Position Analysis of 3-RPS Parallel Robot and Simulation of PID Control

Based on Matlab Software
Chen Yiqiang
1,a
, Zhu Dachang
2,b

1
School of Architectural and Surveying & Mapping Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and
Technology, Ganzhou 341000, China
2
School of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Jiangxi University of Science and Technology,
Ganzhou 341000, China
a
Chenyq2002@hotmail.com,
b
04116270@bjtu.edu.cn
Keywords: 3-RPS parallel robot; Position inverse solution; Matlab simulation; PID Control.
Abstract. Position of the 3-RPS parallel robot is analyzed by the method of coordinate
transformation and the position closed-form method. Based on Matlab software, the simulation
model of this robot is established. With the reference input under different conditions, the simulation
comparison is made through setting the parameters of the PID controller in reason to simulate. The
results show that under different conditions of reference input, the changes in the position of the
moving platform are almost identical, the effect of PID control leveling is realized and the deviation
between the actual output of drive shaft displacement and the reference value fluctuates in the
allowable range, which show that the control effect is obvious. This provides the information for the
study of automatic leveling to the parallel robots.
1. Introduction
The position analysis of the parallel mechanism plays a very important significance role in the study
of the parallel robot,through which the positional relationship between the mechanism input and
output components can be understood.It is the basic tasks of mechanism kinematic analysis and the
basis of the force analysis , speed, acceleration, error analysis and comprehensive analysis of
mechanism.Parallel robot mechanism has broad application prospects in the industrial life for its high
rigidity, strong carrying capacity, compact structure,etc.Moreover,less DOF parallel robot
mechanism kinematics, dynamics studies are relatively simple, but very flexible, easier to
manufacture, and bearing many other advantages, such as potential applications in various fields.
Thus it becomes popular for many domestic and foreign scholars to study.In the mechanism position
analysis, the positive solution is easier while inverse solution is more difficult in the analysis of robot
in series connection,however,the situation is different in the analysis of the parallel mechanism.
At present, there are two main methods on the positive solution of the parallel robot mechanism
position : the analytical method and numerical method which have their own advantages and
disadvantages:The mathematical model in the numerical method that can be applied to most of the
parallel mechanism is relatively simple, but it can not find the solutions of all the position.Domestic
and foreign scholars have made plenty of researches on it. For example, Innocentit put forward a
one-dimensional search method of positive solution of the position;Dagupta proposed
predictor-corrector method, the method uses three-dimensional search method from a purely
geometric point of view to get the positive solution of the position;Zhao and other scholars came up
with a method of successive approximation, namely the use of various mathematical elimination
method to eliminate the unknown one by one, and ultimately solve a unitary polynomial.Althought it


2012 International Conference on Convergence Information Technology
Lecture Notes in Information Technology, Vol.19
978-1-61275-018-7/10/$25.00 ©2012 IERI ICCIT2012


146


can gain the solution of all the positions, the solution process is too complicated. The analytical
method is mainly conducted by the Institute of Mechanics, Beijing University of Posts and
Telecommunications.So far, They have got positive solution of position of 3-EPS,3-6SPS,5-4type,
6-4 type,6-4platform type, 6-5 type, 5-5 type,6-5type and verify the number of mechanism solutions.
They are many control methods in the control area,such as PID control, sliding mode control,
adaptive control method, fuzzy control, neural control and so on. Among them PID control is one of
the earliest developing control strategy. Due to its simple algorithm, robustness and high reliability, it
has been widely used in the control area.
In this paper, on the basis of previous achievements, the authors give an example of 3-RPS parallel
robot to make a preliminary analysis of the parallel robot mechanism thought the application of
coordinate transformation and the position closed-form method and use Matlab modeling and PID
control simulation to simulate.
2. Mechanism Description
The upper platform and the one under in the 3-RPS parallel mechanism are connected by three
branches, each branch connected by three kinematic pair.Every vertex of the fixed platform link to a
revolute pair, connecting a ball pair through movable pair and each ball pair are connected
respectively to each vertex. The upper and lower platforms are composed by two equilateral triangle,
as shown in Fig.1.











