2.26 4.69 5.70 7.25 8.48 3.48 6.32 7.33 7.23
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.27 0.14 0.32 0.15 0.20 0.44 0.11 0.27 0.23 0.51 0.08 0.17 0.24 0.19 0.22
Phenthoate 7.43 1.05 3.49 7.12 7.13 10.40 0.96 2.47 4.40 5.62 8.02 0.42 1.79 3.47 3.40
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.18 0.04 0.24 0.12 0.13 0.54 0.30 0.11 0.09 0.15 0.42 0.13 0.06 0.33 0.24
Pirimiphos 4.32 0.46 0.97 1.57 1.78 2.28 0.16 0.32 0.61 0.62 0.85 0.05 0.15 0.24 0.23
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.12 0.06 0.08 0.28 0.26 0.22 0.01 0.03 0.02 0.07 0.05 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.02
Profenofos 3.97 2.44 3.35 5.06 4.49 6.56 2.51 2.89 3.80 4.62 6.53 2.73 3.33 3.26 3.65
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.13 0.16 0.16 0.05 0.22 0.13 0.07 0.18 0.19 0.20 0.05 0.24 0.10 0.12 0.25
Control 5.00 6.51 8.22 10.44 9.31 10.45 9.46 9.89 10.29 11.54 12.43 13.68 12.59 13.04 11.47
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.22 0.07 0.22 0.07 0.19 0.71 0.11 0.23 0.14 0.37 0.38 0.25 0.26 0.36 0.37

• the second spray (population density just before sprying) ,** the third spray (population density just before sprying) . S.D: Standard deviation.

154
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table ( 18 ): Efficiency of certain pesticides against adults of cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in squash plants .
Chemical Rate/ Average % reduction ± S.D. at days:- Average
used fed. 1 3 5 7 9* 10 12 14 16 18** 19 21 23 25 reduction
Carbosulfan 600 gm. 35.68 38.82 33.16 33.13 24.42 40.47 42.02 36.08 34.81 31.76 39.14 44.62 35.95 37.64 36.28
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
2.53 a 1.89 b 2.02 b 2.48 b 2.76b 3.87a 4.78b 3.41b 5.33c 3.67e 4.56 a 1.99 c 4.02 b 3.27 b
Pirimicarb 500 gm. 50.45 28.96 15.73 10.97 7.04 52.36 28.38 18.153 12.83 5.196 55.16 27.06 17.26 12.09 24.39
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
3.73 b 8.68 a 6.35 a 4.58 a 3.50a 2.32b 1.11a 1.51a 1.75b 3.89b 4.19b 3.06a 1.64a 1.611a
Propoxur 1 L. 56.75 42.97 40.46 35.33 23.32 60.18 45.38 38.26 32.87 23.92 61.80 47.06 41.65 33.12 41.65
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
5.83 b 3.75 b 5.35 b 2.49 b 2.48b 2.12c 2.56b 2.02bc 1.67c 1.76d 2.57c 2.29cd 0.86c 4.08b
Chlorpyrifos 1 L. 68.35 26.99 10.41 8.75 6.50 73.68 31.93 14.13 7.3 5.33 75.95 34.85 14.80 7.64 27.62
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
1.84 c 5.45 a 7.23 a 8.01 a 3.91a 1.37e 1.56a 1.39a 0.96a 2.61b 0.43d 2.06b 2.07a 3.03a
Dimethoate 1L. 64.36 24.68 13.153 8.49 9.05 64.29 29.05 17.14 6.01 62.71 26.50 17.62 7.64 25.05
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± 0.00 a ± ± ± ±
0.59 c 10.19 a 7.77 a 5.11 a 2.18a 1.4d 0.49a 1.92a 1.25a 2.08 c 3.02 a 1.97 a 3.04 a
Phenthoate 0.800 L. 89.15 71.47 54.12 48.51 33.00 89.92 74.90 56.97 51.02 35.16 95.16 77.97 58.7 8.27 60.31
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.49 d 2.21 b 1.77 c 0.81 c 5.14c 2.64f 1.63d 1.30d 1.22d 0.98e 1.67e 1.58e 4.67e 0.99c
Pirimiphos 1.5 L. 91.88 86.28 82.52 77.82 74.75 92.19 85.21 72.91 75.65 68.66 94.28 82.52 72.89 70.38 80.57
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.98 d 1.45 d 3.42 d 3.80 d 1.73d 1.16 f 2.34 e 1.92 e 4.67 e 3.39f 0.43 e 0.26 f 5.39 f 4.39 d
Profenofos 0.750 L. 52.69 48.70 38.92 39.34 20.68 57.79 53.61 41.33 36.49 16.57 62.01 49.62 52.37 39.46 43.54
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
3.71 b 3.33 c 2.60 b 2.40 b 2.59b 1.47c 3.49c 2.46c 1.56c 1.72c 3.19 c 1.22 d 1.72 d 4.19 b
L.S.D 0.95 5.2280 9.5721 8.8129 7.3516 3.8298 3.8298 4.4842 3.6268 4.8393 4.8586 4.8423 3.6823 5.5301 5.5289
* the second spray . ** the third spray . S.D: Standard deviation. Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level)

155
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

16

14


 
12 
 
Average number of insects/leaf  
  
 
10
  
  
    
    
8  
    
  
   
  
     

6  
        
  
   
      
4 
   
        
  
   

 
 
2 
   
   
    
0     
0 1 3 5 7 9 10 12 14 16 18 19 21 23 25
Time (days).

pirimiphos-methyl pirimicarb propoxur dimethoate chlorpyrifos-methyl


phenthoate profenofos carbosulfan Control.
Fig .(14):The average number of adult of whitefly Bemisia tabaci / leaf infesting squash plants.

156
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

due to the extensive applications of pesticides against whitefly, it has


become resistant to many group of insecticides (Prodbhaker, et al.
1985). Therefore, chemical control of whitefly have been tried in many
parts of the world with variable degrees of success.

1.2.3. Aphids, A. gossypii:

Aphid, A. gossypii was observed only on squash plants and was not
observed on okra plants through the experimental period. Results
pertaining the efficiency of the tested insecticides against the aphids were
recorded in Table 19, 20 and illustrated in Fig.15. From the results
obtained it is evident that, the population of aphids started with low
numbers then increased rapidly to reach a maximum of 62 aphids/leaf of
squash plant throughout the experimental period. Carbosulfan was the
most effective insecticide followed by chloropyrifos-methyl and
pirimicarb (average percents of reduction through test period: 87.69, 84.7
and 82.86). The least effective compounds were pirimiphos-methyl and
propoxur (% reduction: 60.29 and 56.4, respectively). However, all tested
insecticides resulted in a considerable reduction after 24 hours of
spraying. The effectiveness of the insecticides, carbosulfan,
chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb lasted up to 9 days after spraying
whereas that of the rest of
insecticides were reduced after 3 days. The results of the present study
are in agreement with those of many authors. Shalaby et al. (1991) found
that Marshal(carbosulfan) 25% at rate of 300 gm/fed gave exellent control
for aphids. Against the cabbage aphid Brevicoryne brassicae,
chloropyrifos-methyl was the most toxic insecticide among other
pesticides (El-Sayed et al. 1991). Also Rizk and Kamel (1991) found
that, chloropyrifos methyl bioencapsulated at a rate of 400 gm/F.
produced an immediate effect on aphids after 3 days of application in
comparison with chlorpyrifos-methyl (EC). The specificaphicidal action

157
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

of pirimicarb against different genera and species of aphids were


currently reported(Zidan et al. 1988a and 1989b ; El- Defrawi and Abd
El-Azim, 1992; Abo El- Ghar et al. 1993).
Generally, the aphid control in vegetable and field crops has
become more difficult in recent years. Massive application of insecticides
have led to resistance phenomenon and depleted the aphid parasitoids and
predators. Table (21) shows that various insect pests can coexist on the
same crop (i.e aphids and whitefly on squash; the cotton leafworm and
whitefly on okra plants). This coincidence of insect species may be of
great importance from the chemical control point of view. No doubt that,
controlling more than one type of pests simultaneously might reduce
numbers of sprays and thus reducing hazards of pesticides used as
possible.
Based on the obtained results of laboratory and field studies, it is
evident that pirimicarb and chloropyrifos-methyl have many advantages
enough to make them the most promising among the tested insecticides
for application on vegetable plants for two reasons:
1-Chloropyrifos-methyl had the highest toxicity against aphids
taking in consideration the three tested species of aphids( as shown in the
laboratory tests). Meanwhile, chlorpyrifos-methyl was the most toxic
compound to the cotton leafworm S. littoralis. Pirimicarb was among the
insecticides that exhibited relatively reasonable toxicity to aphids. In field
studies, chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb still having a high efficiency
against aphid, A. gossypii on squash plants. On squash plant also
chlorpyrifos-methyl was of relatively high effect on immature stages of
the whitefly, B. tabaci and the compound lasted effective up to 9 days
after spraying. On okra plants, chloropyrifos-methyl exhibited a

