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4, NOVEMBER 2012

Solution of Power Flow With Auto-

matic Load-Frequency Control Devices

Including Wind Farms

Luis M. Castro, Claudio R. Fuerte-Esquivel, Senior Member, IEEE, and J. Horacio Tovar-Hernndez

AbstractThis paper proposes the integration of steady-state

models of several types of wind generators into a power ow al-

gorithm with automatic load-frequency control. Since the system

frequency deviation is considered a state variable to be computed

by the power ow solution, this formulation helps identify the op-

erating point of wind generators after the action of the primary fre-

quency control when power imbalances have occurred. The math-

ematical formulation of xed-speed wind generators is presented

based on the steady-state representation of the induction gener-

ator. Furthermore, as variable-speed wind generators keep gaining

prominence in power systems, their potential contribution to fre-

quency support is also analyzed herein. These models are formu-

lated within the power ow approach by using a unied single

frame of reference and the Newton-Raphson algorithm. The pro-

posed approach is then applied to the analysis of a three-machine,

eight-bus system and the IEEE-14 bus test system.

Index TermsNewton-Raphson algorithm, power ow analysis,

primary frequency regulation, wind generator.

I. INTRODUCTION

W

IND power generation is growing worldwide because

of economic and environmental benets. However,

from the technical standpoint, several challenges arise from

the wind power penetration into electric power systems. In this

context, the service credibility is one of the primary goals to

achieve even though wind power generation is stochastic in

nature.

The system reliability can be degraded by power imbalances

between load and generation, which are inherent to the daily

operation of power systems. In this context, the impact of a

power imbalance to the system frequency can be quickly deter-

mined by a power ow algorithm in which automatic load-fre-

quency controllers are included [1]. This approach considers

the frequency deviation as a state variable, which is simultane-

ously computed together with all magnitudes and phase angles

of nodal voltages in a unied frame of reference. Furthermore,

Manuscript received October 18, 2011; revised February 03, 2012 and April

02, 2012; accepted April 04, 2012. Date of publication May 09, 2012; date of

current version October 17, 2012. This work was supported by CONACYT

Mexico under the scholarship 209744 and under the research project 106198.

The work of L. M. Castro was supported by the Consejo Nacional de

Ciencia y Tecnologa (CONACYT) Mxico, and the University of Michoacn

(U.M.S.N.H). Paper no. TPWRS-00979-2011.

L. M. Castro and C. R. Fuerte-Esquivel are with the Electrical Engineering

Faculty, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicols de Hidalgo (UMSNH),

Morelia, Michoacn, 58000, Mxico (e-mail: lcastro@dep.e.umich.mx;

cfuerte@umich.mx).

J. H. Tovar-Hernndez is with the Instituto Tecnolgico de Morelia, Morelia,

Mxico (e-mail:horacio.tovar@yahoo.com).

Digital Object Identier 10.1109/TPWRS.2012.2195231

the voltage and frequency dependence of loads can be taken into

account to represent their variation according to different oper-

ating conditions. This methodology is rather attractive because

it permits the estimation of the steady-state operating point after

the action of the primary frequency regulation.

Bearing the above mentioned in mind, suitable wind gener-

ator models must be developed and included into a power ow

program with automatic load-frequency control (PFALFC) to

assess the role of wind farms in frequency regulation. To achieve

this goal, the preliminary work presented in [2] is expanded by

introducing two additional wind generator models to accom-

plish a complete modeling idea of wind generators considering

the frequency deviation of the electric network.

The mathematical modeling of wind turbines developed

in this paper relies primarily on the power injection concept.

For this purpose, a suitable representation of xed-speed wind

generators (FSWG) is developed, which includes their active

and reactive powers in terms of the induction machine stator

and rotor parameters as well as the system frequency deviation

[3]. Furthermore, variable-speed wind generators (VSWG)

are mathematically modeled based on both doubly-fed induc-

tion generators (DFIG) and permanent magnet synchronous

generators (PMSG). These models are developed with the

understanding that they are able to provide primary frequency

regulation by maintaining some spinning reserve [4][10]. The

PFALFCreported in [1] is then expanded to incorporate the pro-

posed models. In this context, these models are implemented in

such a way that the electrical network state variables, including

frequency deviation and those related to wind generators,

are solved simultaneously during the iterative process. This

solution method is selected with the aim of taking advantage of

the quadratical convergence of the Newton-Raphson method.

