OSPF Notes

• Two tier hierarchical design
• Dijkstra’s algorithm – shortest path first
o Used to calculate est paths to destinations
o !ased on link state dataase
o "ach router in OSPF runs SPF itself
• OSPF neighor tale – #djacenc$ Dataase
• OSPF topolog$ tale – OSPF topolog$ D! – %SD!
• &outing tale – Forwarding D!
• Two area t$pes
o Transit – ackone – area '
o &egular – user access – all other areas
o #ll regular areas must connect to area '
o #reas minimi(e routing tales
o %ocali(e impact of topolog$ changes
o Stop detailed %S# floods at area oundaries
• #!& – area ackone router
o Functions as default route or default path out of area
o Separates %S# flood (ones
o )onnects multiple areas
• D&*!D& – designated router * ackup designated router
o +ulticast address for D&*!D& ,,-.'.'./
o #ll other routers on network form adjacenc$ with D&*!D&
o %S#’s are onl$ e0changed with these two
o #ll other routers called D&OT1"&s
o "lected $ highest priorit$ 2default priorit$ is 34
 Priorit$ (ero cannot e elected D&*!D&
• Ip ospf priority {#} interface command
 )hanging D&*!D& priorit$ to (ero takes effect immediatel$
 )hanging priorit$ on D&OT1"& to something else has no effect
until re5election
 6f tie in priorit$7 highest router56D 2acti8e 6P interface4 is used to
reak tie
o #n$ new routers rought onto the network will form full adjacenc$ with
dr*dr and two wa$ state with other neighors.
o )hanging priorit$ to (ero on a D&*!D& will take effect immediatel$.
• #S!&
o )onnects the OSPF #S to an outside #S
o &edistriution point
• Fi8e OSPF Packet t$pes
o 1ello – disco8er and uilding adjacenc$
 1ello packets are sent e8er$ 3' seconds on multi access networks
 Dead inter8al is - times hello inter8al
o Dataase description – D!D*DDP – checks for d s$nchroni(ation
o %ink5state re9uest – re9uests specific link5state records
o %ink5state update – response to %S&
o %ink5state ack – acknowledges other packet t$pes
• Operational States
o Down
o 6nit state – routers multicast initial hello 2,,-.'.'.:4
o Two wa$ – routers send unicast hellos listing neighors
o "0start – master*sla8e relationship estalished with D&*!D&
o "0change – DDPs are e0changed
o %oading – %S&s for specific networks
o Full – all %SD!s are s$nchroni(ed with D&*!D&. &outers are ale to
route traffic
• )ommunication
o ,,-.'.'.: multicast to e8er$one
o ,,-.'.'./ multicast to D&*!D&
o %S#cks are sent unicast
o %SD! summaries are multicast e8er$ ;' minutes
 "ntries ha8e a ma0 life of /' minutes
o ;, it se9uence numers are used for link5state ad8ertisements
 The se9uence numer can e seen with the <show ip ospf
dataase= command
o %oopack interfaces are recommended for stailit$ and &6D
 &6D can e manuall$ set using router-id router configuration
• 6f &6D was set with loopack7 a router reoot is re9uired
for the router-id command to take effect
• 6f &6D was set with router-id command7 it can e changed
with <clear ip ospf process= command
• Network T$pes
o Point to Point
 +ulticast ,,-.'.'.: to disco8er neighors
 No D&*!D&
 ip unnumered is possile o8er point to point links
 3'*-' hello*dead inter8al
o !roadcast
 D&*!D& are the central point of contact in the network
o Non roadcast multi5access
 !$ default7 OSPF cannot form neighor adjacencies
 D&*!D& elections ecome crucial
• 1u*spoke7 not all spoke sites can communicate directl$
 Three topologies
• Full mesh – costl$7 re9uires separate >)’s for connecti8it$
etween each site
• Partial mesh
• Star – hu*spoke
 +odes of operation
• Ip ospf network {mode} interface command
• !roadcast – )isco Proprietar$
o ?#N links are treated like %#N interfaces
o +ulticast hello for disco8er
o Full*partial mesh
• Non roadcast – &F) )ompliant
o One 6P sunet for all spokes
o Neighors are manuall$ configured
o D&*!D& is also manuall$ rigged*configured to
insure connecti8it$ to D&
• Point to multi5point – &F) )ompliant
o +ulticast hello for disco8er
o No D&*!D& 2re9uires additional %S#s4
o +esh*star
• point to multi5point non roadcast – )isco Proprietar$
