1 | P a g e

Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
Cross Cultural HRM
Understanding of HRM is a very primary requirement for the further understanding of cross cultural HRM
therefore, we have to link:

A subject can be divided into two Domains:

1. Applied Perspective How to Apply it, it is basically a practical approach, for finding out a particular
solution and to apply it etc.
2. Theoretical Perspective For addition in knowledge.

As an MS student you have to develop the Background knowledge of such applied subjects' perspectives. This
means, that even for the applied purposes, we need to develop background knowledge or make our theoretical
base strong. This helps you to be more accurate about the application and conclusions drawn, after the study
and analysis of the theoretical material, already existing. For example, in Pakistani culture context, what is the
scope of a particular subject? Whatever knowledge is developing that is, theoretical development in a field or
subject; it is intended to be used for applied purposes as well.

Purpose of CCHRM's Subject as a Course:
How to build or develop the Theoretical Foundations for your (student's) Research? And one of the Prime
Purpose for Conducting a Research is the Theoretical Contribution, in a certain field.
This subject is all about one single question and that is; what is the role of Culture in the implementation and
practices of HRM?
As we know that HRM is linked with the I ndustrial Psychology , as in HRM we are dealing and studying about
managing one of the most important, unpredictable, inconsistent variable or factor that is human element, that‟s
why Cross Cultural Psychological aspect is very important to be learned and studied in this perspective of
HRM.

Defining Culture:
Whenever you are defining something, Culture plays its role by influencing the thought process, the perception,
the thinking patterns and even the mind set of individual because no matter whatsoever is going to be explained
or defined, behind its explanation and definition there would be a human mind working, and those definitions
etc would be the outcome and results of his or her interpretations. Therefore even when we talk about the
definition of culture, it is to be kept in mind that even that Definition would be under the influence of the
culture of that particular person, who has developed it.
 Therefore the problem while defining Culture is itself the Influence of Culture over a person, who is
defining it.
HRM
Culture
Cross
Culture
HRM
2 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
 Context plays an important role in everywhere and Culture is a part of Context.
 Culture should be defined according to the objectives of our Research and we need to relate these two
with each other. This means that the definition of culture should be relevant to the problem or topic of
our concern or research, in which we are interested.
 There are tons of available definitions of Culture; therefore we need to review all possible definitions of
Culture for the purpose of adopting or including in our work or research paper.

Definitions of Culture:
In 1906, Sumner wrote a book named Folkways. He states:
"Culture results from the Repetition of Petty acts and these acts are not created by human being; rather they
are products of Natural Forces, which man unconsciously set in operation".
The Webster's Dictionary in 1989 defines culture in the following way:
"Customary beliefs, social norms and mental traits of a racial, religious or social group"
Now there is another way of developing the culture's definition, as we have mentioned earlier that there are
thousands of available definitions of culture, one of the effective way of understanding culture through its
proper definition is to see the commonly used words among all of the definitions of culture, such as Kluckhon
said about that culture is developed through:
 Sharing (one of the most important element in culture)
 Transmission from Generation to generation
 Environment
Characteristics of Culture:
 Dynamic
 Unconsciously changing
 Not Constant/Static
 Changing with time
Epistemological Assumptions:

Starting from the main question that what is epistemology?
"How we acquire knowledge, the methodology to know something or to conduct research, intended to find
out 'Reality' in any Particular area"
"The various efforts that are committed in order to acquire knowledge or reality are known as
Epistemology".
"I t is a systematic process to find out Reality"
There are two ways of explaining reality through:
 Facts and Laws
 Theories

Research:
“It is detailed study of subject, especially in order to discover information or reach an understanding”
You need to decide, which methodology for research has to be used from the following two:

Methodologies of Logical Reasoning:
Deductive and Inductive are two methods of logical reasoning.
1. Inductive  Inductive reasoning works the other way, moving from more specific
observations to broader generalizations and theories. This is often called a bottom up
approach. In inductive reasoning, we begin with specific observations and measures, begin
Observation
Pattern
Testing Hypothesis
Theory
3 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
to detect patterns and regularities, formulate some tentative hypotheses that we can explore, and finally
end up developing some general conclusions or theories.

2. Deductive  Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more
specific often referred to as a top down approach. We may start by thinking up a
theory about our topic, and then narrow it down to more specific hypotheses that
we can test. We then narrow it down even more where we use observations to
address the hypothesis, and then draw our conclusion.


Whenever scientific investigation is involved, it is always using positivism or deduction method. Research is
not subjective but it is Objective.
Reality lies externally in form of data, through analyzing data, we examine the external reality. There are two
kinds of data:
 Hard Data the data that is collected by individual (external effects)
 Soft Data information about things that are difficult to measure such as people's opinions or feelings.

Epistemological Assumption
There are various assumptions that will be discussed in this session. We will be starting from the first
assumption:

1- Biological Assumption:
Darwin's theory of evolution fit below physical characteristics between living organism and their environment
and how physical attributes of population change on time. It is about bringing changes and modifications in
one‟s life etc for surviving in certain environment according to the requirements, changing over time.
 Basic theories are then taken by various experts of different areas and it is the ability of expert/
Researcher to relate it with your area of research.
Toobey and Comsdey in 1992 related Darwin's Theory with Culture and Said:
"Culture is the manufactured product of evolved Psychological Mechanism, suited in individual living in a
group".

Internally
• Acquiring Reality or knowledge through
internal sources, within indvidual or personally
Personally
• this is known as Induction or Social
Construction
Induction or Social
Construction
• this is an old approach and traditional
methodology
Theory
hypothesis
Observation
Confirmation
4 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
With change in environment, there is a change in psychology as well, so that one can survive in an
environment. Different researchers said that it is not possible to explain culture without including the domain of
psychology in it. There are two things that are required in Survival of a being:

1. Psychical
2. Psychological

According to the Biological Assumption; psychological response to the environment is basically culture.
According to Roherm in 1843:
"Culture is basically a psychological response"
That is why we will be studying it in regards with the relationship of:

Roharm's Elaboration:
"The process of becoming civilized, is not result of adaptation to environment, it is through series of
complicated mechanism. The same environment do not compel a Chimpanzee to modify its EGO structure"
The change in culture is brought by the Psychology of human being; this defines the value of psychology.
2
nd
Assumption:
Dynamic Social Impact Theory (DSIT):
In 1981, Latan'e has suggested that:
"People influence and are influenced by others, through the process of communication and communication
means; any social exchange of information"
Now this social exchange of information is not necessarily in the verbal form, but it can have any form like
sharing, seeing, observing, receiving etc. The influence will occur when people will interact and this influence
would be based on the following important elements (the influence will occur):

 Strength  on the basis of :
1. Richness and Power
2. Education
3. Attractiveness
 Immediacy Closeness in:
1. Physical Space
2. Social Space
 Number Influence depends upon the number of people, who share an attribute (majority's influence)

A number of studies and approaches were made by using the theory of DSIT.
While we were talking about Immediacy, it results in Clustering.
Culture
Psychology
HRM's
Psychology
in culture
context
5 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
 People will be alike, who are sharing same geographical regions.
 People in same area, with more interaction, develop regional attitude.
 On the basis of Clustering, even at some places, the product preferences are affected.
For instance, because of immediacy, some practices become more common than others, and everyone starts
sharing those practices and that is how, it becomes as a common shared practice of any particular region. All
this happen because of the clustering or immediacy.

Clustering:
Clustering starts and moves from a short or small level to large, just like from neighbors to a region.
Festanger in 1950, became famous for challenging the theory:
"Behavior determines Attitude, according to him; it can be otherwise, means Attitude can also determine
Behavior".
Correlation:
People living in different cultures, clusters develops correlation with certain things and in most of the cases, it is
not essential to find out a logical relation or reason behind it, for example like food, clothing and products etc.
The correlation and immediacy can vary from region to region (the relation with correlation and clustering).
The correlation even just in case, if it exists, cannot be significant or specific.
Consolidation:
It is a concept that has been adopted because of Globalization, as consolidation is the Reason behind
"Universalism" , possible. Through past, present and coming time we can understand the reduction of
Diversity.
 Culture is not statics rather it is containing gradual change
 Because of the change, diversity reduces with time
 Culture moves towards consolidation

Explanation by other people:
'Majority grows at the cost of minority'.
 As the practices of minorities, are consolidated or over shaded by whatsoever, that has been done by
majority.
 A culture is defined by what has been shared between and by the majority.

Major Independent Discipline of HR today:
1. Traditional HRM
2. Strategic HRM
3. International HRM

Consolidation's impact on HRM/business/organization, as no organization is now restricted or limited to a
particular region or country only.
One of the factors of consolidation is the Globalization and Availability of Information and its access for and to
everyone. The availability of information will increase the consolidation. Once a cluster is developed in a
region, then how those values, cluster or culture have been transferred to the next generation, this also plays an
important role.

One of the important Questions about Consolidation:
Once a cluster is developed in a region, then how those values, that may be named as cluster or culture have
been passed on or transferred to the next generation, either as it is or with some modification by adding or
6 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
subtracting out something from it, that have been considered important, useful valuable or not. This plays a
very important role.

How Culture is passed on?
 Which kinds of information or elements are passed on and which are not transmitted?
 New generations, come up along
with new things, adding up.
 In a particular time, the meanings,
interpretations, importance and
value about things change from
generation to generation.
For instance here is a timeline of
prominent changes that took place over
history in the field:


Now there has been observed a
commonality or similarty in a particular time period, age group or
generation that made psychologists to analyze that how come this similar behavoir has been developed in a
particular generation and how change has been emerged in the generations with the passage of time from the
old or previosu generation. For instance there has been observed in the generation of the time period from 1947
to 1970, that they were highly hardworking and ultimatly very successful in
whatever fields they have worked in. Two things are important to be considered
while talking about this passing on of values or culture to the generations:
 What has been transmitted
 What has been added up by the new generation
Both of these defines and shapes the culture in different ages and times.

