# EMT451T/MMA401T Major Test 1: 2012/09/19 Page 1 of 5

QUESTION 1 [13]
1.1 Matrix
1 2 2
2 4 1
2 1 4
B
÷ ÷ (
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸
has the following eigenvectors:
| | | | | |
1 2 3
0 1 1 ; 1 0 2 ; 3 1 1 .
T T T
X X X = = ÷ = ÷
1.1.1 Write down the modal matrix M associated with B. Use the eigenvalues in the order given. (1)

0 1 3
1 0 1
1 2 1
M
÷ ÷ (
(
=
(
(
¸ ¸

1.1.2 Write down
1
M
÷
, the inverse of M. (2)

5 1 1
3 6 6
1
1 1
2 2
1 1 1
3 6 6
2 5 1 0.333 0.833 0.167
1
0 0 3 3 0 0.5 0.5
6
2 1 1 0.333 0.167 0.167
M
÷
( ( (
( ( (
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷
( ( (
( ( ( ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸


1.1.3 According to James (2011:40),
1
M AM
÷
A = . Use this relationship to determine the
eigenvalues of B. (4)

1
2 5 1 1 2 2 0 1 3
1
0 3 3 2 4 1 1 0 1
6
2 1 1 2 1 4 1 2 1
M AM
÷
A =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ( ( (
( ( (
= ÷
( ( (
( ( ( ÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸

30 0 0
1
0 18 0
6
0 0 6
(
(
=
(
( ÷
¸ ¸
5 0 0
0 3 0
0 0 1
(
(
=
(
( ÷
¸ ¸


1 2 3
5; 3; 1. ì ì ì = = = ÷ 

EMT451T/MMA401T Major Test 1: 2012/09/19 Page 2 of 5

1.2 A specific SISO system is characterized by the fourth-order differential equation
4 3
2
4 3
3 4 5
t
d y d y dy
y e
dt dt dt
÷
+ ÷ + = .
Assume all the initial conditions are known. Then the dynamic equations for this system may be
written as
and x Ax bu = +

.
T
y c x =
1.2.2 Determine the system matrix A. Clearly show your calculations. (5)
Let
1
x y = 

2 1
dy
x x
dt
= =

2
3 2 2
d y
x x
dt
= =

3
4 3 3
d y
x x
dt
= = 

2
4 4 2 1
2
4 1 2 3 4
3 4 5
4 0 3 5
t
t
x x x x e
x x x x x e
÷
÷
+ ÷ + =
¬ = ÷ + ÷ ÷ +

0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
1 4 0 3
A
(
(
(
=
(
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸

1.2.3 Write down the matrix b . (1)

| | 0 0 0 5
T
b = 
QUESTION 2 [11]
2.1 Verify that the function ( )
j z
f z e = , where z is a complex variable, is analytic by making use of the
Cauchy-Riemann equations. Hint sin
jx
e cox j x = + (6)

( )
( )
j x j y
f z e
+
=

j x y
e
÷
=

( ) cos sin
y
e x j x
÷
= + 
cos
y
u e x
÷
= and sin
y
v e x
÷
=
sin
y
x
u e x
÷
= ÷  cos
y
x
v e x
÷
= 
cos
y
y
u e x
÷
= ÷  sin
y
y
v e x
÷
= ÷ 

x y
u v = and
y x
v u = ÷
Thus,

f satisfies the Cauchy-Riemann equations therefore f is analytic 

EMT451T/MMA401T Major Test 1: 2012/09/19 Page 3 of 5

2.2 If a function f of a complex variable z is analytic and ( ) ( , ) ( , ) f z u x y jv x y = + , then

'( )
x x y y
f z u jv v ju = + = ÷ .
Use this fact and your results in 2.1 to prove that ( ) '
j z
f z je = .

