There are three degrees of comparison

:
POSITIVE degree, COMPARATIVE degree, SUPERLATIVE degree:
POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
coo cooer cooest
inteigent more inteigent most inteigent
!"# COMPARATIVE O$ E%UALIT&
AS #### AS 'for positi(e comparisons),
'*OT) SO #### AS 'for negati(e comparisons)#
+er pron,nciation is AS good AS -o,rs#
+is pron,nciation is *OT SO good AS -o,rs#
*ote: .e ma- sa- *OT AS #### AS, especia- after a contracted form: +er pron,nciation isn/t AS
good AS -o,rs#
!0# COMPARATIVE O$ I*$ERIORIT&
LESS ##### T+A* 1 the ad2ecti(e#
It is LESS cod toda- T+A* it 3as -esterda-#
T+E LEAST ####### O$ 'or I*) 1 the ad2ecti(e#
S,nda- 3as T+E LEAST cod da- of the 3ee4#
Christina is T+E LEAST od gir in that cass#
!5# COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE O$ SUPERIORIT&
a) Monos-a6ic ad2ecti(es form their COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE 6- adding 7 ER and 7
EST to the POSITIVE degree#
ta taER T+A* T+E taEST
3arm 3armER T+A* T+E 3armEST
E8ceptions:
2,st MORE 2,st T+A* T+E MOST 2,st
right MORE right T+A* T+E MOST right
rea MORE rea T+A* T+E MOST rea
3rong MORE 3rong T+A* T+E MOST 3rong
6) Ad2ecti(es 3ith more than t3o s-a6es form their COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE 6-
p,tting MORE and T+E MOST in front of the ad2ecti(e#
diffic,t MORE diffic,t T+A* T+E MOST diffic,t
important MORE important T+A* T+E MOST important
c) 9is-a6ic 't3o s-a6es) ad2ecti(es form their COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE in t3o
different 3a-s:
"# Ad2ecti(es ending in E9, I*:, RE, $UL, OUS and those 3ith the stress on the first s-a6e
,s,a- ta4e MORE and T+E MOST:
charming MORE charming T+A* T+E MOST charming
famo,s MORE famo,s T+A* T+E MOST famo,s
hopef, MORE hopef, T+A* T+E MOST hopef,
earned MORE earned T+A* T+E MOST earned
o6sc,re MORE o6sc,re T+A* T+E MOST o6sc,re
0# Ad2ecti(es ending in ER, &, LE, O. and those 3ith the stress on the second s-a6e add ER
and EST to the POSITIVE degree#
ce(er ce(erER T+A* T+E ce(erEST
narro3 narro3ER T+A* T+E narro3EST
prett- prettiER T+A* T+E prettiEST
poite poitER T+A* T+E poitEST
simpe simpER T+A* T+E simpEST
*ote: Ad2ecti(es ending in SOME and the 3ords cheerf,, common, cr,e, peasant, ;,iet, ci(i
ma- 6e compared 6- adding ER and EST or 6- MORE and MOST#
peasant peasantER T+A* T+E peasantEST
or
peasant MORE peasant T+A* T+E MOST peasant
!<# ORT+O:RAP+IC *OTES
a) Add R and ST to ad2ecti(es ending in E#
arge argeR T+A* T+E argeST
ripe ripeR T+A* T+E ripeST
6) VO.EL SA*9.IC+ 'VO.EL 1 CO*SO*A*T 1 VO.EL) 'T+E LAST VO.EL IS
9OU=LE9)
6ig 6ig:ER T+A* T+E 6ig:EST
fat fatTER T+A* T+E fatTEST
*O SA*9.IC+ '>UST T+E SU$$I?)
sma smaER T+A* T+E smaEST
s3eet s3eetER T+A* T+E s3eetEST
c) Ad2ecti(es ending in 7 - preceded 6- a consonant, change & into I 6efore ER and EST#
happ& happIER T+A* T+E happIEST
E8ceptions:
sh& sh&ER T+A* T+E sh&EST
ga& ga&ER T+A* T+E ga&EST
gre& gre&ER T+A* T+E gre&EST
@# IRRE:ULAR COMPARISO*S
good 6etter than the 6est
6ad 3orse than the 3orst
itte ess than the east
m,ch more than the most
man- more than the most
far farther than the farthest
far f,rther than the f,rthest
od oder than the odest
od eder than the edest
*OTES:
"# $ART+ER and $ART+EST genera- refer to distanceA $URT+ER and $URT+EST aso refer
to distance 6,t the- ma- ha(e the meaning of BadditionaB#
I i(e farther from here than -o, do#
:i(e me f,rther detais#
0# OL9ER and OL9EST refer to persons or thingsA EL9ER and EL9EST can on- 6e ,sed for
mem6ers of the same fami-:
M- eder sister is afraid of mice#
M- oder friend is afraid of 3asps#
6,t EL9ER can not 6e paced 6efore T+A* so OL9ER is ,sed:
M- sister is t3o -ears oder than I am#
C# CO*STRUCTIO*S .IT+ COMPARATIVES
a) :rad,a increase:
Those e8ercises are getting EASIER A*9 EASIER# OR
Those e8ercises are getting MORE A*9 MORE EAS&#
The 3eather is getting *ICER A*9 *ICER# OR
The 3eather is getting MORE A*9 MORE *ICE#
The rent of o,r fat is getting MORE A*9 MORE E?PE*SIVE#
=) Parae increase: 'T+E 1 comparati(e ###### T+E 1 comparati(e)#
T+E MORE I see -o, T+E MORE I 3ant -o,#
T+E +OTTER, T+E =ETTER#
T+E MORE he st,dies, T+E =ETTER he 6ecomes#
COMPARISO* O$ A9VER=S
"# COMPARATIVE and SUPERLATIVE of SUPERIORIT&#
a) Monos-a6ic ad(er6s from their comparati(e and s,perati(e of s,periorit- in the same 3a-
as monos-a6ic ad2ecti(es#
high highER T+A* T+E highEST
soon soonER T+A* T+E soonEST
fast fastER T+A* T+E fastEST
6) Ad(er6s of more than one s-a6e ta4e MORE and MOST#
;,ic4- MORE ;,ic4- T+A* T+E MOST ;,ic4-
so3- MORE so3- T+A* T+E MOST so3-
sedom MORE sedom T+A* T+E MOST sedom
E8ception:
ear- eariER T+A* T+E eariEST
0# IRRE:ULAR COMPARISO*S
3e 6etter than the 6est
6ad- 3orse than the 3orst
itte ess than the east
m,ch more than the most
ate ater than the ast
mparison:
1. POSITIVE DEGREE: Tom is tall a boy.
In this sentence the word ‘tall’ is an adjective telling us how Tom is. There is no other person or
thing in this sentence used to compare Tom with, but it is the general way of saying about
persons, animals and things that they have some quality (here ‘tallness’) above average in
general sense. The adective word ‘tall’ is said to be in the !positive form".
This comparison is called !positive degree" comparison.
There are two more comparisons with the ‘positive form’ of the adective words. They are#
(i) Degree of Equality: This comparison is used to compare two persons, animals or things to
tell us that they are equal – having the same quality.

