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Cohesive devices are used to link sentences, paragraphs and ideas. They
are used to provide logical connections between ideas. Linking ideas is one of the
most of the important keys to writing a good essay. Cohesive devices are typically
single words or phrases that basically make the text hang together. There are many
types of cohesive devices and they serve different functions. Cohesive devices are
also known as transitions, coordinators, and linkers.
Logical connectors are words and phrases which, to give just a few
examples, are used as sequencers, contrasters, generalizers and topic-introducers
to join or connect two ideas that have a particular relationship. Connectors are
obviously important for listeners, because spoken words are constantly over-
written as we speak. However, connectors, are less important in written English,
since written texts can be re-read if necessary. In fact, rather than connectors,
written English prefers the use of phrases which clearly refer back to a preceding
idea or action. If too many connectors are used the writing becomes harder to
Examples of logical connecters and cohesive devices.

(a) Addition

again equally in fact
furthermore moreover and
too and then indeed
besides also in addition (to...)
what is more


(b) Comparison

compared with in the same way similarly
in comparison with likewise

(c) Contrast and concession

besides naturally still
but nevertheless whereas
however of course while
in contrast on the contrary yet
instead on the other hand

(d) Enumeration

first(ly) second(ly) on top of (that)
last finally next
to (begin with) in the (first) place more important

(e) Exemplification

as (evidence of...) such as for example
thus for instance
let us (take the case of...)
to show what (I mean)

(f) Inference

If not,... otherwise then
In (that) case that implies

(g) Summary


in all in short on the whole
in brief in conclusion to sum up

(h) Time

after (a while) before (that time) since (then)
afterwards finally so far
at first in the end then
at last meanwhile (up to) then
at (the same time) next

(i) Result

accordingly for that reason then
as a result hence therefore
consequently thus
the (consequence) of that is...

(j) Reformulation

in other words that is (to say) rather
to put it more (simply)

(k) Replacement

Again (better) still the alternative is...
Alternatively on the other hand

(l) Transition

As far concerned As for... to turn to...
with (reference) to... now Incidentally




Reading has many benefits. What are they?
Most of us have been exposed to reading since we were young but not many
of us have the habit of reading for leisure. Most students read only because they
have to study for their examinations but reading is not only limited to study
materials. It is fun to read storybooks, novels, magazines, comics, newspapers and
any other reading material that is of interest to us. Reading is a good hobby. It is a
form of pastime which brings many benefits.
Reading enhances our general knowledge. We can learn about various
countries and cultures in other parts of the world. Therefore, books can take us on
a journey to these countries without travelling. The knowledge will open our eyes to
the world around us and teach us about the lives of other people in other countries.
We will also have the opportunity to learn more about things that are of interest to
us through books. For example, if we are interested in photography, we would read
books and instructional guides on photography and photo-editing to improve our
skills. Books also expose us to many things which we are not aware of. The
National Geographic magazine often features strange animal behaviors and even
unknown cultures in remote locations.
Reading also trains our minds to be more imaginative. It also helps us to
process new information faster and develop our ability to understand how other
people think and feel. People who love to read are also more flexible in their
thinking and are more open to new ideas. Thus, we can train our minds to think
faster and more efficiently if we read more.
We can also improve our awareness of the current events worldwide by
reading newspapers. Besides, improving our general knowledge, knowing what is

going on around us will also help us socialize with others by discussing the current
issues with them. Nowadays, we need not solely rely to newspapers for news. We
can also read real-time news online via the Internet. Many news networks update
the information on their websites every hour just to keep the readers updated with
the latest events.
Reading is important to help us improve our language proficiency. By
exposing ourselves to the proper use of language, we can improve our grammar
and vocabulary. By reading, we would also enhance our understanding of word
usage in different contexts. Therefore, we can eventually improve on our writing
and speaking skills.
The benefits of reading are numerous. It is also a cheap activity as we can
go to the library to borrow books for free. We could also exchange books with our
friends. This will help us save a lot of money. Some people prefer to buy their
books so that they can keep them in their collection. As book is a source of
knowledge, spending money to acquire them is not a waste, it is a form of



Cohesive Devices Function
To suggest a contrast that is unexpected in light
of the first clause.
To provide a reason to illustrate an idea provided
that is
To reinforce the previous idea by expressing it in
a slightly different way to make it more explicit.
To demonstrate that the following idea is a result
of the previous idea.
To link ideas together and state explicitly that two
items are similar to each other.
for example
To provide an example in order to illustrate an
To demonstrate that the following idea is a result
of the previous idea.
To add ideas and to link the new ideas to the
previous ideas.
To mean because before a clause, often come
at the beginning of the sentence.
so that To talk about purpose.


