UNIT 13

EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
Objectives:
Students will understand how important the natural world was for the
Ancestral Tewa people.
Students will learn why it is important to respect the plants and the
animals that live in their communities.
Students will understand the importance of domestication of plants
and animals for the Ancestral Tewa people.
Students will become skilled at observation and inference.
Subjects: Science, Social Studies, Math, Language Arts.
Time: Two - four class periods.
Mateia!s:
opy for students! Feather Anatomy student information sheet "#$ -
%&, Maize: Sacred Grain of the Americas student information sheet "#$ - '&,
Ancestral Pueblo Farming Methods- Drawings student activity sheet "#$ -
##&, Ancestral Pueblo Farming Methods- a!tions student activity sheet "#$
- #(&, Pueblo Foods: An "nduring #radition student information sheet "#$ -
#$&, Grandmother$s Story student information sheet "#$ - #)&.
"i#t ALL Stu$e#t I#%&mati&# s'eets
*rom the trunk! %ld Father Storyteller by +ablita ,elarde, oyote
#ales by -velyn .ahl /eed, &n My Mother$s 'ouse by Ann 0olan lark,
+etroglyph (ational Monument #eacher)s Guide, turkey feathers, pinto and
Anasa1i beans, dried corn kernels, dried corn on the cob, paper
plates or +etri dishes, photographs of the petroglyphs, other
curriculum guides. Magnifying loupes may be checked out
from Mesa +rieta +etroglyph +ro2ect office.
*rom the teacher! writing, construction and copy paper,
pencils.
*or the teacher! /esource materials! orn teacher resource sheet "#$ -
3&, A orny 4ame teacher resource sheet "#$ - #5-#%&. Also Ancestral
Pueblo Peo!le of *andelier, A Guide for +th Grade #eachers, is available
from ,ecinos library and online at
http!66www.nps.gov6band6forteachers6fourth-grade-lesson-plans.htm.
7nteractive poster Adobe and Maize: At 'ome with (ature at 'u!obi
Pueblo, available online at
http!66www.blm.gov6education6889resources6articles6hupobi6inde:.html.
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UNIT 13
EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
(&cabu!a):
A*icu!tue + *arming. The process of cultivating the soil, raising
crops and animals.
A#asa,i + The 0ava2o name for the Ancestral +ueblo people.
Ai$ + .ry. An arid land gets very little rain.
D&mesticati&# + The process of developing of plants and animals that
can be cared for by people and become dependent on people.
-ai# + .ried seeds of a cereal grasses.
-i$ *a$e# + A farming techni<ue used by the Ancestral +ueblo
people to grow corn and beans. 7t was a s<uare plot that was lined with large
stones.
.e#e!s + The seeds of the corn plant or other grain.
Mai,e + The early name for corn. 7t is based on the Spanish word,
ma=1.
Ma#& + The small, hand-held stone that was rubbed against the corn
kernels and the metate.
Metate + The flat, smoothed stone that was used for grinding corn.
M&!t + To shed feathers.
Sace$ + Something that is considered holy and worthy of respect.
Te&si#te + The ancient grass from Me:ico that evolved into our
modern corn through selective breeding.
T'e T'ee Sistes + The three sacred domestic plants of 0ative
American people- corn, beans, s<uash. The term that refers to the practice of
planting corn, beans and s<uash together.
Activit) 1:
#. /ead the story >Turkey 4irl? in %ld Father Storyteller to your
students. @r, make copies from the book for them to read. .iscuss
what it means to domesticate animals and plants. .iscuss why they
chose the turkey to domesticate. "#hey breed well in ca!ti,ity, it is
easy to feed them corn, they become accustomed to !eo!le.& .iscuss
why turkeys were important to the Tewa people and how they might
have used different parts of the turkeys. "Feather blan-ets, feathers
used in ceremonies, meat, eating grassho!!ers in the gardens&
(. .iscuss what the students know about feathers and why birds have
them. "For flight, warmth, !rotection, for attracting a mate.&
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UNIT 13
EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
$. -:plain that the students will be observing real turkey feathers. 7f they
havenAt used magnifying loupes before, demonstrate how to use them.
*or information on how to care for loupes, see ;nit (-#, Geology of
Mesa Prieta.
). +ass out a loupe or hand lens and feather to each
pair of students. As one student observes the
feather, the other student writes down the
observations. Then they switch. Bith the feather
between them, the students draw the feather "like
a scientist&.