There are two cats with the same height and weight, and loo$ the same e%cept for the colour.
Therefore we say#
The brown cat is as beautiful as the grey cat. (& 'oth the cats are the same.)
The word !beautiful" is an adective in the ‘positive form’, and with the conunction as(as it
e%presses the ‘degree of equality’.
(ii) Degree of Inequality: This comparison is used to compare two persons, animals or things to
tell us that they are not equal – not having the same quality.
The brown cat is ot so beautiful as the blac$ ) white cat. (& They are ot the same.)
The word !beautiful" is an adective in the ‘positive form’, and with the conunction so(as (and
the negative ‘ot’) it e%presses the ‘degree of inequality’
!. "O#P$R$TIVE DEGREE:

Tom is a tall boy. Tom is taller than his sister.
In the second sentence the word ‘taller’ is an adective used to compare the ‘tallness’ of these
two persons * Tom and his sister * and to tell us that Tom has more of the quality of ‘tallness’.
Therefore, an adective word which shows the difference of quality between twotwo groups of
persons, animals or things is said to be in the ‘comparative form’. persons, animals or things, or
This comparison is called !"omparative Degree".
There are two more degrees of comparison with the ‘comparative form’ of an adective. They
are#
(i) arallel Degree: This comparison is used to show that the qualities of two items !adjectives
or adver"s# tal$ed a"out in the given sentence go parallel, i.e. if one quality !adjective or
adver"# increases, the other quality !adjective or adver"# increases, and if one quality
decreases, the other quality also decreases.