158
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Table (19): Efficiency of certain pesticides against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii in squash plants.
Chemical Average no.of aphids/leaf ± S.D. at days:-
used Before 1 3 5 7 9* 10 12 14 16 18** 19 21 23 25
st
1
spray.
Carbosulfan 3.25 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.23 1.45 0.01 0.02 0.06 0.13 0.32 0.04 0.15 0.44 0.68
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.29 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.13 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.64 0.04 0.01 0.03 0.07 0.18
Pirimicarb 3.45 0.12 0.50 1.14 1.35 2.51 0.05 0.41 0.51 0.94 1.74 0.21 0.53 0.68 0.96
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.30 0.02 0.09 0.25 0.10 0.36 0.01 0.06 0.08 0.07 0.21 0.25 0.11 0.06 0.11
Propoxur 2.59 0.66 0.91 1.48 2.46 4.35 1.37 1.41 3.42 4.03 5.99 3.21 3.00 9.32 13.52
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.38 0.07 0.07 0.26 0.38 0.48 0.38 0.37 0.18 0.52 0.21 0.28 0.19 1.12 1.11
Chlorpyrifos 2.48 0.01 0.06 0.37 0.48 1.46 0.01 0.01 0.24 0.33 0.51 0.00 0.01 0.16 0.18
-methyl. ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.41 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.07 0.38 0.01 0.01 0.05 0.08 0.09 0.00 0.01 0.08 0.14
Dimethoate 2.86 0.16 0.46 1.43 1.78 3.94 0.05 0.48 1.81 2.63 3.36 0.12 0.73 3.86 4.00
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.36 0.02 0.04 0.42 0.21 0.15 0.01 0.05 0.19 0.35 0.21 0.07 0.3.9 00.6 0.47
Phenthoate 2.67 0.13 0.74 0.77 1.35 2.54 0.10 0.68 0.74 1.59 1.92 0.13 0.98 1.60 2.14
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.71 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.07 0.52 0.02 0.14 0.09 0.21 0.17 0.07 0.34 0.24 0.42
Pirimiphos 2.57 0.16 0.43 1.85 2.42 4.44 0.27 0.78 3.62 4.36 5.89 0.66 2.10 9.63 10.62
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.14 0.03 0.06 0.11 0.36 0.61 0.05 0.19 0.32 0.15 0.51 0.06 0.35 0.87 0.84
Profenofos 4.46 0.37 1.59 2.55 3.86 7.36 0.22 2.26 4.05 6.61 8.42 0.69 3.91 8.83 12.62
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.33 0.05 0.21 0.34 0.36 0.35 0.08 0.26 0.65 0.45 0.74 0.07 0.30 0.34 0.75
Control 4.70 4.47 5.25 6.33 7.30 11.42 13.34 15.44 14.91 21.09 20.30 33.62 41.91 61.71 62.80
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.44 0.44 0.24 0.36 0.19 1.02 1.24 2.41 2.21 2.07 0.82 3.48 3.41 2.89 2.78

• the second spray (population density just before sprying) ,** the third spray (population density just before sprying). S.D: Standard deviation.

159
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table ( 20 ): Efficiency of certain pesticides against the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii in squash plants.
Chemical Rate/ Average % reduction ± S.D. at days:- Average
used fed. 1 3 5 7 9* 10 12 . 14 16 18** 19 21 23 25 reduction
Carbosulfan 600 gm. 99.9 99.35 99.47 95.48 81.59 99.23 98.83 96.69 95.08 85.106 93.15 80.98 61.37 41.51 87.69
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.17 e 0.22 c 0.09 c 0.63 c 0.03 c 0.27 b 0.19 d 0.50 d 1.18 d 2.70 c 0.21 b 2.39 ab 7.81 dc 17.85 ab
Pirimicarb 500 gm. 96.45 87.02 75.03 74.59 69.64 98.24 88.04 84.14 79.65 60.21 92.77 85.23 87.05 81.95 82.86
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.19 d 1.08 b 7.54 b 3.99 b 6.86 bc 0.60 b 0.24 bc 3.80 cd 2.23 c 9.49 d 8.59 b 2.81 b 2.40 cd 3.79 e
Propoxur 1 L. 73.06 67.76 57.72 38.71 30.62 72.16 75.46 84.14 49.84 21.57 67.597 75.68 48.67 26.90 56.42
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
1.27 a 7.14 a 3.24 a 4.60a 3.36 a 11.05 a 8.82 a 3.79 a 2.36 a 12.04 a 3.73 a 2.22 a 7.78 a 8.19 a
Chlorpyrifos 1 L. 99.44 97.75 88.87 87.56 75.32 99.34 99.30 86.45 86.84 78.94 99.41 98.65 88.90 89.09 84.70
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.19 e 0.78 c 0.65 bc 0.82 c 7.25 0.61 b 0.32 d cd 4.62 6.69 cd 8.12 c 0.74 b 1.138 c 7.57 b 6.75 c
Dimethoate 1L. 93.89 85.46 61.83 59.22 42.54 99.02 91.03 38.99 63.86 51.83 97.9b 89.38 62.09 61.38 71.32
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
1.37 c 2.32 b 16.01a 9.06 b 9.75 a 0.15 b 1.20 cd 9.98 d 4.72 b 2.85 b 1.10 b 5.57 b 8.25 bc 7.05 d
Phenthoate 0.800 L. 94.66 73.7 77.31 65.66 60.41 96.3 79.05 77.34 65.18 56.72 95.89 74.75 72.76 63.58 75.24
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
1.99cd 8.07 a 7.31 b 9.58 b 2.52 b 1.39 b 8.60 ab 1.88 c 8.19 b 5.48 b 2.31 b 10.8 ba 2.64 c 9.97 b
Pirimiphos 1.5 L. 93.47 85.08 46.54 39.2 28.71 94.8 86.59 36.66 46.11 24.04 93.23 82.61 45.80 41.26 60.29
-methyl ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.91c 2.74 b 2.16 a 11.35a 11.79 a 1.17 b 4.5 abc 12.63 a 8.49 a 14.92 a 0.90b 3.45 b 8.25 a 8.84 b
Profenofos 0.750 L. 91.19 68.21 57.78 43.84 31.95 96. 3 77.24 58.1 51.23 35.46 95.08 77.30 65.29 51.49 64.32
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
1.85 b 3.24 a 2.70 a 9.38 a 3.13 c 1.39 b 3.59 ab 4.68 b 5.38 a 8.17 a 0.19 3.58 ab 4.16 c 1.30 b
L.S.D 0.95 2.1026 7.2736 0.0778 12.6711 11.6330 6.9109 803740 11.788 9.6188 15.4353 5.9882 8.5134 11.3677 15.8949
* the second spray . ** the third spray. S.D: Standard deviation. Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level)

160
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

70

 
60

Average number of insects / leaf.


50

40


30

20  
 
 

 
10
 

    
         

         
 
 
 
 
  
 
 
 
 
   
 
0    
0 1 3 5 7 9 10 12 14 16 18 19 21 23 25
Time (days).

pirimiphos-methyl pirimicarb propoxur dimethoate chlorpyrifos-methyl


phenthoate profenofos carbosulfan Control.
Fig. (15):The average number of Aphis gossypii / leaf infesting squash plants.

161
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

considerable effect against the cotton leaf worm, These results are
important when designing a program of pest control as it is something
precious to control more than one insect at the same time particularly
those belonging to certain group (e.g. sucking pests and lepidopteran
insects).
2- Both chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb were relatively of low
toxicity to the beneficial predator, Paedrus alfierii Table (8). Therefore
the two compounds (i.e. chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb) were
subjected to further evaluation for their toxicities to white rats as a
mammalian test organism aiming to detect the possible hazardous effects
which might reflect the noxious effects on human consuming edible parts
of sprayed plant or handling these insecticides during application.
2-Toxicity of chloropyrifos-methyl and
pirimicarb to white rats.
2.1. Acute toxicity:
The acute toxicity as a single oral dose expressed as LD50 values
and their confidence limits was determined. The method of Weil (1952)
was used. Results recorded in Table (22) show that LD50 values of
chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb are 1200 and 70.7 mg a.i/kg b.w. of
rats, respectively. These values are somewhat in the range of those
reported by Thomson(1983) (LD50: 2140 and 147 mg/kg b.w of rats for
chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb, respectively). The severity of the
acute toxicity symptoms for both compounds was dose-dependent. Sings
of toxicity appeared as tremors, decreased appetite, abdominal cramps,
salivation, diarrhea, back legs paralyzation, convulsions and coma which
was often terminated by death. These symptoms are similar (to some
extent) to those of human intoxication of organophosphate and carbamate
insecticides reported by Kaloyanova and El-Batawi (1991). Death and

162
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table (21): Average % reduction of different insect pests infesting squash and okra
crops as affected by the tested pesticides.
Squash Okra
Average reduction percentage
Pesticides A. gossypii Whitefly S. littoralis Whitefly
B. tabaci B. tabaci
Adult stage nymph stage Adult stage nymph stage
Carbosulfan 87.69 36.28 63.26 22.66 77.54 74.28

Pirimicarb 82.86 24.39 49.54 2.72 58.82 30.27

Propoxur 56.42 41.65 28.95 8.30 26.42 36.96

Chlorpyrifos- methyl 84.70 27.62 83.13 81.52 31.49 35.56

Dimethoate 71.32 25.05 57.06 2.07 60.11 43.66

Phenthoate 75.24 60.31 74.88 49.89 58.32 20.57

Pirimiphos-methyl 60.29 80.57 55.86 41.13 64.48 78.92

Profenofos 64.32 43.54 77.34 83.52 70.56 78.62

Table ( 22 ): Acute toxicity of the tested insecticides expressed (as LD50 values and
their confidence limits.) against rats.
Insesticides LD50 (mg/kg b.w) Confidence limits

Chloropyrifos-methyl 1200 600:2400

Pirimicarb 70.7

163
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

onset of the intoxication symptoms occurred soon after administration of


pirimicarb and after about 6 hours for chloropyrifos-methyl. Kaloyanova
and El-Batawi, (1991) reported that, the interval between exposure and
onset of the symptoms may be as short as a few minutes but is usually 1
to 2 hrs. However, a case of clinically unrecognized protracted poisoning
that started 6 h after the working day of a tractor sprayer was reported
(Devine et al. 1986).
Acute toxicity as described in standard reference books usually
refers to the toxicity of the active ingredient or technical material.
However, for practical purposes, the pesticide user is more interested in
knowing the toxicity of the particular formulation he is using (Oudejans,
1991). On the other hand, pesticides are selective in their action and
different species of animals react differently. So, LD50 values for rats or
beagl dogs may have little bearing on the value for humans. Nevertheless,
LD50 values are very useful in classifying pesticides according to their
toxicity and as a general guide, the probable dose for an adult human
weighing 80kg may be derived from the acute oral LD50 for test animals
(Oudejans, 1991). Thus, LD50 values are not absolute and should be used
only as a guide to relative toxicity. It is wise also to assume that humans
are at least as sensitive to chemicals as the most sensitive animals used in
the tests. According to the tabulation of toxicity rating given by Gosselin
and Hodge (1976), results of the present study revealed that,
chloropyrifos-methyl could be classified as "moderately toxic compound"
and "very toxic" for pirimicarb (see Table 23).

