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Karen Arroyos

CRIJ 2313.01 Corrections Systems and Practice

The Prevention of Sexa! A"se #ithin Correctiona! $aci!ities
$e"rary 12% 201&
'ord cont( 1%22)
Sexa! assa!t in correctiona! instittions is a ma*or isse that has "een +!ossed
over "y the media% and at times "een made !i+ht of. Sexa! assa!t in ,rison is no
!a+hin+ matter- ra,e has serios ,sycho!o+ica! and ,hysio!o+ica! effects on a ,erson% no
matter the circmstance. .fficia! data in Texas determined that the most v!nera"!e men
#ere #hite% yon+% and had a history of menta! hea!th isses and ,rior sex offense
convictions /0orash% Jeon+% 1ohmert 2 1sh 2012% ,. 2)33. Ra,e cases ,ro"!ems for
victims sch as sch as interr,ted s!ee,in+ and eatin+ ,atterns% deve!o,ment of mood
s#in+s% and fears s,ecific to the circmstances of the assa!t. 4I5 and AI6S have a!so
added to the ,sycho!o+ica! terror for victims of ,rison ra,e /Kno#!es 1)))% ,. 278927)3.
Aside from inmates sexa!!y a"sin+ one another% re,orts of sexa! miscondct "y staff
mem"ers has steadi!y emer+ed since the 1))0:s. ;ar!y a#areness of staff sexa!
miscondct emer+ed #hen severa! hi+h!y visi"!e !a#sits arose in #omen<s faci!ities. In
res,onse% the =ationa! Institte of Corrections moved >ic?!y to ,rovide information%
trainin+ in the fie!d% and technica! assistance /0oss 2 'a!! II 200@% ,.13. This ,ro"!em
!ed the faci!ities to ta?e immediate action and "e+an trainin+ in the fie!d in 1))7. In 2003
the Prison Ra,e ;!imination Act /PR;A3 #as ,assed% #hich so+ht to aim for a Aero
to!erance ,o!icy of ,rison ra,e /0oss 2 'a!! II 200@% ,.13. In this research% the ty,es of
ra,e in ,rison #i!! "e examined% as #e!! as their effects% and #hat can "e done to ,revent
them% inc!din+ standard o,eratin+ ,rocedres im,!emented% effective trainin+% and
,ro+rams of a#areness.
Inmate on inmate ra,e is the most visi"!e ra,e covered in the media% and is
sa!!y ,ortrayed in an a!most #himsica! manner. This co!dn:t "e farther from the trth%
*st as ra,e otside of ,rison is seen as dead!y serios% so sho!d ra,e in ,risons. 0en<s
,rison environment a!!o#s for and even sanctions sexa! a++ression. Scarcity a!!o#s for
the a++ressor to mani,!ate other ,risoners into +ivin+ , materia! +oods% or desired
commodities #ithot resortin+ to vio!ence /Kno#!es 1)))% ,. 2B03. $or the sexa!
a++ressor in inmate ra,e% sexa! con>ests serve to esta"!ish dominance #ithin ,rison%
and va!idate his manhood% contrary to #hat #o!d "e the norm otside of ,rison.
4omosexa! "ehavior is t#isted "y men in ,rison "ecase it is seen as transient%
nemotiona!% and sed to retain stats and ,o#er /Kno#!es 1)))% ,. 2B03. .ne theory on
inmate on inmate ra,e ,osits that homosexa!ity and other forms of deviance are methods
of co,in+ #ith the harsh% de,rivin+ atmos,here of ,rison !ife /Kno#!es 1)))% ,. 2B33. $or
convicts #ho have "een socia!iAed into this system% the !eve! of satisfaction comes from
the de+ree of force and hmi!iation invo!ved. A simi!ar e!ement is a!so seen in fema!e
,risons /Kno#!es 1)))% ,. 2B&3. As one can see% this is somethin+ that sho!d not "e
ta?en !i+ht!y- there are serios costs to society #hen one is a victim of sexa! assa!t in
,rison. The most serios "ein+% that it can convert a non9vio!ent offender into someone
#ith a hi+h ,otentia! for vio!ence and #ho #i!! trn to retri"tion on the society that they
ho!d res,onsi"!e for their !oss of manhood /Kno#!es 1)))% ,. 2B&3. Inmate on inmate
ra,e #i!! contine to exist as !on+ as administration officia!s se the fear of ra,e to divert
,rison a++ression% destroy ,otentia! !eaders% and intimidate ,risoners to "ecome ,otentia!
informers /Kno#!es 1)))% ,. 2B@3.
Staff on inmate ra,e is a s"*ect not as #e!! ?no#n amon+ the +enera! ,"!ic% "t
is a "r+eonin+ isse and is somethin+ that can and sho!d "e mana+ed more effective!y
"y correctiona! instittions arond the contry. A main factor differentiatin+ staff on
inmate ra,e as o,,osed to inmate on inmate ra,e is consent. Staff sexa! miscondct does
not concern itse!f #ith consent% "ein+ in a ,osition of ,o#er% sexa! contact is sfficient
for a case to "e deemed fonded /0oss 2 'a!! 200@% ,. &3. In $armer v. 1rennan /1))&3%
the S,reme Cort r!ed nanimos!y that de!i"erate indifference to the s"stantia! ris?
of sexa! a"se vio!ates an incarcerated individa!:s ri+hts nder the ;i+hth Amendment.