Reasons of Passing on:
There are some of the key reasons why culture is transmitted to the next egenration:
 Invovlement
 Hertability
 Attitude towards ethinic group
 Language


Involmenet:
The practices, containing more invlovement of
people, will be retained more such as religiouse
practices etc. although becayse of clustingf and
immediacy, even then there are lots of change
and differences among people at every level.
Hertability (Heritidiy):
Tesser in 1993 said that:
"the bilogical or genetic transmittion of a particular trait to the next generation"

Generation
1
Generation
2
1947
• Baby Boomers
1960
• Hard working
1980
• Things Settle Down
1999
• Computer's Development
2010
• Want of Change
family level City Level Country Level
7 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
Attitude towards an Ethnic Group:
A similarty and unified attutide has been seen in a particular nation or culture against or versus another ethnic
groups, just like the way there is a high level of dislikness in Pakistan against India. Thus there is a particular,
specified and commonly shared attitude observed( in favor or against) towards any other nation or group etc.

Languages:
It is a socially spreadable element of a culture. Language of powerful and influences spreads more and becomes
ultimatly part of culture or reflection fo that culture, just like the trend of american english speaking
style.Majority along with 'Geographical Placement', works
as a factor, affecting spreads languages. Following is a
comaprison between two regional languages:
There is difference ofvocabulary and accent is there in
languages. According to Sampert (2001) there were 15000
langauges in 15
th
centruy and 6800 languages in 2001. This shows that one langauge merges down into another
(another form of consolidation). As with the passage of time different langauges merge into each other.

Frequency of words used:
If kids are not hearing their parents using the words from their parents or sarroundings, they will be obseleate.








American rides
elevator with
headlights and a
wrench
United
States
Briyisher rides a
lift with tourch
and spanner
British
8 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
Following questions will
help the student to know
about the nature of questions
that comes usually, from
articles:
 What are these Emic
and Etic?
 How they have
emerged?
 What was the Reason
behind their
emergences?

Discussing the CCHRM, as a Discipline:
First we will try to define and explain culture and HRM separately, and then we will move to CCHRM for
better understanding of the subject of our study. As we have mentioned earlier that HRM without psychology is
nothing, not a single domain of HRM is without the integration and influence of Psychology and talking about
the reason behind it, as we said before, because of the human element involved in HRM, where we are not
dealing with motors or machines but technically, physically, socially, mentally and psychologically completely
different and separate individual, who may posses similarities but can't be identical at every aspect. Without
psychology, we can neither understand culture nor HRM, because all Behavioral Studies are strongly linked
with Psychology and HRM is one of them.

Discussion on Articles:
There are two sounds which have been used in the articles that were
assigned to us:
 Emic  within a culture, it is a specific philosophy, discussing
about differences of specific cultures.
 Etic it is about the school of thought, unlike Emic's, that deals
with the philosophy as a Generalized or Universal aspect.
Now there were two further approaches which were related with these
sounds namely:
1. Conversional Approach (Emic)
2. Diversional Approach (Etic)

Steps, directing towards the Research work:

About Research:
There are techniques, to be used by the Researcher to make the research work more potential to be published in
high impact factor journals. These techniques can be used for highlighting the elements that is of key
importance and focus of the researcher. There are two main terms used in a research:

Preposition  Purpose a relationship within variables, without data collection (it is in the form of
recommendation)
Hypothesis  The definition of a hypothesis is an unproven theory or statement.

How do propositions and hypotheses differ?
Proposition is a broad statement drawn from a theory, whereas a hypothesis takes this one step further and
formulates a more specific statement that is empirically testable. Proposition states a relationship between two
concepts, and a hypothesis operational-izes this relationship and puts it in an empirically testable form.


School of
Thought or
Philosophy
Based on
Theories
Literature
Review
Theoratical
Frame Work
D.V=I.V + I.V etc
9 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
Management Theories:
Theories are based on some school of thoughts or philosophy, intended to find out the reality.
Unless you know about the school of thought and background of a person, you cannot understand that person’s
theory or concept that has been given in the theory. So you need t5o understand at first the philosophy and
school of thought that has been followed by that particular researcher or theorist, as the critics are usually not
of the same school of thought that is one of the key reason of their criticism.

Why change come in different philosophies and how?
There are following eras and three percepts:
 Pre-history
 Modernism
 Social Interpretivism
 Post Modernism
Following are the schools of thoughts that have been adopted by various theorists or researchers:
1. Modernism
2. Post Modernism
3. Interpretivism

Now these three approaches have been discussed in the articles as well. Let's have a look on each of these
approaches. Unless you know about the School of Thought or Philosophy of any approach or person, to whom
you want to follow, for the better and complete understanding one needs to know the essential background
knowledge about that person or theory and along with that it is equally important to go through the criticism
that has been raised and then answered about that particular theory or person or school of thought or
philosophy.

Modernism:
Whatever is written in text is not necessarily to be believed true but the actual participation In general, the term
Modernism encompasses the activities and output of those who felt the "traditional" forms of art, architecture,
literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated in the new economic,
social, and political conditions of an emerging fully industrialized world. A style or movement in the arts that
aims to depart significantly from classical and traditional forms:
 by the post-war period, modernism had become part of art history
 a movement towards modifying traditional beliefs in accordance with modern ideas, especially in the
Roman Catholic Church in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

The concept is associated with all of the following advancements:
The Epistemology that has been used by Aristotle, had been challenged by Glalio, and later on Aristotle also
agreed to the fact that:
"I t is the earth that revolves around the sun not the sun that revolves around the earth"
Francis Bacon challenged the method of Aristotle, and came up with Baconion method, he wrote a book:
'Norum Orhanum' (1561-1626), which means "New Method".

Bacon's Idols (Cognitive Biases):
Francis Bacon defined different idols of minds that were known as Bacon's I dols and today they have been
known as Cognitive Biases. He suggested that different idols of mind that hinder path of correct reasoning.
Following are those idols:
10 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
 Idol of Tribes  it is the overall developed perception of society that is Pre-conceived ideas or
perception about certain things or people etc, a form of pre-judgment that is based on the perception of
society.
 Idol of Cave  it is related with you personality; likes and dislikes. (your personal liking and disliking
about someone or something will affect and influence the exposure or knowing about Reality)
 Idol of Marketplace (language give words meaning basically we use language to give meaning to
our environment/objectives) it is not necessary that the terminology you use does explain the reality of a
thing.
 Idol of Theater  following what is written in books and theories while not asking questions.
Whatever a person will use any of these idols, you cannot come to reality and it is against the subjectivism.

Bacon said:
'I f a man begins with certainties, he will end up in doubts. But if he will content to begin with doubt, he shall
end in certainty'
Newton:
'I don‟t form hypothesis'

 By viewing the facts, the hypothesis is developed not by viewing 'I'.
 Reality has no structure, existing independently of individual
 Data is there, for reality's exposing by yourself, you can 'Replicate' the procedure to find out Reality.
 It is an approach of modernists
According to modernists, if those idols of Bacon, exist, then your results can not be Reality.
Responsibility of Researchers:
 Call that data
 Analyze that data
 Come up and explain that
 The focus of all would be on data
As believed by modernists that no human factor affects in data collection, but the actual situation is that the
influence of human fact or and their emotions etc is very much.

Symbolic Interpreterists:
Symbolic Interpreterists is an Addition to Modernism, as it also suggested that go for methodologies to the
modernism. There are multi-dimensions or multi-aspects of this approach including context and
inappropriativeness of context and soft data etc. Following main philosophy is important:

Context Method  context in which the words are written. Context is which the data was collected. As
management people are also human beings they can be and their worked can be influenced, that is why we need
to consider the Context in which a certain thing is happening or developing. Culture is such an unseen force or
power that shapes or directs our actions. Context in which knowledge was generated.
 Organizational Context  Organizational realities are socially produced, as members interact,
negotiate and make sense of their experience.
 Linguistic Context
 Data collection Context
 Soft versus Hard Data  it means that under what kind or context of emotions and feelings,
(Significance of Feelings and Emotions in 1970 and onwards were emerged) if you ignore emotions,
whatever decision you make, they might not be rational. As human beings are known as Emotional
11 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
beings because of the element of emotions, existing and affecting them. Therefore we may conclude that
by hard data, one cannot get to the absolute reality unless you include and interpret soft and hard data
both. That is why analysis etc are based and affected by the spoft data, that is why it has to be
considered and included.

Post Modernism:
This believes challenges all of the text and even they said that all the scientific laws are results of agreements of
many scientists on one point, will become law, as they leave no room for people who contains opposition and
because of the influence of powerful people and sources. Such information and work is either not presented or
transmitted onwards.
Post Modernists have challenged all the previous work that has been done before. According to this school of
thought, it is not important what has been written or added in knowledge but when it has been written, is
important.
 Whatsoever has been written in text is not essentially knowledge. He gave the concept of 'Power play'.
According to this approach knowledge is a power play, where whosoever gets the power, influence etc,
his work has been appreciated, promoted etc while those whose work may differ, but was not supported
by the powerful elements, are gone unnoticed and unconsidered.
 There is nothing like Objectivity but it's all about a moment of experience, which means that reality
keeps on changing and it is considered and believed as Reality for a given and specific time period only.
 Language has no accurate and absolute meaning, its meanings are not fixed but varying according to
time, situation, region and perception etc

In short post modernists have challenged and in a way, changed the entire perception about the followings:
 Knowledge
 Reality
 Language

On the basis of these factors he said that this is why that the knowledge that has been generated by 30% of the
world population has been imposed on the 70% rest of the population of the world similarly Scientifically and
technological development is not desirable for the world, such as for the under-developed and highly populated
countries of the world. There are such technologies, which are totally not understandable by everyone, in the
world yet it is also considered as power play, just because some nations or regions need that technology, that
technology has been imposed on the rest of the world. And this gap between developed and under developed
countries is known as Digital Divide, prevailing every second.