Table(23): Tabulation of acute toxicity classes(Gosselin and Hoge, 1976)


Toxicity rating commonly used term LD50 single oral dose(rats)( mg/kg)

164
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

These results are very important for humans consuming edible parts of
vegetables collected directly after spraying especially with pirimicarb or
for those exposing to these compounds during their handling and
application. Thus, pre-harvest periods after applying these insecticides on
vegetables should be greatly considered. Safety precautions during
application must be adopted as well. Also, growing vegetables (e.g. okra
and onion) inside or beside cotton fields, as commonly practiced by
Egyptian farmers, must be avoided where cotton plants are often subject
to massive application of pesticides.
2.2. Sub-chronic toxicities:
Rats were given daily single oral doses each equivalent to 1/10 and
1/30LD50 of chloropyrifos-methyl or pirimicarb. The treatments continued
for 30, 60, or 90 days. Moralities and clinical symptoms of toxicity were
recorded throughout the test period. After each experimental period,
animals were weighed, slaughtered and the tested biochemical parameters
were measured in serum. The effects of the tested insecticides on the
specific activities or levels of ChE, non-specific esterases, enzymes and
biomarkers of liver and kidney functions were determined. The measured
biomarkers of liver function included aspartate aminotransferase, AST
(formerly, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, GOT); alanine
aminotransferase, ALT (formerly, glutamate pyruvic transaminase, GPT);
alkaline phosphatase, ALP; total protein; total bilirubin; albumin and
cholesterol while those of kidney function were creatinine and uric acid.
Tissues of kidneys and livers were subjected to histopathological
examination.

2.2.1 Clinical symptoms and moralities through test period:

Rats were daily examined physically and clinically through the


duration of the study. The observations included changes in fur textures,
skin, eyes, mucus membranes, orifices and clinical signs of respiratory

165
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

behavior changes and others. Special attention was given to examine for
any palpable mass which may be related to tumur incidence. Moralities
occurred through test period are presented in Table (24) from which it is
obvious that, rats given daily single oral doses of 1/10LD50 chloropyrifos-
methyl for 30, 60, or 90 days showed moralities of 14, 29 or 29%,
respectively through the test period. Chloropyrifos-methyl at 1/30LD50
and pirimicarb at the two tested doses showed no moralities. In
chloropyrifos-methyl treated rats, death was onset after about six weeks.
Before death rats showed severe bulging and bloody eyes, back leg
paralyzation, lack of appetite, diarrhea, raising the tails and difficulty in
breathing. The same symptoms were observed for survival of
chloropyrifos-methyl treated rats or rats given daily oral dose 1/10LD50 of
pirimicarb. In the case of daily oral dose, 1/30LD50, the clinical symptoms
were less powerful.

Table (24): The mortality percentage of rats treated with chloropyrifos methyl and
pirimicarb as daily oral doses.
Pesticides doses % mortality

Treatment period (days).


30 60 90
Chloropyrifos-methyl 1/10 LD50 14 29 29

1/30 LD50 0 0 0

Pirimicarb 1/10 LD50 0 0 0

1/30 LD50 0 0 0

166
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

2.2.2. Effects on ChE and esterases specific activities:

The effect of the OP insecticide, chlorpyrifos-methyl as well as the


carbamate, pirimicarb on serum ChE at the two tested daily doses(i.e.
1/10 and 1/30LD50) was investigated. Results are presented in Table (25)
and Fig (16) revealed that ChE activity in rats treated at each of the tested
doses of chloropyrifos-methyl or pirimicarb was significantly depressed.
Chloropyrifos methyl was highly more potent in this respect. Maximum
inhibition was obtained after daily treatment of 1/10LD50 for 90 days
(activity as % of control: 23.9). Pirimicarb was comparatively of low
inhibitory effect. Maximum inhibition was produced after daily treatment
with 1/10LD50 for 60 days (% of control: 66.77). The low inhibitory effect
of pirimicarb against ChE activity might be explained on the basis that,
inhibition of ChE by carbamates is "reversible", while the OP compounds
are often "irreversible" inhibitions since the hydrolysis of phophorylated
enzyme is very low (Wallace and Herzberg, 1988). It is evident that,
although primicarb showed high acute toxicity compared with
chloropyrifos methyl, it proved to be of lower inhibitory effect on AChE.
In general, the results are in agreement with those observed by
Salem et al. (1979); Abbassy et al. (1980 & 1981); Kobayashi et al.
(1986); Sheremet (1986); Fayez and Kilgora (1992); Fossi et al.(1992);
Holmes and Sundaram (1992); Pope and Chakraborti (1992);
Shalaby et al. (1995) and Soliman et al. (1995). They all concluded that
AChE activity was significantly decreased after exposure to OP or
carbamate insecticides in many kinds of animals. Inhibition of whole
blood ChE activity by 30% of the pre-exposure was proposed as a hazard
level (Kaloyanova, 1959). Hence, our results suggested that repeated
exposure to chloropyrifos-methyl might be of adverse effect in this
respect.
For esterases results in Table 26 and Fig (17) showed that, the
activity was highly inhibited in rats dosed at 1/10 or 1/30 LD50 for 90

167
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

days (at dose 1/10LD50, the specific activities were 38.8 and 52.56% of
control, at dose 1/30 LD50, the specific activities were 44.04 and 62.16%
of control for chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb, respectively). The
effect was less powerful in rats treated for 30 or 60 days (activity ranged
67.7-89.54% of control). Esterases also were found to be affected by
many of anticholinesterases (Lapadula et al. 1985; Abbassy, 1988 a, b ;
Lock and Johnson, 1990; Fossi et al. 1992).

2.2.3 The effect on liver function:

Before presentation and discussing the results it necessary to


elucidate the basis of assessment of liver function. According to Burtis
and Edward (1994), tests of hepatic function could be classified into
three categories.
(1)- Tests of hepatic synthetic function and this includes the tests that
based on the determination of substances produced or synthesized by the
liver (e.g. albumin, cholinestarase).
(2)-Tests of metabolic function and these based on the determination of
substances metabolized by the liver (e.g. bilirubin, cholesterol,
triglycerides, drugs and xenobiotics).
(3)-Tests of hepatic excretory function and this included those based on
the determination of substances released from damaged tissue (e.g.
endogenous compounds released by damaged hepatocyte such as the
transaminases (GOT & GPT) and alkaline phosphatase).
The effect of chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb on alkaline
phosphatase; transaminases, ALT & AST; cholesterol; bilirubin; albumin;
and total protein representing the whole evaluation of liver function .
Results are presented in Tables (27-33) and Figs (18-24).
Alkaline phosphatase activity was significantly elevated in the
rats treated at 1/10 or 1/30 LD50 for all tested periods (Table 27 and Fig
18). Similar effects were obtained by many authors who reported that

168
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

there were significant increases in the activities of alkaline phosphatase in


different animals treated with various pesticides( Khalifa et al. (1986),
Khorunova and Baranova (1987), Abbassy et al. (1988), Mohamed et
al.(1988), Ray et al.(1988), Ashour et al. (1989), Chambere and
Chambers (1989) , El-Harrawie et al. (1991), Hanafy et al. (1991),
Kandil et al. (1991), Rajeev et al.(1991), Abdel Baki (1993), Abdel
Baki et al. (1993), Ammar and El-Sheikh (1993), El- Hamady (1993)
and Shalaby et al. (1995). The elevation in serum alkaline phosphatase
activity could be attributed to hepatobiliary affection. This may be due to
increase synthesis and release of the enzyme by the damaged hepatic cells
(Murphy 1966; Enan et al. 1982 and Enan, 1983). On the other hand,
alkaline phosphatase is elevated in certain osteologic diseases. e.g. rickets
(Hayes, 1989). This might explain why some of dosed rats in the present
study were paralyzed and were unable to walk.
For transaminases, results recorded in Tables (28,29) and depicted in
Figs(19, 20) show that GOT and GPT activities exhibited fluctuated
effects between increase and decrease through the experimental period at
each of the tested doses but GOT in general was of significant increase.
For the two doses, after 90 days the activity of GPT returned to the
normal level. This could be explained on the basis that the possible
mechanism involved in the elevation of transaminases may be due to
tissue damage (Rouiller,1964 and Korsrud et al. 1972), but if the cells
of tissues are destroyed, the source of enzyme decreases, consequently
enzyme activity decreases (Mandal et al. 1992). Transaminases are
important and critical enzymes in the biological processes. They play a
role in amino acids metabolism and biosynthesis. Consequently they are
considered as specific indicators of liver damage. GPT is more specific
than GOT in this respect (Wilkinson, 1970). Also, Hayes, (1989)
reported that, the activity of hepatic enzymes (e.g. GOT, GPT and ALP)
released into the blood by the damaged liver is one of the most useful

169
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

tools in the study of hepato-toxicity. Many investigators had measured the


high transaminases activities as indicators to liver injury (Salem et al.
1979), Abbassy et al. 1988; Abbassy et al. 1989 a & b; Ashour et al.
1989); Reena et al.(1989); Zidan et al. 1989 and Eweis et al. (1995).
Based on the obtained results, elevated ALP, GOT and GPT
activities in chloropyrifos-methyl or pirimicarb-treated rats might be due
to hepatoxic effect of these compounds which appeared as liver
dysfunction or liver impairment. The changes of these enzymes in rats
treated for 30 days might be an early identification of liver injury

170
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table (25): Effect of daily oral doses of chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb on the specific activity serum ChE in male white rats.
Activities (µ mole AsCI/min./mg protein) of periods:-
30 day 60 day 90 day
Insecticides 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50
Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont.
Chloropyrifos-methyl × ±10-
1.47
4
× ±10-
0.12 a 36.96 2.10
4
× ±10-
0.07a 52.63 1.32
4
× ±10-
0.29a 34.33 1.92
4
× ±10-
0.22a 50.19 0.88
4
× ±10-
0.08a 23.90 1.36
4
0.05a 36.95
Pirimicarb 2.87 ± 0.45 b 71.99 3.58 ± 0.10b 89.78 2.56 ± 0.44b 66.77 3.17 ± 0.40b 82.64 2.67 ± 0.31b 72.41 3 .00 ± 0.07b 81.30
Control. 3.99 ± 0.15 c 100 3.99 ± 0.15 c 100 3.83 ± 0.18c 100 3.83 ± 0.18c 100 3.69 ± 0.52c 100 3.69 ± 0.52b 100
LSD0.95 0.56 0.22 0.64 0.70 0.70 0.60
Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly different (P= 0.95 level)

Table (26): Effect of daily oral doses of chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb on serum esterases specific activity in male white rats.
Activities (µ mole α - naphthol/min./mg protein) after periods:-
30 day 60 day 90 day
Insecticides 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50
Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont.
× 10a -65.59 77.79 6.07× ±100.10
Chloropyrifos-methyl ± 0.27
-6
a
84.51 4.92× ±107.62 a 67.73 ± 0.062
-6
× 10a -65.48 75.44 ± 0.11
× 10a
2.93 38.83 3.70× ±100.09a 44.04
-6 -6

Pirimicarb ± 0.15b 5.75 80.09 6.43 ± 0.36 a 89.54 ± 0.11a 5.62 77.37 5.68 ± 0.18a 78.14 ± 0.20b 3.96 52.58 ± 0.55 b 4.69 62.16
Control. ± 0.13 c 7.18 100 ± 0.13b 7.18 100 ± 0.06c 7.27 100 ± 0.06 b 7.27 100 ± 0.43c 7.54 100 7.54 ± 0.43 c 100
LSD0.95 0.38 0.45 0.18 0.26 0.57 0.81
Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly different (P= 0.95 level)

171
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

100

80

60
% control.