The Cort stated that sexa! a"se is Cnot ,art of the ,ena!ty that crimina! offenders ,ay
for their offenses a+ainst societyD /Prison Ra,e Commission 200)% ,. 33. Eet "ecase of
PR;A% it has "een fond that there are sti!! many incidences of ra,e "y staff to inmates.
Sr,risin+!y in a re,ort "y the 1rea of Jstice Statistics as ,art of PR;A ro+h!y 8@
,ercent of a!! incidents of sexa! miscondct #ere "y fema!e staff /Smith 2012% ,.1B133.
This% even tho+h that accordin+ to the Censs of Correctiona! Athorities% #omen on!y
com,ose 33 ,ercent of the entire correctiona! #or?force /Smith 2012% ,.1B123. In srveys
of *veni!e correctiona! athorities it has a!so "een sho#n that fema!e correctiona!
#or?ers have "een invo!ved in sexa! a"se in dis,ro,ortionate nm"ers in the *veni!e
corrections #or?force. 'omen acconted for &2 ,ercent of staff% yet #ere im,!icated in
)@ ,ercent of incidents of staff sexa! a"se /Smith 2012% ,.1B133. The ,ro"a"!e case
for this "ein+ that #omen<s ,resence as staff in these sin+!e9sex environments creates a
,o#erf! and disr,tive force% and creates a ferti!e +rond for coerced or consensa! sex
"et#een staff and inmates /Smith 2012% ,.1B183.
=o# that sexa! assa!t has come to ,"!ic scrtiny and its dama+in+
,sycho!o+ica! and ,hysio!o+ica! effects are ?no#n% #hat has "een done to ,revent itF
6rin+ the !ate 1))0s% !itt!e #as ?no#n a"ot ra,e ,revention ,ractices in ,risons% the
4man Ri+hts 'atch re>ested information and !earned that on!y six correctiona!
instittions had s,ecia!iAed trainin+ for reco+niAin+ and res,ondin+ to ra,e /G#ei+ 2
1!ac?more 2008% ,. 13. In 1))7 the =ationa! Institte of Corrections "e+an technica!
assistance in the fie!d "y initiatin+ the trainin+ ,ro+ram HAddressin+ Staff Sexa!
0iscondct.H This ,ro+ram inc!ded a +enera! tem,!ate in #hich o,erationa! and ,o!icy
considerations #ere ,t for#ard to address staff sexa! miscondct /0oss 2 'a!! 200@%
, 13. Since PR;A #as ,assed in 2003% 80 ,ercent of the &@ ,artici,atin+ states had staff
trainin+ ,ro+rams s,ecifica!!y devoted to sexa! vio!ence /G#ei+ 2 1!ac?more 2008% ,.
&3. =meros techni>es and !earnin+ strate+ies are sed in staff trainin+. In 11 case
stdy states staff trainin+ is re>ired on a re+!ar "asis. There is com,ter9"ased trainin+
so staff can train themse!ves% c!assroom settin+ trainin+% as #e!! as #ritten materia!s for
staff to ?ee,. Ro!e9,!ayin+ incidents are a!so im,!emented% as #e!! as video trainin+
/G#ei+ 2 1!ac?more 2008% ,. @3. Inmate edcation ,ro+rams are a!so an im,ortant ,art
of ,revention as there aren:t a!#ays staff ,resent #hen an incident mi+ht occr /G#ei+ 2
1!ac?more 2008% ,. 73.
As it has "een sho#n% inmate ra,e and sexa! miscondct is nothin+ to "e ta?en
!i+ht!y as it mi+ht seem in the media. It srfaces in many different forms and is a!#ays
dama+in+ to the victim and even society as ,revios!y non9vio!ent victims see?
retri"tion for "ein+ vio!ated on the society that ,t them in ,rison. Since the !ate 1))0:s
,rison ra,e has come to ,"!ic scrtiny and there have "een ever +radatin+ ste,s to
,revent it% c!minatin+ #ith the ,assa+e of the Prison Ra,e ;!imination Act of 2003.
0ovin+ for#ard it sho!d "e a +oa! for a!! correctiona! faci!ities to ,revent ra,e "y
inmates and staff a!i?e in order to he!, !o#er vio!ent crime in society as a #ho!e.
Kno#!es% I. /1)))3. 0a!e ,rison ra,e( A search for casation and ,revention. Howard
Journal Of Criminal Justice% 38/33% 27B.
0orash% 0.% Jeon+% S.% 1ohmert% 0.% 2 1sh% 6.R. /20123. 0en<s v!nera"i!ity to
,risoner9on9,risoner sexa! vio!ence( A state correctiona! system case stdy.
Prison Journal% )2/23% 2)09311.
0oss% A.% 2 'a!! II% A.T. /200@3. Addressin+ the cha!!en+e of inmate ra,e. Corrections
Today% 7B/@3% B&9B8.
Smith% 1.5. /20123. Jncomforta"!e ,!aces% c!ose s,aces( $ema!e correctiona! #or?ers<
sexa! interactions #ith men and "oys in cstody. UCLA Law Review% @)/73%
'a!ton% R.1.% /200)3. National Prison Rape Elimination Commission Report% 392B7
G#ei+% J.0.% 2 1!ac?more% J. /20083. Strate+ies to ,revent ,rison ra,e "y chan+in+ the
correctiona! c!tre. U! "epartment of Justice Office of Justice Pro#rams% 22% 19