The proposed approach is presented in detail as follows:

Section II addresses the basics of the potential contribution of

wind generators to frequency support. Section III reviews the

PFALFC. The mathematical models of several types of wind

generators are presented in Section IV, while the initialization

of their state variables is given in Section V. Study cases are

provided in Section VI; nally, Section VII points out the

conclusions of this paper.

II. CONTRIBUTION OF WIND GENERATORS

TO FREQUENCY SUPPORT

The increasing integration of wind power into power sys-

tems has provided the momentum for exploring alternatives to

endow wind turbines with frequency regulation capability. In

the case of the primary frequency regulation, the key aspect is

0885-8950/$31.00 2012 IEEE

CASTRO et al.: SOLUTION OF POWER FLOW WITH AUTOMATIC LOAD-FREQUENCY CONTROL DEVICES INCLUDING WIND FARMS 2187

Fig. 1. Achieving a spinning reserve: (a) by using the blade pitch mechanism,

(b) by increasing the mechanical rotor angular speed.

to attain a spinning reserve of active power in order to com-

pensate active power imbalances. This goal can be achieved by

forcing the wind generator to operate in a suboptimal power

output level, which is referred to as deloading. Thus, each de-

loaded wind turbine will not extract the maximum power from

the wind during normal conditions in order to maintain a spin-

ning reserve, which will permit a release of power when a power

imbalance perturbation occurs [4][10].

A technique employed to deload a wind turbine calls for the

action of the blade pitch mechanism, as can be seen in Fig. 1(a),

[5], [7], [8]. In this case, the pitch angle is increased from to

or (depending on the required level of deloading), resulting

in different output powers obtained at the same rotor angular

speed . Therefore, the pitch angle controller acts like a

conventional speed governor.

On the other hand, by shifting the operating point to the

right of the wind turbine power curve, as shown in Fig. 1(b), a

wind turbine can attain a spinning reserve of active power to

be delivered in case of a power imbalance [4], [9]. However,

a rotor overspeeding is presented with this deloading

technique which limits its application beyond the rated wind

speed because of mechanical stress [6]. Lastly, both discussed

approaches can be simultaneously applied as proposed in [10].

Note that shifting the operating point towards the left of the

power curve, shown in Fig. 1(b), may also deload the wind

turbine. However, when requiring frequency response, a rotor

speed increase becomes necessary. In such a situation, a portion

of the energy extracted from the wind will accelerate the rotor

thus reducing the amount of power delivered to the network [4].

III. POWER FLOWS WITH AUTOMATIC

LOAD-FREQUENCY CONTROL METHOD

The power ow formulation with automatic load-frequency

control devices must include the system frequency deviation as

a state variable, which is calculated together with all the net-

works nodal voltages [1]. Therefore, when a load or generation

perturbation is simulated, the operating point obtained by the

PFALFC method will be at an off-nominal frequency value.

In this context, all wind generator models developed herein

can be readily included in the power ow formulation as shown

in (1), where and represent the power balance

equation of each wind generator and its associated state vari-

able, respectively. Power mismatch equations are denoted by

and at each network node, and is the system fre-

quency deviation from its nominal value:

(1)

Furthermore, this formulation can manage multiple gener-

ator regulators that respond to frequency changes as well as

voltage and frequency dependent load models, as briey de-

scribed below. Note that all equations are given in the per-unit

(p.u.) system, unless otherwise stated.

A. Synchronous Generator Models

Two synchronous generator models from the four presented

in [1] are addressed in this paper. The rst model represents a

generator regulator that adjusts its active power output and

reactive power output according to (2)(6), which are func-

tions of the frequency deviation value estimated at each power

ow iteration:

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

where and are the specied active and reactive

powers of the generator, respectively, is the nominal active

power, is the speed droop of the corresponding generator,

and are the coefcients of the reactive power genera-

tion, and the subscripts and represent maximum and

minimum values. The second model used in this work corre-

sponds to the conventional PV generator, where its generated

active power and its terminal voltage magnitude are set to

specied values during the simulation process. Constant voltage

operation is only possible if the generator reactive power de-

sign limits are not violated, i.e., . If the

generator cannot provide the necessary reactive power support

to constrain the voltage magnitude at the specied value then

the reactive power is xed at the violated limit, and the voltage

magnitude is freed. In this case, the generated active power

and reactive power are specied, while nodal voltage mag-

nitude and phase angle are computed.