40

20

0
30 60 90
Time / days.
1/10LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/10LD50 pirimicarb.
1/30LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/30 LD50 pirimicarb.
Fig.( 16 ):The effect of daily oral dose of chloropyrifos methyl and pirimicarb on serum ChE activity of rats.

172
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

100

80
% control.

60

40

20
30 60 90
Time / days.
1/10LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/10LD50 pirimicarb.
1/30LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/30 LD50 pirimicarb.
Fig.(17):The effect of daily oral dose of chloropyrifos methyl and pirimicarb on serum esterases activity of rats.

173
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table (27): Effect of daily oral doses of chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb on serum alkaline phosphatase activity in male white rats.
Activities (U/L.) after periods:-

Insecticides 30 day 60 day 90 day


1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50
Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont.
Chloropyrifos-methyl 149.07 ± 2.44c 221.17 71.93 ± 3.81b 106.73 138.67 ± 6.50b 209.29 80.93 ± 4.83b 122.13 148.07± 31.40b 219.03 96.00 ± 11.29b 142.01

Pirimicarb 121.60 ± 6.50b 180.42 74.53 ± 1.94a 110.58 135.33 ± 2.20b 204.23 83.67 ± 5.13b 126.26 71.73 ± 10.07a 106.11 96.73 ± 9.50b 143.10

Control. 67.40 ± 2.12a 100 67.40 ± 2.12a 100 66.27 ± 8.82a 100 66.27 ± 8.82a 100 67.60 ± 7.21a 100 67.60 ± 7.21a 100

LSD0.95 8.3763 5.5014 12.8992 13.0216 38.9373 10.9901

Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly different (P= 0.95 level)

174
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

250

200

150
% control.

100

50

0
30 60 90
Time / days.
1/10LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/10LD50 pirimicarb.
1/30LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/30 LD50 pirimicarb.
Fig.(18):The effect of daily oral dose of chloropyrifos methyl and pirimicarb on serum alkaline phosphatase activity of rats.

175
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table (28): Effect of daily oral doses of chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb on serum ALT(GPT) activity of male white rats.
Activities (µ/ml.) after periods:-
30 day 60 day 90 day
Insecticides 1/10LD50 1/30 LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50
Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont.
Chloropyrifos-methyl 23.20 ± 2.18b 64.50 25.65 ± 4.17a 71.29 46.31 ± 3.97b 121.13 30.34 ± 1.41a 79.37 23.20 ± 2.38b 61.40 32.22 ± 1.60b 85.26
Pirimicarb 10.93 ± 1.42a 29 21.58 ± 1.31a 59.97 56.82 ± 1.15c 148.64 51.06 ± 4.55b 133.57 13.31 ± 3.34a 35.23 20.26 ± 0.99b 53.61
Control. 35.98 ± 3.90c 100 35.98 ± 3.90b 100 38.23 ± 5.17a 100 38.23 ± 5.17a 100 37.79 ± 4.94c 100 37.79 ± 4.94b 100
LSD0.95 5.40297 6.7534 7.6290 8.10801 7.4057 6.0993
Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly different (P= 0.95 level)

Table (29): Effect of daily oral doses of chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb on serum AST(GOT) activity of male white rats.
Activities (µ/ml.) after periods:-
30 day 60 day 90 day
Insecticides 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50
Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont.
Chloropyrifos-methyl 122.10 ± 154.69 111.73 ± 115.07 109.52 ± 142.75 94.06 ± 4.57c 122.59 96.78 ± 4.34b 129.58 98 ± 1.56c 132.09
Pirimicarb 8.38 ±
108.33
c
137.25 90.832.70
± 3.68b 111.56 63.134.63
c c
± 2.52c 82.28 56.84 ± 2.62a 74.08 103.91 ± 2.57 139.14 81.65 ± 1.02b 109.33
78.935.1
b
Control. ±1 1.47a 100 78.93 ± 1.47a 100 76.72 ± 0.29b 100 76.72 ± 0.29b 100 74.68 ± 3.39a 100 74.68 ± 3.39a 100
LSD0.95 11.4495 5.5271 6.0838 6.0834 7.0081 4.4658
Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly different (P= 0.95 level)

176
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

160

140

120

100
% control.

80

60

40

20

0
30 60 90
Time / days.
1/10LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/10LD50 pirimicarb.
1/30LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/30 LD50 pirimicarb.
Fig.(19):The effect of daily oral dose of chloropyrifos methyl and pirimicarb on serum ALT activity of rats.

177
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

160

140

120

100
% control.

80

60

40

20

0
30 60 90
Time / days.
1/10LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/10LD50 pirimicarb.
1/30LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/30 LD50 pirimicarb.
Fig.(20):The effect of daily oral dose of chloropyrifos methyl and pirimicarb on serum AST activity of rats.

178
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

produced by the tested insecticides, These findings are ensured by other


biochemical and histopathological studies mentioned below.
For cholesterol, results presented in Table (30) and Fig (21) show
that, chloropyrifos-methyl has no significant effect on cholesterol level at
the two tested doses when administration for 30 or 60 days but the level
was significantly increased when the duration of treatment was 90 days.
Pirimicarb showed significant alterations in the level of cholesterol for all
tested periods (the level was decreased in the period 30 or 60 then
increased for the period 90 days). Elevation of cholesterol in tissues of
animals treated with several kinds of pesticides at various doses was
frequently reported (Raj et al.1988; Reena et al. 1989; Ali and Shakoori
1990; Ghosh 1990; Kadyrova et al. 1990; Ogata and Izushi 1990;
Fujitani et al. 1993 and Katayama 1993). In contrast, Matin et al.
(1990) found that cholesterol content of adrenals was depleted in
diazinon-treated animal. Also, Shakoori et al. (1992) found that
cholesterol level was decreased 40% and 66% after 15 and 30 days of
treating rabbits with cyhalothrin. Cholesterol is the initial starting point in
many metabolic pathways. Although a portion of the body’s cholesterol is
derived from dietary intake, most tissue and plasma cholesterol is
synthesized endogenously by the liver and other tissues from simpler
molecules (Burtis and Edward, 1994). Total cholesterol increase could
be considered as due to liver disease (Coles, 1974).
Results of the effect of repeated dosing of chloropyrifos-methyl
and primicarb on serum total bilirubin are recorded in Table(31) and
depicted in Fig(22). Results showed that, the insecticides had fluctuated
effect on bilirubin concentration depending on dose, duration of treatment
and the kind of the tested compounds. At duration 30 or 60 days,
chloropyrifos-methyl caused significant increase in the concentration of
bilirubin whereas pirimicarb led to the same effect after 30 days only. For
the duration, 90 day both insecticides significantly reduced the

179
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

concentration. The results are somewhat in parallel to those obtained by


many authors. Ali and Shakoori (1990) found that bilirubin content was
increased after 15 days in rats fed aldrin-mixed diet at doses of 2 mg and
2.5 mg/kg body wt./day. Rats fed barley grain ( treated with meothrin at
20 and 40 p.p.m. and storage for 60 days) for 15 days showed increase in
serum bilirubin (Mohamed et al. 1988). In contrast, Shakoori et al.
(1990) found that bilirubin was decreased 35% in rabbits treated with 6
mg/kg body weight of bifenthrin for 30 day.
To explain the important role of bilirubin in metabolic function of
liver, Burtis and Edward (1994) reported that bilirubin, an orange-
yellow pile pigment, is produced mainly from haemoglobin that released
from senescent erythrocytes and destroyed in the reticuloendothelial cells
of the liver, spleen and bone marrow producing bilirubin. After
production, in the peripheral tissues, bilirubin is transported to the liver in
association with albumin. Bilirubin is then rapidly taken up by
hepatocytes. Inside the hepatocytes, bilirubin is rapidly conjugated with
glucuronic acid to produce bilirubin mono- and diglucuronide, which are
then excreted into bile. Once secreted into intestinal tract, bilirubin
glucuronides are hydrolyzed to the unconjugated pigment. The
unconjugated bilirubin is then reduced by the anaerobic intestinal
microbial flora to a group of tetrapyrrol compounds called urobilinogens.
Up to 20% of the urobilinogens are reabsorbed from the intestine and
enter the enterohepatic circulation. Two types of disorders result from
disturbances of bilirubin metabolism (i.e. disturbances due to effect on
production, uptake, storage, metabolism and excretion of bilirubin). The
first type is referred to as unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia jaundice
where serum unconjugated bilirubin concentrations are greater than
normal. This often is due to incomplete maturation of several steps
involved in bilirubin metabolism and excretion (e.g. the conjugation
process may be suppressed by toxins). The second type is called

