Important Articles of Indian Constitution and their Subject Matter

Covered Under Part 1 of the Indian Constitution - Union and States of India - (A
rticle 1 - 4)

Article 1 of the Indian Constitution - Name and Territory of the Union.
(a) India, that is Bharat, shall be a Union of States
(b) The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Sc
hedule
(c) The territory of India shall comprise the territories of the States, the Uni
on territories specified in the First Schedule and such other territories as may
be acquired.
Article 2 of the Indian Constitution - Admission or establishment of new States:
Parliament may by law admit into the Union, or establish, new States on such te
rms and conditions, as it thinks fit.
Article 3 of the Indian Constitution - Formation of new states and alteration of
areas, boundaries or names of existing states. In detail it contains below prov
isions -
# form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two o
r more States or parts of States or by uniting any territory to a part of any St
ate
# increase the area of any State
# diminish the area of any State
# alter the boundaries of any State
# alter the name of any State
Article 4 of the Indian Constitution - Laws made under Articles 2 and 3 to provi
de for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental, inc
idental and consequential matters that is any law referred to in Article 2 or Ar
ticle 3 shall contain such provisions for the amendment of the First Schedule an
d the Fourth Schedule as may be necessary to give effect to the provisions of th
e law.
Covered Under Part 2 of the Indian Constitution - Citizenship - (Article 5 - 11)
Article 5 of the Indian Constitution - Citizenship at the commencement of the Co
nstitution.
Article 6 of the Indian Constitution - Rights of citizenship of certain persons
who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
Article 7 of the Indian Constitution - Rights of citizenship of certain migrants
to Pakistan.
Article 8 of the Indian Constitution - Rights of citizenship of certain persons
of Indian origin residing outside India.
Article 9 of the Indian Constitution - Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship
of a foreign State not to be citizens.
Article 10 of the Indian Constitution - Continuance of the rights of citizenship
.
Article 11 of the Indian Constitution - Parliament to regulate the right of citi
zenship by law.
Covered Under Part 3 of the Indian Constitution - Fundamental Rights - (Article
12 - 35)
Article 13 of the Indian Constitution - Laws inconsistent with or in derogation
of the fundamental rights.
Article 14 of the Indian Constitution - Equality before law.
Article 16 of the Indian Constitution - Equality of opportunity in matters of pu
blic employment.
Article 17 of the Indian Constitution - Abolition of Untouchability.
Article 19 of the Indian Constitution - Protection of certain rights regarding f
reedom of speech, etc.
Article 21 of the Indian Constitution - Protection of life and personal liberty.
Article 21A of the Indian Constitution - Right to elementary education.
Article 25 of the Indian Constitution - Freedom of conscience and free professio
n, practice and propagation of Religion.
Article 30 of the Indian Constitution - Right of minorities to establish and adm
inister educational institutes.
Article 31C of the Indian Constitution - Certain Directive Principles were given
power and effect.
Article 32 of the Indian Constitution - Remedies for enforcement of fundamental
rights including writs.
Covered Under Part 4 of the Indian Constitution - Directive Principles of State
Policy - (Article 36 - 51)
Article 38 of the Indian Constitution - State to secure a social order for the p
romotion of welfare of people.
Article 40 of the Indian Constitution - Organization of Village Panchayats.
Article 44 of the Indian Constitution - Uniform Civil Code for the Citizens.
Article 45 of the Indian Constitution - Provision for early childhood care and e
ducation to children below the age of 6 years.
Article 46 of the Indian Constitution - Promotion of educational and economic in
terests of scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and other weaker sections.
Article 50 of the Indian Constitution - Separation of Judiciary from Executive.
Article 51 of the Indian Constitution - Promotion of International Peace and Sec
urity.
Covered Under Part 4-A of the Indian Constitution - Fundamental Duties
Article 51A of the Indian Constitution - Fundamental Duties.
Covered Under Part 5 of the Indian Constitution - Union Government - (Article 52
- 151)
Article 72 of the Indian Constitution - Power of President to grant pardons, etc
. and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.
Article 74 of the Indian Constitution - Council of Ministers to aid and advise t
he President.
Article 78 of the Indian Constitution - Duties of Prime Minister as the furnishi
ng of information to the President and if the President so requires, to submit f