There were three methods, for exploring reality:
 Structure Conduct Performance (SCP) it is an economic model and according to this model your
industry directs your conduct, all of such models are about performance.
 The concept of "Rationality" that is the base of Economics, according to different contexts.
 For knowledge generation you need at first to and know the existing knowledge.






12 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
One of the key objectives, of this class to develop the background foundation for the understanding of
significance and importance of the subject Cross Cultural HRM.

Organizational Theory:
 How Organization theories are generated?
 Why a theory is presented in a specific mode?
 Which methodologies are used while building a theory?

There are few terminologies:

Ontology:

 Our assumption about Reality
 Reality of different things
 Reality about their areas of study
 All efforts are made for exploring reality
The responsibility of researcher is to find out Reality as Reality exists from long ago, but it has to be explored.
And the facts about those realities of a particular field can only be known by those who put their efforts in the
way for searching Reality.
It is just like a relay race where one researcher contributes in the knowledge about a particular topic or field by
his researcher and hand over ways for others to come and contribute more by the help of the work that has been
done previously by the past researches for the development and advancement of knowledge in a particular field.
For this purpose a Researcher needs, to explore reality in different domains:
Willingness + Ability
There are different modes for reaching towards toe reality different researchers has used different
methodologies for doing so. Whether Reality exists in objects or…..?
Subjectivism:
You have to experience and you then have to give meaning to it
Objectivism:
Reality, it is independent of those who live in it.

Initial Point for going for Reality:
How you going to find out Reality and the details of those methods are is known as Epistemology. This is
simply a process of knowing how you can know?
How human generate knowledge between different thoughts etc between valid and invalid, true and false. There
can be different methods of finding out what is valid and what is not. Now this is the point from where the
Concept of Research begins….
To sum up all in a line, why do we conduct Research? The answer is to find out Reality. Now the next
question arises that how do you reaches to Reality, for this you need methods. These methods and their
description is studies and dealt by epistemology. It is a way towards reaching Ontology.

Reality:
Reality itself is a very debatable topic, as the post-modernists say and argue that reality's definition and
understanding vary from time etc, again they support their this argument by the same statement that it is not
important that what has been said or written but it is important to note that when it was said or written.

13 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq


Lewins' Statement about Reality:
'We do not respond to reality, but we respond to the Perception of reality'

Psychology:
The basis of psychology is on one thing and that is Commonality. Psychology deals with the study of mind,
mind or psyche of individuals, human beings, that varies from person to person and it is not possible to study
each individual separately, that is why whatever is common in traits, habits etc of some people or individual, it
is then grouped together, that is why we say that the base of psychology is on Commonality or Similarity.
Because of this reason one of the fact about the behavioral studies such as psychology and management, one
can never find any Law, rather theories have been used and generated for this purpose.


Contributions of Geert Hofstede

 He was born in 1928 in Netherlands , and even yet he is working on culture
 HE visited England and there he felt the difference of Culture and that was the starting point for him.
 His name would be quite famous and prominent after 1970 or 1980s
 In last 30 years the most studied topic over management is management with relevance of culture and it
is because of the highlighted importance of culture done by Hofstede
 All applied psychological areas have been studied with reference of culture or they do consider and use
the culture as one of variable.
 All of this has been done because of the thought provoking attempts by Hofstede.
 Before Hofstde, culture has been considered as a single constraint but dimensions of culture were
already present but Hofstede focused over the dimensions, which were already present but he
concentrated on them and highlighted their importance
 Along with the addition of further dimension discoveries as well.
 No one could identify or add another Dimension of culture but Hofstede did it.
 10000 citations are present in the world famous journals related with Hofstede
 He collected data with the background that he had about the already existing dimensions, which were
identified before him, he conducted survey and identified the dimensions with such a huge number of
sample that was 160000 employees, including 40 countries.
 He is the only one, who introduced and added new dimensions in culture
 The way in which Hofstede, introduced or explained culture is a very brief and self-explanatory that is
completely unlikely any other typical explanations and definitions of culture, just with the help of a
diagram.
 It is because of the contributions and work that has been done and made by him that today the concept
and image of culture is very much clear to us.
 He was totally unbiased against any culture, cast or religion that can be seen by his citation of a hadith
in his work as well.
 Without him, there could not be this much clarity about culture
 That is why his work has very profoundly influenced four to five major domains of knowledge.
 There are very limited numbers of critics of Hofstede but they have also criticized on his methodology
adopted for data collection and that has been answered by him very properly as well.
14 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq

Comprehensive Data Analysis with Theory
The results from data collected were related with the theories. And this was done by Geert Hofstede in the field
of management. He interrogated the results, he got from the data collection from IBM‟s managers, and all
theories of four multiple domains had been covered by his work:
1. Sociology
2. Political Sciences
3. Anthropology
4. Psychology
And he wrote a book in 1980 named as „Culture’s Consequences’
(as per said and suggested by post modernists that we should go with the theories in favor and criticism as well
and then develop your own view point, that is the work of an Expert to analyze the supporting and defeating
arguments and justifications from both side (favor and against) and then define and choose your way)
One of the most important things is to not go in one direction but also go for the criticism against any particular
topic or concept and then decide in which way you want to go and on which side you are with…

Culture in Hofstede’s view point:

Starting with the question that what was his opinion about Culture?
Culture:
„A collective programming of mind, distinguishing the remembers of one group or category from those of
others‟
He compared between Natures of human with the nature of computer and he said by dividing or suggested that:
„Mental Programming can be divided into three levels‟
Levels of Mental Programming:
1. Human Nature
2. Culture
3. Personality
Human Nature:
It is inherited and it is universal.
Culture:
It is learnt and it is specific to group.
Personality:
Inherited and learned and it is specific to an individual.











Personality
culture
Human Nature
SpeciIic to an individual
SpeciIic to Group
SpeciIic to Universe
Inherited and Leanred
Learned
Inherited
15 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
This diagram takes over from an individual‟s personality to universal. Because personality is specific to
individual, it means it is not possible to study the psychology of whole world‟s people, that is why
psychologists study and based „Commonality‟. Then comes culture, where things are common on group levels.
There are things that are common at universal level as well, when you think you are alike to the whom world
because of the Human nature. When you think that you are alike to Pakistanis, it is because of Culture and
when you think that you are different from rest of the people living around you it is because of Personality.
How Culture4’s Impact is created?
Hofstede worked only on Culture‟s Domain. Now the question arises that how do we acquire the mental
programs?











Unconscious and unchangeable values as the school level. Conscious and changeable values at the work.
Whatever has been learnt at the age of or before 10years that is usually the time period of schooling, it cannot
be changed or replaced easily, as its unconscious. (First ten years of life of an individual are very important as
they are shaping the foundations or basis of an individual). The values learnt at the age of 20 years, usually at
working areas, are changeable and can be modified as they are the result of conscious processing of an
individual.
 He has given more importance to this age period and this creates and increases the significance of his
work at educational field as well, on two main key aspects:
1. Initial level of education
2. Focus on personality development
The age or time period for personality development perspective is 5 years while for culture perspective
it is 5-10years. And organizational culture can be learnt and changed as well because it is learned after
ten years of life. in order to show the significance of his this statement, he also quoted one of the Hadith
regarding the Faith or religion of a child at the time he is born and how his foundation is made and
crafted by whatever concept, his parent give him.
Factors Affecting the Mental programming or software:
A new model:
Co-Centric Circles  having one point or center.
As the layers exist we can understand that the outer layer is more
vulnerable to be effected and changed while the most secure and safe
point is the center of the circle, where the values lie, this is how one
can understand about the nature, level and adaptation ability of these
factors. Thus it is said that Stable Core of Culture (which means that
secure, placed at center).



Unconcious and unchangable Values

Consious and Changeable Values
16 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq


Value:
Basic conviction through which you distinguish between:
 Good and Bad
 Dangerous and Safe
 Dirty and Clean
 Normal and Abnormal
It is basically the force, the thing or the instrument that guides us to decide between contradictory or opposing
things. Main characteristic of values can be shortly mentioned as:
 Difficult to be changed
 More protected
 On aggregate level values can be similar but it differs onwards, reaching at individual level.
There is a personal psychology and perception of individual, which processes the values and then keeps it on
accordingly. That is why we see differences among closely related or associated relations such as among
siblings etc. values at individual level differs at upper level or group or family just like chances and presence of
similarities and commonalities.
Rituals:
Those activities that have been practiced by members of a society and which are socially essential are known as
rituals.
 Consider rituals while deciding among things
 There is an element of 'Sharing' in it
 Common Practices within a group or community
Heroes:
Person dead, alive, imaginary or real that exhibited characteristics well-respected within that culture are known
as Heroes. The concept of heroes will be determined by the majority of the society.
 One of the most important determinant is heroes of a culture
 It is easy to attack at exterior level
 Socially accepted or desired characteristics
 Try to follow him by considering role-model
Symbols:
Most visible parts of the culture that can be seen by other cultures are known as Symbols. (such as the status
symbol that may vary).