180
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (obstructive jaundice) and results from


blockage to the outflow of bile in the biliary tract. As a result, plasma
concentration of conjugated bilirubin increase to abnormal. Generally, in
terms of detecting and quantifying hepatic damage, bilirubin is of
particular interest (Hayes, 1989). Based on the earlier discussion, it is
evident that the raised amounts of serum total bilirubin may indicate to
the alteration in the capacity of the liver to conjugate bilirubin referring to
liver dysfuction.
Results concerning the effect on total protein are presented in
Table (32) and Fig(23). Apart from the dose 1/30LD50 at duration, 30 day,
total protein was significantly decreased in rats treated with
chloropyrifos-methyl or pirimicarb for 30 or 60 days. When rats were
treated for 90 days, significant increase was obtained. Many authors
reported that, total serum protein concentrations were increased after
exposure to each of different pesticides (El-Harrawie et al. 1986; El-
Sheakh et al. 1990; Zidan et al. 1991b and Fujitani et al. 1993). On the
other side, many investigators reported that total serum protein was
observed to be decreased after exposure to different pesticides (Saleh et
al. 1986; Mohamed et al. 1988; Raj et al. 1988; Rao, 1989; Shakoori et
al. 1990 and Saleh 1990). Generally alteration in serum proteins
confirms the influence of pesticides on liver function since it is the
primary site for the plasma protein synthesis. Qualitative and quantitative
disturbance of protein synthesis is a consequence of impaired hepatic

181
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table (30): Effect of daily oral doses of chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb on serum Cholesterol concentration of male white rats.
Concentration (mg/100 ml.) after periods:-
30 day 60 day 90 day
Insecticides 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50
Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont.
Chloropyrifos-methyl 65.51 ± 2.19b 109.18 55.65 ± 3.14b 92.75 64.35± 14.01b 104.60 65.38 ± 4.39b 106.28 179.69 ± 323.71 171.10± 9.87c 308.25
Pirimicarb 28.41 ± 6.53a 47.34 16.23 ± 2.19a 27.05 39.64 ± 3.65a 64.44 44.53 ± 5.69a 72.38 5.17 ±
135.91
c
244.85 153.36± 8.25b 276.29
Control. 3.87 a
60.00 ± 1.74b 100 60.00 ± 1.74b 100 61.52 ± 2.71b 100 61.52 ± 2.71b 100 55.51 ± 1.79a 100 55.51 ± 1.79a 100
LSD0.95 8.1886 4.8475 16.9941 8.8645 7.7305 14.9863
Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly different (P= 0.95 level)

Table (31): Effect of daily oral doses of chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb on serum Bilirubin concentration of male white rats.
Concentration (mg/100 ml.) after periods:-
30 day 60 day 90 day
Insecticides 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50
Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont.
Chloropyrifos-methyl 1.54 ± 0.03c 247.98 1.04 ± 0.12a 167.63 0.83 ± 0.14c 133.72 0.69 ± 0.01c 111.63 0.56 ± 0.01b 94.55 0.47 ± 0.02b 79.39
Pirimicarb 1.17 ± 0.13b 187.28 1.04 ± 0.03b 167.63 0.37 ± 0.02a 59.88 0.53 ± 0.03a 85.47 0.28 ± 0.01a 47.27 0.36 ± 0.03a 60.00
Control. 0.62± 0.14a 100 0.62 ± 0.14a 100 0.62 ± 0.02b 100 0.62 ± 0.02b 100 0.59 ± 0.01c 100 0.59 ± 0.01c 100
LSD0.95 0.2221 0.2164 0.1654 0.0390 0.0199 0.0520
Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly different (P= 0.95 level)

182
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

350

300

250

200
% control.

150

100

50

0
30 60 90
Time / days.
1/10LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/10LD50 pirimicarb.
1/30LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/30 LD50 pirimicarb.

Fig.(21):The effect of daily oral dose of chloropyrifos methyl and pirimicarb on serum cholisterol concentration of
rats.

183
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

300

250

% control. 200

150

100

50

0
30 60 90
Time / days.
1/10LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/10LD50 pirimicarb.
1/30LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/30 LD50 pirimicarb.
Fig.(22):The effect of daily oral dose of chloropyrifos methyl and pirimicarb on serum bilirubin concentration of
rats.

184
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table (32): Effect of daily oral doses of chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb on serum Total protein concentration of male white rats.
Concentration (g/100 ml.) after periods:-
30 day 60 day 90 day
Insecticides 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50
Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont.
Chloropyrifos-methyl 4.36 ± 0.05a 86.59 5.07 ± 0.24a 100.68 4.71 ± 0.04a 91.14 4.99 ± 0.59a 96.63 8.33 ± 0.11c 163.23 7.20 ± 0.39b 141.25
Pirimicarb 4.47 ± 0.05b 88.75 4.94 ± 0.18a 98.10 6.14 ± 0.11c 118.73 5.38 ± 0.30b 104.12 6.93 ± 0.07b 135.82 7.10 ± 0.52b 139.21
Control. 5.04 ± 0.04c 100 5.04 ± 0.04a 100 5.17 ± 0.24b 100 5.17 ± 0.24a 100 5.10 ± 0.20a 100 5.10 ± 0.20a 100
LSD0.95 0.0999 0.3499 0.3015 0.8093 0.2760 0.7853
Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly difference (P= 0.95 level)

Table ( 33 ): Effect of daily oral doses of chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb on serum Albumin concentration of male white rats.
Concentration (g/100 ml.) after periods:-
30 day 60 day 90 day
Insecticides 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50
Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont.
Chloropyrifos-methyl 2.45 ± 0.30a 55.55 2.61 ± 0.30a 43.36% 6.00 ± 0.01b 143.14 5.19 ± 0.15b 101.30 5.23 ± 0.84a 129.08 4.16 ± 0.20b 119.61
Pirimicarb 2.40 ± 0.54a 54.59% 1.91 ± 0.29a 59.22% 5.53 ± 0035a 131.94 4.25 ± 0.30a 123.91 4.80 ± 0.72a 118.51 4.84 ± 0.18b 102.62
Control. 4.40 ± 0.64b 100 4.40 ± 0.64b 100 4.19 ± 0.40a 100 4.19 ± 0.40a 100 4.05 ± 0.24a 100 4.05 ± 0.24a 100
LSD0.95 1.0268 0.8786 0.6163 0.6082 1.3028 0.4124
Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly different (P= 0.95 level)

185
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

200

180

160

140
% control.

120

100

80

60
30 60 90
Time / days.
1/10LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/10LD50 pirimicarb.
1/30LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/30 LD50 pirimicarb.
Fig.(23):The effect of daily oral dose of chloropyrifos methyl and pirimicarb on serum total protein
concentration of rats.

186
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

160

140

120

100
% control.

80

60

40

20

0
30 60 90
Time / days.
1/10LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/10LD50 pirimicarb.
1/30LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/30 LD50 pirimicarb.
Fig.(24):The effect of daily oral dose of chloropyrifos methyl and pirimicarb on albumin concentration on
serum of rats.

187
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table ( 34): Effect of daily oral doses of chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb on serum Creatinine concentration of male white rats.
Concentration(mg/100 ml.) after period:-
30 day 60 day 90 day
Insecticides 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50
Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont.
Chloropyrifos-methyl 1.14 ± 0.07a 101.09 1.25 ± 0.03a 111.41 1.20 ± 0.02b 111.5 1.13 ± 0.03a 98.27 1.07 ± 0.08a 96.39 1.13 ± 0.21a 91.62
Pirimicarb 1.22 ± 0.01a 108.70 1.20 ± 0.05a 106.52 1.51 ± 0.06c 131.21 1.35 ± 0.09b 117.34 1.99 ± 0.23b 160.73 1.50 ± 0.06b 120.94
Control. 1.13 ± 0.09a 100 1.13 ± 0.09a 100 1.15 ± 0.06a 100 1.15 ± 0.06a 100 1.24 ± 0.04a 100 1.24 ± 0.04a 100
LSD0.95 0.1335 0.12618 0.10571 0.13050 0.27819 0.24971
Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly different (P= 0.95 level)

Table (35 ): Effect of daily oral doses of chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb on serumUric acid concentration of male white rats.
Concentration(mg/100 ml.) after period:-
30 day 60 day 90 day
Insecticides 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50
Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont. Mean ± sd % cont.
Chloropyrifos-methyl 4.89 ± 0.27b 142.71 3.93 ± 0.22a 114.58 6.60 ± 1.03b 201.30 4.34 ± 0.26b 132.47 5.95 ± 0.35c 160 4.70 ± 0.35c 126.25
Pirimicarb 6.61 ± 0.82c 192.71 4.54 ± 0.71a 132.29 5.57 ± 0.96b 170.13 3.62 ± 0.15a 110.39 5.02 ± 0.28b 135 4.23 ± 0.21b 113.75
Control. 3.43 ± 0.21 a
100 3.43 ± 0.21 a
100 3.28 ± 0.45 a
100 3.28 ± 0.45 a
100 3.72 ± 0.21 a
100 3.72 ± 0.21a 100
LSD0.95 1.02452 0.895394 1.70145 0.16116 0.57473 0.27970
Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly different (P= 0.95 level)

188
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

180

160

140
% control.

120

100

80

60
30 60 90
Time / days.
1/10LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/10LD50 pirimicarb.
1/30LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/30 LD50 pirimicarb.
Fig.(25):The effect of daily oral dose of chloropyrifos methyl and pirimicarb on serum creatinne
concentration of rats.

189
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

250

% control. 200

150

100

50
30 60 90
Time / days.
1/10LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/10LD50 pirimicarb.
1/30LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/30 LD50 pirimicarb.

Fig.(26):The effect of daily oral dose of chloropyrifos methyl and pirimicarb on serum uric acid
concentration of rats.

190
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

function (Celia and Wilkinson, 1973) while decreased synthesis of proteins


leads to a decrease in the plasma concentration of albumin. (Burtis and
Edward, 1994).
The effect on albumin concentration was studied. Results are presented
in Table(33) and Fig(24). Concentrations were significantly altered (increase or
decrease). The test period, 30 day was characterized by decreasing
concentration whereas the duration 60 and 90 day showed enhanced levels.
After 90 days pirimicarb-treated rats at dose 1/30LD50 showed albumin
concentration within the normal level. Reduction in protein and albumin
concentrations were observed by many authors in animals exposed to various
insecticides (Mohamed et al, 1988; Saleh, 1990; El-hamady 1996). Albumin
is synthesized only in the liver, it is secreted across the sinusoidal surface of the
hepatocyte into plasma. Hypoalbuminemia is a liver disorder thought to be a
consequence of decreased hepatic synthesis of albumin (Burtis and Edward,
1994).