( ) ' sin cos
y y
f z e x je x
÷ ÷
= ÷ + 

( ) sin cos
y
e x j x
÷
= ÷ + 

( ) cos sin
y
e j x j x
÷
= + 

( ) cos sin
y
j e x j x
÷
( = +
¸ ¸

j z
je =  in 2.1 ( ) cos sin
jz y
e e x j x
÷
= +

QUESTION 3 [10]
3.1 Consider the function
( )( )
( )
1 2
z
f z
z z
=
+ ÷

3.1.1 Write ( ) f z as partial fractions. (2)

( )( )
1 2
3 3
( )
1 2 1 2
z
f z
z z z z
= = +
+ ÷ + ÷

3.1.2 Determine the Laurent series expansion of
( )( )
( )
1 2
z
f z
z z
=
+ ÷

valid for 0 1 3. z < + <
Hint: make use of the partial fractions in 3.1.1. (5)

( )( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
1 2
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 1 3 2
z
f z f z f z
z z z z
= = + = +
+ ÷ + ÷

1
1 3 1
3
z
z
+
+ < ¬ <

( )
( )
2
2 2 1 2 1
1 3 2 3 1 3 3
3 1
3
f z
z z z
= = · =
+ ÷ + ÷ | |
÷ ÷
|
\ .

( ) ( )
2 3
2 3
1 1
2 1
1 ...
9 3 3 3
z z
z
(
+ +
÷ +
= + + + + (
(
¸ ¸

( ) ( ) ( )
2 3
2 1 2 1 1
2
...
9 27 81 243
z z z + + +
÷
= ÷ ÷ + + 

( ) ( )
1 2
( )
3 1 3 2
f z
z z
= +
+ ÷

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 3
2 1 2 1 1
1 2
...
3 1 9 27 81 243
z z z
z
+ + +
÷
= + ÷ ÷ + +
+

EMT451T/MMA401T Major Test 1: 2012/09/19 Page 4 of 5

3.1.3 Name the type of singularity in ( ) f z at

1 z = ÷ and give a reason for your answer. (2)
1 z = ÷

is a simple pole. 
The Laurent series has one term in the principle part of the series expansion. 
3.1.4 Use your answer in 3.1.2 to write down the residue of the expansion. (1)

| |
1
Res ( ), 1
3
f z ÷ = 
QUESTION 4 [11]
Use Cauchy’s integral theorem to determine the following contour integrals:
4.1
( )
3
3
C
z
dz
z z j
+
÷
}

along C: 2 1 z ÷ = (3)

Simple pole at 0 z = , third order pole at z j = 
No poles enclosed in C 

According to Cauchy’s integral formula
( )
3
3
0
C
z
dz
z z j
+
=
÷
}

4.2
( )
3
3
C
z
dz
z z j
+
÷
}

along C: 2 z = (8)
0 z = and z j = are enclosed in C

( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 2
3 3
3
C
f z f z
z
I dz dz dz
z
z z j z j
+
= = +
÷ ÷
} } }

( )
( )
1 3
3 z
f z
z j
+
=
÷
 ( )
2
3 z
f z
z
+
= 

( )
( )
1 3
3 3
0 f
j
j
= =
÷
 ( )
( )
2 2 2
3
3
'
z z
f z
z z
÷ +
÷
= =

( )
2 3
6
'' f z
z
= 
( )
2 3
6 6
'' f j
j j
÷
= = 

( )
( )
3
3
3
3
z
z
z j
z
I dz dz
z
z j
+
+
÷
= +
÷
} }

3 1 6
2 2
2!
j j
j j
t t
| | | | ÷
= +
| |
\ . \ .

6 6 0 t t = ÷ = 

EMT451T/MMA401T Major Test 1: 2012/09/19 Page 5 of 5

QUESTION 5 [7]
Consider the function
( )( )
2
2
2
( )
1 2
z
f z
z z
=
+ +
5.1 Identify the zeros and singularities of ( ) f z . Classify the singularities. (3)

( )( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2
1 2 ( )( ) 2
z z
z z z j z j z
=
+ + ÷ + +

Zero at 0 z =  Simple poles at z j = ± 

Pole of order two at 2 z = ÷ 

5.2 Use Cauchy’s residue theorem to determine
( )( )
2
2
2
1 2
C
z
dz
z z + +
}
along : 3 1 C z + = . (4)
Pole of order two at 2 lies on C, z = ÷ z j = ± not enclosed in C

2
2
( 2)
Res[ ( ), 2] lim
z
z
d
f z
dz
÷÷
+
÷ =
2
2
1
( 2)
z
z +
2
( 1) z
(
(
+ (
¸ ¸

( )
( )
2 2
2
2 2
2 1 2
lim
1
z
z z z z
z
÷÷
+ ÷
=
+

( )
2
2 2
2
lim
1
z
z
z
÷÷
=
+

4
25
÷
= 

( )( )
2
2
2
4 8
2
25 25
1 2
C
z j
dz j
z z
t
t
÷ ÷
= =
+ +
}