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Petersburg, Russia, July 8-10, 2009

**Robust Decoupling Control Design for Twin Rotor System using Hadamard Weights
**

Q. Ahmed1, A.I.Bhatti2, S.Iqbal3 Control and Signal Processing Research Group, CASPR. Dept. of Electronic Engg, M.A.Jinnah University, Islamabad, Pakistan. (1qadeer62, 3siayubi)@gmail.com, 2aib@jinnah.edu.pk

Abstract— This paper considers cross-coupling affects in a twin rotor system that leads to degraded performance during precise helicopter maneuvering. This cross-coupling can be suppressed implicitly either by declaring it as disturbance or explicitly by introducing decoupling techniques. The standard H∞ controller synthesized by loop-shaping design procedure (LSDP) offers robustness at the cost of performance to overcome cross-coupling. However, Hadamard weights are used to decouple the system dynamics to give desired performance as well. This idea has been successfully proved by simulations and verified through implementing it on a twin rotor system.

NOMENCLATURE

Symbol

α β β

Name

Elevation Angle Azimuth Angle Ang .Vel .in horizontal plane Weight of helicopter Moment Arm Centrifugal Force Mainrotor angular velocity Mainrotor torque Siderotor torque Gravitational torque Gyroscopic torque Centrifugal torque

Frictional torque in Elevation

Units

(rad) (rad) (rad / sec) (N) (m) (N) (rad / sec) (N.m) (N.m) (N.m) (N.m) (N.m)

(N.m)

τ1 τ2 τw τG τc τf 2 τr

I1 I2

τf

w l Fc w1

Frictional torque in Azimuth Main motor disturbance torque Moment of inertia in Elevation Moment of inertia in Azimuth

(N.m) (N.m) 2 (kg.m ) 2 (kg.m )

I. INTRODUCTION The motivation of paper lies in the reduction of crosscoupling in helicopter dynamics that is an aircraft that is lifted, propelled and maneuvered by vertical and horizontal rotors. All twin rotor aircrafts have high cross-coupling in all their degrees of motion. Especially the gyroscopic effect on azimuth dynamics prevents precise maneuvers by the operator emphasizing the need to compensate crosscoupling, a task that clearly adds to the workload for the pilot if done manually [1]. The twin rotor system recreates a simplified behavior of a real helicopter with fewer degrees of freedom. In real helicopters the control is generally achieved by tilting appropriately blades of the rotors with the collective and cyclic actuators, while

keeping constant rotor speed. To simplify the mechanical design of the system, twin rotor system setup used is designed slightly differently. In this case, the blades of the rotors have a fixed angle of attack, and control is achieved by controlling the speeds of the rotors. As a consequence of this, the twin rotor system has highly nonlinear coupled dynamics. Additionally, it tends to be non minimum phase system exhibiting unstable zero dynamics. This system poses very challenging problem of precise maneuvering in the presence of cross-coupling. It has been extensively investigated under the algorithms ranging from linear robust control to nonlinear control domains. Dutka et al [3] have implemented nonlinear predictive control for tracking control of 2 DOF helicopter. The nonlinear algorithm was based on state-space generalized predictive control. M.Lopez et al [4],[5],[6] have presented control of twin rotor system using feedback linearization techniques like full state linearization and input output linearization. The feedback linearization techniques have been implemented in elevation dynamics and azimuth dynamics were kept at zero which overlooked coupling intentionally. Te-Wei et al [7] have proposed time optimal control for Twin Rotor System. A MIMO system was first decomposed in two SISO systems and coupling was taken as disturbance or change of system parameters. For each SISO system optimal control has been designed that can tolerate 50% changes in the system parameters. The results showed slow tracking of the reference inputs. Jun et al [8] presented robust stabilization and H∞ control for class of uncertain systems. Quadratic stabilizing controllers for uncertain systems were designed by solving standard H∞ control problem. This method was verified by implementing on helicopter model for tracking purpose only without taking cross-coupling into account. M.Lopez et al [9] suggested H∞ controller for helicopter dynamics. First feedback linearization was used for decoupling the inputs and outputs; later system was indentified at higher frequencies, as relative uncertainty increases at higher frequencies. The controller was designed for the system identified at higher frequencies, to deliver results in the presence of uncertainties. Simulation results showed that controller was unable to handle couplings. M.Lopez et al [10] delivered the non linear H∞ approach for handling the coupling taken as disturbance. This approach considered a nonlinear H∞ disturbance rejection procedure on the reduced dynamics of the rotors, including integral terms on the tracking error to cope with persistent disturbances. The resulting controller exhibited attributes of non-linear PID with time varying