17 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
Dimensions of Culture
Four Dimensions of Culture were present while Hofstede introduced 5
th
in 1991and 6
th
in 2010 dimensions
afterwards as well:
1. Power Distance
2. Individualism Versus Collectivism
3. Masculinity Versus Femininity
4. Uncertainty Avoidance

1-IDV (Individualism versus Collectivism):
In 1980, he described or mentioned four dimensions in his book. According to Etzioni 1968:
"People do not exist except in a social context"
By social context, he meant how members relate with each other. There are some societies where people are
restricted towards limited kinship, consistency of immediate family that is spouse and children. Other than this,
there is no one more important for an individual. But then he moves on and says that the meaning of social
context, changes according to cultural differences. It depends upon your social contest, to extend the immediate
family as per the perception of the importance of the relationships. As Hofstede said:
'I ndividuals are bound by a number of different relationships'
There must be some common grounds such as:
 Common goals
 Common interest
 Common commitment
 Mutual Benefits (Reciprocity)
 Threats and Exploitations
'Relationships remain as long as there exist perception that there are mutual benefits'
In 1933 Durkheim said:
"Relationship are totally based on mutual benefits, are not stable"
And the reason of less stability is because relationships are based on mutual benefits. It is not just that people
stay together but why? Why does people care, share and stay together?
On the basis of Social context people decide between individualism and collectivism. In Collectivism and
individualism it started from the concept of the lifestyle of:
Farmers versus Hunters
And Farmers were Stable and Collectivist while Hunters were not stable and Individualistic. That is why for
stability one needs collectivism. Hofstede never said that he is the one who had introduced these four
dimensions of culture but really explained them well, that is why he took the previous supporting work for
defining individualism versus collectivism.

Individualism:
Kluckhohn in 1961:
"I ndividualism is autonomy/independency over action"
Believing that individual goals are more important than the group goals and people place their individual needs
over group's needs.
Collectivism:
It is opposite to individualism and defined as:
"Action is linked or dictated by groups' interest"
Which means that what other expect? And there also lies absence of freedom or independency.
18 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
Hofstede said and linked that the decision between individualism or collectivism is also based and influenced
by the psychological brought-up, during the first ten years of an individual, as our inner feelings and our
decisions are the result of the psychology that has been developed over a period of time.
How people define themselves and their relationship to others
Individualist
 Believe individual is most important
 Stress independence over dependence
 Reward individual achievement
 Value uniqueness of individual
Collectivist
 Views, needs, and goals of group most important
 Obligation to the group is the norm
 Self is defined in relation to others
 Focus on cooperation, not competition
2-Uncertainty Avoidance:
“People within a culture are made nervous by situations which they perceive as unstructured, unclear, or
unpredictable.”
High Uncertainty Avoidance
 Avoid ambiguity
 Strict codes of behavior
 Belief in absolute truths
Low Uncertainty Avoidance
 Accept ambiguity and lack of structure
 More inclined to take risks and “think outside the box”
 Rules are rejected or ignored

3-PDI (Power Distance):
"I t is the extent to which less powerful members of the society Accept and Expect that power is distributed
unequally"
Might is Right, a commonly accepted perception of the people that the one who holds power and authority has
the right to do whatsoever he wants.

Implications in HRM:
The most important element in HRM theories has been accepted, that is autonomy and this element get hurts or
influenced by Power Distance. For example there is MPS concept which stands for Motivation Potential Score.
And while when one is calculating it there comes an element of Autonomy to be added and valued for
calculating the motivational potential score this shows that one of the most important factor or component for
motivation is Autonomy, where there is no autonomy, there would be no motivation as well. People don't feel
responsible because there are not given autonomy, empowerment or self managing teams, to make decisions.
But the equation of motivation should be analyzed in the context. Under which context this equation will go in
the right way otherwise if you apply it over power distance, as for instance if autonomy is given or offered in a
high power distance society, the organization will fall to fail instead to rise for success. Because this concept
does not work at cultures where people prefer following than decision making.
 Whenever the element of Dependency comes, such as in collectivist cultures there would be a link, a
strong bound with Power Distance as well.
 That is why it is always tried to keep both of them aligned
19 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
 Power distance vary from culture to culture
"Extent to which people view inequality as normal"
High Power Distance
 Power is scarce resource
 Natural and inevitable
 Centralization of power
Low Power Distance
 Minimal power differences
 Power can be achieved through work
 Superiority not rigid

4-Masculinity versus Feminity:
It is about the differences of roles as per the difference of genders, which are based on social norms, where men
are:
 Assertive
 Tough
 Material Oriented
 Successful
While females or women are supposed to be:
 Modest
 Tender
In Feminity there are elements of; Equality and Social Gender Role Overlap .While in Masculinity, Quality of
life and Quantity of life comes. That is why there is a resistance shown at places, at times when it comes to a
female manager or a female boss because this means she has to contain the attributes of Masculinity like
toughness, assertiveness etc. at such situations there is a concept of Glass Ceiling Effect (Barrier Existing) not
giving more opportunities to the women than a certain level. For example not giving the opportunities to a
female to be the CEO of an organization, which highly effects the decision making for career opportunities or
career management by those female employees/managers etc.

"Relationship between gender and sex-appropriate behavior"
Masculinity
 Distinct roles
 Men are assertive, ambitious, and competitive
 Women are supportive, nurturing, and deferent
Femininity
 Fewer rigid gender roles
 Men and women are more equal
 Interpersonal relationships

Identification of fifth Dimension of Culture by Hofstede:
Many people wanted to work with Hofstede and Micheal Bond was one of them. By following Confucians,
whose philosophy was based about Chinese Work values and then he (Hofstede) introduced a new dimension of
culture (on the basis or with regards with the religion and culture; ethics and norms of work etc).

5-Long-term Versus Short-term Orientation:
The term he used for it is Confucian-Dynamism.
20 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
 Short-term Orientation Maximum focus on Today or they will focus on past, where people base
their lives on today or present/past.
 Long-term OrientationMaximum focus on Future than past/present, where people base their lives on
Future.
Behavior of people, habit of sharing, living etc will depend and relay highly on short-term versus long-term
orientation.
"this dimension is based in Confucianism"
Long-term Orientation
 Savings
 Do anything to achieve a goal
 “Eye on the prize”
Short-term Orientation
 Immediate gratification
 “Make money, spend money”
 Less willing to sacrifice

In2010 Hofstede worked with Micheal Minkov and introduced a new Dimension:

6- Indulgence Versus Restraint:
There are cultures whose attributes can be classified into two kinds, such as:
 Indulgence Free Gratification of your drives, No restraints against individual's wishes, will or desires
etc. it is basically a concept of Freedom where everything depends upon the individual's desires and
willingness.
 Restraint  Restrictions etc against one's will. Society will suppress gratification through social
norms, not necessarily enforced by law or government.
Criticism on Hofstede:
We cannot ignore the arguments that have been made against Hofstede, which is mostly on the Research
methodology adopted by him (on sampling and instrument).


















21 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
Relating Culture with HRM:
Why do we need it as a separate disciple?
When companies have moved to globalization, the importance of this domain is enhanced and felt even more.
Because of the diversification, companies started focusing upon this, to expand their businesses and for this
they needed people as managers etc to manage their work and business in other parts of the world.
People who have been hired to manage their businesses, in other parts of the world, at that time this debates was
initiated. They started asking that what strategies should be used to manage such a huge and diversified group
of people all around the world. Wither they could need one set of practices of HRM or different policies or
practices of HRM according to the different cultures of the world, where the businesses have been operated as
suggested and said by Hofstede that:
 Different Cultures
 Different Norms
 Different Practices
 Different Mind Sets
 Different Behaviors etc
That is why same set of universal practices set of HRM are not equally beneficial at every place of the world, as
Hofstede said that all so called Universal Practices are Culture Specify and cannot be equalized.

Relationship between various/two variables is also affected by the context or culture as a moderator.

We will now be trying to discuss HRM along with culture; we will develop or study in a form of Bundle of
concepts in this lecture

HRM Culture:
When Hofstede worked, External environment, at that time (1950 or 1960's) a concept of Cross Bounders
Operations arouse among companies and very few multinational companies existed at that time. But after this
time because of various other reasons, the barriers between boundaries were omitted and globalization or
internationalization of operations emerged. Because of high level of competition and at that time the discipline,
Strategic Management emerged and various other disciplines as well, which became very famous as well
because of this newly emerged interest on international business or operations by various companies. In 1950s
to 1960s onwards, a concept in which integrated the management (HRM) with culture was established.
Integration was happened due to following reasons or these are the factors that remove barrier from cross
cultures/ between countries:
 External environment
 Improvement in companies (extension the size of company)
 Transportation
 IT
 High competition (strategy business management)
 Global competition
Problems faced by companies, for instance:
 What kinds of HR practices should be applied
 What are the HR practices requirements to manage the employees at different parts of the world, other
than their headquarters
 How to manage HR practices in different or multinational regions.

22 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
At that time various researchers gave their opinions. In 1960's the Initial Discussion it was suggested to keep on
kind of practices and implementation it in others parts of the world. This concept is known as Convergence
Concept.

"'becoming more similar, globalization, context etc do not hold a value for"

The researchers who were the followers of the concept believed (Ralston 1993, 1999):
There is no significant value of culture, context, globalization etc. there is no such high value of culture, as
highlighted by various other researchers. That is why according to Martin and Keils 1989 said that therefore all
practices should be formed by headquarters. While Jayyab in 1998 said that whenever multinational companies
go, they should take their home practices with them.
Unlike this concept, just like what Hofstede was a follower of Divergence, which means:
"Becoming more dissimilar"
As believed that culture maters a lot whole dealing with HR practices. Laurent in 1991 said:
"HR practices are deeply grounded in culture"
He gave the concept of MBO (management by objectives):

Accepted in USA
MBO Effected because of Cultural differences
Source of Confrontation in China

That is why various HR concept of practices, gave various different results at different cultures.
According to Casciue in 1990; Open Appraisal, lower the level of satisfaction. Likewise there is a huge number
of studies that shows that if you have ignored the differences of Culture while implementing HR practices, this
has not been equally effective everywhere.

