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(Adapted from "Ethni-reasoning," Project WILD Elementary Activity Guide,
Western Regional Environmental Education Council, 198! Intrigue of the
Past. A Teachers Activity Guide for !ourth through "eventh Grades, "ureau
of #and $anagement, 199%
&tudents 'ill learn to thin( a)out difficult issues and ma(e ethical
&tudents 'ill come to reali+e that ethical issues are not al'a,s )lac(
and 'hite*
&tudents 'ill e-amine their o'n values and
)eliefs a)out archaeological site protection*
&tudents 'ill develop critical thin(ing s(ills*
S!!este" ti#e: .ne or t'o class periods*
Cop, for students/ Federal Laws Protecting
Archaeological Resources student information sheet (10 - 1%, Protecting the
Past: To Do or Not To Do student information sheet (10 - 2%*
3rom the trun(/ 4ilemma cards, 454s "ilent Witness and #isit $ith
%es&ect! 454s ma, also )e chec(ed out from the $esa 6rieta 6etrogl,ph
6ro7ect office*
*i&e##$ + a situation 'here it is difficult to decide 'hat to do*
Et,ics + )eliefs and )ehaviors a)out 'hat is right and 'rong! a s,stem
of moral principles*
The &etrogly&hs 'are( a reminder of $ho $e are,
$here $e came from ... that connect us to the s&irit
$orld... 8erman Ago,o, .h(a, .'ingeh, 1999
Ancient sites in the :nited &tates and 'orld'ide are )eing destro,ed
at an accelerated rate* As a result, native peoples are losing important parts
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of their heritage, scientific information is )eing destro,ed and places 'here
people lived long ago are aestheticall, compromised* ;his activit,
encourages students to e-amine personal )eliefs and feelings a)out the
protection of archaeological sites and artifacts, to decide 'hat action the,
'ould ta(e in difficult situations, and to suggest solutions to the pro)lem of
archaeological destruction*
3ederal and state anti<uities preservation la's state that it is illegal to
collect, deface, in7ure, or e-cavate sites and artifacts older than 1== ,ears on
pu)lic land* ;his includes $&& &$/"s $"#i/iste%e" b)
$/) st$te (% 0e"e%$& $!e/c), such as the "ureau of
#and $anagement, 3orest &ervice, >ational 6ar(
&ervice, etc*
Ancient sites on private land have little
protection e-cept 'hen grave sites and?or grave
goods are involved* We hope that people 'ho o'n the
land 'here there are ancient sites 'ill appreciate and
protect them*
&ometimes the people 'ho are illegall,
collecting artifacts, e-cavating sites or vandali+ing
sites are armed 'ith 'eapons* &tudents should never
confront someone the, see vandali+ing a site or
collecting artifacts* ;he, should record information
a)out the people such as their ph,sical description
and their license plate num)er* ;his information should immediatel, )e
reported to la' enforcement authorities* @ou should also call the agenc,
involved or call the >e' $e-ico 8istoric 6reservation 4ivision in &anta 3e*
(ph* (0=0% 89A-29=%
Setti/! t,e St$!e/ As( the students to thin( of a situation such as o)serving
a fello' student ta(ing mone, from a teacherBs des(* 4iscuss the possi)le
actions that could )e ta(en ), the o)server* 8o' 'ill ,ou decide 'hat to
Ds it difficult to (no' 'hat to doC
E-plain that the follo'ing activit, 'ill re<uire decision ma(ing a)out
difficult situations* ;he dilemmas presented in the activit, are intended to
provide a range of )ehavioral choices for students and a platform for
discussion a)out right and 'rong and ho' one comes to difficult decisions*
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)ullet damage
;here is not necessaril, a "correct" ans'er for the dilemmas, )ut the
thoughtful student 'ill re7ect those 'hich might put him in danger, )e
hurtful to classmates, or cause damage to sacred sites* 8e or she 'ill, rather,
consider carefull, and choose those 'hich promote empath, and respect, for
)oth classmates and sacred places, promote safe and la'ful )ehavior and
)uild citi+enship*
1* Df ,ou do not have a Resource ;run(, cop, the dilemma card pages at
the end of this unit and glue them to inde- cards or card)oard* (;here
is a set of laminated cards in the trun(%
9* Read 4D#E$$A 1 to the class* 8ave a class discussion a)out 'hich
listed response 'ould )e the )est*
* 4ivide the class into groups of 1 or 0 students and give each group a
different dilemma card* 8ave the students read and discuss the
different responses and decide ho' the, 'ould solve the pro)lem*
;he, ma, also come up 'ith a solution of their o'n* Allo' a)out 10
minutes for this discussion* Each group 'ill select a reporter 'ho 'ill
share their groupBs decision and the reason the, choose it*