2.2.4 The effect on kidney function:

The effect of chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb on kidney function of


rats treated with daily single oral doses (1/10 or 1/30LD50) for 30, 60 or 90 days
was investigated. Creatinine and uric acid concentrations were measured in
serum of treated rats. Results are recorded in Tables (34 & 35) and depicted in
Fig (25 & 26).
For both insecticides, treatment of the rats with each of the tested doses
for 30 days showed no significant alteration in the concentration of creatinine.
When treatments continued for 60 days, pirimicarb only resulted in significant
elevation of creatinine concentration at the two tested doses (i.e. 1/10 or
1/30LD50). It is evident that, chloropyrifos-methyl showed no significant effect
on creatinine concentration especially when given to rats at 1/30LD50 for 30 or
60 days.

191
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

For uric acid, administration of each of the two insecticides at dose


1/30LD50 for 30 days caused no significant alteration in uric acid concentration.
At duration, 60 or 90 days, significant increase was obtained for both
insecticides.
Evaluation of blood urea nitrogen and plasma creatinine can be used as an
index of decreased glomerular filtration in the kidney (consequently, the kidney
dysfunction)(Hayes, 1989). Also according to Burtis and Edward (1994),
creatinine clearance is almost universally used for clinical assessment of
glomerular filtration rate and thus used for evaluating renal function. Uric acid
is less indicative in this respect. In humans, uric acid is the major product of the
catabolism of purine nucleotides and its clinical utility of measurement is that it
is a marker of cell turnover and disorders of purine synthesis (Burtis and
Edward, 1994).Thus, results of the present study suggest that chloropyrifos-
methyl and pirimicarb administration to rats at daily single doses(1/10 and
1/30LD50) for 30 days might not be nephrotoxic.
For the duration, 60 or 90 days, pirimicarb might be of renal toxicity
since concentrations of creatinine were significantly elevated. The results are
ensured by the histopathological examination.
Creatine is synthesized in the kidneys, liver and pancreas then transported
in blood to other organs such as muscle and brain where it is phosphorylated to
phosphocreatine, a high-energy compound. Interconversion of phosphocreatine
and creatine is a particular feature of metabolic processes of muscle contraction.
Some of the free creatine in muscle spontaneously converts to creatinine, its
anhydride. Creatinine is released into body fluids at a constant rate and its
plasma levels are maintained within narrow limits and its clearance may be
measured as an indicator of glomerular filtration rates (GFR) in kidney. The
greater apparent GFR found by creatinine clearance may be due to an increase

192
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

in tubular secretory activity for creatinine when plasma levels increase much
above normal(Burtis and Edward,1994).

2.2.5 The effect on body weight gain:

The effect of the insecticides, chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb on


body weight gain of rats was studied. Rats were treated at the doses 1/10 or
1/30LD50 as a daily single oral doses for 30, 60 or 90 days after which, rats
were weighed and averages of body weight gains were calculated. Results are
recorded in Table (36) and illustrated in Fig(27).
Results revealed that, rats treated with 1/30LD50 of each of the tested
insecticides for 30 or 60 days showed no significant alteration in body weight
gain. However, body weight gain of rats treated with 1/30LD50 of each of the
two insecticides for 90 day were significantly reduced. At a dose, 1/10LD50 all
treatments showed significantly reduction. Many investigators found that
pesticides (differing in their chemical structure) caused marked losses of
weights in various treated animals (Abbassy et al. 1981; El-Harrawie et al.
1986; Lapadual et al. 1985; Raj et al. 1988; Pillai et al. 1989; El-Gendy
1991; Fayez and Kilgore 1992; Fujitoni et al. 1993; Paul et al. 1993; Abdel-
Nasser 1995; Hassan et al.. 1994; Attia 1995 and Eweis et al. 1995.). The loss
of body weight gain might be due to the effect of the pesticides on the
absorption of nutrients by the gastrointestinal tract as suggested by Abou Donia
and Graham(1978). Also, loss of body weight gain might indicate to the
changes in appetite or changes in the efficiency of feed utilization by the body
or generally may related to the hepatic lesions. (El- Fiki et al. 1979).

193
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Table (36): Effect of daily oral doses of chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb on body weight gain of male white rats.
30 day 60 day 90 day
1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50 1/10LD50 1/30LD50
Insecticides initial End body body initial End body body initial End body body initial End body body initial End body body initial End body body
body weight weight body weight weight body weight weight body weight weight body weight weight body weight weight
weight gain weight gain weight gain weight gain weight gain weight gain
Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
sd sd sd sd sd sd sd sd sd sd sd sd sd sd sd sd sd sd

Chloropyrifos-methyl 105.66 108.00 1.23 106.33 142.67 34.20 105.67 152.33 44.20 98.67 143.67 45.56 106 144.67 36.81 99.00 147.33 49.03
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
9.60 27.05a 1.63a 3.78 12.22ab 10.78a 1.15 2.89ab 4.28a 7.02 12.66a 3.89a 7.937 3.78a 6.78a 12.53 16.86a 5.68a

Pirimicarb 91.66 95.00 4.37 89.33 119.00 33.84 101.00 132.00 31.56 95.00 139.33 46.79 101.67 163.33 61.01 94.33 153.00 62.10
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
0.57 4.00a 3.25a 5.033 10.39a 18.03a 7.21 13.00a 20.76a 5.00 4.16a 3.79a 8.96 9.50a 7.91a 3.21 8.88a 3.88a

Control. 102.0 179.63 76.63 102.0 179.67 76.63 100 206.00 106.27 100.00 206.00 106.27 100.00 251.67 151.63 100.00 251.67 151.63
± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ± ±
3.60 30.72b 30.24b 3.60 30.24b 33.72a 1.00 45.92b 47.93b 1.00 45.92a 47.93a 1.00 25.97b 25.32b 1.00 25.97b 25.32b
LSD0.05 47.02 43.39 39.48 45.82 55.15 60.45 55.15 55.64 32.19 31.58 30.32 37.15
Means followed by the same letter (s) are not significantly different (P= 0.95 level)

194
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

150

100
% control.

50

0
30 60 90
Time / days.

1/10LD50 chloropyrifos methyl. 1/10LD50 pirimicarb. 1/30LD50 chloropyrifos methyl.


1/30 LD50 pirimicarb. control.

Fig.(27):The effect of daily oral dose of chloropyrifos methyl and pirimicarb on body weight gain of
rats.

195
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

2.2.6 Histopathological examination:

Tissues of livers and kidneys of rats treated with 1/10 or 1/30LD50


as a daily single oral doses of chloropyrifos-methyl or pirimicarb were
subjected to histopathological examination.
2.2.6.1 Histopathological effect in livers of treated rats:
Figure(28) shows the normal structure of liver. Microscopical
examination showed that livers of animals treated with chloropyrifos-
methyl at doses 1/10 or 1/30LD50 showed degenerative changes in the
hepatocytes appeared as vascoular degeneration (Fig 29) and albuminous
dystrophy in the centrolobular zone of hepatic lobules. Sinusoidal
dilatation and kuffer cell activation were uncommon. Focal cytic necrosis
was also observed in few animals Fig (30). The abvementioned changes
were observed in livers of most of animals treated for 30, 60 or 90 days
but were more clear in the higher dose and the long period.
For livers of rats treated with pirimicarb at each of the tested doses
and different periods of treatment, the examination showed cloudy
swelling, more prominent vacoular degeneration and sinusoidal dilatation
(Fig 31).
2.2.6.2 Histopathological effect in kidneys of treated rats:
Figure 32 shows cross section in kidney of control rats.
Kidneys of rats treated with chloropyrifos-methyl or pirimicarb at doses
1/10 or 1/30LD50 for 30 days showed normal structure of kidney tissues
and cells Fig (33, 34, 35, 36). For rats treated with chloropyrifos-methyl
at dose 1/10 or 1/30LD50 for 90 days, Kindneys showed mild degenerative
changes of the renal tubules. Many of the tubules showed swelling and
granularity of the cytoplasm of the lining epithelium resulting in
narrowing or oblitration of the tubular luminae (Fig 37). Some of the
renal tubules and collecting ducts showed cystic dilatation of the luminae

196
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

and atrophy of the lining epithelium (Fig. 38). The changes were more
prominent in rats dosed at 1/10LD50.
For rats treated with pirimicarb at doses 1/10 or 1/30LD50 for
periods 60 or 90 days tissues of kidneys showed cloudy swelling renal
tubular epithelium and cystic dilatation of some renal tubules and
collecting duct (Fig, 39 and 40).

Fig.(28):Show the normal structure of liver (control rats), H&E.


X400.

197
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fig. (29): Liver of rats treated with chloropyrifos methyl at


1/10LD50 for 90 days, as daily single oral doses.
Shows cloudy swelling and vacuolar degeneration of
hepatocytes. (H & E. X400).

Fig. (30): Liver of rats treated with daily single oral dose of
1/10LD50 chloropyrifos methyl for 90 days. The
figure shows local areas of lytic necrosis of the
hepatocytes.(H & E. X100).

198
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fig. (31): Liver of rats treated with daily oral doses of 1/10LD50
pirimicarb for 90 days. The figure shows cloudy
swelling and vaculolar degeneration of hepatocytes
with dilating of some hepatic sinusiod. (H & E.
X400).

Fig.(32): Show the normal structure of kidney tissue and cells


(control rats) H & E. X400.

199
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fig. (33): Kidney of rats treated with daily 1/10 LD50 of


chloropyrifos-methyl for 30 days. tissue appears
healthy . (H & E. X400).

Fig. (34): Kidney of rats treated with 1/30 LD50 of chloropyrifos


methyl for 30 days, This section shows that renal
tissue seems to be healthy .(H & E. X400).

200
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fig. (35): kidney of rats treated with daily oral doses of


1/10LD50 of pirimicarb for 30 days. Show normal
view of kidney histology. (H & E. X400).

Fig. (36): kidney of rats treated with daily oral doses of


pirimcarb for 30 days. showing normal view of tissue
and cells comparing with the control one. (H & E.
X400).

201
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fig. (37): kidney of rats treated with 1/10LD50 chloropyrifos


methyl as daily oral doses for 90 days. This figure
shows cloudy swelling of renal tubular epithelium
with obliteration of lubular luminae. (H & E. X 100).