For the purpose of this research, only two generator models

are used, since this paper focuses on wind generator models

within the context of the PFALFC. Please, refer to [1] for details

of the rest of existing synchronous generator models.

B. Load Model

Most of the loads in power systems are voltage and fre-

quency dependent, and their demanded power varies according

to changes in these variables. The static representation of their

active power and reactive power is described by the

following [1]:

2188 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 27, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2012

Fig. 2. Steady-state equivalent model of the induction machine taking into ac-

count the system frequency deviation.

Fig. 3. Response of directly grid-connected wind generators to frequency vari-

ations in the network.

(7)

(8)

where and are the specied active and reactive

powers drawn by the load, respectively, is the nominal op-

erating voltage of the node where the load is connected,

and are the coefcients of the load-frequency characteristic,

whereas , , , , and are the coefcients of the

load-voltage characteristic.

IV. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF WIND GENERATORS

AND THEIR INCLUSION IN THE PFALFC

The steady-state representation of the induction generator

shown in Fig. 2 is a function of its slip given by (9). This

implies that active and reactive powers generated by a directly

grid-connected wind generator will vary according to changes

in the system frequency and in the mechanical angular speed of

the rotor , as shown in Fig. 3

(9)

Based on the above mentioned, the stall regulated and pitch

regulated xed-speed wind generator models can be suitably

derived as a function of the frequency deviation by using the

power injection concept. The mechanical angular speed of the

generator rotor is employed as the wind generator state variable

within the iterative process. Hence, the power converted from

the mechanical to electrical form , the generated powers

and , the rotor current and the stator current are

expressed as follows:

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

where the coefcients are dened as

,

, ,

, ,

, , ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

.

A. Stall Regulated FSWG

The extracted power fromthe wind of a stall regulated FSWG

(SR-FSWG) is calculated by using (15)(17). Clearly, it is a

function of the rotor angular speed among other variables [11]:

(15)

(16)

(17)

where is the mechanical power (W), is the air density

( ), is the swept area of the blades ( ), is the wind

speed (m/s), is the radius of the rotor (m), is the gearbox

ratio, is the pitch angle (degrees), is the mechanical an-

gular speed of the generator (rad/s) and the constants to

are the parameters of the wind turbine design. In this case, the

only unknown variable is the mechanical angular speed of the

generator, as seen from (15). Consequently, this parameter acts

as the state variable within the iterative process which enables

to achieve the internal equilibrium point in the SR-FSWG given

CASTRO et al.: SOLUTION OF POWER FLOW WITH AUTOMATIC LOAD-FREQUENCY CONTROL DEVICES INCLUDING WIND FARMS 2189

by the conversion process of mechanical power into electrical

power.

In the framework of the PFALFC method, the set of

power ow mismatch equations that has to be solved when a

SR-FSWG is connected at the node of the system is

(18)

(19)

(20)

where and represent the active and reactive powers

drawn by the load at bus , respectively, and and

represent the powers injected at bus . They are given by

(21)

(22)

Lastly, the set of linearized equations (23) is integrated into

the set of linearized power mismatch equations of the whole net-

work (1) to compute a new equilibrium point through a power

ow solution. In this case, the generator angular speed is up-

dated after the th iteration as given by (24):

(23)

(24)

B. Pitch Regulated FSWG

A pitch regulated FSWG (PR-FSWG) has practically the

same mechanical construction as the SR-FSWG; however, the

PR-FSWG has a blade pitch angle mechanism which operates

for wind speeds beyond a rated value to limit the power ex-

tracted from the wind [12]. A typical pitch angle controller is

shown in Fig. 4, which takes the power output of the wind

generator as the input signal and regulates the pitch angle

through a PID controller.