The bigger the bo%, the heavier it is.
(ii) rogressive Degree: This comparison is used to show that the quality of a thing !adjective
or adver"# tal$ed a"out in the given sentence increases as the time passes, for e%ample:
#O% T&E 'ED T(& )RI S$T S&%

!*+ , !-+ , ./+ , ..+, .*+ , .0+ , 1/+

It’s getting hotter and hotter day by day. +as the time passes the temperature increases, -. The
days are getting hotter and hotter.
.. S&PER2$TIVE DEGREE:

/ mus$ o% is a large animal. /n elephant is larger than a mus$ o%.
The blue whale is the largest of all animals.
The blue whale is the largest of all animals i the world.
In this sentence the word (the# ‘largest’ is an adective used to compare the !largeness" of the
blue whale and to tell us that the blue whale has the most quality of ‘largeness’.
This comparison is used to compare one person, animal or thing with more t3a t4o persons,
animals or things (the rest of the group of more than two), and to say that the particular one has
the highest degree of that particular quality (here the comparison is between the blue whale
and the rest of the animals, more than two). The adective ‘large’ is said to be in the ‘superlative
form’.
This comparison is called !Superlative Degree5.
0or power presentation slides on comparisons, clic$ here on degrees.of.comparison. 0or
continuity, please $eep clic$ing after each feature in each slide.

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The ne%t point to be considered is the forms of the adectives and adverbs.
There are t3ree forms * positive form, comparative form and superlative form * and seven
degrees of comparison. That means we ma$e seven degrees of comparison using the three forms
of almost every adective or adverb word. Therefore, it is important for us to discuss the forms
before going any further into this topic.
2ost adective or adverb words in their positive form ta$e ‘er’ to change to comparative and
‘est’ to change to superlative form. 3owever, the words ending in ‘e’ ta$e only ‘r’ to change to
comparative form and only ‘st’ to change to superlative form. /nd there are other differences
with words having different spelling.
The meaning of an adjective or adver" in &omparative and 'uperlative form does not change( it
is only the form that is changed "ut not the meaning.
Therefore, depending on the spelling, the adective or adverb words are separated into groups so
that we can memorise the spellings of the words in their different forms easily.
Positive comparative superlative
a6 t3e 4ords 43i73 ed i 8e’ belog to 3is group ad ta9e ol: 8r’ i 7omparative form
ad 8st’ i superlative form:
brave 4 braver 4 the bravest
large 4 larger ; the largest
wise 4 wiser ; the wisest
b6 the words which end in any letter other than ‘e’ and5or ‘:’ belong to this group and ta$e ‘er’
in comparative form and ‘est’ in superlative from#
sweet ; sweeter 4 the sweetest
tall 4 taller 4 the tallest
young 4 younger 4 the youngest
76 the words which end in ‘:’ preceded by a consonant belong to this group6 they lose the last
letter ‘y’ and ta$e ‘ier’ in the comparative form and ‘iest’ in superlative form#
happ: 4 happier 4 the happiest
eas: 4 easier 4 the easiest
heav: 4 heavier ; the heaviest

T3e 4ords 43i73 ed i 8:’ pre7eded b: a vo4el< 3o4ever< do ot 73age t3eir spellig but
ta9e 8r=er’ i
7omparative form ad 8st=est’ i superlative form: e.g. ga: > ga:er > ga:est (this word is
now considered old7fashioned in the sense of ‘happy6 e%cited’, and in the present day 8nglish it
is used for male homose%ual).
d6 the words which end in a ‘consonant’ having a ‘vowel’ before that consonant belong to this
group, and have their last 7osoat letter doubled before ta$ing ‘er’ in comparative form and
‘est’ in superlative form#
red 4 redder 4 the reddest
thin 4 thier 4 the thiest
hot * hotter 4 the hottest
e6 the words which have ‘t4o or more vowel sounds’ in them belong to this group, and ta$e the
word !more" before them in comparative form and the word ! (the) most” in superlative form#
beautiful more beautiful the most beautiful
difficult more difficult the most difficult
splendid more splendid the most splendid
f6 the words in this group do not ta$e any suffi% or any other word before them, but change their
spelling and pronunciation entirely to form new words with the same meaning, of course#
good5well * "etter 4 the "est
bad5evil5ill 4 worse 4 the worst
little 4 less)lesser* + the least
much 4 more 4 the most
many 4 more 4 the most
late 4 later)latter* 4 the latest)last*
old 4 older)elder* * the oldest)eldest*
far 4 farther 4 the farthest
fore 4 former 4 the foremost)first*
fore * further + the furthest
in 4 inner + the inmost)inner most
up 4 upper + the upmost)uppermost
out 4 outer)utter 4 the utmost)utter most
There are some words in the list that ta$e more than one form in comparative and superlative
form.
Each of the two words gives a different meaning( therefore, it is "est to $now them well "efore
going any further in this topic.