Fig.1 Model of 3-RPS parallel mechanism Fig.2 Schematic diagram of 3-RPS parallel mechanism
Based on the upper and lower platforms to build the coordinate system with the movable one
P-UVW on the upper platform B1B2B3, the fixed one O-XYZ on the lower platform A1A2A3 and
P,O are the centres of each platform. 1 , 1 , 1 q OB a OA b PB
i i i
= = = ;The length of
i i
a b , can be recorded
as h,g;
i
d represents the pole length;
i
φ represents the angle of inclination between the shaft
i i
B A and
the two platforms ;
i
θ represents the included angle of movable pair
i
u and X;L represents the length
of side of the upper platform as shown in Fig.2.
3. Position Analyses
Inverse solution of the position means kowning the spacial position of the upper and lower platforms
to get the shaft length,namely the displacement of each movable pair. According to Fig.2 mechanism
schematic diagram ,one can get
i
A in O-XYZ and
i
B in P-UVW:
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[ ]
3 1
1 2 2 2
3 1
3 2 2
, , , , , 0
, , 0
T
T
T
b h o o b h h
b h h

⎡ ⎤
= = −
⎪ ⎣ ⎦

⎡ ⎤ ⎪
= − −
⎣ ⎦ ⎩

[ ]
1
3 1
2 2 2
3 1
3 2 2
, ,
, , 0
, , 0
T
T
T
a g o o
a g g
a g g

=


⎡ ⎤
= −

⎣ ⎦

⎪ ⎡ ⎤
= − −
⎣ ⎦ ⎩
(1)
Supposing the Eulerian angles(α,β,γ) of Z-Y-X type ,one can get the direction cosine:












− −
+ −
γ β γ β β
γ α γ β α γ α γ β α β α
γ α γ β α γ α γ β α β α
c c s c s
s c c s s c c s s s c s
s s c s c c s s s c c c

cα=cosα, sα=sinα,so the coordinates of the spherical hinge in the fixed coordinate system is:
P Rb B
i i
+ = (i=1,2,3) (2)
Then one can get the inverse solution of the position of the parallel robot.
Positive solution of the position of the parallel mechanism means kowning the drive length
i
d to
get the position coordinates Px in the fixed coordinate system of the center point P on the moving
platform and the direction cosine of moving coordinate system against the fixed coordinate
system ,namely T.According to the structure characteristics of the 3-RPS parallel mechanism , the
moving platform being an equilateral triangle ,thus one can usethe position closed-form method
raised by Professor Liang Chonggao to get the answer.
Parameters
3 2 1
, , u u u are the axial direction of the three revolute pairs. Releasing
1
B from the
moving platform and because of the revolving function of the revolute pair linked to the upper and
lower platforms,the shaft
1 1
A B circles axis
1
u ,forming an circle with the centre of the circle
1
A and
radius
1
d .Likewise, spherical hinge make the same movement under the same condition. Assuming
that the included angle between
3 2 1
, , u u u and X are ° = ° = ° = 330 , 210 , 90
3 2 1
θ θ θ ,one can get the
positions of three spherical hinges expressed as:
3 2 1
, , φ φ φ on the platform:
cos cos( 90 )
cos sin( 90 )
sin
Bi Ai i i i
Bi Ai i i i
Bi i i
X X d
Y Y d
Z d
φ θ
φ θ
φ
°
°
⎧ = + −

= − −


=

(3)
Three vertex coordinates of the moving platform represente the length of side (L),leading to the
following relational expression:
1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1
2 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 3 2
3 3 3 1 3 1 3 3 1 3 3
cos cos cos cos sin sin 0
cos cos cos cos sin sin 0
cos cos cos cos sin sin 0
A B D E F
A B D E F
A B D E F
φ φ φ φ φ φ
φ φ φ φ φ φ
φ φ φ φ φ φ
+ + + + = ⎧