C. .iscuss the parts of a feather and the different
types of feathers. +ass out student handout with parts of feather
labeled and ask students to label their drawing.
5. .emonstrate how feather veins are like 1ippers by separating two
veins and then 1ipping them
back together. Bhy is this
feature an important
adaptationD "*irds only molt
once a year. /sing its bill, a
bird is able to re!air damaged
feathers with this feature.&
%. /ead other stories that involve
animals from %ld Father
Storyteller and oyote #ales from the &ndian Pueblos.
Activit) /:
#. Erainstorm or webbing! Ask the students to share all that they know
about corn. "0e,iew #eacher &nformation Sheet "#$-3&.
(. 4ive each student a kernel of corn to look at with a magnifying loupe
or hand lens. Fave the students write down their observations and
draw the kernel. Bhile they are engaged, pass around an ear of dried
corn for the students to look at.
$. +ass out the student information sheet Maize: Sacred Grain of the
Americas "#$-' G #8& and read it as a class.
). /eview the reading by asking <uestions such as! Fow do we know
that the Ancestral +ueblo people grew and harvested cornD 1Grid
gardens can be found near ancient sites, corn cobs and -ernels ha,e
been found.& Bhy were The Three Sisters important to the early
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UNIT 13
EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
+ueblo peopleD "2hen these three foods were eaten together, the
!eo!le were eating a healthy diet.& Bhat did the +ueblo women use to
grind the cornD 1A metate and mano.& Fow is corn used in a sacred
way by the +ueblo peopleD "#hey use corn meal and corn !ollen when
they are !raying and they use the whole corn ear in corn dances.3
Fow can we show respect for the cornD "*y than-ing the corn in our
hearts for all of the good food that it gi,es us.&
C. Ancestral +ueblo *arming Methods! -:plain to the students that the
Ancestral +ueblo farmers developed different ways to capture and
retain moisture. This was very important in an arid environment.
Show the students the poster Adobe and Maize and discuss. +ass out
the student activity sheets! Ancestral Pueblo Farming Methods-
Drawings and a!tions, 145-44 - 463. As a class, look at each drawing
and read the caption. Fave the students make booklets by cutting out
the drawings and the captions and gluing them onto the pages of a
book that they make out of construction paper. olor the pictures.
5. Assessment! Ask the students to write a short essay describing how
they would grow corn if they were an Ancestral +ueblo farmer.
%. -:tension activities may be found in Petrogly!h (ational Monument
7 #eachers Guide, Lessons #( and #$ pp. C8-58H 8ee!ers of the "arth,
hapter #5, pp. #$%-#)C, or see photocopies at the end of this unit.
Activit) 3:
#. Ask the students if they or their family eat pinto beans. Tell them that
the Ancestral +ueblo people raised corn,
beans and s<uash and that they are called
the IThree SistersI. Ask the students if
these plants were domesticated. "9es,
because they !lanted the seeds and too-
care of the !lants.& -:plain that the
Ancestral +ueblo people "Anasa1i& grew a
smaller bean that we call the Anasa1i
bean. Archaeologists have found these
beans in ancient +ueblo sites and farmers
have grown them. 0ow we can buy them
in some grocery stores. Bhen the :Three
SistersI are eaten together, these plants
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orn !lant !etrogly!h
UNIT 13
EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
provide the body with more nutrition than if eaten separately. Eetter
nutrition leads to healthier bodies, population growth and larger
communities.
(. +ass out paper plates or +etri dishes, pinto and Anasa1i beans and
magnifying loupes to pairs of students. Ask them to observe and
record the same way they did with the turkey feather. Ask them to
compare and contrast the beans using a chart or ,enn diagram. Then
draw and label the two types of beans.
$. Teacher reads Pueblo Foods: An "nduring #radition student
information sheet, "#$-#$& to the class. Then have the students read
Grandmother)s Story, 145-4+3. .iscuss the similarities and differences
between +ueblo and Fispanic traditions.
). -:tension #! A orny Game teacher resource sheet, "#$-#5 G #%&.
C. -:tension (! Fave the students sprout and grow corn, beans and
s<uash seeds to compare them. .raw the seeds and the sprouts.