2ate > later, latter6 latest, last6 old > elder, older6 eldest, oldest
)ar > farther, further6 farthest, furthest6 ear > nearest, ne%t
2ater< latter? latest< last
9ater and latest refer to time
9atter and last refer to positio
e.g. 3e is later than I e%pected. (he has come late) I have not heard t3e latest news.
(recent news)
The latter chapters of the boo$ are interesting. (order of position)
The last chapter is bad. (order of position)
+:uppose there are ten chapters in a boo$, the !latter" chapters could be
;hapters <,=,> ) ?@6 the ‘last’ chapter is chapter ?@. !latter" is also used
to tal$ about the second of the two people or things mentioned.,
The word ‘latter’ is, strictly spea$ing, used for ol: t4o persons or things6 however, it is also
used for three persons or things, as in !the latter of the three", but in /merican 8nglish.
Elder< older? eldest< oldest
!8lder and eldest" are used only of persons * seniority than age.
(they are used with members of the same family.)
AA !8lder" is ot used with conunction ‘than’.
!-lder and oldest" are used of both persons and things * time (age)
e.g. Bohn is my elder brother. /hmed is his eldest son. (family relation 4 seniority)
Tom is older than his sister. (of people 4 family relation 4 age)
:arah is t3e oldest girl in the class. (of people 4 o family relation * age)
Town 3all is t3e oldest building in our town. (of things * age)
@Tom is older t3a 3is sister.5 so @Tom is 3er elder brot3er.5 ad @S3e is 3is younger
sister.5
There are, however, some occasions where !older and oldest" are used for showing the seniority
of members of the same family. 3ere we have a good e%ample#
!Is /unt Cee your oldest sister, CadD" (family relation * seniority * but !oldest" is used)
Ta$en from ‘'/:I; :EI99: IF 8FG9I:3’ 'oo$ H, by The 8ditorial :taff of 2c Cougal,
9ittell and ;ompany, I:/
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
+/ccording to the traditional grammar rule, we are supposed to use the definite article JtheJ before
the superlative form of an adective. 3owever, here we have a classic e%ample showing the
article JaJ before the superlative form of an adective by 2oshe .iess#
'I.T3 /FC G.-KT3 IF 8GLMT
The first we hear of 2oses is that a man of the tribe of 9evi marries a woman of the same tribe.
This may the only time that the Torah mention that both parents are of the same tribe. In this to
emphasis that despite 2oses growing up as an 8gyptian he is a 3ebrewD They have a son. ?0rom
this it would appear that 2oses is a firstborn, but he has an older brother /aron and an older
sister 2iriam. Thus 2oses appears to be a oldest and a youngest . The 2idrash has a different
e%planation. In 8gypt a prophecy ...,
AAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
2ess=lesser
These two words are the comparative forms of the word ‘little’.
The difference is# !less" suggests ‘amount’, and !lesser" suggests degree showing
some ‘negative’ sense in a choice of twoN
0or e%ample,
:he has less money than he (has).
Khich is the lesser of the two evils, drin$ing or smo$ingD
+'oth ‘drin$ing alcohol’ and ‘smo$ing tobacco’ are evils, but we’d li$e to compare and decide
which one is more harmful * ‘more negative’ 77 in this choice of twoN,
T3oug3 t3ere is a debate i t3e edu7ated 7ir7les as to 43e ad 43ere to use 43i73 4ord<
@less or lesser5< t3e learers at t3is basi7 level eed ot 4orr: mu73 about t3is pair< but
9eep a e:e o t3ese 4ords ad ote do4 t3e eBamples 43eever t3e: 7ome a7ross t3ese
4ords.
)oremost=first
These two words are synonyms, i.e. either word can be used. 3owever, there is some difference
in their usage.
!0oremost" means ‘the best or the most important6 in a top or leading position
in a group of people or things’6 for e%ample,
Gerald Currell is one of the foremost authorities on animal protection plans.
Gerald Currell is the first person to start a Trust (Ooo) to protect the endangered species of
animals from around the world
Imost=iermost ? upmost=uppermost? utmost=utter most
These pairs of words are synonyms. There are sentences where both these words are used for the
same conte%t. 9earners at this basic level need not worry about these pairs right now.