Fig. (38): kidney of rats treated with 1/10LD50 chloropyrifos-


methyl for 90 days, as daily single oral doses. The
figure shows albuminus dystrophy and cystic
dilatation of some renal tubules and collecting duct.
(H & E. X100).

202
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Fig. (39): kidney of rats treated with 1/10LD50 of pirimicarb for


90 days, as daily single oral dose. This section shows
cloudy swelling of renal tubular epithelium. (H & E.
X100).

Fig. (40): kidney of rats treated with 1/10LD50 of pirimicarb for


90 days, as daily single oral dose. This section shows
dilatation of many of renal tubular luminae. (H & E.
X100).

203
CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION
Among eight insecticides, chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb
were found to be the most advantageous ones as protectants against
certain pests commonly attacking vegetable plants. In addition to their
reasonable efficacy against a wide range of pests, they exhibited a low
toxicity to the tested predator. Chloropyrifos-methyl was of a moderate
acute toxicity. However these insecticides may present many adverse
effects to human and animals especially after repeated exposure.
Although the two insecticides might not be nephrotoxic, they showed
severe hepatotoxicity. So, the study demonstrate the great importance of
using non chemical methods for pest control. In general if chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb have
to be involved in I.P.M programs especially on vegetable plants, repeated exposure must be avioded
as possible. In this respect, safety precautions during application, and preharvest intervals should be
greatly considered.
ENGLISH
Summary
TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF SOME PESTICIDES
IN RELATION TO THEIR SIDE EFFECTS

SUMMARY

The study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of eight


organophosphate and carbamate insecticides against certain pests
commonly attacking vegetable plants. The pests included sucking pests (i.
e. aphids, whitefly, mites) and the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis.
In this respect laboratory and field experiments (at fields grown with
squash and okra) were carried out. In addition, the toxicity these
pesticides to the predator, paederus alfierii in the laboratory was studied.
The tested organophosphorus were chloropyrifos-methyl, dimethoate,
phenthoate, profenofos and pirimiphos-methyl while those of carbamates
were, carbosulfan, primicarb and propoxur. The most efficient
insecticides (i. e. chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb) were further
evaluated for their mammalian toxicity against white albino rats. So,
acute and subchronic studies were conducted. In subchronic studies rats
were orally given the insecticides at doses 1/10 and 1/30 LD50 for each
insecticide. The treatments were performed daily and continued for 30,
60, or 90 days after which, rats were slaughtered and blood serum were
obtained. In blood serum, biochemical markers representing liver and
kidney functions were measured. In addition the activities of ChE and
non-specific esterase were determined. The effect of the tested
insecticides on body weight was also investigated. Livers and kidneys
tissues were subjected to histopathological studies as well.
SUMMARY

For laboratory studies, using slide dipping technique, results


showed that, profenofos had the highest toxicity against Aphis gossypii
followed by dimethoate, phenthoate, chloropyrifos-methyl, carbosulfan
and pirimicarb (LC50`s values were 0.004, 0.01, 0.05, 0.11, 0.125 and
0.55 ppm respectively). Propoxur and pirimiphos-methyl showed very
weak toxicity (LC50`s: 26.4 and 66.78 ppm respectively). For the aphid,
Brevicoryne brassicae, chloropyrifos-methyl was the most toxic
compound followed by profenofos, pirimicarb, propoxur and carbosulfan
( LC50`s: 1.44, 2.40, 2.95, 4.37 and 5.88 ppm, respectively ). Dimethoate,
phenthoate and pirimiphos-methyl were of weak toxicity (LC50`s: 32.46,
18.5 and 8.64 ppm , respectively). The aphid, Aphis cracivora was the
least susceptible to the tested insecticides. The most toxic compound was
profenofos followed by pirimiphos-methyl (LC50`s 5.45 and 8.25 ppm ,
respectively). For the spider mites, Tetranychus sp, the tested insecticides
exhibited weak toxicity. The most toxic compound was profenofos (LC50:
186.54 ppm). Adopting the leaf dipping technique against the cotton leaf
worm Spodoptera littoralis, the insecticidel showed low to very weak or
no toxicity. Chloropyrifos-methyl and profenofos were the most toxic
(LC50`s: 74.53 and 133.35 ppm, respectively). The rest of insecticides
showed slight toxicity (LC50`s> 1000ppm). Pirimicarb, propoxur and
dimethoate were nearly of no toxicity. For the predator Paederus alfierii,
the toxicity of the compounds could be descendingly arranged as follows:
propoxur> phenthoate > dimethoate > carbosulfan> pirimiphos-methyl>
pirimicarb> chloropyrifos-methyl> profenofos Thus, pirimicarb,
chloropyrifos-methyl and profenofos were the least toxic compound to the
predator (toxicity indexes were 2.74, 0.51 and 0.34 respectively).
For field experiments, three sprays with the tested insecticides at the
recommended rates were applied , separated each other with periods each
of 9 days. In the field, aphids Aphis gossypii and whitefly, Bemisia tabaci
were mainly observed and detected on squash plants while the whitefly

206
SUMMARY

and cotton leafworm S. littoralis could be observed on okra plants.


Generally the insecticides showed low effectiveness against the whitefly.
Apart from, pirimiphos-methyl, profenofos, phenthoate and carbosulfan
whose efficiencies to whitefly were relatively moderate, insecticides
tested were of poor efficacy. The efficiency varied depending on the
tested stage (nymphs or adults) and the type of vegetable plants carrying
the insect (i. e. squash and okra). For aphids, A. gossypii, carbosulfan was
the most effective insecticide followed by chloropyrifos-methyl and
pirimicarb (percents of reduction through the experimental period were
87.69, 84.7 and 82.86, respectively). The least effective compounds were
pirimiphos-methyl and propoxur (% reduction: 60.29 and 56.4,
respectively). Against the cotton leafworm, profenofos and chloropyrifos-
methyl had the highest effects (% of reduction: 83.5 and 81.5
respectively).

Based on the above-mentioned results it is evident that, pirimicarb


and chloropyrifos-methyl have many advantages enough to make them
the most promising among the insecticides tested for many reasons.
Firstly chloropyrifos-methyl had the highest toxicity against aphids taking
in consideration the three species of tested aphids (as shown in the
laboratory studies) .Meanwhile, chlorpyrifos-methyl was the most toxic
compound to the cotton leafworm. Pirimicarb was among the insecticides
that have a relatively reasonable toxicity to aphids. In field experiments,
chloropyrifos- methyl and pirimicarb still having a high efficiency against
A. gossypii on squash plants. On squash plants also chloropyrifos-methyl
was of relatively high effect on immature stage of whitefly. This
compound lasted effective up to 9 days after spraying. On okra plants,
chloropyrifos-methyl exhibited a considerable effect against the cotton
leafworm. Secondly, both chloropyrifos-methyl and pirimicarb were
relatively of low toxicity to the beneficial predator, Paederus alfierii.

207
SUMMARY

Thus the two compounds were further evaluated for their acute and
subchronic toxicity against white rats. Acute toxicity studies showed that
chloropyrifos-methyl was relatively of moderate toxicity to rats (LD50:
1200mg/kg) whereas pirimicarb was of high toxicity. Rats daily treated
orally with 1/10LD50 of chloropyrifos-methyl for 3o days showed 16%
mortality throughout the experimental period and those treated for 60 or
90 days showed 33% mortality. In the serum of rats treated with
chlorpyrifos-methyl or pirimicarb at doses 1/10 or 1/30LD50 for all the
tested periods (30, 60 and 90 days), the activities of AChE and esterases
were significantly inhibited. Rats treated with chloropyrifos-methyl and
pirimicarb at doses 1/10 or 1/30 LD50 for all tested period showed
significant alteration in the activities or levels of biochemical
measurements representing liver function (I. e. alkaline phosphatase,
transaminasees, cholesterol, bilirubin, albumin and total protein). This
might indicate to the possible onset of liver impairment. Biomarkers of
kidney function (i.e. uric acid and creatinine) were not significantly
altered especially when rats were treated for 30 days. Also, body weight
gain of treated rats at all tested doses and tested periods were affected.
This is something logical since body weight expresses the general
hygienic and physiological state of the animal.

The histopathological studies ensured the biochemical ones. All the


tested doses caused liver damage appeared as congestion in the central
vein, massive destruction of the hepatic cord, severe degeneration of the
hepatocytes near the central vein, more diffusion of the lymphocytes and
others Tissues of rats treated with 1/30LD50 for 30 days of both
insecticides showed normal kidneys but those treated for 60 days showed
degeneration of renal tissues and other alterations.

In conclusion the study revealed that, although chlorpyrifos methyl


and pirimicarb have proved to be efficient against various insect pests

208
SUMMARY

commonly attacking vegetable plants and less toxic to the tested


beneficial predator Paederus alfierii, they might be of adverse effects to mammals. The
hazards of these insecticides might be ensured to agricultural workers during the application of these
pesticides. The noxious effects could be easily avoided when safety precautions are adopted during
handling and applying these chemicals. So protecting clothes and devices are of great importance in
this respect. In addition preharvest periods after applying these insecticides must be greatly
considered.

