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5

Carrier Modulation

Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson

26

Differential Encoding

and Decoding

Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

After reading this lesson, you will learn about

Differential Encoding of BPSK Modulation (DEBPSK);

Differential Coding for QPSK;

Let us consider the processes of quadrature carrier modulation and demodulation

and express the output of a quadrature modulator as,

s (t) = Re {A. . ) (

~

t u

c

jw t

e } = Re {[ (t) + j (t)]. A.

i

u

q

u

c

jw t

e }

= A.{ (t) cos t - (t) sin t} 5.26.1

i

u

c

w

q

u

c

w

‘A’ is a scalar quantity. The two orthogonal carriers which act on (t) and (t)

are ‘A cos t’ and ‘-Asin t’. The appropriate carriers in the receiver are as shown in

Fig. 5.25.3 which result in correct estimates in absence of noise = (t) and =

(t). Now think what may happen if, say, ‘-Asin t’ multiplies r(t) in the I-arm and ‘A

cos t’ multiplies r(t) in the Q-arm? One can easily see that, the quadrature

demodulation structure produces = (t) and = (t), i.e. the expected outputs

have swapped their places. Do we lose information if it happens? No, provided (i) either

we are able to recognize that swapping of I-path signal with Q-path signal has occurred

(so that we relocate the signals appropriately before delivering to the next stage) or (ii)

we devise a scheme which will extract proper signal even when such anomalies occur.

i

u

q

u

c

w

c

w

) ( ˆ t u

i i

u ) ( ˆ t u

q

q

u

c

w

c

w

) ( ˆ t u

i q

u ) ( ˆ t u

q i

u

In a practical coherent demodulation scheme, the phase of the carrier is assessed

almost continuously against background noise. This issue of phase synchronization is

treated separately at some length in Lesson #31.

Summarily, precise phase synchronization is a complex process and it increases

the cost of a receiver. In any case, sudden change in phase in the transmit oscillator by

multiples of 90

0

is never completely ruled out. In view of several such reasons, the

approach of differential encoding is followed in practice. Differential encoding and

decoding also aid the process of differential demodulation. In the following, we briefly

discuss the issue of differential encoding and differential decoding for PSK modulations.

Differential Encoding of BPSK Modulation (DEBPSK)

Let us assume that for an ordinary BPSK modulation scheme, the carrier phase is

0

c

when the message bit, ‘m

k

’ is logic ‘1’ and it is π

c

if the message bit m

k

’ is logic ‘0’.

When we apply differential encoding, the encoded binary '1' will be transmitted

by adding 0

c

to the current phase of the carrier and an encoded binary '0' will be

transmitted by adding π

c

to the current phase of the carrier. Thus, relation of the current

message bit to the absolute phase of the received signal is modified by differential

encoding. The current carrier phase is dependent on the previous phase and the current

message bit. For BPSK modulation format, the differential encoder generates an encoded

Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

binary logic sequence {d

k

} such that, d

k

= 1 if d

k-1

and m

k

are similar and d

k

= 0 if d

k-1

and m

k

are not similar.

For completeness, let us assume that the first encoded bit, say, d

0

is ‘1’ while the

index ‘k’ takes values 1, 2, ….Fig. 5.26.1(a) shows a block schematic diagram for

differential encoding and BPSK modulation. For clarity, we will refer the modulated

signal as ‘Differentially Encoded and BPSK modulated (DEBPSK)’ signal. The level

shifter converts the logic symbols to binary antipodal signals of ±1. Note that the

encoding logic is simple to implement:

1 1

.

k k k k

d d m d m

− −

= +

k

5.26.2

Fig. 5.26.1(a) Block schematic diagram showing differential encoding for BPSK

modulation

Fig. 5.26.1(b) shows a possible realization of the differential encoder. It also

explains the encoding operation for a sample message sequence {1,0,1,1,0,1,0,0,…}

highlighting the phase of the modulated carrier.

Fig. 5.26.1(b) A realization of the differential encoder for DEBPSK showing the

encoding operation for a sample message sequence

EX-NOR

Logic

Level

Shifter

×

{m

k

}

{d

k-1

}

{d

k

} DEBPSK

modulated

signal

2

.cos

c

b

w t

T

Delay

‘T

b

’

F / F

{m

k

}

{d

k-1

}

{d

k

}

{m

k

} : 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0

{d

k

} : 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1

Tx.Phase : 0 0 π π π 0 0 π 0

Demod. Data : 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0

Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

Now, demodulation of a DEBPSK modulated signal can be carried out following

the concept of correlation receiver as we have explained earlier in Lesson #24 (Fig.