Activit) 0: "Suggested by Jimmy Lara, )
th
grade at ,elarde -lementary&
#. /ead to the class the story >Thanking the Eirds? on page %$ in
Petrogly!h (ational Monument #eacher)s Guide. .iscuss what it
means to respect something. Fow did the ancient +ueblo people show
respectD "*y than-ing the !lants and animals they used, by using
e,ery !art of a !lant or animal that was -illed, returning to the "arth
what they couldn)t use, treating the elders with honor, etc.& Fow can
we show respect in our lives and why should weD "Answers will ,ary.&
(. +ass out several photographs of the petroglyphs on Mesa +rieta to
each group of three or four students. Fave the students count the
number of bird images and bird tracks. "About 66 trac-s and about ;
birds.& "7t is not important to get an e:act count because we are
inferring that the images are birds, tracks or other animals. This is
very sub2ective.&
$. Then have students count the number of other animals. "About 46.&
Total the number of birds6tracks and other animals. "About +5.& Set up
a ratio of the number of birds6tracks to number of total animals.
"$4:+5.& >Are the birds6tracks half of all the animal petroglyphs, less
than half or more than halfD "More than half.& .o you think that you
would find this same ratio in other +etroglyph areasD BhyD?
). >Bhy do you think they made bird petroglyphsD? "Maybe to honor
the bird, to as- for its !rotection or !ower, etc. #hese answers are all
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UNIT 13
EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
inferences.& <7n what ways were birds important to the ancient +ueblo
peopleD? "Food, clothing, feathers for ceremonies,
teaching ,alues, etc.&
Many birds remain culturally important to todayKs +ueblo people.
1u!tua! Im2&ta#ce &% 3i$s:
Sun birds! hummingbirds, parrot, macaw
Sky birds! eagle, hawk, IknifewingI
Bar birds! eagle, roadrunner, flicker, woodpecker, 2ays, nuthatch,
canyon wren
Funter birds! eagle, hawk, falcon
-arth bird! turkey
Bater birds! ducks, snipes, killdeer, crane
Summer birds! warbler, meadowlark, orioles
Binter birds! horned larks, 2unco, bluebirds
0ight birds! nighthawk, owls
Messenger birds! shrikes, mocking bird, eagles
.eath birds! vulture, catbird, owl
Assessme#t: Fave students write a paragraph responding to the <uestion,
>Bhy was it important for Swift -agle to talk to the boys about life being a
very sacred thingD? Fave students relate their answer to an e:ample from
their own lives. ";se the A- format G Answer the <uestion, ite reasons
from the te:t for your answer, -:pand by relating it back to an e:ample from
your own life.&
Ot'e E4te#si&# Activities! There are some wonderful e:tension activities
about agriculture, foods, pottery, etc. in the three curriculum guides. These
will help the students understand what life was like in early +ueblo times.
They are listed under -:tension Activities, p. ::ii.
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UNIT 13
EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
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EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
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UNIT 13
EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
U#it 135 Ea!) Li%e i# t'e Te6a W&!$
MAI7E: SA1RED -RAIN OF THE AMERI1AS
stu$e#t i#%&mati&# s'eet
Fow many of you en2oy
eating popcorn, corn on the cob,
posole or cornbreadD Be can thank
the native people of Me:ico and the
Ancestral +ueblo people of the
Southwest for the development of
corn. orn was originally called
mai1e "ma=1 in Spanish& but today
we call it corn, and its scientific
name is =ia mays.
About 5,(C8
years ago the early
people who lived in the
mountains of southern
Me:ico discovered that
the seeds of a special
grass called Te&si#te could be
roasted and popped like our popcorn.
They began to take care of these
plants and gradually developed
larger ears and many varieties of
mai,e. The seeds were dried and
stored for planting in the spring and
for times of drought. This was the
beginning of the $&mesticati&# of
corn.
As early as $C88 years ago,
mai1e reached the southwest as the
native people traded with each other.
@ver hundreds of years these early
farmers developed mai1e seeds that
grew on even larger cobs and were
many different colors.
A*icu!tue developed as
more families came together in large
s and needed more food to eat. The
Ancestral +ueblo farmers also
domesticated beans and s<uash.
Along with corn, they were
considered sacred plants because
they fed the people and together they
were known as T'e T'ee Sistes.
Lack of water in the deserts of
the southwest made farming very
challenging. The corn, as well as
beans and s<uash, needed water to
grow. The Ancestral +ueblo farmers
developed many ways to capture the
water from winter snows and
;nit #$ - '
#he two oldest maize cobs in the (ew
2orld from Guil> (a?uitz a,e, Me@ico.