+ + + + =


+ + + + =

(4)
i i i i i
F E D B A , , , ,
are the function of the known quantity.
As
2
tan
i
i
x
φ
= , then ) 3 , 2 , 1 ( ,
1
1
cos ,
1
sin
2 2
=
+

=
+
= i
x
x
x
x
i
i
i
i
i
i
φ φ ,accoding to (4):then
2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 1 1 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3
[( ) ( ) ] (2 ) [( ) ( ) ] 0
[( ) ( ) ] (2 ) [( ) ( ) ] 0
[( ) ( ) ] (2
F B A D F B A D x x Ex x F B A D F B A D x
F B A D F B A D x x Ex x F B A D F B A D x
F B A D F B A D x x E
− + − + − + − + + + + + + + − − =
− + − + − − + + + + + + + + − − =
+ − − + − − + +
2
1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1
) [( ) ( ) ] 0 x x F B A D F B A D x




+ + + + + − + − =

(5)
Assuming the three intersectional angles of the moving coordinate system against the fixed
coordinate
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4. Model of 3-RPS Parallel Mechanism
According to the structural connection relation of 3-RPS parallel robot and control theory , the
simulation model of Fig.3, and Fig.4 are established by using the SimMechanics module set of the
Matlab











Fig.3 whole block diagram showing PID of Fig.4 input block diagram of reference
3-RPS mechanism control SimMechanics value of the 3-RPS machanism
5. Simulations
Setting the initial parameters:the circumradius of the upper and lower platform are 50mm, 100mm
respectively, quality of the upper platform is 1kg ,the fixed pole and the moving one of the moving
pair are all 0.1kg and the coordinates of centre P (0 0 150) ,Φ1 = Φ2 = Φ3 = 120 º , build machanical
model.
Assuming the reference value of the moving platform: Euler XYZ (45 º, 45 º, 0 º), the coordinates
of the point P : (sin (2π t), sin (2π t), sin (2π t)), the simulation results shown as Fig.5 and Fig.6.












Fig.5 Positional diagram of the moving platform Fig.6 Output of driving pole and the D-value
changes of the refrences
Change the refrent coordinates of P:(20sin(2 π *5t+10)+10 , 20sin(2 π *5t+10)+10 ,
20sin(2π *5t+10)+10)the simulation results shown in Fig.7 and Fig.8.







149















Fig.7 Positional diagram of the moving platform Fig.8 Output of driving shaft and the D-value
changes of the refrences
Comparing Fig.5 and Fig.7, under the condition of the variation reference value input and through
reasonable change of the parameters of PID controller, the change rule of the position of P is almost
the same, reflecting the PID control leveling effect. Fig.6 and Fig.8 shows the deviation of the actual
output of the drive rod and a reference value gradually tends to zero, indicating that the effect of PID
control is obvious.
6. Conclustions
The analysis of the position inverse solution of 3-RPS parallel robot applying the method of
coordinate transformation and the position closed-form method provides an effective theoretical
basis for further analyses of the kinematics and control simulation. According to control principle, the
author use the SimMechanics module in Matlab to establish the mechanism model and control the
simulation model, and compare the simulation under different conditions to get a correct graph.
Analysis shows automatically leveling of the moving platform of parallel robots based on PID control
can be achieved, which has important application value in practice. The error value between the
actual output of the drive shaft and the reference value showing in the curve fluctuates around zero,
gradually tending to zero. Even though there are still some deviations, it lays the foundation for the
further study on the improvement of the control performance of the parallel robot.
7. Acknowledgement
The research has been supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (50965007,
51165009), Natural Science Foundation of Jiangxi Province (20114BAB206008), Project of Jiangxi
Province Educational Science and Technology Program (GJJ11484)
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