CPisit @'ORDS O)TE% "O%)&SED5 under VO"$D&2$RE for more sets of words that
usually confuse us.F
GGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG
%o4 let’s dis7uss ea73 Degree i some detail:
The positive degree of an adective or adverb is in its simple form. It is used to denote or say
the mere e%istence of some quality of what we spea$ about. It is used when no comparison is
made, but ust to point out that the quality is above average. +see figure ?, ‘Tom is a tall boy.’
3ere we have only one person and one quality6 and Tom’s quality of being tall is above average.
The comparative degree of an adective or adverb denotes more degree of the quality than the
positive degree, and is used when t4o persons, animals or things, or two sets5groups of persons,
animals or things are compared with one another. +see figure Q, ‘Tom is taller than his sister.’
3ere we have t4o persons * Tom and his sister * and the comparison is made to show that one is
more in the quality of being tall than the other. The word ‘than’ is the 7oHu7tio we must use
in the comparative degree. In fact the e%ample sentence in full is# Tom is taller than his sister is
tall. The predicate part in the subordinate clause (is tall) is normally not mentioned but
understood. Mlease see item (f) under ! Some EBtraordiar: Rules".
The superlative degree of an adective or adverb denotes the most degree of the quality, and is
used for more than t4o persons, animals or things 4 one against the rest 4 one having the
highest degree of the quality in5of the rest. The Cefinite /rticle ‘t3e’ is used before the adective
word in its superlative form, and the preposition ‘of’ is used with people, animals and things and
‘i’ or ‘uder’ with places and position. +see figure <, ‘The blue whale is the largest of all the
animals in the world.’ 3ere we have the blue whale and the rest of the animals, and the blue
whale has the quality of being large in the highest degree (above all others) * the supreme.
T3e Defiite $rti7le 8t3e’ is ot used 4it3 t3e superlative form @most5 43e it is used to
mea very, ad 43e it is used to idi7ate t3e possessio of a Iualit: i a ver: 3ig3 degree
but 4it3out a: 7ompariso: 8T3is is most ufortuate.’ 8$ most igeious ideaJ’ %ote
t3at it is ot t3e defiite arti7le 8the’ t3at is al4a:s used before t3e superlative form of a
adHe7tive or adverb. T3e demonstrative adjective or t3e possessive adjective is also used
depedig o t3e 7oteBtJ e.g. Our football pla:er is i his best form t3is seaso.
The degree of equality of an adective or adverb is used when two things are compared with a
quality to show that they both have the same degree of that quality. It is almost li$e saying that
they both are t3e same. +see figure R, The positive form of the adective or adverb word is used
with the conunction !asKas". 0or e%ample# This building is as tall as the ne%t one. In other
words !The two buildings are the same in height."
The degree of ieIualit: of an adective or adverb is to show that two persons, animals or things
are ot t3e same in having a quality. +see figure S, The positive form of the adective or adverb
word is used with the conunction !so(as". 0or e%ample, The male dancer is not so graceful as
the female dancer. They are ot the same in being graceful. This comparison is almost the same
as the ;omparative Cegree# ‘The female dancer is more graceful than the male dancer.’ -r ‘The
male dancer is less graceful than the female dancer.’
T3e 7oHu7tio i t3e Degree of eIualit: is !as(as", but i t3e Degree of ineIualit: t3e
7oHu7tio used is !so(as". I spo9e Eglis3 t3e 7oHu7tio !as(as" is a77epted eve
i t3e Degree of IeIualit:? i 4ritte or formal Dritis3 Eglis3< 3o4ever< ol: !so(as" is
accepted. Fot everyone accepts or follows this ruleN
The parallel degree is a comparison having two adectives or adverbs * one dependent on the
other which means when one activity with one adective or adverb increases or decreases the
other activity with another adective or adverb also increases or decreases. +see figure T, 0or
e%ample, The higher you climb, the more difficult you will feel. 3ere we have two adectives *
3ig3 and diffi7ult, and when the height of a hill (or a ramp) increases, the difficulty in climbing
also increases, and when the height decreases, the difficulty also decreases.
T3e comparative form of t3e adHe7tives or adverbs is used i t3is 7ompariso< ad t3e most
importat poit to remember is t3at t3e arti7le ,the- is used before t3e 7omparative form
of t3e adHe7tive or adverb 4ords > ‘the higher. and /the more difficult.. LI t3e 7omparative
degree< t3e 7omparative form of ad adHe7tive or adverb is not used 4it3 a: arti7leJ )or
eBample< 8T3is 3ill is 3ig3er t3a t3at 3ill.’ :ou oti7e t3at t3e arti7le 8t3e’ is ot used
before 83ig3er’.M
So< 43at 4e uderstad from t3ese eBamples is t3at i "omparative Degree t3e
87omparative form’ of a adHe7tive or adverb 4ord is not used 4it3 a: arti7le i t3e
Parallel Degree< 3o4ever< 4e s3ould use t3e arti7le ‘the’ before t3e 87omparative form’ of
t3e adHe7tive or adverb 4ordJ
Some di7tioaries 7ategorise t3e arti7le 8t3e’ i t3is parallel degree 7ompariso as a
adverb? some ot3ers sa: t3is use of arti7le 8t3e’ before a 4ord i its 7omparative form is
idiomati7 Na idiom6< ad :et some ot3er di7tioaries a77ept t3is as 7omparative degreeJ
The progressive degree of an adective or adverb is used to show that some quality is on the
increase or decrease as the time or some other course of action passes. +see figure H, The
comparative form of the word is repeated, using the conunction ‘and’, 4it3out any article.
‘The patient is getting wea$er and wea$er day by day.
UUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUUU
SO#E EOTR$ORDI%$RE R&2ES
There are some e%ceptions to some of the rules we have already discussed, and it is necessary for
any learner to $now them and apply them whenever they are needed.
PI 7ase :ou fid t3e follo4ig rules diffi7ult to uderstad rig3t o4< please leave t3em
out for t3e time beig ad pro7eed to t3e ot3er items ad tr: to uderstad t3em< ad o7e
t3e ot3er poits i t3ose items are 7learl: uderstood< t3e :ou 7a 7ome ba79 to t3ese
rules to revise t3em oe b: oe.