or the consideration of the Council of Ministers any matter on which a decision
has been taken by a Minister but which has not been considered by the Council.
Article 110 of the Indian Constitution - Definition of Money Bills.
Article 112 of the Indian Constitution - Annual financial statement that is the
Budget.
Article 123 of the Indian Constitution - Power of President to promulgate ordina
nces during recess of Parliament.
Article 143 of the Indian Constitution - Power of President to consult Supreme C
ourt.
Covered Under Part 6 of the Indian Constitution - State Government - (Article 15
2 - 237)
Article 155 of the Indian Constitution - Appointment of the Governor by the Pres
ident.
Article 161 of the Indian Constitution - Power of Governor to grant pardons, etc
and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.
Article 163 of the Indian Constitution - Council of Ministers to advise and aid
the Governor.
Article 167 of the Indian Constitution - Duties of Chief Minister with regarding
to the furnishing of information to the Governor.
Article 169 of the Indian Constitution - Abolition and creation of legislative c
ouncil in states.
Article 200 of the Indian Constitution - Assent to bill by Governor including th
e reservation of the bill for the consideration of the President if the Governor
feels the need of this.
Article 213 of the Indian Constitution - Power of Governor to promulgate ordinan
ces during recess of State Legislatures.
Article 226 of the Indian Constitution - Power of High Courts to issue certain w
rits.
Covered Under Part 7 of the Indian Constitution -
Article 238 of the Indian Constitution - It was repealed by 7th Amendment Act 19
56 which contained provisions related to A and B category of States.
Covered Under Part 8 of the Indian Constitution - Administration of Union Territ
ories - (Article 239 - 241)
Article 239AA of the Indian Constitution - Special Provisions with respect to De
lhi.
Covered Under Part 9 of the Indian Constitution -
Article 242 - 243 of the Indian Constitution - It was repealed by 7th Amendment
Act 1956 which contained provisions related to C and D category of States.
Later by 73rd and 74th Amendment Act 1992, Article 243 was added which is now co
mprised of provisions related to Panchayati Raj Institutions.
Covered Under Part 10 of the Indian Constitution -
Article (244 - 244 A) of the Indian Constitution - Provision of Scheduled Areas
and Tribal Areas.
Covered Under Part 11 of the Indian Constitution - Relation between Union and St
ates - (Article 245 - 263)
Article 249 of the Indian Constitution - Power of Parliament to legislate with r
espect to a matter in the State List in the national interest.
Article 262 of the Indian Constitution - Adjudicating of disputes relating to wa
ters of inter-state rivers or river valleys.
Article 263 of the Indian Constitution - Provisions with respect to an inter sta
te council.
Covered Under Part 12 of the Indian Constitution - Finance, Property, Contracts
and Suits - (Article 264 - 300)
Article 265 of the Indian Constitution - Taxes not be imposed save by authority
of law.
Article 275 of the Indian Constitution - Grants from the Union to certain states
.
Article 280 of the Indian Constitution - Finance Commission.
Article 300 of the Indian Constitution - Suits and proceedings.
Article 300A of the Indian Constitution - Persons not to be deprived of property
save by authority of law that is Right to Property. This right was initially a
fundamental right but later it was removed from the list of fundamental rights.
Covered Under Part 13 of the Indian Constitution - (Article 301 - 307)
Trade, Commerce and Travel.
Covered Under Part 14 of the Indian Constitution - Services Under the Union and
States - (Article 308 - 323)
Article 311 of the Indian Constitution - Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank
of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State.
Article 312 of the Indian Constitution - All India Services.
Article 315 of the Indian Constitution - Public Service Commission for the Union
and for the States.
Article 320 of the Indian Constitution - Functions of Public Service Commissions
.
Covered Under Part 14-A of the Indian Constitution -
Article 323-A and Article 323-B of the Indian Constitution - Central Administrat
ive Tribunals (CAT).
Covered Under Part 15 of the Indian Constitution - Elections and the Election Co
mmission - (Article 324 - 329)
Article 324 of the Indian Constitution - Superintendence, direction and control
of elections to be vested in an Election Commission.
Covered Under Part 16 of the Indian Constitution - Special status related to SC,
ST and Anglo Indians - (Article 330 - 342)
Article 330 of the Indian Constitution - Reservation of seats for Scheduled Cast
es and Scheduled Tribes in the House of People.
Article 335 of the Indian Constitution - Claims of Schedules Castes and Schedule
d Tribes to services and posts.