209
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250
ARABIC
SUMMARY
‫الملخص العربى‬
‫تتعلق الرسالة بدراسة وتقيم سمية ثمانية من المبيدات الفوسفورية والكاربماتية ضد عدد‬
‫من آفات الخضر مثل الذبابة البيضاء ‪ -‬المن ‪ -‬دود ورق القطن ‪ -‬العنكبوت الحمر وكذا‬
‫سمية هذه المبيدات لنوع من المفترسات النافعة وهو حشرة الرواغه ‪ .‬وفى هذا الصدد تم‬
‫اجراء دراسات معملية واخرى حقلية على نباتات الكوسه والباميه والمركبات التى تم‬
‫دراستها هى الكاربوسلفان ‪ ،‬البريميكارب ‪ ،‬البروبكسر ‪ ،‬والكلوربيرفوس ‪ -‬ميثايل ‪،‬‬
‫الدايميثويت ‪ ،‬الفينثويت ‪ ،‬البروفينوفوس ‪ ،‬البيرميفوس ميثايل ‪ ..‬وبعد التوصل الى معرفة‬
‫انسب هذه المركبات فى مكافحة الفات المذكورة معمليا وحقليا تم أختبار سمية المركبات‬
‫الواعده ضد الفئران البيضاء من خلل دراسات السميه الحادة والسميه تحت المزمنه ‪.‬‬
‫وفيما يختص بدراسة النشاط البادى ضد الحشرات معمليا وجد أن أعلى المركبات سمية‬
‫ضد من القطن هو مركب البروفينفوس يليه الدايمثويت ثم الفينثويت ثم الكلوربير يفوس‬
‫ميثايل فالكاربورسلفان ثم البريميكارب حيث بلغت قيمة الجرعه النصفيه القاتلة للمركبات )‬
‫‪ (LC50‬هى على الترتيب ‪ 0.055 ، 0.125 ، 0.11 ، 0.051 ، 0.01 ، 0.004‬جزء فى‬
‫المليون ‪ .‬أما بالنسبه للبروبكسر والبريمفوس ميثايل فقد أظهر سميه ضعيفه ضد هذا النوع‬
‫من المن ) الجرعة النصفية القاتلة ‪ LC50 26.4 ، 66.78‬جزء فى المليون ‪،‬على‬
‫التوالى ( ‪ .‬وبالنسبه لمن الصلبيات فقد كان لمركب الكلوروبيرفوس ميثايل أعلى سميه يليه‬
‫مركب البروفينفوس والبريميكارب فالبروبكسر ) الجرعة النصفيه القاتله هى ‪، 1.44‬‬
‫‪ 4.73 ، 2.95 ، 2.40‬جزء فى المليون على التوالى ( أما بالنسبه لمن البقوليات فقد كان‬
‫أقل أنواع المن حساسية للمركبات تحت الدراسة وبالنسبة للعنكبوت الحمر فقد أظهرت‬
‫المركبات تحت الدراسة سميه ضعيفة له ‪ .‬أما بالنسبه لدودة ورق القطن فقد أظهر مبيد‬
‫الكلوربيرفوس ميثايل أعلى سميه لها وذلك من خلل الدراسات الحقلية والمعملية على‬
‫نباتات الباميه وبالنسبة لسمية المركبات المختبرة ضد حشرة الرواغه وهى من المفترسات‬
‫النافعه فقد أمكن ترتيب هذه السميه كالتى ‪ :‬البروبكسر < الفينثويت < الدايمثويت <‬
‫الكاربوسلفان < البيرميفوس ميثايل < البريميكارب < الكلوربيرفوس ميثايل < البرفينفوس‬
‫وهكذا فان مركبات البريميكارب والكلوربيرفوس ميثايل من أقل المركبات سميه ضد هذه‬
‫الملخص العربى‬

‫الحشره النافعة ‪ .‬أما فى التجارب الحقلية فقد تم رش نباتات الكوسه والباميه ثلث رشات‬
‫بالمبيدات تحت الدراسه بين كل رشه والخرى تسعة أيام ‪ .‬وقد وجد أن نباتات الكوسه‬
‫تصاب بشده بكل من ‪ ،‬من القطن والذبابة البيضاء فى حين أمكن رصد دودة ورق القطن‬
‫والذبابة البيضاء على نباتات الباميه ‪ .‬وبصفه عامه لوحظ ضعف تأثير المبيدات المدروسة‬
‫على الذبابة البيضاء مع أستثناء مبيدات البيرميفوس ميثايل والبروفينفوس والفينثويت‬
‫والكربوسلفان التى أظهرت سميه متوسطه أما ضد من القطن على نباتات الكوسه فلقد وجد‬
‫أن أعلى المركبات تأثيرا كان الكاربوسلفان يليه الكلوربيرفوس ميثايل والبريميكارب ‪.‬‬
‫وللمره الثانية أكدت الدراسات الحقلية على نباتات الباميه أن اعلى مركب سميه ضد دودة‬
‫ورق القطن هو البروفينفوس والكلوربيرفوس ميثايل ‪ .‬وبصفه عامه وبناء على التجارب‬
‫السابقه يتضح ان معظم المميزات من ناحية النشاط البادى ومن ناحيه أنخفاض السميه‬
‫للمفترس النافع هى لمركبات الكلوربيرفوس ميثايل والبريميكارب ولذا فان هذين المركبين‬
‫قد تم إعاده تقيميها من ناحية سميتهما ضد فئران التجارب البيضاء ولقد تم معاملة هذه‬
‫الحيوانات بجرعات يوميه تعادل ) ‪ ( 1/10LD50 1/30 LD50‬لمدة ‪ 60 ، 30‬او ‪ 90‬يوم ‪.‬‬
‫وفى سيرم دم الفئران المعاملة بهذه الجرعات عند الزمنه المذكورة لوحظ حدوث تغيرات‬
‫معنويه فى مستوى بعض القياسات البيوكيمائيه التى تمثل وظيفة الكبد مثل الفوسفاتيز‬
‫القلوى ‪ ،‬الترانس امينيز ‪ ،‬الكولستيرول ‪ ،‬البيلوروبين ‪ ،‬اللبيومين والبروتين الكلى مشيرا‬
‫بذلك الى احتمال حدوث تعطل فى وظائف الكبد ‪ .‬أما بالنسبه للقياسات البيوكيماويه التى‬
‫تمثل وظيفة الكلى ) حمض البوليك ‪ ،‬الكرياتينين ( فلم يحدث بها تغير معنوى خصوصا فى‬
‫الفئران التى عوملت بجرعات لمدة ‪30‬يوم فقط ‪ .‬أما بالنسبة لوزن الجسم فى الفئران‬
‫المعاملة فقد لوحظ بصفه عامه وجود انخفاض بالمقارنة بالحيوانات الغير معامله وهذا‬
‫يشير الى سوء الحاله الصحيه العامه والفسيولوجيه ‪ .‬هذا وقد أكدت الدراسات‬
‫الهستوباثولوجيه مدلولت القياسات البيوكيماويه حيث لوحظ فى أنسجة كبد الحيوانات التى‬
‫عوملت بأى من الجرعات المستخدمه وجود تغيرات هستولوجيه تظهر فى شكل أحتقان‬
‫وتدمير للخليا الكبديه وغيرها من التغيرات الهستوباثولوجيه مما يدل على تلف الكبد أما‬
‫بالنسبة لنسجة كلى الحيوانات المعاملة بـ ‪ LD50 1/30‬من كل المبيدين تحت الدراسة فلم‬
‫تظهر أى تغيرات هستولوجيه ‪.‬‬

‫‪2‬‬
‫الملخص العربى‬

‫وبصفة عامه تشير الدراسة الى أنه بالرغم من نجاح وملئمة مبيدى الكلوربيرفوس ميثايل‬
‫والبريميكارب لمكافحة الحشرات الثاقبة الماصه ودودة ورق القطن ال أن لهذين المركبين‬
‫خطورة واضحة ‪ .‬لذا توصى الدراسة بضرورة اتخاذ احتياطات المان عند تطبيق وتداول‬
‫هذين المركبين كذلك يراعى الخذ فى العتبار أهمية وجود فترات كافية بين تطبيق هذين‬
‫المبيدين وبين جمع المحصول حتى تقل خطورة متبقياتهما على الثمار المأكوله‪.‬‬

‫‪3‬‬
‫لجنة الشراف‬

‫‪ 1‬ـ الستاذ الدكتور ‪ /‬محمد على عشرى‬


‫أستاذ المبيدات ووكيل كلية الزراعة ـ كفر الشيخ ‪ -‬جامعة طنطا‬

‫‪ 2‬ـ الستاذ الدكتور ‪ /‬محمد عبد السلم عبد الباقى‬


‫أستاذ المبيدات كلية الزراعة ـ كفر الشيخ‪ -‬جامعة طنطا‬

‫‪ 3‬ـ الدكتور ‪ /‬شريف السيد الحمضى‬


‫أستاذ المبيدات المساعد كلية الزراعة ـ كفر الشيخ ـ جامعة طنطا‬
‫دراسات توكسيوكولوجية لبعض المبيدات وتأثيراتها‬
‫الجانبية‬
‫رسالة مقدمة من‬
‫صبرى عبد المنعم عبد العال عبدالله‬
‫لدرجة‬
‫الماجستير فى العلوم الزراعية مبيدات الفات‬
‫بكالوريوس العلوم الزراعية ـ كلية الزراعة ـ كفر الشيخ‬
‫جامعة طنطا ‪1991‬م‬

‫لجنة المناقشة والحكم على الرسالة‬


‫‪------------------------------‬‬ ‫‪ 1‬ـ الستاذ الدكتور ‪ /‬محمد على‬
‫أستاذ المبيدات‬ ‫عشرى‬
‫جامعة‬ ‫ووكيل كلية الزراعة‬
‫طنطا ـ كفر الشيخ‬

‫‪------------------------------‬‬ ‫‪ 2‬ـ الستاذ الدكتور ‪ /‬أحمد السيد‬


‫أستاذ المبيدات‬ ‫سلمة‬
‫ورئيس قسم المبيدات كلية‬
‫الزراعة ـ كفر الشيخ جامعة‬
‫طنطا‬

‫‪------------------------------‬‬ ‫‪ 3‬ـ الستاذ الدكتور ‪ /‬مصطفى عبد‬


‫اللطيف عباسى‬
‫أستاذ المبيدات وعميد كلية‬
‫بدمنهور ـ جامعة‬ ‫الزراعة‬
‫السكندرية‬

‫‪------------------------------‬‬ ‫‪ 4‬ـ الدكتور ‪ /‬شريف السيد الحمضى‬


‫أستاذ المبيدات المساعد بكلية‬
‫الزراعة كفر الشيخ ـ جامعة‬
‫طنطا‬

‫دراسات توكسيوكولوجية لبعض‬


‫المبيدات وتأثيراتها‬
‫الجانبية‬

‫صبرى عبد المنعم عبد العال عبدال‬


‫بكالوريوس العلوم الزراعية ) مبيدات (‬
‫كلية الزراعة ـ كفر الشيخ‬
‫جامعة طنطا ‪1991‬م‬

‫رسالة مقدمة‬

‫للحصول على درجة الماجستير فى العلوم الزراعية )المبيدات(‬


‫كلية الزراعة ـ كفر الشيخ‬
‫جامعة طنطا‬

‫‪1998‬م‬