These both concepts and approaches are extremes but at the same age/time, different ideas. Models were given
as well, one of such model was:
Perlmutten's EPG Model in 1969 which was further improved and modified and resulted as EPRG model in
1993, where he discovered these four approaches of managing one's business across nations:
1. Ethnocentrism:
Ethno means nations, when one nation considers its headquarters' policies and practices as superiors
than those in the rest of the world, which is why they want to apply those HR practices elsewhere as
well. Simply it is about considering one's self or HO's as superior than others.
2. Polycentricism:
It is basically Host Country Orientation, where you give more importance to the region, context and
culture, where you are operating.
3. Geocentricism:
It is world oriented approach (no biases for host and parent country. Use policies and practices that work
best)
4. RegioCentrism:
Whole world was categorized according to the cultural similarities into different regions (according to
the culture commonalties and similarities among countries, such countries divided into different
regions) and then these approaches were used in order to determine which HR practices should be
applied at which region. Mostly countries follow this approach.
23 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
These classifications helped researchers and companies in order to select among the options provided in each
approach.













Impact of Culture on Implementation of HR practices:

We are studying these theories so that we may develop the ability to use these theories and relate with our
research.
Researchers gave different approaches for Cross Cultural HRM:
1. Traditional HRM (functional HRM)
2. International HRM (IHRM)
3. Strategic HRM (SHRM)
All these approaches deal and discuss same and alike practices of HR but their utility and literature review are
entirely different (as practical application is different according to these thee approaches).one will not be able to
find differences in these approaches but the differences can be found in Context.

Recruitment and Selection:
R & S are studied together but they are discussed separately. Recruitment is a process of attracting candidates
(to make sure that availability of a sufficient pool of candidate for selection). Now the questions rises why does
any candidate attract to a particular job or organization? According to Trice and Bayer in 1983:
Cultures and practices that may attract the candidate towards the company (in USA) because of the following
elements:
 Freedom
 Equality
 Reliance
 Achievements
Sometimes theories that have been studied in educational career. Do not result in real or practical experience.
This happens because as Hofstede said:
"…under which context such theories have been written?"
One of the most famous Current Frame Work:
ASA frame work by Schneider in 1987:
 Attraction basic focus of this frame work is intrinsic factors but researchers have also used
 Selection it for external factors.
 Attrition
Attraction people are differently (personality and culture wise) attracted towards the organization.
24 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
Selection Organization select individuals who they think is compatible (different theories on this, different
fits (personality, environment fits etc).
Attrition if a person is not intrinsically attracted towards the organization, and then he will leave
organization, sooner or later. (Those who are not actually and originally attracted to the organization, they will
leave organization and the remaining people in organization, who would be left in organization would be
homogeneous group). Retention is very good but makes sure that those homogeneous groups must not be of
inactive people or inefficient people. The main focus of this point is the intention or reason behind retention.
Recruitment:
The thing that matters in recruitment is Intention to apply for a job. Now researchers have worked on:
 How this intention is developed?
 Reasons behind its development?
 Culture's role in the development of intention
As per defined by various researches that Psychological factors forces a person to respond or behave in a
certain way. This supports these theories which suggested that intrinsic factors are more important than the
extrinsic factors.
Attitude Behavior (attitude shapes behavior, one concept)
While the other domain or concept goes other way around by saying that external factors are more important
than the internal factors.
Behavior Attitude (believing that external factors influence more on attitude)
Martine Fishbien and his student Icek Ajzen together gave a theory named:
Theory of Reasoned Action (1975) and in 1985, 1991 Ajzen gave another theory named; Theory of Planned
Behavior.
Basic theory was given initially not specifically for Recruitment and selection but as we know that n theory is
meant to be for one and only specific area or field but it is the ability of the researcher to create and develop a
link with his area of interest and prove it as well. That is why this has been applied in multiple disciplines few
of them are:
 Health concerns
 Playing games
 Political participation
 Driving violation
 Safety
 Purchase decision
 Academic performance etc
Then the initial concept was given in 1969, named as; Expectancy Value theory by Fishbien, 1969). This was
the background theory but then the famous and basic theory as Theory of Reasoned Actions.

Attitude towards a phenomenon that is person specified, and it varies from person to person; Personal beliefs,
feelings, general perception about Individuals, events or objects.








Attitude
Subjective
Norms
Intentions
Behavior
25 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq


Subjective norms mean that the person believes that the view point of others, also matters, two components are
included  views of other matters and importance of those views.

Behavior is the outcome of intention not of attitude. Before exhibiting a certain behavior, you go through the
psychological intention. But it is not necessary essential, that intention is directly exhibiting behavior but yet it
is linked.




Now the initial framework of Reasoned Actions:












This new element was added by Ajzen, according to him when you think that you cannot even control it, you
will not even intend to do it and will not even struggle for it. He said that the perception of control (efficiency)
also affects our intention. As when you start to think about doing something, you do ask yourself that what will
you get out of it, after investing your time and efforts in it. And what is worth of that reward for you. And if
you think that even after all of your efforts and struggling, even then you will not be able to get or achieve
anything, you will not go for that. Whenever there comes, a barrier creating stop, an individual will get back to
the previous state considering not doing it. Perception of control involves links of two things: EVI Model and
Goal Setting theory.
Attitude towards a job:
It is specifically about the applications in recruitment.







There are chances of influence if different dimension of culture in this
Above mentioned flow.


Perception of
Control
Attitude
Subjectiv
e N





orms
Intention
s
Behavior
Perception of Control
over Task
Attitude
towards a Job
Subjective
Norms towards
a Job





Job
Applicants'
Intentions
Job Applicants'
Behavior
26 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq













Selection and selection methods:
Intention to apply  Power Distance
What is the impact of Power distance on applicant? For example Police job. High power distance directly
affects the applicant's intention to employees':
 Status
 Job image
 Recognition
In high power distance, the number of applicants would be less for job which do not offer power. This shows
the impact of power distance on the intention to apply for a job.
Selection:
Person will fill, if there is proper match between the personal and environmental attributes.
Fit- Person(individual's attributes) Environment- Fit(Environmental attributes)
Person-Job Fit (PJ) Specific Job and Person Attribution
Person-Organization Fit (PO)
Person-Group Fit (PG)
Specific job requirements and attributes are given in this theory. Where Person-job fit
has further branches:
Peron Job fit:
Culture of organization and to which extent person can survive in
that culture, for instance in one organization, individual is doing
job very well, while when the same individual goes and performs
in another organization, his performance is not so. PJ fit is
about:
 How a person can fit in an organization?
 Culture of person and of organization conflicts
Person-Group Fit:
There are two main types of groups: formal and informal groups. Different or multiple roles are played by a
person as being a member of multiple groups. This fit deals with:
 What is the level of fitness of individual in the group in which or with whom you will work?
 person should be able to fit in all groups, he is a member of
there are different roles for all groups of a single person, if a person cannot
work in any role, in any group, then there could be the chances of conflict.
For instance at times family role is highly affected by work which results
Person Job
Fit
Ability Job
Fit
Intellectual
Abilities
Physical
Abilities
Personality
Job Fit
27 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
In WFC or FWC. As role conflict in one group may lead or influence
Role in other group.










Person Organization Fit:
A model presented by James in 1999, who divided fitness into two parts or two levels.
Individualism  Fitness Organization
These are all requirements of job by individual and organization as well.

Individual Fitness Organization
1
st

level
 Job Skills
 Type of work
 Condition Aspired
 Social Identity


Surface Social Fit
 Pay
 Physical Environment
 Location
 Atmosphere
 Region
 Organizational
Structure
2
nd

level
 Personality
 Career
 Aspiration
 Personal Identity

Psychological Fit
Conscious
 Career paths
 Organizational image
 Organizational culture
 Management style
3
rd

level
 Valence for Certain role
 Ability to Adopt
 Inner Fantasies

Psychological Fit
Unconscious
 Pulls of Psychological
Role
 How leaders shape
roles, is taken
Adaptation

This explains that how any individual and organization adapt and then perform person-organization-fit-
adaptability at both sides. Either to some extent organization compromises on something as well as the person.
Then the person-organization fit take place, it is impossible to some extent that perfect compatibility take place
at both sides. But Person-Job fit cannot be compromised.
Impact of Context on Organization:
What an individual have according to that organization-fitness is created. In Pakistan context, for example in
education sector, required skills are not available, so organization compromises on that for fitness.
Selection:
This process starts from expectation on both levels, organizational and individual. These expectations are not
written on both sides, there are called the Psychological contract and if these expectations are not fulfilled then
there is something called Breach of Psychological Contract, take place, which kind of signals given to
individuals at the times of selection. Different studies were conducted by many researchers, for example:
 In USA Employees check flexibility/adaptability (Trans, 1990).
28 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
 In Japan, Knowledge and experience with company
 In Arabic countries, agreeableness Gulf study and Proud Relationships and interpersonal skills
(Ali,1989)
 In Spain, Integrity and attachment to family
 In Africa, Attachment to community
 In Pakistan, Contract Agreeableness take place
(Familism can affect in collectivist societies, the definition of Familism is according to Marin and Marin 1991:
"Willingness to make some sacrifices, to be with one's family")



Previous Perspective:
 Emotions and job are different things
 There is no link between these two(emotions and job)
 Emotions were considered as personal matter and that is why it should not be included in analysis of an
individual
 1980‟s was the starting point of Buzz world, on emotions
 It has been emphasized to include emotions, even in industrial theories, otherwise it may not be
effective and good
 The element of emotions is not ignored at Ijcek‟s model of Theory of Behavior.

