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Lieven, E. (1994): "Language addressed to children: Linguistic and Cultural
Aspects" in Learning English: development and diversity. Mercer, . and
!"ann, #. (eds.) (199$). London: %outledge.

Light&o"n, '. M. ( !pada, . (199)) "*heories o+ second language
learning". Chapter , in How Languages Are Learned. -.+ord /niversit0

!hort articles Ma1e no 2ista1e

3ro2 2other tongue to other tongue

Code !"itching as a Countenance o+ Language 4nter+erence

E2plo0ee !1ills and Attitudes /tili5ed in 6or1place E!L *raining

*he "Co22unicative Co2petence" Controvers0

Long Articles or &oo1s
-78!!E/! 9 !econd language at the "or1place: Language needs o+ 2igrant
"or1ers: organising language learning +or the vocational:"or1place conte.t
You may do this Reflective task at any point during your work with the
study materials. Note that this task is not assessed, as the aim is to get
you to reflect on your views on the nature of language learning.
Below are twelve general statements which explore beliefs and
principles about the learning of a foreign language. Decide whether
you agree or disagree with each statement. he sub!ect Second
Language Acquisition explores the possible answers to these
controversial "uestions.
1.- It is easier for someone who already speaks a foreign
language to learn another one.
#gree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree
2.- People who are good at mathematics or science are not goot
at learning foreign languages.
#gree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree
3.- Everyone can learn to speak a foreign language.
#gree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree
4.- irst language ac!uisition "#$% and &#$ are very different
#gree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree
'.- $ll students learn English in a similar way.
#gree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree
(.- )he learning of a second language is a linear process.
#gree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree
*.- $ffective states do not play an important role in #2 learning.
#gree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree
+.- &tudents learn what they are taught.
#gree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree
,.- )he ma-ority of the mistakes students make in the use of the
second language are due to interference from their mother
#gree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree
1..- #anguages are learned mainly through imitation.
#gree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree
11.- Environment plays an important role in the learning of a
second language.
#gree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree
12.- &tudents/ errors should 0e corrected as soon as they are
made in order to prevent the formation of 0ad ha0its.
#gree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree
#ccording to %wain,
...producing the target language may be the trigger that forces the learner to
pay attention to the means of expression needed in order to successfully
convey his or her own intended meaning.
&%wain '()*$ +,(-
.n %wain/s view, learners need not only input, but output$ they need to use language in
order to learn it. 0rashen, however, as recently as +11(, stated that$
Research done over the last three decades has shown that we ac"uire
language by understanding what we hear and read. he ability to
produce language is the result of language ac"uisition, not the cause.

2orcing students to speak 3nglish will not improve their ability to
speak 3nglish. &0orea imes, +11(-.
1Is it possi0le to reconcile these two seemingly opposite views as to what
constitutes second language ac!uisition or 2learning34 as &wain puts it5 6r do
the two views represent two e7tremes of 0oth theory and practice58
Guidelines: To answer this question in essay form you will need to refer to alternative
concepts of acquisition and learning proposed by other theorists !udge them in relation
to these two apparent extremes of input versus output and then try to draw some
conclusions. "ou must ensure that both #rashen and Swain are discussed within the
broader framewor$ of SLA theory and thus demonstrate that you understand the
general field.