For an operating condition where the generated active power

is below the specied value , the mathematical equations

representing the SR-FSWG model are also valid to represent

the steady-state operation of a PR-FSWG. On the other hand,

Fig. 4. Typical blade pitch angle controller.

when the output power surpasses , the blade pitch angle

controller is activated. In this case, the controller sets at the

constant value , whereas the reactive power has to be

calculated within the iterative process. Thus, by neglecting the

core losses in the induction machine, the mechanical power can

be computed by

(25)

where and are the three-phase stator and rotor

power losses, respectively.

Assuming that the PR-FSWG is connected at node , the

values of the network state variables and the wind generator

that satisfy the mismatch (26)(28) are obtained by solving (29).

This last equation has to be accommodated with the rest of the

linearized power mismatch equations of the network for a uni-

ed power ow solution:

(26)

(27)

(28)

(29)

where the state variable is updated after each iteration ac-

cording to (24), and represents the power balance

inside the induction machine obtained by equating (10) and

(25). In summary, the next conditions must be considered when

a PR-FSWG is included into the PFALFC program: if

, then (15)(24) must be used. If , then (21),

(22), and (24)(29) must be used instead, setting .

From the software design perspective, the simulation starts

by employing (15)(24). The active power generated by the

PR-FSWG is checked at the end of the second iteration because

the rst iteration generally provides an inaccurate approxima-

tion to the power ow solution. If happens to be equal or

2190 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 27, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2012

Fig. 5. Automatic load-frequency control of a DFIG.

greater than , the next iteration is executed using (21),

(22), and (24)(29). Note that even when a high wind speed is

selected and was meant to surpass its maximum limit, the

drop in the systemfrequency can force to be less than .

In such a case the (15)(24) will continue being used during the

iterative process.

C. DFIG With Primary Frequency Regulation

The deloading of the wind turbine allows a DFIG to provide

frequency support. Its response to frequency deviations will be

dependent on its speed droop characteristic and its power gen-

eration (see Fig. 5) [7], which is calculated according to

the level of deloading of its wind turbine, .

Hence, the active power generated by the DFIG is computed

by using (30)(31), where is the initial active power ob-

tained from the power curve of the wind generator for any given

wind speed:

(30)

(31)

One of the most attractive features of this kind of wind gen-

erator is its control capability of reactive power. The control

strategy adopted to operate a DFIGdenes if it will be absorbing

or injecting reactive power. Therefore, depending on the reac-

tive power control mode, a different set of power ow equations

must be accommodated with the rest of the equations.

1) Fixed Power Factor Control Mode: Given that the power

factor is specied, the reactive power generated by the wind

generator is computed according to ,

where stands for the power factor angle. However, care

should be taken when choosing the value of the power factor so

as not to exceed the reactive power limits, and ,

imposed by the power electronic converter. Therefore, for a

DFIG connected at node , the power ow mismatch equations

that must be solved simultaneously with the ones corresponding

to the rest of the network are

(32)

(33)

(34)

2) Constant Voltage Magnitude Control Mode: In this con-

trol strategy, the voltage magnitude at the generators termi-

nals is specied, and its active power output is obtained from

(30)(31). Therefore, the PFALFC formulation for a DFIG con-

trolling the voltage magnitude at its terminal is given by

(35)

Fig. 6. PMSG-based wind generator model for power ow studies.

(36)

Even though the reactive power mismatch equation of the

voltage magnitude controlled node is not considered in the for-

mulation, it is solved at each iterative step to assess whether or

not the generator reactive power is within limits. If a limit vio-

lation occurs then the generated reactive power is xed at that

limit, and the voltage magnitude is freed. In this case, this model

is converted into the DFIG model operating with a xed power

factor.

Note that the impact of the systems frequency on the stator

electrical variables is considered to be negligible for both

DFIG models. This is a reasonable assumption if we regard the

electrical and mechanical rotor frequencies are decoupled: the

voltage source converter connected to the slip-rings of the rotor

injects a current with a variable frequency to compensate the

difference between the mechanical and electrical frequencies

[11].