978-1-4244-4602-5/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE

1009

constants according to system dynamics. The experimental results demonstrated that system maneuvers with reduced coupling. Koudela et al [11] have designed sliding mode control for the regulation control of helicopter angular positions in vertical and horizontal planes. The sliding mode controller was implemented, after the chattering issue was resolved by introducing the saturation and hyperbolic tangent function that smoothed out the chattering effect. Gwo R. Yu et al [12] considered sliding mode control of helicopter model via LQR. LQR was first applied to control the elevation and azimuth dynamics and then sliding mode controller was employed to guarantee the robustness against external disturbances. J.P. Su et al [13] have designed procedure that involved first finding an ideal inverse complementary sliding mode control law for the mechanical subsystem with good tracking performance. Then, a terminal sliding mode control law was derived for the electrical subsystem to diminish the error introduced by the deviation of the practical inverse control from the idea inverse control for the mechanical subsystem. The above discussed attempts to design control algorithm for the twin rotor system dealt with tracking control for maneuvering in vertical and horizontal planes without the consideration of cross-coupling except in [10]. Therefore, the authors have presented control strategy to perform precise maneuvers in both vertical and horizontal planes in the presence of cross-couplings. The decoupling in systems dynamics has been achieved along with desired performance. Rest of the paper is organized as follows; Section II explains helicopter dynamics. Section III elaborates some decoupling techniques to minimize coupling in the model dynamics. Section IV and V discuss the controller designing procedure with Traditional and Hadamard weights. Section VI has simulation results and Section VII includes experimental results. Section VIII concludes the authors’ effort to decouple the helicopter dynamics. II. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The helicopter dynamics can be reduced to vertical and horizontal plane dynamics which can be approximated as twin rotor dynamics. The free body diagrams are shown in Fig.1 and Fig.2 respectively. The forces acting on the elevation and azimuth dynamics have been utilized to model the system. The net torque produced in the vertical plane can be calculated from (1) and (2) describes the net torque in horizontal plane. I1α = τ 1 + τ c + τ G − τ w − τ f (1)

system are identified as in (3) and (4) respectively. The mathematical model of twin rotor system for elevation dynamics are expressed in (6) and azimuth characteristics are explained by (8). (5) and (7) are the main and side motor dynamics respectively. The cross-coupling in azimuth plane is highlighted by (9). The outputs of the system are as in (4). More details and constant values in the equations can be found in [2]. Main motor speed x1 x Elevation Angle 2 x3 Angular speed in Elevation (3) X = = Side motor speed x4 x5 Azimuth Angle x6 Angular speed in Azimuth

** x2 Elevation Angle Y = = x5 Azimuth Angle
**

x1 = 1 T1 ( − x1 + u1 )

x 2 = x3

(4) (5)

x3 =

1 I1

2 ( ( a1 x1 ) + b1 x1 - B1 x3 - Tg sinx2 - K gyro u1 x6 cosx2 ) (6)

x4 =

1 T2

( -x4 + u 2 )

(7)

x6 =

1 I2

x5 = x6 ((a2 x4 ) + b2 x4 - B2 x6 + Tpr x7 - K r Tor u1 )

2

(8) (9)

x7 = -Tpr x7 + K r Tor u1

Fig.1 Free body diagram of vertical plane dynamics

I2β = τ 2 −τ r −τ f

2

(2)

These net torque equations guide to develop non linear model. Similarly main and side motor of the system can be expressed by 1st order transfer function and their time constants have been estimated in [2]. Finally for the formulation of nonlinear model, states and outputs of the