5.24.3), followed by a differential decoding operation. This ensures optimum (i.e., best

achievable) error performance while not requiring a very precise carrier phase recovery

scheme. We will refer this combination of correlation receiver with differential encoding-

decoding also as the DEBPSK modulation-demodulation scheme.

This is to avoid confusion with another possible scheme of demodulation, which

uses a concept of direct differential demodulation. Fig.5.26.2 explains the differential

demodulation scheme for BPSK when differential encoding has been used for BPSK

modulation. We refer this demodulator as ‘Differential Binary PSK (DBPSK)

demodulator’. This is an example of ‘non-coherent’ demodulation scheme, as it does not

require the regenerated carrier for demodulation. So, it is simpler to implement. With

reference to the diagram, note that the output x(t) of the multiplier can be expressed

without considering the noise component as:

( ) ( ) ( )

b

x t r t r t T = × − = [ ] ( ) [ ] { } π θ ϖ π θ ϖ . d cos . d cos

1 - k c

2

+ + − × + +

b k c c

T t t A

= ( ) [ ] ( [ { } π θ ϖ π

1 c 1

2

2 2. cos cos

2

− −

+ + + + −

k k k k

c

d d t d d

A

) ] 5.26.3

[ ] π θ ϖ

k c c

d t A + + cos

r(t) B

P

F

Delay

By

‘T

b

’

× ( )

0

.

b

T

dt

∫

Decision

1, if L > 0

0, if L ≤ 0

x (t)

L

r (t - T

b

)

Fig.5.26.2 Differential demodulation of differentially encoded BPSK modulated signal

Here, the received signal r(t) is:

r(t) =

c

A [ ] π θ ϖ

k c

d t + + cos 5.26.4

The integrator, acting as a low pass filter, removes the second term of x(t), which

is centered around 2ω

c

and as a result, the output ‘L’ of the integrator is ±

2

2

c

A

which

Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

is used by the threshold detector to determine estimates of the message bit ‘m

k

’ directly.

Unlike the DEBPSK demodulation scheme, no separate differential decoding operation is

necessary. However, the DBPSK demodulator scheme requires that the IF modulated

signal (or equivalently, its time samples) is delayed precisely by ‘T

b

’, the duration of one

message bit, and fed to the multiplier. Error performance of the DBPSK demodulation

scheme is somewhat inferior to that of ordinary BPSK (or DEBPSK) as one decision

error in the demodulator may cause two bits to be in error in quick succession. However,

the penalty in error performance is not huge for many applications where lower cost or

complexity is preferred more. DBPSK scheme needs about 0.94 dB of additional

0

N

E

b

to ensure a BER of 10

-05

, compared to the optimum and coherent BPSK

demodulation scheme.

Differential Coding for QPSK

The four possibilities that are to be considered for designing differential encoder

and decoder for QPSK are shown in Table 5.26.1, assuming that the I-path carrier in the

modulator is A cos t and the Q-path carrier is -Asin t. In any of the four possibilities

listed in Table 5.26.1, we wish to extract (t) in the I-arm and (t) in the Q-arm using

differential encoding and decoding

c

w

c

w

i

u

q

u

I-Path

Regenerated

Carrier

Q-Path

Regenerated

carrier

) ( ˆ t u

i

) ( ˆ t u

q

Remarks

A cos t

c

w -Asin t

c

w

(t)

i

u (t)

q

u Correctly

derived

-A cos t

c

w Asin t

c

w

- (t)

i

u - (t)

q

u Inverted

Asin t

c

w

-A cos t

c

w - (t)

q

u - (t)

i

u Swapped and

inverted

-Asin t

c

w

A cos t

c

w (t)

q

u (t)

i

u Swapped

Table 5.26.1 The outputs of the I- and Q- correlators in the demodulator

One can easily verify from the truth table (Table 5.26.2) that,

ik

d =

ik

u .

qk

u . + .

1 qk

d

− ik

u

qk

u . + . .