8ave the students 'rite a)out 'hat response the, thought 'as )est and 'h,,
even if it 'asnBt the groupBs final choice*
8ave the students e-press their opinions a)out archaeological resource
protection through a stor,, poem, s(it, song, dra'ing, etc*
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*oles drilled during the theft of a
U/it 151 Tsi.2'$)e (Mes$ P%iet$) Et,ics
St"e/t I/0(%#$ti(/ S,eet
(Adapted from Intrigue of the Past* A Teachers Activity Guide for !ourth
through "eventh Grades, "ureau of #and $anagement 8eritage Education
6rogram, Washington, 4C, 199, p* 1=0%
3ederal la's provide for severe
penalties to those 'ho distur) and
destro, sites more than 1== ,ears old*
;he Archaeological Resources
6rotection Act (AR6A% 'as passed in
19A9, and prohi)its unauthori+ed
digging and collecting of
archaeological resources, including
potter,, )as(etr,, )ottles, sites 'ith
coins or arro'heads, tools, structures,
pit houses, petrogl,phs and
pictographs, graves and human
s(eletons* >o person ma, sell or )u,
an, archaeological resource 'hich
'as illegall, ac<uired* 6enalties for
those convicted of violating AR6A
1* 3irst .ffense/ a person 'ho
)rea(s this la' for the first time
ma, )e fined E1==,=== and
spend one ,ear in 7ail* Df the
cost of repairing the damage
e-ceeds E0==, the offender ma,
receive a fine of E90=,=== and
spend t'o ,ears in 7ail*
9* &econd offense/ a person 'ho
)rea(s this la' for the second
time ma, )e fined E90=,===
and spend five ,ears in 7ail*
* 5ehicles and other e<uipment
used in )rea(ing this la' ma,
)e confiscated* AR6A provides
re'ards to people 'ho suppl,
information leading to the
arrest and conviction of A36A
AR6A applies to all pu)lic
lands, including those administered ),
the :& 3orest &ervice, "ureau of
#and $anagement, the militar,, 3ish
and Wildlife &ervice, >ational 6ar(
&ervice and the "ureau of
6eople en7o,ing the out-of-
doors occasionall, find archaeological
sites and 'onder 'hat the, should do*
#ocations 'here there are petrogl,phs
or artifacts are sacred places to the
descendants of the ancient people 'ho
made them* Al'a,s leave artifacts
'here the, 'ere found, including
small surface finds such as potsherds
and stone fla(es* 4iscoveries of rare
or unusual artifacts and sites should
)e reported to the land managing
agenc, or in the case of private lands,
to a local agenc, archaeologist or the
&tate 8istoric 6reservation .ffice*
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&ome people 'ho dig in sites
are engaged in an illegal mar(et
activit,, ma, )e armed 'ith 'eapons,
and should )e considered dangerous*
>ever approach someone ,ou
see digging in sites or collecting
artifacts* Dnstead, record information
a)out them - their ph,sical
description, 'hat the, 'ere seen
doing, the license num)er of their
vehicle - and immediatel, report them
to a local la' enforcement agenc,*
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+odern vandalism, -. A "-
U/it 151 Tsi.2'$)e (Mes$ P%iet$) Et,ics
St"e/t I/0(%#$ti(/ S,eet
(Adapted from Intrigue of the Past, Discovering Archaeology in /e$
+e0ico, "ureau of #and $anagement, p* 1=2* Adapted from 8urst F
6acha(, 1989, pp* 90-92 %
1* 4o not step on petrogl,phs* Wal( carefull,, so as not to create
erosion, cause roc(s to fall or distur) animals* Df ,ou see an animal,
leave it alone* Df ,ou see a flo'er, leave it for others to en7o,* Watch
out for cacti*
9* Admire petrogl,phs 'ith ,our e,es and record them 'ith ,our camera
or in ,our recording )oo(* We "( /(t t(c, 6et%(!&)6,s, )ecause
the, are sacred and the oil from our hands ma, damage them*
* Df ,ou find an artifact, ,ou ma, pic( it up, and as ,ou hold it, thin(
a)out the person 'ho made it* ;hen put it )ac( 'here ,ou found it
and dra' it in ,our recording )oo(* 4o not ma(e piles of artifacts or
ta(e an, home*
1* Even if the petrogl,ph is difficult to see, re-pec(ing, chal(ing or re-
painting doesnBt restore it, )ut rather ruins the original*
0* 4igging in an archaeological site ruins the la,ers of histor,*
2* Df ,ou )uild a campfire, )e sure it is not near an, petrogl,ph or
archaeological site* ;he smo(e and heat 'ill create damage*
A* Respect the culture of the people 'ho created the petrogl,phs*
Ancient sites are sacred places to the 6ue)lo people* ;agging, painting
,our name over petrogl,phs or shooting at them is disrespectful and is
against the la'*
8* Df ,ou see litter such as cans, plastic or paper, please pic( it up and put
it into the class trash )ags* *( /(t 6ic. 6 !&$ss* Remem)er to put all
of ,our lunch trash )ac( into ,our )ac(pac( or lunch )o-*
#ead air rifle pellet
em)edded in petrogl,ph
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