Affective Events Theory (AET):
In this theory the role of emotions has been described (a process has been discussed in it)














According to this flow of daily events and personality, we can assume that emotional elements can play their
part in generating Attitude of an individual (this is about the modification that can be edited in Ijcek‟s model,
which has faced the criticism that it had not included the emotional element in its theory)
Since Ijcek had talked about the Perceive Control, that is a Realistic assessment and it cannot be determined by
emotions but emotions can influence it.




Daily Events Generate
Emotional Responses (positive
or negative) and these emotional
responses are based or according
to different kinds of Attitudes
Daily Events:
Hassles
Uplifts
Personality
Emotions:
Positive
Negative
29 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq







Normally wherever the word Affectiveis used, it is always about Psychological Perspective while Affective
word is strongly related with Cognitive abilities. And there is nothing absolute in Industrial Psychology or in
Organizational Behavior

Training and Development:

In this lecture, we had discussed about:
 Impact of Culture on training and development
 Learning
 Knowledge Management
 The inter-linkage of all of the above
 Transferring of training (which means how can you transfer knowledge)

Training and Development is a complete separate discipline, now a days, which contains its own literature,
publish-ments and books etc. and its theoretical background is very rich. And that is how two important
dimensions were developed:
1. Impact/Role of Culture on variation of Training Methods Variation in Training
Method/learning/Knowledge because of Culture (the significance of this study can be seen/proved in
different cultures on how its impact take place on learning methods etc)
2. Cross-Cultural training Management it is all about training about culture, which is a big challenge
for multinational firms.
Difference between these two:
Now let‟s see what is the difference between these two? The main difference is that in on dimension, we study
about the Impact of Culture on Methods of training while in other we study Training for different cultures. It
can also be said in this way, that:
Learning about different cultures


Impact of culture on Learning





Now there is a need of knowing how to train people according to and about other cultures. This was the starting
point for recognition of the importance of cross-cultural Learning or training. It initially started when it was
demanded by the go9vernement to train the people of Navy to act as US Ambassadors in the rest of the world.
And this is how the concept of Training Assimilators emerged in 1971, which was about how an individual
Culture Learnin
g
Learnin
g
Culture
Impact
on
About Cross
Culture
30 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
can learn about other cultures. Through this, they have developed a Mechanism for Training an individual for
learning of other cultures.
Conceptual model has to be supported by Theory or it has to contain theoretical support also
Model is the highest level of abstraction, while literature is all about extracting the relevant work to your
topic, done before
In a theoretical model, you link different things in it.
When you will be able, as a research to omit the irrelevant things from your paper, in personal view, this is
known as Abstraction, which is one of the major requirement of an affective research paper.
What is abstraction? It is all about developing an ability of not reporting irrelevant information but only
relevant and brief information
While during citing (citation) you have to make sure or understand the role of the variable and its nature as
well, then cite.
Following is a brief Overview of Basic Learning Theories:
Training has a very strong link with theories of learning, because of the strong link between learning and
training.
Learning Theories:
 What is the mechanism of learning
 How individual learning
There lie two kinds of theories:
1. Cognitive Theories (it focuses on internal psychological factors)
2. Behavioral Theories (it focuses on external factors/stimulus, external factors involved are playing
significant role in learning)
If compared, Behavioral thinkers are very popular but we cannot overlook the important role of cognitive
as well.
There are two elements involved in a learning process:
1. Involvement of Sender and Receiver of Message
2. Environment
Which or how knowledge has been transferred (what is the methodologies used and in which Context, those
methodologies or processes of learning are going on).
Context:
Environment has to be considered in two aspects:
1. Micro Domain of Environment
2. Macro Domain of Environment (this would be our
Focal point, Cross-Culture)
Knowledge Management:
In this field the major contributions were made by
Nonaka (1991, 94, 95, 98…) who told about the models of
Transferring of knowledge from one individual to another. But
It has been said that it can be utilized best in a Japanese Culture,
Although it was considered as the best model or strong theory but
It is also assumed as culture specific. From this we can understand that how
The strong and even best theories are linked and restricted with culture and its context. Because for giving the
best utility of a theory, it has to be implemented at some context, and there is no universal Culture, applicable
and present everywhere and every time. This why, the best American cross-border theories, have to be modified
as well, because national culture does influence organizational culture, which is an important concern of
multinational firms.






Environment
Trainer Trainee
Transferring
31 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
(Nonaka had not only talked about Behaviorism but a combination, that was the major contribution by Nonaka,
known as Knowledge Spiral).

Process of Learning:
The phase of studies on process of learning started from Parlov (1901) from Classical Conditioning
(conducted experiments on dog, through this he proved that how external factors are linked with our behavior).
Through this theory he has showed how external factors affect our behavior, but he has ignored the importance
and significance of cognitive factors or which are also known as the internal factors that also influence our
behavior. This is why Behaviorists do not accept that significance of Cognitive factor. Skinner (1971) gave the
theory of Operant Conditioning, which was the most influenced theory of his time, and he said that:
“Behavior is the function of its consequences”
He gave the concept of Reinforcement in the form of reward and punishment, and through this positive or
negative reinforcement, the behavior can be c conditioned accordingly. We can assume through this theory that
there should be a balance between the Hope and fear, where human being lives in the state of either hope or fear
or in between them, in this way there can be balanced conditioning. (one of the major example can be seen
through the Islamic concept of informing human being about the rewards for going in the right way, as directed
and also have been informed about the consequences that would be faced otherwise in the form of punishment).
(But there has emerged a mixed theory concept that includes and considers the importance and significant role
of both internal and external factors and cognitive and external factors)
Social Learning Theory:

Bandura (1977) gave this theory and said:
“People can learn through observations and direct experience”)
(These underlined words are the most important words in his statement; we shall see later on, how)
Social Information Processing Model (SIP):
This model gives the concept that:
“We learn on the basis of social Cues, provided by others”
We learn according to the cues that we get from other members of the group, in which we live. And this is how
we condition our behavior according to the cues we observe and experience in our society. The trend that has
been prevailing in your surroundings, develops the tendency in you as well to be a part of that trend also.

Two Theories:
There are two important divisions of theories, but before defining each one of them, it is important to
understand that it is not about right or wrong, rather it is a matter of two different perspectives and at each of
them, many people have done lots of studies and developed their work for the relevant field accordingly.
1. Behavioral theories
2. Cognitive theories

Background for Understanding the Concept of Knowledge Spiral:
There are two ways, through which acquire knowledge or through which we learn:
1. Explicit easy ways or means through which we learn, or means through which knowledge can easily
be imparted, is known as Explicit knowledge. (related concepts; Couching and Mentoring)
2. Tacit the type of knowledge that is usually unknown, hidden parts or aspect of explicit knowledge
that is not easily and possibly imparted by someone, (unlike as acquiring explicit knowledge) is known
as Tacit Knowledge.
Polyanil (1958), said:
32 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
“We can know more, than we can tell”
We can express less than how much we can observe or listen, because there are lots of things that cannot be
learnt through explanation and description but the only way of learning the secret of them, is to experience
them. As we can see around, there are plenty of things, talents, skills and abilities that are owned by many
people, but when it comes of transmitting that knowledge or skill to others, we see a variation of results.
This happens because there is always tacit knowledge that is present along with explicit knowledge, which
cannot be described in books or explained through words. In this case, there comes a new point that is how
to drive or extract this tacit knowledge out like explicit knowledge, so that the secret or hidden essence of
all skills and abilities can be gained. Nonaka has worked upon this and found the Japanese way (culture) of
imparting tacit knowledge.
Case Study:
Through a brief case study we shall be able to understand about the nature and extraction of tacit knowledge
along with explicit knowledge that is always available in the forms of books, audios, lectures etc.
In the Japanese culture they have found that people usually do not make the breads at homes, because
kneading is required for making breads at home, that is why they prefer to purchase breads from bakeries.
Panasonic produced a kneading machine, but found that it is not giving equal kind of quality results, as it
has been seen in the bread manufactured by the bakeries. In order to find out the reason, one of the female
manager of Panasonic, spent two years with the chiefs who were working at the bakeries and there she
found a secret tip that was Kneading + Twisting in a specific way, which was not included in the features of
the kneading machine, manufactured by Panasonic company. The important point here is that, this unique
tip was also not known and recognized by the chiefs themselves, which means it was the tacit knowledge, as
it was not easily imparted unless the manager has experienced it herself.
Through this story we can know that:
Tacit knowledge cannot be imparted unless you learn in through Observation and from Social
I nteraction.
As both of these underlined elements enable you to know about the hidden pat of the knowledge there are so
many examples of such kind of tacit knowledge, which was even unknown but there, even many famous
people, who could not pass or transmit it, as easily as the way and through the means they could pass on the
explicit knowledge, just like:
 Reverse Swing of Waseem Akram
 Imran Khan was his
mender etc

Process of Learning:
We learn from:
1. Observation
2. Social Interaction
3. Direct Experience
(learning by doing)
4. Refine by Personal
Knowledge
(Have to remember Social
Learning Theory; linked with the
words used here; Observation
and learning, matters a lot)
Knowledge Spiral:
33 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
By taking two elements from these, Nonaka had developed Knowledge Spiral, containing four elements. It is
also known as SEIC Model, where S Socialization, E Externalization, IInternalization and C
Combination.