TASK 2 :


Themes/ Issues : Healthy Lifestyle
Ways to Maintain Good Health
If you do not have good health, you do not have wealth. It is true that
healthy lifestyle is the most important duty we owe ourselves compare to anything
else. When we have a good health, we are able to achieve what we set out to do. In
brief, it is the recipe to leading a happy life.
The way to living healthily is as simple as ABC. Ones should love their life
and practise a few basic disciplines. Eat balanced meals which provide us with the
necessary nutrition. We should eat three nutritionally balanced and healthy meals
per day. Our diet should include more grains, fruits and vegetables. These foods
give us carbohydrates for energy, plus vitamins, minerals and fibre. Moreover, they
taste good. Drinking plenty of water is compulsory. Water keeps us hydrated and
gives us energy. We can also take multivitamin supplements, especially if we are
working harder than usual or if we are under stress.
Exercise is also vital to maintain good health. Exercise can reduce stress
which affects our personality and life. For instance, joining a gym or finding a sport
that we like at least thirty minutes every day may keep us fit. In other way, we can
walk, cycle or jog to meet our friends instead of going to meet them by car. As the
saying goes, Walking is a mans best medicine. Exercising vigorously helps us to
burn calories as well. For those who prefer to maintain slim and fit, they are
encourage to exercise compared to take another supplement.
Besides eating balanced meals and participating in physical activities, rest
and sufficient sleep are also needed to maintain a good health. When we sleep, we
rest, and our body is able to renew its energy. Lake of sleep can make us looking
badly, feeling moody and performing poorly. Furthermore, teens need about nine

hours of sleep each night to function best. By getting enough rest and adequate
sleep we may relax and forget our stress.
We need to make sure our personal hygiene and cleanliness in the way to
get a good health. This means we have to be clean on all aspects such as mental,
physical and spiritual. We ought to be a positive thinker so that we are free from
mental illness. Refrain from smoking as it affects the skin, as well as cause all kinds
of health problems. Smokers will suffer from chest pain, poor health and heart
problems that will develop to the lung cancer. These health problems can even
cause death. We must avoid or limit alcohol and caffeine intake as they dehydrate
the skin and also cause other health problem. If possible, prevent yourself from any
form of drug taking if you want to keep a healthy lifestyle.
Next, we can take time-outs and relax in order to maintain a healthy lifestyle.
No matter how busy we are, ensure that we take a brief pause for rest once in a
while. By doing this way, it can refresh our mind and recharge our batteries. It is
important to relax as life is too demanding and challenging. Chill out to reduce our
stress. Plus, to maintain a healthy lifestyle it is really important to feel happy and
free ourselves from stress. We can also go on occasional vacations, to release
tension and get on with the fun and happy things in life.
In conclusion, we have to make an effort continuously in order to achieve a
good health in the future. By combining all the ways stated, we are able to have the
best quality of health. In doing so, we will grow stronger, stay active longer, looks
and feel better every time as Prevention is better than cure.
(622 words)



On 15
August 2011, my lecturer, Mr K Puveneswaran had given an
assignment to me. The assignment is about reading and analyzing a text to identify
the cohesive devices or logical connecters. I also needed to write an expository
essay based on the given issues.
I had to go through many hardworks during completing this assignment. At
first, the main problem is, I do not really understand what the task is about. But,
after having a briefing with the lecturer, at last I can solve the problem. Besides, I
became confuse as I cannot differentiate the difference between cohesive devices
and logical connecters. After discussing with friends, I can understand the topic
thus identifying them in the text that we have found. Before that, my friend and I
also have difficulties in the way to find a suitable text that contains at least 10
cohesive devices and logical connecters. But, with a great patience and spirit, we
finally found a suitable essay.
On the other hand, doing this assignment makes me to be more understand
about the function of each connecter. I can also learn many new connecters to be
use in my writing soon. In addition, writing an expository essay in task 2 helps me
to increase my understanding about the topic and practice to write an expository
essay well. This can help me if I need to write an essay in the examination soon.
I am really glad because I have gained lots of knowledge during making this
assignment. The assignment gives me a lot of knowledge and teaches me to be
always positive thinking. I also get better understanding about the tasks and
develop me well to be a great teacher. That was a relief for me when this
assignment is complete and hoping that this assignment will fill up the criteria



From books:

Choo Wan Yat et al. Ace Ahead Muet. Selangor : Oxford Fajar.

Digby Beaumont and Collin Granger (1992). English Grammar(New Edition).
Oxford : The Heinemann.

Magdalene Cheah and Anne William (2009). Model Essays & Summaries @
Format SPM. Malaysia : Marshall Cavendish.

From internet:
Christopher Green (1998) Logical Connecters. Available from, . Accessed on 17

August 2011.
Mary Nell Sorensen (1997) Logical Connecters. Available from, .
Accessed on 17
August 2011.
(2011) What is the role of cohesive devices in making a text?. Available from,
g_a_text#ixzz1VOCj1Luf . Accessed on 18
August 2011.

Cohesive Devices. Available from,
ices.pdf . Accessed on 18
August 2011.
Conjunctions. Available from, . Accessed on
August 2011.