1 qk

d

− ik

u

qk

u

1 ik

d

−

+ . .

qk

u

ik

u

1 qk

d

−

5.26.4

qk

d =

ik

u .

qk

u . + .

1 qk

d

− ik

u

qk

u . + . .

1 ik

d

− ik

u

qk

u

1 qk

d

−

+

ik

u . .

qk

u

1 ik

d

−

5.26.5

Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

ik

u

qk

u

1 ik

d

−

1 qk

d

−

ik

d

qk

d

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

1 0

1 1

0 0

0 1

1 0

1 1

0 1

0 1

0 1

0 1

0 0

0 1

1 0

1 1

0 1

1 1

0 0

1 0

1 0

1 0

1 0

1 0

0 0

0 1

1 0

1 1

1 0

0 0

1 1

0 1

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 1

0 0

0 1

1 0

1 1

1 1

1 0

0 1

0 0

Table 5.26.2 Truth table for differential encoder for QPSK

A feed forward logic circuit is used in a differential decoder in a DEQPSK

scheme, which considers the output from the quadrature demodulator to recover and

in the correct arms.

ik

u

qk

u

Let us consider a situation, represented by the 11

th

row of the encoder truth table,

i.e., =0, =1,

qk

u

ik

u

1 ik

d

−

=1,

1 qk

d

−

=0, = 0 and =1.

ik

d

qk

d

Now, let us consider the four possible phase combination of the quadrature

demodulator at the receiver to write the values of ’s and ’s (Table 5.26.3).

i

e

q

e

I-Path

carrier

Q-path

carrier

1 ik

d

−

1 qk

d

−

ik

d

qk

d

1 ik

e

− 1 qk

e

− ik

e

qk

e

ik

u

qk

u Remarks

A cos t

c

w -A sin t

c

w 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 Phase OK

-A cos t

c

w A sin t

c

w 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 Phase inverted

A sin t

c

w -A cos t

c

w 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 Data swapped

and inverted

-A sin t

c

w A cos t

c

w 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 Data swapped

Table 5.26.3 Four phase combinations of the quadrature demodulator at the receiver

Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

Related to the values of ’s and ’s

i

e

q

e

The last three columns showing ’s, ’s and the desired outputs partially indicate the

necessary logic for designing a differential decoder. Continuing in a similar fashion, one

can construct the complete truth table of a differential decoder (Table 5.26.4).

i

e

q

e

1 ik

e

− 1 qk

e

−

ik

e

qk

e

ik

uˆ

qk

uˆ

0 0 0 0

0 1

1 0

1 1

0 0

0 1

1 0

1 1

0 1 0 0

0 1

1 0

1 1

1 0

0 0

1 1

0 1

1 0 0 0

0 1

1 0

1 1

0 1

1 1

0 0

1 0

1 1 0 0

0 1

1 0

1 1

1 1

1 0

0 1

0 0

Table 5.26.4 Truth Table of the differential decoder for QPSK

It is easy to deduce that,

ik

uˆ =

ik

e .

qk

e . + .

1 qk

e

− ik

e

qk

e .

1 ik

e

−

+ . .

ik

e

qk

e

1 qk

e

−

+

ik

e . .

qk

e

1 ik

e

−

qk

uˆ =

ik

e .

qk

e . + .

1 ik

e

− ik

e

qk

e . + . .

1 qk

e

− ik

e

qk

e

1 ik

e

−

+

ik

e . .

qk

e

1 qk

e

−

Somewhat analogous to DBPSK, one can design a QPSK modulation-

demodulation scheme-using differential encoding in the modulator and employing

noncoherent differential demodulation at the receiver. The resultant scheme may be

referred as DQPSK. The complexity of such a scheme is less compared to a coherent

QPSK scheme because precise recovery of carrier phase is not necessary in the receiver.

However, analysis shows that the error performance of DQPSK scheme is considerably

poorer compared to the coherent DEQPSK or ordinary coherent QPSK receiver. The

differential demodulation approach requires more than 2dB extra

o

b

N

E

to ensure a BER

of 10

-05

when compared to ordinary uncoded QPSK with correlation receiver structure.

Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

Problems

Q5.26.1) Justify the need for differential encoding.

Q5.26.2) Re-design the circuit of Fig. 5.26.1(b). Considering negative logic for the

binary digits.

Q5.26.3) Mention two merits and two demerits of QPSK modem compare to a BPSK

modem.

Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

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