1. Socialization:
(To transfer from Tacit to Tacit)
Individual gains knowledge through dialogue and observations (otherwise it is not possible else wise). You
cannot achieve the level of excellence. As the explicit knowledge is easy, it can be learnt easily but for
excellence, there has to be something unique, added along with the explicit knowledge, which is what we call
as tacit knowledge. Grant (1996) gave a concept of Knowledge Based View of Firm:
“Knowledge is a source and resource of competitive advantage or it can be core-competency as well”
And not only for the firm but even for an individual he, as an individual requires some special or unique
abilities to prove his self-worth, in the same manner as a firm need to prove it through core-competency and
this moves on from individual to firm, and from firm to country. According to Porter, knowledge is the main
source of all countries‟ core competency and even today it has been accepted world-wide.
2. Externalization:
(Tacit to Explicit)
In this stage, an individual converts tacit knowledge in some Tangible form, like theory, document, and law,
book etc so that it can be availed by other people as well. Through such equations, books, documents,
technologies etc the person who has attained tacit knowledge, has externalized it, so that it can be learnt by
others as well.
Now comes the point where I shall consider that:
I got tacit knowledge, how will I transform it in such a form that it becomes tangible?
1. Study
2. Analysis
3. Time invested
4. Gained knowledge
5. Transformed into tangible form
The purpose of doing all of these things, mentioned above is to make it so easy for others to gain benefits from
it so that only explicit knowledge would be enough for it.
In history there are plenty of examples, where people did not externalize their tacit knowledge and as a result,
their skills and level of excellence has been a mystery only just like the construction of pyramids. Because of
the tradition that you will not externalized tacit knowledge and wont transfer it to anyone, and even if you will
do it, it will be a trend to transfer it to same generation after generation only.
It is also possible that when a person does not want to documentize his knowledge then it can never be
considered scientific knowledge, no matter how much knowledge that person may contain, as it is not beneficial
for others.
3. Combination:
(Explicit to Explicit)
34 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
It is about combining different forms of explicit knowledge. Different people have externalized their tacit
knowledge and then for others to understand and develop understanding about that knowledge there should be a
mechanism, through which these knowledge is combined or summarized, in order to present the relevant and
useful knowledge in combined form. For instance, books are a phase of such mechanism and even in electronic
form Google is an example, where the only motive is to provide the relevant information and knowledge at one
place.
4. Internalization:
(Explicit to Tacit)
It is as Learning by doing, where you find or in fact add your own tacit or hidden knowledge to that explicit
knowledge. Explicit knowledge is already present and available. All the present or available knowledge will be
internalized by an individual, through doing it, experiencing it. No where it is mentioned that how many times,
you will do the practice and get the tacit knowledge that may create an element of uniqueness in your
knowledge but you need to keep doing it. Whatever a person does, he then adjust that with his own personal
mental model and start internalizing it.
Explicit + Individual + Personal Mental Pro0cessing = Generation of unique + hidden Knowledge (tacit)
As we learn according to the personal mental modeling, once we do something, there is a high level of effort
required for learning by doing it.
Explicit Knowledge + Personal Efforts = Converts into Tacit Knowledge  and it would be of advanced
level of that tacit knowledge, which has been gained previously)

Knowledge Sharing Practices
Note: It is very important topic in Knowledge management, even in training, as in both of the cases there is an
element of transferring of knowledge and how tacit and explicit knowledge will be given through training.
We will focus upon in this lecture:
 Requirements of training
 Different mechanisms of learning at different cultures
Transfer of knowledge or Training:
One of the most important parts of the process, where a person is trained and it include how you train him and
what mechanism has been used for such training.
Sharing of Knowledge:
There is a huge impact of culture in this regards as well, where we talk about the sharing of knowledge, for
example American practice is that they always document everything (which has also been said by ISLAM). The
mechanism of documentation which has been practiced in America is (ICT), in which computers are used, and
this mechanism of documentation is much more practiced in individualistic culture, whereas in collectivist
cultures, there is more orientation towards verbal and oral knowledge, as they their key element of
communication as well. In this regard, we can understand by developing a basic understanding about the
background of the ways in which knowledge is being shared according to different cultures. The cultures which
are more focused on verbal and oral knowledge Mentoring will be one of the key sources of sharing of
knowledge. And this kind of learning or sharing of knowledge can very easily be seen in our culture of Pakistan
such as motor-mechanic training through mentoring etc, where no formal ways of education are required,
unlike individualistic cultures, where formal education and documentation has been practiced.
Mentoring:
It is basically spending time with an expert (who is containing some tacit knowledge) and after a time period
spent with that person, the observer becomes same like the expert, but the requirements varies from profession
to profession.
35 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq

Criticism on 1
st
Stage by Americans:
This approach cannot work very effectively as it was generated in a collectivist culture, therefore it is culture
specific and cannot be equally effective in America. As Americans focused on 3
rd
stage, through
ICT/Computers for combination of their knowledge through documentation of knowledge. Because of ICT,
people developed mechanism, we are today using and we are able to access any kind of data (knowledge). And
this is why one of the major contributions in internalization is Combination (because we are people who have
now access to this combined knowledge).




Transfer of Training Model:
Three determinants were identified by Baldwin and Ford (1988):
1. Trainee‟s Characteristics
2. Training Design
3. Environment

Basically Opportunities to use of that training come under after training but it has an impact on the trainee, on
the initial level or during the training also, because he will consider these two elements, before getting in and
becoming a part of the training program.







3 Determinents
Trainee
Characteristics
Ability Perosnality
Motivation
(extrinsic &
intrinsic)
Training Design
Learning
Principles
(basic)
Content
Environment
Support
Opportunities to
Use( of that
training)
 Trainee‟s
Characteristics
 Training
Design
 Environment
Learning
and
Retention
Generalization and
Maintenance
36 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
 As there is not any law for transferring tacit knowledge because it will only take place, if person himself
is intrinsically motivated and willing to transfer the tacit knowledge.
 In order to judge or predict the trainee‟s characteristic, you need the analysis by the trainer, as he is the
one, who is going to analyze and train the trainee.
 The unit of analysis is Dyadic, where two people are involved and a dyadic relationship is build
(between trainer and trainee).
 Note: researchers use co-authors as well, who are the experts of other fields, which are also included in
the area of study of the research as well. Because it is an understood thing that an individual cannot be
a master of all fields. This is the reason, research combines with other co-authors, who then writes a
paper, as even co-authors are not that much into theoretical expert as a researcher, while a researcher
is not up to the level of expertise of these co-authors.
 There is also a concept of mix-methodology which includes both Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis
Leader Member Exchange Theory (LMX):
This theory has transformed the individuals as an element to a dyadic relationship and it states:
“Leaders based on expectations”
It is important to consider that what are the expectations of leader, from his followers? There are many
followers working along with leader but leader does not expect equally and same from all of his followers. This
is also because of the judgment and prediction that has made him recognize the differences that have been
observed by the leader, in his followers, he expect differently and then he takes or picks special individual or
followers as In-group.
Why do people who are expected to perform well, actually performs well?
Here comes the above mentioned question, we need to go through the following concepts in order to understand
or answer this point.
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy:
It is also known as Pygmalion Effects. Expectation about someone, is so strong and forceful, that particular
person starts performing well in real also. Rosenthal (1968) conducted several experiments on students and
found that there lies a correlation between the performances with the expectation, associated with them. This is
the power of expectations.
 Everything in social exchange, is not always stated by others (as members of the society do not mention
that what they have been expected from you) but even then you behavior is according to expectations of
them.
 Capacity of every individual varies and that is why the criteria for judging each individual also vary.
 With the increment in the capacity, the criteria of judgment, also varies accordingly.
There are few important considerations:
1. Plan
2. Knowledge Management/Process of transferring
3. The problems that come at execution
In different cultures, the focus varies between:
 Reading
 Speaking
And this is also depended upon individualism and collectivism.
Work of Hofsted‟s son has to be added by myself through searching
Digital Divide:
Following elements are included because of unequal distribution or access:
 ICT + Culture, it was an important concept that was developed and the world has divided into two parts.
37 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
 High literacy or education etc and access to ICT‟s computers etc
 Underdeveloped countries‟ condition is entirely different
 It is a division between 70% and 30% population of the world.
 As per the approach of Post-Modernism it is the monopolies to produce knowledge in such a form, that
is not into access or that is not understandable to majority.
Cultural Shock:
(One of the important consideration or element that is included in cultural training)
 When an individual goes to another culture, he faces cultural shock. Therefore he needs enough time in
order to understand that technology over there.
 Divide is taking place within the country (in the form of uneven distribution etc) and that is why
because of less of financial resources, many people cannot afford to access to all facilities etc
 International schooling division
 You have made a system, which intentionally prevails /creates classes from the start.
Cultural Training:
 Another component of training, as Hofstede went to England, he faced Cultural Shock. That is why
multinational corporations and globalization are today focusing upon this aspect and this is one of the
famous topics in this regard as well that are HRM‟s perspective regarding Cultural Training.
 When we talk about an employee who has to be settled down in another culture, we need to consider the
considerations and requirements of his family as well, because when an organization decides to make
his employee move from one culture to another, he is not a single person who is about to change the
culture but along with his family also.
 The source of dissatisfaction of emplo0yee is the issue an employee faces in the settlement of his
family.
 In this perspective there comes another important selection between two possible options:
 Train directly the individual
 Train indirectly the family
The best option is to Train as a Family Unit.
To deal with one of the most important issue that has been faced by the MNCs today:
How to absorb the cross-cultural shock?
The possible solution could be:
Cross-Cultural Training
1960‟s a study was started on cultural assimilation and from that time. Till now it is very popular topic and
concept for MNCs. This concept was developed in 1960‟s by universities‟ expert. It was the task assigned to
them as scholars or experts of the field, who were four in number, to train Navy by the government of US, with
the core objective „Be Ambassadors of US”. This can be elaborated that being a part of the organization, they
were given the task to reflect their own culture in other parts of the world, in such a way that it does not create a
contradiction with other cultural norms and values. Followings are the names of those four experts along with
their invented theories and work:
1. Fred Feddler (leadership, he started contingency theory)
2. Charles Osgood (Communication Expert)
3. Lerry Starlow (Technology and Computers Expert)
4. Harry Triandis (Culture‟s study after Hofstede)