D. PMSG-Based Wind Generator With Primary Frequency

Regulation

Presently there is great interest in assessing how these wind

generators can participate in the primary frequency control since

they have been gaining prominence in power systems [13]. Un-

like a DFIG, the PMSG-based wind generator supplies all its

generated active power through its full-scale converter. Based

on the electric circuit shown in Fig. 6, a suitable model for

power ow studies can be derived by explicitly including the

representation of the wind generator step-up transformer, where

stands for the output power obtained from the wind

generator power curve for a given wind speed, and

are the voltages at the machine-side converter and grid-side con-

verter terminal, respectively, and is the step-up transformer

impedance.

Note that this model will also allow for direct voltage magni-

tude control at the transformers high-voltage side [14] for the

cases where this reactive power control mode is selected.

Assuming that the PMSG-based wind generator has a primary

frequency controller represented by Fig. 5, its generated active

power will be determined by

(37)

(38)

CASTRO et al.: SOLUTION OF POWER FLOW WITH AUTOMATIC LOAD-FREQUENCY CONTROL DEVICES INCLUDING WIND FARMS 2191

On the other hand, assuming that , the

active and reactive powers owing from the grid-side converter

terminal to the th bus are

(39)

(40)

For the active and reactive powers owing from bus to the

grid-side converter terminal, the subscripts and are ex-

changed in (39) and (40).

Regarding the adopted reactive power control strategy, a dif-

ferent set of power ow equations must be integrated with the

rest of the network equations as shown next.

1) Fixed Power Factor Control Mode: For a given power

factor angle , the reactive power generated by this type of wind

generator is calculated as . Hence, having

dened both generated powers, the set of power ow mismatch

equations that must be solved when the generator is connected

at node is given by (41)(45) shown at the bottom of the page.

2) Constant Voltage Magnitude Control Mode: Under this

control strategy, the nodal voltage magnitude at the trans-

formers high-voltage side is maintained at a constant value by

adjusting the generators reactive power. In this case, the initial

output of active power is computed using (37) and (38). Thus,

the NR-based power ow formulation for this control strategy

is given by

(46)

(47)

(48)

(49)

Lastly, if the generator cannot provide the reactive power

support to constrain its terminal voltage magnitude at a spec-

ied value, the reactive power is xed at the offending limit. In

this case, the control strategy is changed to operate with a xed

power factor.

V. INITIALIZATION OF WIND GENERATORS

When solving power ows by using Newtons method, ade-

quate initial conditions must be specied in order to achieve an

iterative solution with quadratic convergence. In this context,

the proposals to initialize the wind generator state variables are

stated below.

A good initial value of to execute power ow studies

with a network having SR-FSWGs and PR-FSWGs is given by

, since the operating point of these generators is

normally found close to the nominal mechanical angular speed.

The adopted strategy control must be considered rst when

initializing VSWGs. If a constant power factor is specied, then

the reactive power is computed using the initial active power ob-

tained from the power curve and is kept constant during the iter-

ative process. On the other hand, if a constant voltage magnitude

is selected, the output reactive power is calculated within the it-

erative process as stated in Section IV-CII. Lastly, the voltage

magnitudes are initialized at 1 p.u. at all uncontrolled voltage

magnitude nodes, while the controlled PV nodes are initialized

at specied values that remain constant throughout the iterative

solution if no generator reactive power limits are violated. The

initial voltage phase angles are selected to be 0 at all buses.

VI. CASE STUDIES

The suitability of the proposed approach to conduct a power

ow analysis with automatic load-frequency control is tested

on a three-machine, eight-bus system and the IEEE 14-bus test

system. Data for both systems are given in the Appendix A. For

(41)

(42)

(43)

(44)

(45)

2192 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 27, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2012

Fig. 7. Power system used to accommodate a PR-FSWG.

the former case, only the PR-FSWG model is examined given

that the analysis of the SR-FSWG was addressed in [2]. The

design of the case studies is given below.

A. Example I

As stated in Section IV-B, the blade pitch angle regulator acts

when the generated active power rises above . In this con-

text, because the power output of the FSWG is frequency de-

pendent as given in (12), the blade angle regulator can be ac-

tivated or deactivated depending on the frequency deviations

in the network, and not only because of wind speeds beyond a

specied rated value. To validate this statement, this example

concerns the performance of the PR-FSWG model when using

the PFALFC algorithm. The eight-bus test system, comprising

two synchronous generators (SG) and one PR-FSWG as shown

in Fig. 7, is used to execute this study. The SGconnected at node

1 is considered the reference generator with automatic load-fre-

quency control capability while the one connected at node 3 acts

as a conventional PV generator controlling its terminal voltage

at 1 p.u.