Covered Under Part 17 of the Indian Constitution - Official Languages - (Article
343 - 351)
Covered Under Part 18 of the Indian Constitution - Emergency Provisions - (Artic
le 352 - 360)
Article 352 of the Indian Constitution - Proclamation of Emergency that is Natio
nal Emergency.
Article 356 of the Indian Constitution - Provisions in case of failure of Consti
tutional machinery in States that leads to the imposition of President's Rule.
Article 360 of the Indian Constitution - Provisions as the Financial Emergency.
Covered Under Part 19 of the Indian Constitution - Judicial immunity to the Pres
ident and the Governor - (Article 361 - 367)
Article 365 of the Indian Constitution - Effect of failure to comply with, or to
give effect to, directions given by the Union.
Covered Under Part 20 of the Indian Constitution -
Article 368 of the Indian Constitution - Power of Parliament to amend the Consti
tution and procedure thereof.
Covered Under Part 21 of the Indian Constitution - Temporary, Transitional and S
pecial Provisions - (Article 369 - 392)
Article 370 of the Indian Constitution - Temporary provisions with respect to th
e state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Covered Under Part 22 of the Indian Constitution - Short title and commencement
of the Constitution - (Article 393 - 395)
The first Amendment Act to the Indian Constitution was made in the year 1951
According to it, Articles 15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 376 were amended a
nd Articles 31A and 3IB inserted and Ninth Schedule was added.
The Constitution (24th Amendment) Act, 1971: It affirmed the power of the Parlia
ment to amend any part of the Constitution. After this amendment, the President
is bound to assent to Constitution Amendment Bill. Education was transferred to
the Concurrent List by this amendment.
The Constitution (31st Amendment) Act, 1973: increased the elective strength of
the Lok Sabha from 525 to 545. Under the Act, the upper limit of representatives
of the States goes up from 500 to 525 and that of the Union Territories decreas
es from 25 to 20.
The Constitution (36th Amendment) Act, 1975: By this Act, Sikkim became the 22nd
State of the Indian Union.
The Constitution (37th Amendment) Act, 1975: was passed by Parliament on April 2
6, 1975, to provide for a Legislative Assembly and a Council of Ministers to Aru
nachal Pradesh, the countrys north-easternmost Union Territory.
The Constitution (39th Amendment) Act, 1975: The Bill was passed by the Lok Sabh
a on August 7 and received Presidential assent on August 9,1975. The Act places
beyond challenge in courts the election to Parliament of a person holding the of
fice of Prime Minister or Speaker and the election of President and Vice-Preside
nt.
The Constitution (40th Amendment) Act, 1976: This Amendment has a three-fold obj
ective: (1) It places beyond challenge in courts some major Central laws; (2) It
gives similar protection to several State enactments, mostly relating to land l
egislation, by including them in the Ninth Schedule of the Constitution; and (3)
It provides that the limits of the territorial waters, the Continental Shelf, t
he Exclusive Economic Zone and the maritime zones of India shall be specified fr
om time to time by law made by Parliament.
The Constitution (42nd Amendment) Act, 1976: It was enacted during the period of
internal emergency. It was passed by Parliament on November 11, 1976 and receiv
ed Presidential assent on December 18, 1976.
The Amendment established beyond doubt the supremacy of Parliament over the oth
er wings of Government; gave the Directive Principles precedence over the Fundam
ental Rights; enumerated for the first time a set of ten Fundamental Duties. It
further imposed limits on the power and jurisdiction of the judiciary; raised th
e term of the Lok Sabha and the Vidhan Sabha from five to six years; authorised
the use of Central armed forces in any State to deal with law and order problems
, made the President bound by the advice of the Council of Ministers and envisag
ed the establishment of administrative tribunals for service matters of Governme
nt employees and also other tribunals for economic offences. The Act also clearl
y laid down that no Constitutional Amendment could be questioned in any court of
law.
The Constitution (43rd Amendment) Act, 1978: It received the Presidential assent
on April 13, 1978. This Act repeals the obnoxious provisions of the Constitutio
n (42nd Amendment) Act passed during the Emergency. It restores civil liberties
by deleting Article 3ID which gave powers to Parliament to curtail even legitima
te trade union activity under the guise of legislation for the prevention of ant
i-national activities. The new law, which was ratified by more than half of the
States in accordance with the Constitution, also restores legislative powers to
the States to make appropriate provision for anti-national activities consistent
with the Fundamental Rights. Under the Act, the judiciary has also been restore