o Used in place of P,+P where roadcasts and
multicast are disaled
o Neighors are manuall$ configured
• point to point – )isco Proprietar$
o Different 6P sunet on each interface
o No D&*!D& elected or needed
o %#N or ?#N interface
• Default +odes
o Point to point F& – point to point mode
o +ultipoint F& 2suinterfaces4 – non roadcast
o main F& interface – non roadcast
• N! mode neighor configuration
o Neighbor {ip} priority {@ default '} poll-interval
{#} cost {1-6!} database-filter all
mode prefer topo sunet hello timer adjacenc$ &F) e0ample
cast Full*partial Same 3' sec #uto D& )isco %#N
non cast Full*partial Same ;' sec +anual D& &F) F&
p,mp Partial*star Same ;' sec #uto no D& &F) F& cast
p,mp n Partial*star Same ;' sec +anual )isco F& ncast
p,p Partial*star Diff 3' sec #uto no D& )isco serial*su
• %S# T$pes
o &outer %S# – t$pe 3
 6ntra#rea %S# generated $ e8er$ router in the area. #d8ertises
link states. The %S6D A &6D of originator
o Network %S# – t$pe ,
 Network %S# generated for +ultiaccess networks
 Benerated $ D& – %S6D A &6D of D&
o Summar$ %S# – t$pe ;
 Summar$ ad8ertisements generated $ #!&
 Summari(es t$pe 3 %S#s from one area to another
 Descries routes to area’s networks 2aggregate routes4
 %S6D A destination network @
 Not flooded to stu$7 totall$ stu$7 or not so stu$ areas
 &outes are NOT automaticall$ summari(ed
o Summar$ %S# – t$pe -
 Benerated $ #!& to ad8ertise the presence of an #S!&. #S!&
sends t$pe 3 with e5it set to 6D itself
 &outes to #S!&
 %S6D A &6D of descrie #S!&
 Not flooded to stu$7 totall$ stu$7 or not so stu$ areas
 &outes are NOT automaticall$ summari(ed
o #S "0ternal %S# – t$pe :
 Benerated $ #S!&s to ad8ertise e0ternal networks and
autonomous s$stems. %S6D A e0ternal network @
 )ontains all routes separatel$7 unless manuall$ summari(ed
 #!&s pass t$pe : %S#s on to the rest of the #S
o +ulticast OSPF %S# – t$pe /
o NSS# "0ternal %S# – t$pe C
 #S!& in a stu$ area that needs to pass e0ternal routes ack into
the #S. Stu$ area needs to e reclassified as NSS# to allow
those routes.
 #!& recei8es t$pe C %S#s and forwards them as t$pe : to the rest
of the #S
o "0ternal %S# for !BP – t$pe D
• )ost*+etric
o 3''mps*link speed A cost
 "0ample 3''mps interface has cost 3
 Unfortunatel$7 3'''mps interface also has cost 3
• "uto-cost reference-bandwidth {ref bw} interface
command to change this eha8ior
 bandwidth {value} interface command to define actual andwidth
 ip ospf cost {value} interface command
• &oute summari(ation
o Occurs at #!&s7 relies on contiguous 6P design
o "rea # range {addr # mask} advertise$not-advertise cost {#}
o &outer will create a summari(ed route to null '
o #S!& Summari(ation
 %ummary-address {addr # mask } tag router config command
• Default route
o &efault-information originate always metric {value}
o Per )isco7 default metric of 3'.
• OSPF #rea T$pes
o Standard #rea
 #ccepts link updates7 route summaries7 and e0ternal routes
o Stu #rea
 !locks t$pe : %S#s. No routes e0ternal to the #S. 6f stus need
to connect to e0ternal #S7 the$ use default routes.
o Totall$ Stu$ #rea
 !locks t$pe ;7 -7 and : %S#s. No e0ternal #S7 no summar$
routes. Uses default route for e8er$thing outside of the local area.
o Not So Stu$ #rea
 #cts like a stu*tsa ut allows #S!& connected to it
 #S!& in an NSS# generates t$pe C %S#
 #!& to NSS# translates T$pe C to T$pe : efore passing along to
the rest of the #S
 &outes from T$pe C %S# show in routing tale as O N3 or O N,
2t$pe , is default4
o Stu*TS#*NSS# configuration
 "rea # stub router configuration command on all routers in area
 "rea # stub no-summary router configuration command on #!&
for TS#
 area # nssa no-summary
o >irtual %inks
 #llow e0tension of #rea ' through another area
 "rea # virtual-link RID where &6D is the &6D of the neighor on
the other side of the >%
 sho ip ospf virtual-links
o 1elpful commands
 %ho ip ospf neighbor
 %ho ip ospf database
 %ho ip ospf ad' this is #DE7 not adjacenc$FFFFFF