1. The comparative form with ‘r’ or ‘er’ in ;omparative Cegree is not used when we compare
two qualities in t3e same person, animal or thing#
e.g. 2r. George is more fast than s$illful.
George 4 Oe pla:er? t4o Iualities > 8fast’ Q 8s9illful’ ; 8fast’ beig more
In the e%ample above, we have only one person, #r. George, and t4o Iualities * ‘fast’ and
‘s$illful’ * in him6 and we are comparing those two qualities to say that he has one quality more
than the other * ‘fast’ being more than ‘s$illful’. :o in such cases we do not use the original
comparative form with ‘r’ or ‘er’ though the adective has the form, but use !more5 before the
word in its positive form. That is to say the adective word ‘fast’ has !faster" for its comparative
form, but we have not used it here because we are not comparing 2r. George with anybody else,
but are comparing the two qualities 2r. George has in himN
2r. George runs faster than 2r. Cavid.
t4o pla:ers > George Q David ; oe Iualit: > fast ; George 3as more > faster
In this sentence 2r. George is compared with another person called 2r. Cavid,
and the quality being only one ‘fast’, it is used in its comparative form /faster..

0ere is a classic e%ample from the "oo$ ,The 1are 2irds of 'outhern 3frica- "y Dr. hillip
3le%ander &lancy, pu"lished "y 4inchester ress 5td., 6789:
/Due to its secretive ha"its, !the "ird is# generally considered more rare than it is..
!. Khen two persons, animals or things of the same group or 9id are compared with
each other, the latter (i.e. the second of the two) of the comparison must e%clude the former (i.e.
the first of the two)#
e.g. Iron is more useful than a: ot3er metal. V.emember ‘iron’ is a metal.W
The phrase !a: ot3er" shows that the metal ‘iron’ is separated from the other metals in this
conte%t. :uppose the e%pression is put in this way#
!Iron is more useful than a: metal." +without the word ‘ot3er’,, it will be the same as saying#
‘Iro is more useful than iro.’ which is meaningless because iron is itself a metalN
"ompare:

2ary is cleverer than a: bo: in the class. +without ‘ot3er’,
This e%pression (sentence) is accepted because !2ary" is a girl and she is compared with bo:s
who are not her (geder) $ind or group.
2ary is cleverer than a: girl in the class. (wrong)
This e%pression (sentence) is ot accepted because !2ary" is a girl and she is compared with her
own $ind or group.
Therefore, this e%pression should be# 2ary is cleverer than a: ot3er girl in the class.
.. Kith the superlative form of the adective or adverb in the :uperlative Cegree,
the article ‘the’ must be used before the form with almost all the adectives and adverbs.
There are, however, a couple of words which do ot ta$e the article ‘the’ before them in some
special e%pressions. -ne word ‘most’ has already been mentioned in the e%planation for the
:uperlative Cegree6 the other one is !best" which needs to be dealt with separately.
0or e%ample, in the e%pression !with best wishes" we do not use the article ‘the’ before !best".
:o it is advisable to refer to a dictionary to learn about ‘best’ and ‘most’ in detail.
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/s rule number Q is related to the M8.:-F/9 M.-F-IF:, we need to revise this topic
thoroughly. Mlease go to the topic !Mersonal Mronouns".
3owever, the following table and the short description below it may help us to ta$e a quic$ loo$
at the E1':;35 1:;:<;':
Merson &
1
st
perso > t3e perso spea9ig or arratig somet3ig
!
d
perso > t3e perso spo9e to Nt3e perso listeig to t3e spea9er6
.
rd
perso > t3e rest of all t3e persos< aimals ad t3igs t3at are tal9ed about eB7ludig
t3e 1
st
ad t3e !
d
persos