#he bottom cob is about 4 in. long. 1From
Pi!erno and Flannery, 6AA43
UNIT 13
EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
summer rains. -i$ *a$e#s were
made by lining up large rocks,
sometimes the si1e of a football, in
s<uare patterns. 7nside the s<uares
they placed a layer of small river
rocks or gravel. The corn, beans and
s<uash seeds were planted among
these rocks. The rocks kept the
ground moist and warm in spring
and moist and cool in the summer.
@n Mesa +rieta some of these
ancient grid gardens can still be
seen. The Ancestral +ueblo people
knew how to live well in a dry,
desert landscape.
7n order to make food for their
families, the +ueblo women would
rub two corn cobs together. That
would make the 8e#e!s come off.
;sing a large, flat rock called a
metate and a smaller rock, called a
ma#&, the women would grind the
hard kernels into corn meal. They
used corn meal to thicken stews and
to make corn cakes. Just like mai1e,
beans and s<uash were dried for
storage. The beans that the +ueblo
people ate were smaller than our
pinto beans but they were cooked the
same way by boiling in water. Bhen
they ate the corn and beans together,
they ate a complete protein. The
s<uash gave them many vitamins.
The Three Sisters kept the +ueblo
people very healthy. Bhen we eat
the Three Sisters today it helps us to
stay healthy.
The most important thing
about corn is its sacredness. 0ative
people in all parts of the Americas
grow corn for food and also for use
in ceremonies and for prayers. The
corn plants are treated with great
respect. Sacred corn meal and corn
pollen are sometimes carried in a
pouch and sprinkled on the ground
;nit #$ - #8
orn Dance eremony Myth, 4;5B, by
&gnacio Mo?uino 12a-a3, =ia Pueblo.
(M De!artment of ultural Affairs
UNIT 13
EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
as a prayer. -ars of corn are often
carried during corn dances. As you
watch the corn dance at a local
+ueblo, you too can thank the corn
for all the good food that it gives
you. And before you leave the
+ueblo, be sure to thank the spirits of
the ancient +ueblo farmers who
domesticated the corn.
U#it 135 Ea!) Li%e i# t'e Te6a W&!$
AN1ESTRAL "UE3LO FARMIN- METHODS+ 1A"TIONS
Stu$e#t Activit) S'eet
1'ec8 Dams: heck dams were built across arroyos. They were used to catch
the soil and slow down the water which reduces erosion. Many different crops
were planted behind the dams.
Li#ea 3&$es: Linear borders were low lines of stones built across hills. Soil
that was washed down the hillside was caught behind the borders and became a
good place to plant.
-i$ -a$e#s: 4rid gardens were similar to waffle gardens but had walls
made of stones rather than mud. They were much larger than waffle gardens
and were probably used to grow corn and beans.
-ave! Mu!c'e$ Fie!$s! Mulch is any material that is placed on top of soil to
hold the moisture in. The Ancestral +ueblo farmers often mulched their grid
gardens with gravel and small stones. This reduced the wind and water erosion
as well as holding in the moisture.
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UNIT 13
EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
Ii*ati&#: 7rrigation was used to bring water from a stream or river to the
fields. They did this by digging ditches from the stream or river to the fields.
They blocked the ditch when they wanted the water to stop.
U#it 135 Ea!) Li%e i# t'e Te6a W&!$
AN1ESTRAL "UE3LO FARMIN- METHODS+ DRAWIN-S
Stu$e#t Activit) S'eet
.rawings by /o:anne Swent1ell, from
IBater Farvesting Traditions in the
.esert Southwest,I by Joel 4lan1berg,
+ermaculture .esign Journal, 0o. (8,
August #''), pp. 3-#(.
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UNIT 13
EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
U#it 135 Ea!) Li%e i# t'e Te6a W&!$
"UE3LO FOODS: AN ENDURIN- TRADITION
Stu$e#t I#%&mati&# S'eet
by .r. 4regory a2eteL
Traditional foods have been very
important to +ueblo people for a long
time. Traditional foods connect the
+ueblo people to their land, to their
community and to their traditional way
of life. +ueblo people have lived in the
Southwest for ten thousand years.
