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6

Channel Coding

Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson

37

Turbo Coding

Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

After reading this lesson, you will learn about

Turbo Encoding and Turbo Code Structures;

SISO Decoders;

MAP Algorithms;

Applications;

Turbo Product Codes (TCP);

Turbo codes represent a class of parallel concatenation of two convolutional

codes. The parallel-concatenated codes have several advantages over the serial

concatenated ones. The parallel decoder facilitates the idea of feedback in decoding to

improve the performance of the system. There are some differences between

conventional convolutional code and turbo codes. Several parameters affect the

performance of turbo codes such as: a) component decoding algorithms, b) number of

decoding iterations, c) generator polynomials and constraint lengths of the component

encoders and d) interleaver type.

Turbo Encoding and Turbo Code Structures

A turbo encoder is sometimes built using two identical convolutional codes of

special type, such as, recursive systematic (RSC) type with parallel concatenation. An

individual encoder is termed a component encoder. An interleaver separates the two

component encoders. The interleaver is a device that permutes the data sequence in some

predetermined manner. Only one of the systematic outputs from the two component

encoders is used to form a codeword, as the systematic output from the other component

encoder is only a permuted version of the chosen systematic output.

Fig. 6.37.1 shows the block diagram of a turbo encoder using two identical

encoders. The first encoder outputs the systematic V

0

and recursive convolutional V

1

sequences while the second encoder discards its systematic sequence and only outputs the

recursive convolutional V

2

sequence. There are several types of interleavers such as,

a) Block interleaver,

b) Diagonal interleaver,

c) Odd-even block interleaver,

d) Pseudo-random interleaver,

e) Convolutional interleaver,

f) Helical interleaver,

g) Uniform interleaver,

h) Cyclic shift interleaver and

i) Code matched interleaver.

Depending on the number of input bits to a component encoder it may be binary or m-

binary encoder. Encoders are also categorized as systematic or non-systematic. If the

component encoders are not identical then it is called an asymmetric turbo code.

Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

V

0

Fig. 6.37.1 Generic block diagram of a turbo encoder

Fig. 6.37.2 shows a schematic diagram for the iterative decoding procedure using

two ‘Soft-in-Soft-out’ (SISO) component decoders. The first SISO decoder generates the

soft output and subsequently an extrinsic information (EI). The extrinsic information is

interleaved and used by the second SISO decoder as the estimate of the a priori

probability (APP). The second SISO decoder also produces the extrinsic information and

passes it after de-interleaving to the first SISO decoder to be used during the subsequent

decoding operation.

Some of the major decoding approaches, developed for turbo decoding are:

a) Maxium Aposteriori Probability (MAP),

b) Log-MAP,

c) Max-Log-MAP and

d) Soft Output Viterbi Algorithm (SOVA).

`

Fig. 6.37.2. Block diagram of iterative turbo decoder

Encoder 1

Encoder 2

Interleaver

Information

bits

V

1

V

2

Interleaver

Deinterleaver

SISO

Decoder 1

SISO

Decoder 2

Interleaver

x

k

E1

y1

k

x

#

k

π

E2

Λ

2

De-interleaver

Decoded sequence

y2

k

x

#

k

= Interleaved Rx info sequence

E1 =Extrinsic info for SISO # 1

E2= Extrinsic info for SISO # 2

Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

The MAP algorithm is a Maximum Likelihood (ML) algorithm and the SOVA is

asymptotically an ML algorithm at moderate and high SNR. The MAP algorithm finds

the most probable information bit that was transmitted, while the SOVA finds the most

probable information sequence to have been transmitted given the code sequence. That

means the MAP algorithm minimizes the bit or symbol error probability, where as SOVA

minimizes the word error probability. Information bits returned by the MAP algorithm

need not form a connected path through the trellis while for SOVA it will be a connected

path.

However the MAP algorithm is not easily implement able due to its complexities.

Several approximations on the MAP algorithm are now available, such as the Max-Log-

MAP algorithm where computations are largely in the logarithmic domain and hence

values and operations are easier to implement. The Log-MAP algorithm avoids the

approximations in the Max-Log-MAP algorithm through the use of a simple correction

function at each maximization operation and thus its performance is close to that of the

MAP algorithm.

A complexity comparison of different decoding methods per unit time for (n,k)

convolutional code with memory order v is given in Table 6.37.1. Assuming that one

table-look-up operation is equivalent to one addition, one may see that the Log-MAP

algorithm is about three times complex than the SOVA algorithm and the Max-Log-MAP

algorithm is about twice as complex as the SOVA algorithm.

MAP Log-MAP Max-Log-MAP SOVA

Additions 2.2

k

.2

v

+6 6.2

k

.2

v

+6 4.2

k

.2

v

+8 2

k

.2

v

+9

Multiplications 5.2

k

.2

v

+8 2

k

.2

v

2.2

k

.2

v

2

k

.2

v

Max.operations 4.2

v

-2 4.2

v

-2 2.2

v

-1

Look-ups 4.2

v

-2

Exponentiation 2.2

k

.2

v

Table 6.37.1 Complexity comparison of various decoding algorithms

Applications

Turbo codes have been proposed for various communication systems such as deep

space, cellular mobile and satellite communication networks. Turbo code, due to its

excellent error correcting capability, has been adopted by several standards as

Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) for space communication,

CDMA2000, UMTS, 3GPP, W-CDMA for cellular mobile, DVB-RCS (Digital Video

Broadcasting – [with a] Return Channel [through] Satellite) for Satellite

communications.

Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

Turbo Product Codes (TPC)

A Turbo Product Code is a concatenation of two block codes on which the principle of

“turbo” or iterative soft-input/soft-output (SISO) decoding can be applied in a phased

manner. The decoding process is iterated several times feeding the output of second

component decoder back to the input of the first decoder. A product code may be viewed

as a relatively large code built from smaller block codes. A two-dimensional product

code is built from two component codes with parameters and C

2

with

parameter , where and stand for code word length, number of

information bits, and minimum hamming distance respectively.

1 1 1 1 ( , , ) C n k d

2 2 2 ( , , ) n k d

, i i n k i d

The product code P =C

1

X C

2

is obtained by placing (k

1

X k

2

) information bits in an

array of K

1

rows and K

2

columns. The parameters of product code P are n =n

1

Xn

2

,

k=k

1

Xk

2

, d=d

1

Xd

2

and code rate is R =R

1

XR

2

, where R

i

is the code rate of C

i

. Thus,

very long block codes can be built with large minimum Hamming distance. Fig. 6.37.3

shows the procedure for construction of a 2D product code using two block codes C1 and

C2 .

k

2

k

1

Information

Symbols

n

2

n

1

Checks

on

Rows

Checks on

Columns

Checks

on

checks

Fig. 6.37.3 An example of a 2D product code constructed using two component codes

Version 2 ECE IIT, Kharagpur

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