Fig.2 Free body diagram of horizontal plane dynamics

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The linear model derived from conventional linearization about the operating point i.e. 0o in vertical and 0o horizontal plane, is expressed in (10). The validation of linear model is performed against impulse signal given at input of the elevation in open loop is shown in Fig. 3. The validated model is then analyzed for control attributes, like the controllability and observability matrices are of rank ‘n’ where ‘n’ is the number of states, thus declaring the system as fully controllable and observable. Fig.4 shows the singular values plot of the system which exhibits the poor tracking of the system due to low gains of singular values at lower frequencies and the slope of the singular values at zero crossing is around 2 which founds the base for poor robustness. The slight peak at zero crossing is also indicating the oscillatory behavior of the helicopter. However the upper and lower singular values at higher frequencies are desirable. Similarly (6) and (8) exhibit cross-coupling present in the system. This section presented the control design objectives that the designed controller must deliver in order to guarantee smooth helicopter flight. g11 g12 G(s) = (10) g 21 g 22 Where

g11 ( s ) = g12 ( s ) = g 21 ( s ) = 7.141 s + 53.07 s + 118 s + 79.94 s s + 11.19 s + 54.6 s + 178 s + 427.2 s + 596.6 s + 327 s 6 3 2 -1.776e-15 s + 5.684e-14 s + 1.137e-13 s

7 6 5 4 3 2 7 6 5 4 3 2 4 3 2

III. DECOUPLING TECHNIQUES Before we proceed with the controller design, the coupling problem of the helicopter model has to be resolved by introducing some decoupling technique. There are number of decoupling techniques, one of the approaches is to declare coupling as disturbance and design such a robust controller that will itself handle the coupling as discussed in [10]. The other approach is to integrate a decoupling procedure and handle the coupling explicitly, like Hadamard weights have been introduced in Loop shaping design for H∞ controller to handle the coupling [14]. Similarly the concept of robust near decoupling has been solved using linear matrix inequalities in [15]. State space approach also delivers the solution for coupling [15]. Several other conventional decoupling procedures which involve the integration of decoupler in the system dynamics to handle coupling are discussed in [16]. IV. CONTROLLER SYNTHESIS The aim of the controller designing is to track the reference input given by the operator and achieve the desired position in minimum time with lesser control effort by over coming the cross-coupling impacts. For this purpose we employed H∞ controller for which the standard configuration is shown in Fig.5. The signals are; ‘u’ the control variable, ‘v’ the measured variables, ‘w’ the exogenous inputs like disturbances and commands and ‘z’ the exogenous outputs. The closed loop transfer function from w to z is given by linear fractional transformation. z = Fl ( P, K ) w (11) Where Fl ( P, K ) = P + P K ( I − P22 K ) −1 P21 11 12 The standard H∞ optimal control problem is to find all the stabilizing controllers K which minimize Fl ( P, K ) ∞ = max σ ( Fl ( P, K )( jω )) (12)

ω

s + 11.19 s + 54.6 s + 178 s + 427.2 s + 596.6 s + 327 s 6 5 4 3 2 3.553e-15 s - 1.401 s - 11.37 s - 39.24 s - 110.8 s - 199.4 s - 59.68 s + 11.19 s + 54.6 s + 178 s + 427.2 s + 596.6 s + 327 s 6 4 3 2 -1.776e-15 s + 28.41 s + 144.5 s + 431 s + 1215 s + 1106 s + 11.19 s + 54.6 s + 178 s + 427.2 s + 596.6 s + 327 s

Impulse response 0.12 Actual Response Linear model Response Error

7

6

5

4

3

2

g 22 ( s ) =

7

6

5

4

3

2

0.1

0.08

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

-0.02

H∞ norm has several interpretations in terms of performance [17] like it minimizes the peak of maximum singular value of Fl ( P, K ) . The general algorithm used to compute the controller is based on the solution presented in [18].