The disturbances that deviate the frequency from its

nominal value are simulated by altering the active and reac-

tive power demanded by all the systems loads assuming a

constant power factor as shown in Table I. The base case corre-

sponds to the power ow solution obtained by considering that

. For all simulations whose power ow solutions are

reported in Table I for a power mismatch tolerance of ,

the rated values of the active power and the wind speed of the

wind generator are 2 MW and 15 m/s, respectively.

Three key aspects can be drawn from the results presented

in Table I. Firstly, when simulating the PR-FSWG with a wind

speed of 14 m/s, the generated active and reactive powers are

different for each value of . This is primarily because of

the frequency deviations since they force the wind generator to

nd another equilibrium point. Secondly, the blade pitch angle

mechanism is activated when simulating a at

rated wind speed. In this case, the generated active power hits

because of the increment in the systems frequency.

Lastly, when simulating the scenario where the wind speed is

above the rated one, i.e., 16 m/s, a deactivation of the pitch

angle mechanism occurs because of the frequency drop caused

by the increase of 10% in the total system load.

The above conclusions can be physically inferred: a decrease

in the mechanical speed of the induction machine will lead to a

decrement in the output power of the wind generator and vice

versa.

TABLE I

ELECTRICAL RESPONSE OF A PR-FSWG FOR DIFFERENT VALUES

Fig. 8. Modied IEEE 14-bus test system.

The number of iterations required to obtain the solution in

each case is reported in Table I. Note that the proposed ap-

proach arrives at the solution with local quadratic convergence

except when the pitch angle mechanismis activated as described

above; in this case, one or two additional iterations are needed

to obtain the power ow solution.

B. Example II

In order to examine the joint operation of the wind gener-

ator models proposed in the previous section, the IEEE 14-bus

test system [15] is modied according to Fig. 8 to accommo-

date four wind farms. Wind farms I and II are composed of

ve SR-FSWGs and ve PR-FSWGs, respectively, whereas the

remaining are VSWG-based wind farms comprised of fteen

DFIGs and fteen PMSGs, respectively. Generators connected

at buses 1 and 2 are assumed to possess automatic load-fre-

quency control capability. Lastly, the generator 1 is considered

as the reference generator.

In this example, the active and reactive powers generated by

each wind farm as well as the system frequency are reported for

two different load perturbations in the system, that is,

and . In addition, two scenarios were simulated

to demonstrate the power regulation capability of the VSWG-

based wind farms by assuming a deloading of 5% and 10% for

CASTRO et al.: SOLUTION OF POWER FLOW WITH AUTOMATIC LOAD-FREQUENCY CONTROL DEVICES INCLUDING WIND FARMS 2193

TABLE II

POWER GENERATION, VOLTAGES OF WIND FARMS AND SYSTEM FREQUENCY FOR DIFFERENT VALUES OF AND

each wind generator composing these wind farms. The power

ow results of these simulations are given in Table II.

For the case of the FSWG-based wind farms, simulations

show that their active and reactive powers are different from

one scenario to another because of their frequency and voltage

dependency. Additionally, the PMSG-based wind farm controls

its terminal voltage at 1 p.u., as specied in all simulations, by

injecting into the grid the required reactive power.

The results presented in Table II also reveal that a load in-

crease of 15%leads to a systemfrequency beyond 49.5 Hz when

the VSWG-based wind farms are not providing frequency sup-

port. However, when they are participating in the frequency con-

trol, all wind turbines use all their spinning reserve regardless of

the level of deloading, resulting in a systemfrequency of 49.526

Hz and 49.563 Hz for and 10%, respectively. In this

case, the wind power penetration accounts for 30% of the total

system load. The VSWG-based wind farms contribution to the

frequency regulation corresponds to 3 MW and 6 MW of active

power that was used as spinning reserve for and 10%,

respectively.

If frequency response is provided by wind farms then the

power system is clearly strengthened and acquires more ex-

ibility when facing abnormal conditions. The importance of the

deloading of wind generators lies in the fact that the system will

count on other distributed slack generators which will help to

mitigate active power imbalances.