d to its rightful place. The Supreme Court will now have power to invalidate Sta
te laws, a power taken away by the 42nd Amendment Act. The High Courts will also
be able to go into the question of constitutional validity of Central laws ther
eby enabling persons living in distant places to obtain speedy justice without h
aving to come to the Supreme Court.
The Constitution (44th Amendment) Act, 1978: The Constitution (45 th Amendment)
Bill, re-numbered as the 44th Amendment came into force on April 30, 1979, when
the President gave his assent. The Act removes major distortions in the Constitu
tion introduced during the Emergency. The duration of the Lok Sabha and State Le
gislative Assemblies has been reduced from six to five yearsthe normal term which
was extended during the Emergencyunder the 42nd Amendment to achieve some polit
ical purposes. The Right to Property ceases to be a Fundamental Right and become
s only a legal right according to the Constitution 44th Amendment. The Act also
extends, for the first time since independence, constitutional protection for pu
blication of the proceedings of Parliament and State Legislatures, except in cas
es where it is proved to be malicious. Another important feature of the Act is tha
t any proclamation of Emergency need henceforward, be issued by the President on
ly after receiving the advice of the Cabinet as a whole in writing. The Presiden
t will not be called upon to act on the basis of advice by the Prime Minister on
his own without consulting his Cabinet. Other safeguards provide that the procl
amation will have to be adopted by a two-thirds majority of the members of both
Houses of Parliament within a month. The 44th Amendment provides safeguards agai
nst future subversion of the Constitution for establishing an authoritarian regi
me. It contains provisions which are designed to make it impossible to impose th
e kind of emergency the country had experienced for 19 months.
The Constitution (45th Amendment) Act, 1980: The Act extends reservation of seat
s for the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes in Parliament and the State
Assemblies and the representation of Anglo-Indians by nomination for a further p
eriod of 10 years.
The Constitution (46th Amendment) Bill, 1982: It seeks to authorise the governme
nt to prepare an authoritative text of the Constitution, in Hindi.
The Constitution (52nd Amendment) Act, 1985: The Act has made defection to anoth
er party, after elections illegal. Any member defecting to another party after e
lections will be disqualified from being member of Parliament or State Legislatu
re.
The Constitution (53rd Amendment) Act, 1986: It confers Statehood on Mizoram and
ensures against unnecessary interference by the Central Government with the law
s relating to spheres of social relationship and community conduct applicable to
Mizoram.
The Constitution (54th Amendment) Act, 1986: It enhances the salaries of Judges
of High Courts and Supreme Court of India. The salary of Chief Justice of India
will be Rs 10,000; Chief Justice of High Courts Rs 9000; Judges of Supreme Court
Rs 9000; and Judges of High Courts Rs 8000.
The Constitution (55th Amendment) Act, 1987: It grants Statehood to Arunachal Pr
adesh which consequently became the 24th State of the Indian Union.
The Constitution (56th Amendment) Act, 1987: It confers Statehood on Goa and for
ms a new Union Territory of Daman and Diu. Goa thus became the 25th State of the
Indian Republic.
The Constitution (57th Amendment) Act, 1987: It made a special provision for the
setting up of the new State of Goa. Consequently Daman and Diu were separated f
rom the former to form a Union Territory.
The Constitution (58th Amendment) Act, 1988: It provides for special arrangement
s with regard to reservation of seats for Scheduled Tribes in the States of Arun
achal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya. By amending Article 322 the adju
stment of seats has been frozen until 2000 A.D.
The Constitution (59th Amendment) Act, 1988: It empowered the Central Government
to impose Emergency in Punjab when deemed necessary. Under the amendment, Presi
dents rule can be extended upto three years. Earlier maximum period was two years
.
The Constitution (61st Amendment) Act, 1989: It lowered the voting age from 21 t
o 18.
The Constitution (62nd Amendment) Act, 1989: It provided for the extension by an
other 10 years of reservation of seats in the Parliament and State Assemblies fo
r the Scheduled Castes and Tribes and reservation for Anglo Indian community by
nomination.
The Constitution (63rd Amendment) Act, 1989: It repealed Amendment 59 which empo
wered the government to impose emergency in Punjab.
The Constitution (64th Amendment) Act, 1990: It extended the Presidents rule in P
unjab by six months.
The Constitution (66th Amendment) Act, 1990: To bring land reforms within the pu
rview of 9th Schedule of the Constitution.