25 30 35 40 Time 45 50 55 60 65

Elevation (rad)

-0.04

-0.06 20

**Fig.3 Validation of linear model in vertical plane
**

150

Singular Values

Hadamard Weighted Plant Actual Plant Traditional Weighted Plant 100

50

Singular Values (dB)

Fig.5 General control configuration for H∞ control

0

-50

-100

-150 -3 10

10

-2

10

-1

10

0

10

1

10

2

10

3

Frequency (rad/sec)

Fig.4 Singular values of the twin rotor system

Fig.6 LSDP implementation

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**V. LOOP SHAPING DESIGN PROCEDURE
**

H∞ loop shaping [17] is essentially a two stage design procedure. First, the open-loop plant is augmented by pre and post-compensator as shown in Fig.6 to give a desired shape to the singular values of the open-loop frequency response. Then the resulting shaped plant is robustly stabilized with respect to co-prime factor uncertainty using H∞ optimization. A. Traditional Weighting Technique Traditionally pre and post weights are introduced to the system through matrix multiplication which relates each component of the weights to each component of plant dynamics as W W12 W = 11 W21 W22

G12 W11 W12 G11W11 + G12W21 G11W12 + G12W22 (13) G × = G × W = 11 G21 G22 W21 W22 G21W11 + G22W21 G21W11 + G22W21

elements of transfer function in (10) equal to zero by the designed weight, which ensures the decoupling in the system; however this affects the tracking performance in the consequence [14]. Therefore, the designed Hadamard weights exhibit trade off between the decoupling and tracking performance for the optimal results. The modified helicopter dynamics are used for controller synthesis as in the previous case. VI. SIMULTION RESULTS In the first phase of testing the simulations are carried out. The sub optimal controller with γ min = 2.5914 , designed using weighting procedure as

Angular position (deg)

s 2 + 2.2s + 0.4 0 2 s + 1000 s + 1 (14) W1 = s 2 + 2.2 s + 0.4 0 s 2 + 1000s + 1 The pre weight is taken as in (14) and post weight is taken as identity matrix. These weights allow us to modify model dynamics by improving its tracking by increasing the gains at lower frequencies and changing the slope at cross over frequency to ‘1’ to improve the robustness as shown in Fig 4. The re-shaped model of helicopter can be utilized for controller synthesis as described in [17]. In this practice the coupling is termed as disturbance, the robustness of the controller ensures the decoupling but at the cost of performance.

described in (13) yields response as shown in Fig.7. It can be observed in results that the desired elevation and azimuth angles are achieved in finite time but in the same time coupling is also noticeable for few seconds at the start of simulation. To reduce the coupling we will have to increase the robustness, the redesigning of the weight will provide more robustness but the performance will deteriorate. So the designed weight in (14) delivers the results which reduces coupling to a certain level at the same time generates the desirable performance. The sub optimal controller γ min = 2.3992 designed using the Hadamard weighting procedure described in (15) yields results shown in Fig.8. It can be observed in the results that elevation and azimuth angles achieved the desired value with in a finite time and the coupling is totally eliminated from system dynamics. These simulations delivered the ideal results for decoupling and the controller is now ready for implementation on twin rotor system.

H infinity controller with Traditional Weights

1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 0

2 1 0 -1 -2 0

Elevation Azimuth

B. Hadamard Weighting Technique Hadamard weights are used in loop shaping design procedure for element by element weighting in multivariable system which helps in decoupling the plant behavior. The procedure of integrating weight dynamics to change the system dynamics described in (15). The pre weight transfer function used for twin rotor system is given by (16) and post weight is taken as identity. The plant singular values are modified by pre weight function as shown in Fig 4 that guarantees the system tracking by increasing gains at lower frequencies and robustness as the slope of singular values at zero cross-over is 1. G12 W11 W12 G11W11 G12W12 G W G = 11 = (15) G21 G22 W21 W22 G21W21 G22W22

1980s + 4356 s + 792 0 s 2 + 1000 s + 1 W1 = 2 1920 s + 4224 s + 768 0 s 2 + 1000 s + 1

2

5

10

15

20

5

10

15

20

10 8

Control Effort (V)

30

6 4 2 0 -2 0

20

10

0 5 10

Time (sec)

15

20

0

5

10

Time (sec)

15

20

**Fig.7 Step response (Traditional Weights)
**

H infinity controller with Hadamard Weights

1.5

Angular Position (deg)

1.5

Elevation Azimuth

1

1

0.5

0.5

0 0 5 10 15 20

0 0 5 10 15 20

30

Control Effort (V)

30 25

(16)

20 10 0 -10 0

20 15 10 5 0

The element by element weighting gives us the liberty to handle the coupling directly by making the off diagonal

5

10

Time (sec)