Fumber & sigular > ol: oe perso< aimal or t3ig? plural > more t3a oe perso<
aimal or t3ig Nt4o< te< a 3udred< a millio< et7.6

Gender & Lmas7ulie geder Q femiie gederM Nt3e seB of t3e perso or aimal6 male or
female R bo: or girl< ma or 4oma
neuter > ver: :oug babies of people? all t3e aimals 43e spo9e i geeral ad all t3e
t3igs? ot ma< ot 4oma
common gender > eit3er ma or 4oma? for eBample< $ tea73er is a perso 43o tea73es.
@$ tea73er5 7a be a ma or a 4oma< so it is 87ommo geder’.

&3'E:
nominative case & perso< aimal or t3ig t3at 7omes before t3e verb ad does a a7tio i
a sete7e
e.g. He is a good "oy. =/He. is the su"ject in this sentence.>
obective case & perso< aimal or t3ig t3at 7omes after t3e verb or prepositio i a
sete7e
e.g. 0e gave her a "oo$. =/Her. is the o"ject of the ver" /gave..>
0e gave a "oo$ to her. =/(er’ is the obect of the preposition ‘to’,

possessive case ? used to s3o4 t3at somet3ig belogs somebod: or somet3ig
e.g. This is m: boo$. +‘#:’ and ‘mine’ show that the boo$ belongs to me.,
This boo$ is mine.
‘2y’, ‘our’, ‘your’, ‘your’, ‘his’, ‘her’, ‘its’, ‘their’, ‘their’ and ‘their’ are called POSSESSIVE
$DSE"TIVES because they are always used before nouns.
,@ine-, ,ours-, ,yours-, ,yours-, ,his-, ,hers-, ,its-, ,theirs-, ,theirs-, and ,theirs- are
called POSSESSIVE PO!O"!S because they are used without nouns after them6 the nouns
whose possession they show are placed somewhere else in the sentence (e%pression).
1efle%ive pronouns & the action of a subect in the sentence comes bac$ to the doer of the action
when we use these .efle%ive pronouns VThey are also called reciprocal pronouns, but the
function is different.W
e.g. I painted this picture m:self.
+‘#:self’ in this sentence shows that the subect ‘I’ did the action of painting the picture, not
bought or get somebody paint it for ‘me’. The action does not pass to any other obect but comes
bac$ to the subect,
T3e: taught t3emselves.
+‘T3emselves’ in this sentence shows that the subect ‘they’ did not get their education from any
teacher or they did not teach anybody else, but got their education on their own.,

1. Fominative (subective) ;ase or /ccusative (obective) ;ase or Mossessive (genitive) ;aseD
There is a chance of our getting confused when using personal pronouns after ‘than’ in
comparative degree because the personal pronouns ta$e different forms in different cases. 0or
instance, the 0irst Merson Mersonal Mronoun in the Fominative ;ase is ‘I’, the same pronoun
word in the -bective case (/ccusative ;ase) is ‘me’ and again in the Genitive ;ase it is
‘my5mine’. Therefore, while using them after the conunction ‘than’ in the comparative degree,
we are bound to ma$e some mista$es in placing the case of the pronoun in its right form.
The following rules may clear some of the confusion#
a6 Khen we compare two persons with one adective or adverb in ;omparative Cegree, the
M.-F-IF used after ‘t3a’ must be in Fominative ;ase (subective case). This is considered
formal 8nglish.
e.g. 3e spea$s more fluently than I. +‘I’ is the nominative case,
& 3e spea$s more fluently than I spea$.
In this sentence !3e spea$s more fluently than me spea$." sounds silly.
+‘me’ is the -bective ;ase of the pronoun ‘I’,
Fevertheless, the -bective ;ase form of the pronoun is also used by many people, including
some grammarians.
This is considered informal or spo$en 8nglish. 0or e%ample# 3e is taller than me.
T3e famous grammaria< So3 Silverlig3t< a77epted t3e use of ObHe7tive "ase of t3e
Proou 43e t3e 7oteBt demads a omiative 7ase form i 3is boo9 @#ore 'ords5
(page ?RS) Iuotig a letter from #r. Gideo "o3e Serusalem< 3imself a famous perso.