The Constitution (69th Amendment) Act, 1991: Delhi made National Capital Region.
The Act also made provision for Legislative assembly and a council of ministers
for Delhi.

The Constitution (70th Amendment) Act, 1992: Before this act was made Article 54
relating to the election of the President provided for an electoral college con
sisting only of the elected members of Parliament as well as the legislative ass
emblies of the States (not of Union Territories). The amendment provide for incl
usion of members of legislature of Pondicherry and Delhi.

The Constitution (71st Amendment) Act, 1992: The act amends the 8th Schedule to
the Constitution to include Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali Languages in the 8th Sc
hedule of the Constitution.
The Constitution (72nd Amendment) Act, 1992: To make temporary provision for the
determination of the number of seats reserved for the Scheduled Tribes in the S
tate assembly of Tripura, until the re-adjustment of seats is made on the basis
of the first census after the year 2000 under article 170 of the Constitution.

The Constitution (73rd Amendment) Act, 1992: To ensure direct election to all se
ats in Panchayats; to reserve seats for SCs and STs in proportion to their popul
ation; and for reservation of not less than one third of the seats in Panchayats
for women.

The Constitution (74th Amendment) Act, 1992: was made to ensure direct election
to all seats in Nagarpalikas and Municipalities.

The Constitution (75th Amendment) Act 1994: It provides for setting up of State-
level Rent Tribunals to exclude the jurisdiction of all courts, except that of t
he Supreme Court, under Article 136 of the Constitution.

The Constitution (76th Amendment) Act, 1994: It relates to the Reservation of Se
ats in Educational Institutes and of appointments or posts in the Services under
a State, for Backward Classes, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. The Supre
me Court had ruled on November 16, 1992, that the total reservations under Artic
le 16(40) of the Constitution should not exceed 50 per cent.
The Constitution (77th Amendment) Act, 1995: According to this Act, the Governme
nt have decided to continue the existing policy of reservation in promotion for
the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

The Constitution (78th Amendment) Act, 1995: It includes land reform laws in the
Ninth Schedule so that they cannot be challenged before the courts.

The Constitution (79th Amendment) Act, 1999: It extends the reservation of seats
for SC, ST and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies for ne
xt 10 years.

The Constitution (80th Amendment) Act, 2000: It deals with an alternative scheme
for sharing taxes between the Union and the States.
The Constitution (81st Amendment) Act, 2000: It provides that the unfilled vacan
cies of a year reserved for SC/ST kept for being filled up in a year as per Arti
cle 16, shall be considered separately for filling vacancies in the succeeding y
ear and the previous list will not be considered for filling the 50% quota of th
e respective year.

The Constitution (82nd Amendment) Act, 2000: It provides that nothing in the Art
icle 355 shall prevent the State from making any provisions in favour of the mem
bers of SC/ST for relaxation in qualifying marks with respect to examination/job
/promotion.
The Constitution (83rd Amendment) Act, 2000: The Act amended Article 243 M to pr
ovide that no reservation in Panchayats be made in favour of SC/ST in Arunachal
Pradesh where the whole population is tribal.