VII. CONCLUSIONS

This paper has proposed the mathematical modeling of

several types of wind generators taking into account their

dependence with respect to system frequency deviations. These

models were implemented in a Newton-based power ow

algorithm with frequency control devices to estimate their

electrical response after the action of the primary frequency

regulation. Through numerical simulations, the PFALFC algo-

rithm developed is shown to maintain its quadratic convergence

characteristic, and the solutions obtained illustrate the contri-

butions to the frequency support of VSWG-based wind farms.

APPENDIX A

Parameters of the SR-FSWG: Generator data [16]:

, , , ,

; 2 MW, 690 V, 50 Hz, 2 pole pairs. Fixed capac-

itor of 0.6 MVAr. Wind turbine data [16]: , ,

; , , , ,

, , , , , .

Parameters of the PR-FSWG: Generator data [16]: the

same as the SR-FSWG. Fixed capacitor of 0.6 MVAr. Wind

turbine data [17]: , , ;

, , , , ,

, , , .

Parameters of the Test System Used in Example I on a

Base Power of 100 MVA: TL1, TL2, and TL3:

, . TL4: .

TR1 and TR2: . TR3: . TR4:

. PL1: . PL2: . The

coefcients for reactive power generation of the generator reg-

ulator are and ; , .

Modied Parameters of the IEEE 14-Bus Test System Used

in Example II on a Base Power of 100 MVA: Step-up trans-

former impedance for each wind farm: .

The transformer impedance for each wind generator is

. The governor droop characteristic for each

DFIG and PMSG is 0.05 p.u. The DFIG and PMSG power

curve is shown in Fig. 9 [18]. The coefcients for reactive

power generation of the generator regulators are (see also

Table III) and . The loads connected at nodes

10, 11 and 12 are dependent on frequency and voltage with

the following parameters: , , ,

, , , and , whereas

the rest are constant.

APPENDIX B

The relevant Jacobian elements which are created and accom-

modated with the original algorithm are the following:

; ; ;

; ; ;

; ; ; ;

2194 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 27, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2012

Fig. 9. DFIG and PMSG power curve.

TABLE III

GENERATOR CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO THE DELOADING

OF THE VSWG-BASED WIND FARMS

; ;

; ;

; ;

; ;

; ; ;

;

; .

Stall Regulated FSWG: See equation (B1)(B11) at the

bottom of the page.

Pitch Regulated FSWG: See equation (B12)(B14) at the

bottom of the next page.

DFIG:

(B15)

PMSG-Based Wind Generator:

(B16)

(B17)

(B18)

(B19)

(B1)

(B2)

(B3)

(B4)

(B5)

(B6)

(B7)

(B8)

(B9)

(B10)

(B11)

CASTRO et al.: SOLUTION OF POWER FLOW WITH AUTOMATIC LOAD-FREQUENCY CONTROL DEVICES INCLUDING WIND FARMS 2195

(B20)

(B21)

(B22)

(B23)

(B24)

REFERENCES

[1] W. Okamura, Y. Oumar, S. Hayashi, K. Vemura, and F. Ishiguro, A

new power ow model and solution method, IEEE Trans. Power App.

Syst., vol. PAS-94, pp. 10421050, May 1975.

[2] L. M. Castro, C. R. Fuerte-Esquivel, and J. H. Tovar-Hernndez, As-

sessing the steady state post-disturbance condition of power systems

including xed-speed and doubly-fed induction generators, in Proc.

2011 IEEE North American Power Symp. (NAPS), pp. 17.

[3] L. M. Castro, C. R. Fuerte-Esquivel, and J. H. Tovar-Hernndez, A

unied approach for the solution of power ows in electric power sys-

tems including wind farms, Elect. Power Syst. Res., vol. 81, no. 10,

pp. 18591865, Oct. 2011.

[4] G. Ramtharan, J. B. Ekanayake, and N. Jenkins, Frequency support

fromdoubly fed induction generator wind turbines, IET Renew. Power

Gen., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 39, Mar. 2007.

[5] B. H. Chowdhury and H. T. Ma, Frequency regulation with wind

power plants, in Proc. 2008 IEEE Power Eng. Soc. General Meeting,

pp. 15.