15

20

0

5

10 Time (sec)

15

20

Fig.8 Step response (Hadamard Weights)

1012

VII. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS The implementation of designed controller is carried out on the system shown in Fig.9. This system is hinged at the based, thus restricting the six degrees of motion to two degrees of freedom. This model consists of two DC motors which drive upper and side propeller by generating torques perpendicular to their rotation. The system has two degrees of freedom i.e. elevation (α ) in vertical plane and azimuth ( β ) in horizontal plane, which are measured precisely by incremental encoders installed inside the helicopter body. The model is interfaced with desktop computer via data acquisition PCI card which is accessible in MATLAB Simulink environment through Real-time Toolbox. This toolbox provides us the liberty to access the encoder values and issue commands to DC motors. The schematic diagram shown in Fig.10 gives a brief idea about the helicopter model interfacing. The system is controlled by changing the angular velocities of the rotors. This kind of action involves the generation of resultant torque on the body of double rotor system that makes it to rotate in perpendicular direction of the rotor. Some of the specifications are shown in Table 1, more details can be found in [2].

Table 1 Twin rotor system specifications (HUMUSOFT Manual) System Outputs Main Motor ‘1’ Side Motor ‘2’ System Parameters 50o in elevation ±40o in Azimuth DC motor with permanent magnet Max Voltage 12V Max Speed 9000 RPM DC motor with permanent magnet Max Voltage 6V Max Speed 12000 RPM T1 = 0.3 s a1 = 0.105 N.m/MU b1 = 0.00936 N.m/MU2 I1 = 4.37e-3 Kg.m2 B1 = 1.84e-3 Kg.m2/s Tg = 3.83e-2 N.m T2 = 0.25 s a2 = 0.033 N.m/MU b2 = 0.0294 N.m/MU2; Tor = 2.7 s Tpr = 0.75 s Kr = 0.00162 N.m/MU I2 = 4.14e-3 Kg.m2 B2 = 8.69e-3 Kg.m2/s Kgyro = 0.015 Kg.m/s

Fig.9 Lab setup for Twin rotor system

that twin rotor system response with Traditional weighted H∞ is 3 times damped as compared to H∞ with Hadamard weights, though later controller effort is with in available range. Secondly, the twin rotor system is exposed to crosscoupling at 32 sec. It can be observed that in Fig.11 that elevation and azimuth both loose their tracking for 10 sec. in both degrees of freedom while in Fig.13 cross-coupling impact on elevation is nullified in 2-3 sec. by control action, at the same time azimuth recovers from coupling effect with in 8 sec. The controller with Traditional weight has to exert more effort in azimuth channel (Fig.12) to overcome coupling as compare to Hadamard weighted controller (Fig.14). The under shoots in Fig.15 depicts the typical behavior of non-minimum phase systems as discussed earlier. The simulation results of Hadamard weighted H∞ controller depicted instant decoupled response; conversely practical implementation achieved decoupling in few seconds due to inertial properties of the mechanical system. The Traditional weighted H∞ controller effort in vertical plane is with low gains and does not contain high frequency switching, however Hadamard weighted H∞ controller generated effort with relatively high gains and switching to deliver desired results but these were restricted to available limits.

H inf controller (Normal Weights) 25 20 Elevation (deg) 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

20

Fig.10 Schematic Model of Helicopter model

10 Azimuth (deg)

The results of H∞ controller with Traditional and Hadamard weights implemented on twin rotor lab setup are shown in Fig.11 and Fig.13 respectively. Their respective control efforts are displayed in Fig.12 and Fig.14. It can be noticed

0

-10

-20

10

15

20

25 Time (sec)

30

35

40

45

Fig.11 Actual system response (Traditional Weights)

1013

Control Effort (Normal Weights) 1 0.8 Elevation 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

which delivers instant decoupling while tracking the references. However, the counterpart controller suppresses the coupling but at the cost of performance.