T3erefore< 4e 7a sa:: S3e 3as more moe: t3a he. C83e’ i omiative 7ase formF
S3e 3as more moe: t3a he has. Or PS3e 3as more moe: t3a 3im. C83im’ i obHe7tive
7ase formF
V:entences of this type are not very clear6 there is bound to be some confusionW
b6 'ut the obective case form is the only form to be used in cases li$e this one#
Meter li$es his boo$s more than 3er. +here ‘3er’ could be a girl he $nows,
EBplaatio:
Meter li$es his boo$s 4 =@X
Meter li$es her 4 R@X only
This sentence, if written in full is# Meter li$es his boo$s better than he (Meter) li$es 3er.
Therefore, in this e%pression only the obective case ‘3er’ should be used.
9et’s analyse another sentence#
Bames tal$ed more about drin$s than t3em. +here ‘t3em’ could be his friends or associates,
‘t3em’ is the obective case of pronoun ‘they’
Bames tal$ed about drin$s 4 =@X
Bames tal$ed about t3em 4 R@X only
Bames tal$ed about drin$s more than t3e:. +more than t3e: tal9ed about dri9s,
‘they’ is the nominative case form
Bames tal$ed about drin$s 4 =@X
They tal$ed about drin$s 4 R@X only
VTherefore, it is to be understood that the case of the pronoun in "omparatives changes the
meaning of the sentence.W
76 Khen the former (the first of the two persons, animals or things) in ;omparative Cegree is in
the M-::8::IP8 ;/:8,
the latter (the second of the two persons, animals or things) must be in the possessive case#
0or e%ample,
?. /be’s boo$ is more e%pensive than Bessica. +wrong,
+!/be’s" is in the possessive case, but ‘Bessica’ is ot in possessive case,
Therefore, this sentence should be(
/be’s boo$ is more e%pensive than Bessica’s (boo$).
R. 3is car is bigger than t3em. +wrong,
+‘3is car’ is in possessive case, but ‘t3em’ is in obective case,
Therefore, this sentence should be(
3is car is bigger than t3eir car. -. 3is car is bigger than t3eirs.
d6 Khen comparisons of actions are made with G8.IFC or T-7IF0IFITIP8,
the F-F70IFIT8 form must be used in both the clauses of the sentence#
0or e%ample#
1. .iding a horse is not so easy as a motor bi9e. +wrong,
(‘riding’ Gerudial form of t3e verb 8ride’? in the second part >o gerudial form
Therefore, this sentence should be(
.iding a horse is not so easy as ridig a motor bi9e.
!. It is nicer to go out with someone than alone. +wrong,
(‘to go’ @toTifiitive5 form of t3e verb 8go’ ? in the second part ; o @toTifiitive5 form
Therefore, this sentence should be(
It is nicer to go out with someone than to go out alone.
e6 Ise of the definite article ‘the’ Y comparative form#
(apart from the M/./9989 ;-2M/.I:-F)
Khen we want to $now which one of the t4o persons, animals or things is more or less in the
quality tal$ed about, we use the ‘the’ with the comparative form of the adective or adverb#
0or e%ample,
Khich one of these two girls is t3e strogerD
3owever, this use of the comparative form is considered rather literary or very formal. /nd in
informal or spo$en 8nglish a superlative form is often used instead:the strongestD Khich of
these two girls is
f# ;ertain comparatives ta$en from 9atin language have o positive or superlative degree.
They all end in !or" but ot in !er". They are twelve in all.
0ive of them lost their comparative meaning, and are used as positive forms.
They are# eBterior< iterior< ulterior< maHor Q mior
e.g. The eBterior wall of the house is made of stone6 the iterior walls are of wood.
3er age is a matter of mior importance.
I have no ulterior motive in offering you my help.
The other seven are used as comparative forms but are followed by !to" instead of ‘than’.
They are# Iferior< superior< prior< aterior< posterior< seior Q Huior
e.g. / horse is iferior to 9illy in intelligence.
9illy’s intelligence is superior to a horse’s.
3e is Huior to all his colleagues.
/ll his colleagues are seior to him.
g# /dective words such as sIuare, roud, perfe7t, eteral, uiversal, and uiIue cannot be
compared6 but we often use them in comparatives, for e%ample#
e.g. This is t3e most perfe7t specimen I have seen. +used to show e%citement,
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Iter73age of Degree of "ompariso sete7es:

1. 9ead is t3e 3eaviest of all metals. +superlative degree, L8lead’ is proou7ed as @led5M
9ead is 3eavier t3a all other metals.
or
9ead is 3eavier t3a any other metal. +7omparative degree,
Fo other metal is so 3eav: as lead. +positive degree > degree of ieIualit:,
!. Few Lor$ is one of t3e biggest of /merican cities. +superlative degree,
Few Lor$ is bigger t3a most other /merican cities. +7omparative degree,
Pery few /merican cities are so=as big as Few Lor$. +positive degree > ieIualit:,