.uring this time they have gotten their
foods by hunting, gathering and
gardening. *or the +ueblo people, food
was not 2ust a way to survive. *ood was
special and sacred. *oods like corn are
sacred in +ueblo traditions. Iorn is
who we are,I is a phrase used by some
+ueblo elders. 7t captures the way
+ueblo people feel about the
importance of corn.
7n +ueblo tradition, corn is a symbol of
how the people have survived in the
Southwest environment. orn, along
with deer, elk, buffalo and other wild
game, represents the plants and animals
that have given life to the +ueblo
people. This special life-giving
relationship is celebrated in +ueblo
planting, harvesting and rain dances.
These ceremonies are done in a yearly
cycle that represents how the earth
gives life. Easket weaving and making
pots are also part of the traditional
IwayI to show respect for the life-
giving force of food.
7n the last few generations, the
traditional +ueblo way of life has
changed. Some of these changes have
taken place because +ueblo people have
had to adapt to the stresses of Imodern
life.I ... These changes in the traditional
way of life have brought about diseases
like diabetes and heart disease.
0ow that some +ueblo people have
seen what these changes have done to
the health and well being of their
communities, they are going back to
traditional ways. They are going back
to traditional foods and becoming more
active. They are looking back to +ueblo
traditions so they can make wise
choices and become stronger.
This reading was adapted from
I7ndigenous *oods, 7ndigenous Fealth! A
+ueblo +erspectiveI from! Fealth,
0utrition and Traditional *oods, a2ete, et
al., Fealth /esource enter of 0ew
Me:ico - M#''3.
"Adapted from Cife on the 0io Grande: A
Diabetes "ducation urriculum, Grades
5- D. Ana onsuelo and Associates, Santa
*e, 0M, n.d., p. C&
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UNIT 13
EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
L.r. 4regory a2ete is from Santa lara
+ueblo and is a professor at the ;niversity
of 0ew Me:ico.
U#it 135 Ea!) Li%e i# t'e Te6a W&!$
-RANDMOTHER9S STORY Stu$e#t I#%&mati&# S'eet
This is my
4randmother, Lucy ata. Be live
in San Juan +ueblo.L She has
diabetes. .iabetes runs in our
family. My 4randpa had it too.
My 4randmother got diabetes
when she was fifty years old. She
is seventy years old now and sheKs
still going strong. She learned to
take care of her diabetes. My
4randmother says she doesnKt
want us to get diabetes. She wants
us to be healthy and strong.
My 4randmother tells us stories
about how things used to be. She
says that a long time ago, 0ative
people didnKt have diabetes. They
lived a healthy life. They worked
in the fields, hunted and gathered
their foodH they took care of their
animals, chased after children and
walked everywhere. The foods
they ate were healthy and fresh.
0ow, modern life has changed the
way 0ative people live. They
donKt work with their hands and
bodies as much as they did before.
They donKt chase the children
because the children are watching
T,. They donKt walk everywhere
because they drive their cars.
Another thing that has changed is
the way 0ative people eat. 7nstead
of eating fresh food that they have
grown or traded for, they might
eat too much food that comes in
cans or bags. Some people call it
2unk food. They might eat stuff
with too much fat, sugar and salt.
4randmother says things have
changed. 7tKs not the Igood old
daysI anymore.
Bhen 4randmother found out she
had diabetes, she went to a doctor
and a wise medicine man. They
both said the same thing. ITry to
;nit #$ - #)
UNIT 13
EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
go back to the way it was in the
Kgood old days.K 4o back to the
way your ancestors used to live.
Take the new but donKt leave the
old ways behind.I
So my 4randmother started
changing back to the way it was.
She doesnKt eat 2unk food
anymore, only once in a while.
She eats healthy meals that
include meat, vegetables, grains
and fruit. She walks to her
neighborKs house instead of taking
the car. She goes to the doctor and
gets medicine and checks her
diabetes.
The grandchildren can help too.
Bhen we come home from
school, we tell her, ILetKs go for a
walk, 4randmaNI Be walk in the
fields sometimes. Sometimes we
go by the river and she tells us
stories about how things used to
be... Iin the good old days.I
"Adapted from Cife on the 0io Grande: A
Diabetes "ducation urriculum, Grades
5-D. Ana onsuelo and Associates, Santa
*e, 0M, n.d., p. #5.&
LThe people of San Juan +ueblo now use
its Tewa name, @hkay @wingeh.
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UNIT 13
EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
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EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
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EARLY LIFE IN THE TEWA WORLD
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