35 40 45

10

15

20

25

30

REFERENCES

[1]. [2]. Gareth D. Padfield, “Helicopter Flight Dynamics The Theory and Application of Flying Qualities and Simulation Modeling” Second Edition Blackwell Publishing. Humusoft, CE 150 Helicopter Model: User's Manual ,Humusoft, Prague, 2002 Arkadiusz S. Dutka, Andrzej W.Ordys, Michael J.Grimble "Nonlinear Predictive Control of 2 dof helicopter model" Proc. of the 42nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control Maui, Hawaii USA, 2003 M. Lopez-Martinez, F.R Rubio, “Control of a laboratory helicopter using feedback linearization” M. L´opez-Martinez, J.M. D´ıaz, M.G. Ortega and F.R. Rubio, “Control of a Laboratory Helicopter using Switched 2-step Feedback Linearization”, Proc. of the American Control Conf. (ACC’04),2004. M. Lopez-Martinez, F.R Rubio, “Approximate feedback linearization of a Laboratory Helicopter” Te-Wei, Peng Wen, “Time Optimal and robust control of Twin rotor system” Proc. of 2007 IEEE Int. Conf. on Control and Automation, Guangzhou, China, 2007. Jun Yoneyama, Yukihisa Kikuchi, “Robust control for uncertain systems with application to helicopter model” Proc. of the SICE 2002, Osaka. M. L´opez-Martinez, M.G. Ortega and F.R. Rubio, “An H∞ Controller of the Twin Rotor Laboratory equipment”, Proc. of 11th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA’03), 2003. M. Lopez-Martinez, C. Vivas, M. G. Ortega, “A multivariable nonlinear H∞ controller for Laboratory helicopter”. Proc. of 44th IEEE conference on Decision and Control and European Control Conference 2005, Seville Spain 2005. Tomáš Koudela, Renata Wagnerová, “Position Control with Robust Algorithms” Proc. of the Portuguese conf. on Automatic Control, 2000. Gwo-R.Y, H.T.Lui, “Sliding mode control of a two degree of freedom helicopter via Linear Quadratic regulator” Proc. of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, 10-12 Oct. 2005, Waikoloa, Hawaii. Juhng-Perng Su Chi-Ying Liangt and Hung-Ming Chent, “Robust Control of a Class of Nonlinear System and Its Application to a Twin lbtor MIMO System” IEEE ICIT’O2, Bangkok, Thailand.2002. F.Van Diggelen and K. Glover, “A Hadamard weighted loop shaping design procedure for robust decoupling” Automatica Vol. 30, No. 5, pp 831-845 1994. Q. G. Wang, “Decoupling control” LNCIS 285,pp 115-128 2003 Eds. K. Warwick,D. Rees, “Multivariable Control:An Introduction To Decoupling Control” Industrial Digital Control Systems IEE Control Engineering series, Peter Peregrinus 1988 Skogestad, S. and Postlethwaite, I.(1996) “Multivariable Feedback control ,Analysis and Design” John Wiley & Sons. New York Doyle, J.Grover, K.Khargonekar, and Francis,B. (1989),”State space solutions to standard H2 and H control problems”. IEEE Trans. On automatic control, Vol 34. no 8, pp831-846, August 1989.

1

0.5 Azimuth

0

-0.5

-1

10

15

20

25 Time (sec)

30

35

40

45

**Fig.12 Control effort (Traditional weights)
**

H inf Control (Hadamard weights) 25 20 Elevation (deg) 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

[3].

[4]. [5].

40

20 Azimtuh (deg)

[6]. [7].

5 10 15 20 25 Time (sec) 30 35 40 45

0

-20

-40

[8]. [9].

**Fig.13 Actual system response (Hadamard Weights)
**

Control effort (Hadamard Weights) 1 Control Effort (Elevation) 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0

[10].

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45

1

Control Effort (Azimuth)

0.5

[11]. [12].

5 10 15 20 25 Time (sec) 30 35 40 45

0

-0.5

-1

**Fig.14 Control effort (Hadamard Weights)
**

Multi Step Response (Hadamard Wt) 25

[13].

20

[14].

15 Elevation (deg)

10

[15]. [16]. [17].

5

0

5

10

15

20

25

30 Time

35

40

45

50

55

60

[18].

Fig.15 Minimum phase system behavior

VIII. CONCLUSION This paper contributes a robust control methodology to furnish precise and swift maneuvers from twin rotor system that has strong cross-coupling in its dynamics. The H∞ controller designed with Hadamard weight leads to solution

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