[6] J. Morren, J. Pierik, and S. W. H. de Haan, Inertial response of vari-

able speed wind turbines, Elect. Power Syst. Res., vol. 76, no. 11, pp.

980987, Jul. 2006.

[7] P. Moutis, E. Loukarakis, S. Papathanasiou, and N. D. Hatziargyriou,

Primary load-frequency control from pitch-controlled wind turbines,

in Proc. 2009 IEEE PowerTech, Bucharest, Romania, pp. 17.

[8] A. Teninge, C. Jecu, D. Roye, S. Bacha, J. Duval, and R. Belhomme,

Contribution to frequency control through wind turbine inertial energy

storage, IET Renew. Power Gen., vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 358370, Mar.

2009.

[9] R. G. de Almeida and J. A. Peas Lopes, Participation of doubly

fed induction wind generators in system frequency regulation, IEEE

Trans. Power Syst., vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 944950, Aug. 2007.

[10] R. G. de Almeida, E. D. Castronuovo, and J. A. Peas Lopes, Op-

timum generation control in wind parks when carrying out system op-

erator requests, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 718725,

May 2006.

[11] T. Ackerman, Wind Power in Power Systems. New York: Wiley,

2005.

[12] F. D. Bianchi, H. De Battista, and R. J. Mantz, Wind Turbine Control

Systems Principles, Modelling and Gain Scheduling Design. New

York: Springer, 2006.

[13] J. F. Conroy and R. Watson, Frequency response capability of full

converter wind turbine generators in comparison to conventional gen-

eration, IEEE Trans. Power Syst., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 649656, May

2008.

[14] L. M. Castro, C. R. Fuerte-Esquivel, E. Barrios, and C. Angeles-Ca-

macho, An integrated power owsolution of exible ACtransmission

systems containing wind energy conversion systems, in Proc. 2011

IET Renewable Power Generation Conf., pp. 16.

[15] Power Systems Test Case Archive, Univ. Washington. [Online]. Avail-

able: http://www.ee.washington.edu/research/pstca/,

[16] V. Akhmatov, Analysis of dynamic behaviour of electric power sys-

tems with large amount of wind power, Ph.D. dissertation, Technical

Univ. Denmark, Electric Power Engineering, Orsted-DTU, Lyngby,

2003.

[17] J. G. Slootweg, H. Polinder, and W. L. Kling, Representing wind tur-

bine electrical generating systems in fundamental frequency simula-

tions, IEEE Trans. Energy Convers., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 516524, Dec.

2003.

[18] S. Li and T. A. Haskew, Energy capture conversion and control study

of DFIG wind turbine under Weibull wind distribution, in Proc. 2009

IEEE Power Eng. Soc. General Meeting, pp. 19.

Luis M. Castro received the B.Eng. degree from the Instituto Tecnolgico

de Morelia, Morelia, Mxico, in 2006 and the M.S. degree from the Instituto

Tecnolgico de Morelia, Morelia, Mxico, in 2008. He is currently pursuing

the Ph.D. degree at the Universidad Michoacana de San Nicols de Hidalgo

(UMSNH) in the area of wind power integration in power systems.

Claudio R. Fuerte-Esquivel (SM07) received the B.Eng. (Hons.) degree from

the Instituto Tecnolgico de Morelia, Morelia, Mxico, in 1990, the M.S. degree

(summa cum laude) from the Instituto Politcnico Nacional, Mxico, in 1993,

and the Ph.D. degree from the University of Glasgow, Glasgow, U.K., in 1997.

Currently, he is a Professor at the Universidad Michoacana de San Nicols

de Hidalgo (UMSNH), Morelia, where his research interests lie in the dynamic

and steady-state analysis of FACTS.

J. Horacio Tovar-Hernndez received the B.Eng. degree from the Instituto

Tecnolgico de Morelia, Morelia, Mxico, in 1984 and the M.S. and Ph.D. de-

grees from the Instituto Politcnico Nacional, Mxico, in 1989 and 1995, re-

spectively.

Currently, he is a Professor at the Instituto Tecnolgico de Morelia, where his

research interests lie in power systems and electricity markets.

(B12)

(B13)

(B14)

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