Have to ask a very critically related issue/problem to a particular culture, to the people.
 Solution/alternative
38 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
 Selection of Best One
Critical issues that are related with a culturel.100 assimilators about the culture?
And this knowledge is gradually reinforced, because its retention is quiet high and this method is used for
training.
In this world there would not be cultural shocks faced by individuals, in order to survive in a culture or society.
Followings are the factors that are greatly different and are differently perceived in different cultures:
 Personal Space
 Eye Contact
 Speaking Volume
 Facial Control
 Time


Performance Appraisal:
The focus of HRM from past 20 years is on Performance Appraisal, as a variable or outcome, but I t can also be
taken as an HR practice. 1995 and afterwards there has been so much work on PA, the main idea of this concept
was started from:
Individual Level  Organizational Level  as an Outcome
The concept of PA, was preset or existing from the time HRM was started even in practice only, but the focus
was upon Pa, as a n outcome while we, as researchers would go
for the background of PA.
 In 1980‟s the mechanism for PERFORMANCE
APPRAISAL was developed.
 There are various factors that influence, even during the
process of evaluation of performance, that is why it has
to be considered
 Along with those influential factors, we need to see
what Criteria have been used for PA.
In the regard of PA, there three important components, which
have to be considered:
1. Criteria
2. Rater
3. Ratee
Since we have talked about the use of theoretical background in PA, the reason behind this is that we need
some basis upon which we will conduct the performance evaluation, theoretical background provides us that
base.
3Components of PA:
For the understanding of these 3 components of PA, we need to go through the following concepts:
 Dyadic Relationship:





Boss
(Rater)
Subordinate
(Ratee)
39 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
When we will talk about evaluation or rating, it would develop a Dyadic Relationship in the process of
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL or while when PERFORMANCE Appraisals taking place. One of the
important parts played in this relationship is of Rater.
Other important component of this PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL process is of Criteria, following are the
factors that play their influential role in this regard:
 Factor of culture (criteria works according to culture in other words it is culture specific
In this regard, another important concern is that; what is the focal point of Criteria in the rater from the
following two:
1. Process
2. Outcome
The choice between these two is very important as the focal point of criteria can create huge differences, or
example; in marketing, organization may focus on Outcome while in production department, organization may
focus on process.
Boss-Rating/Evaluation:
Although outcomes give you a good indication of performance, but in recent days there has been a focus on
Services as well, as in services the process would be the focal point.
According to various theories and researches the important element5 is:
How his Performance has been perceived by the Evaluator or rater?
With reference to the Perception, there are again two things mentioned below, where the characteristics are
included:
1. Target
2. Perceiver (Aptitude, experience, Interest etc)
Attribution Theory :( Kelly, 1972)
(This concept was originally given by Heider, 1920 and he did further modification or work on this in 1958
background of attribution theory).
Attribution theory is the most influential theory, which is applicable in multiple domains, this theory states that:
“Whenever we observe behavior of others, we try to relate his behavior with internal or external causes”
Whatever the performance or behavior would be evaluated, this theory would be applied. This is why this
theory has been used in behavioral studies. Therefore we will conclude this, by relating this theory with our
current topic:
Behavior of employees has been observed by the supervisor or Rater, and he would most probably
relate the behavior of employees with either internal or external factors.
Let us go through h a brief understanding of the above mentioned concept by elaborating the terms internal and
external factors:
1. Internal Factors  factors that are in control of the individual
2. External Factors factors that are out of control of the individual
For example, if we will talk about the Lateness of Employee and being a supervisor we want to evaluate the
performance of that individual. In this regard we would try to find out the reasons or relate his behavior of
coming late in office with possible reasons or factors, for doing so, we shall identify what is the reason of his
lateness? And whether those reasons are external factors or because of internal factors?
Now as a rater or evaluator will relate to external or internal factors and it will depend upon the perception
developed about employees, because of various reasons.
Lets relate this concept with our topic of Performance Appraisal
An employee does not always perform positive nor does negative which means an emp0loyee does not always
contain positive or negative behavior. The determination of the positive and negative behavior or performance
of an employee has to be determined by the boss, supervisor or the rater. There are chances of wrong
40 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
interpretation or judgment or assessment by the rater as well. There are further two elements important in this
regard:
1. Relationship (with the target)
2. Perception (about the individual)
Criteria:
There are two factors that come in while considering or selecting the criteria:
1. Task performance (task/job being done, a mostly actual criterion which is used for organization)
2. Contextual Performance (environment, Relationship, social etc)
And without contextual evaluation the paper, Performance Appraisal cannot be concluded (the way employee is
performing).
Two related concepts with Attribution theory:
1- Fundamental contribution error it is an inbuilt nature in the human beings:
“Tendency of over-estimating impact of internal factors and under-estimating, impact of external factors,
while judging or evaluating others”
There is no difference in task performance, even in different context or cultures but the contextual
performance would vary from culture to culture and according to context.
Tavistock Institute started in 1940/50‟s, started the journal, named as Human Relations. And in order to find out
the answer of the question that what is the importance of contextual performance? An analysis was conducted
in coal miles by experts in UK.
 Efficiency was increased by developing a new technology, but when it was implemented instead of
increment in outcome there was a reduction in previous outputs when they could not find Technical
reasons then they consulted research experts to find it out on their behalf.
 It was found that in that particular environment, millers used to converse etc with each other during their
work, which was a way of socialization, and because of the technology that was recently introduced,
their socialization was interrupted.
Socio-Technical System Theory:
According to this theory:
“before implementing any latest and advanced technology, the organization needs to analyze what impact it
would create on the people, on whom or among whom, this system will be implemented”
 If you will not relate Task + Contextual Performance, and only focus on the task, the implementation of
technology will not be beneficial for the organization
There are two important concepts regarding this selection or preferences of focal points (task or contextual
performance):
1. Individualists  Task-Oriented
2. Collectivists  Context oriented




 We will study ‘Leniency Bias’ in detail, in evaluation of performance.
 Just through performance Appraisal forms of various organization (for examples universities) we can
analyze the trends prevailing in that particular organization or university

The theme of the class: After developing an understanding of best HR practices, we will integrate them with
culture. There are various important points that have to be considered even for your day to day, regular
lectures and even for research:
41 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
- Background development
- Importance of the concept
- Content/subject matter
- Lectures on most recent work, done on that subject or area
In this way, an individual can very easily be able to go through the past and present of the subject.
Shortcuts for Performance Evaluation:
There are various methods or in other words, shortcuts are used while deciding about the performance of an
individual and along with these various shortcuts or w3ays, there are also various theories about it:
Decision Making:
Through the Prospects Theory (1979), Kahenman and Taveskey (1972) gave the concept of “Heuristics”, as an
evaluator, we do not contain neither do we have all kind of information, as it is not necessarily available to us,
which means that for the performance evaluation a rater does not have all information. According to the
concepts given by these two:
 We go for Availability Heuristics (which means that whatever available information is there).
 We can evaluate the performance in the following ways:





Representative Heuristics:
It is a belief that previous performance will be repeated onwards (or in future as well). This is a bias and a
number of shortcuts (just like hollow effects, first impression, stereotypes etc) are there which are also in a way
or the other, come under Biases and these are highly related with culture. And this is the point where the role of
the rater is affected.
Awareness may guide us, but cannot change or reduce the impact of our psyche over ourselves
Influence by Ratee/Employee/ Target:
Now comes an important question that how much influence can be put by ratee/employee/target? A major
concept has been given by Mintzber (1983):
„Organizations are inheriting Political Arenas and one needs Political Skills in order to survive and succeed”
Along with Hard work, task performances, for success and survival in that particular environment one needs
Political skills as well.
Concepts of Criteria of Performance appraisal:
Culture influences through reading versus speaking aspect or which is focus of different cultures
(documentation or not) as such elements exists in many organizations, that criteria is vague.
Organizations need to have a developed evaluation procedure or mechanism of evaluation otherwise it is vague
and useless. That is why in this context Nmith and straw (1989) said about the criteria or systems or procedures
of evaluation:
„That can take form of conformity to particular preferences of supervisors‟
That is why when one boss changes, the whole system or procedure changes.
At such cultures, where there exists, no conformity of procedure but (preferences of supervisors or boss)
procedures will follow supervisors (it means instead of following the procedures, the procedures themselves are
supervisor specific) and in such kind of cultures for survival and success, an individual needs more political
skills.
Major work by:
Feris and Judge (1991) (who wrote more than 100 articles in famous impact factor journals just like AMJ etc):
 Annually (Yearly)
 Semi-Annually (6
months)
 Quarterly (3 months)
Evaluation on
42 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
 Organization
 Perception of Politics
 Political Behavior
Techniques that could be used by an individual to get good reputation or perceptions (without the concern about
the actual task completion); there are various techniques that can be used by people to increase their rating in a
particular environment.
The areas at where an individual wants to show your rating high and you use these tactics, without doing any
task or performing in actual manner. And there comes the use of various tactics:
1. Assertive Tactics (Pro-active in nature)
Other enhancement (flattering)
Conformity (yes boss! Strategy)
Subservient Behavior
Self-Promotions etc

2. Defensive Tactics (Reactive in nature)
Excuses
Apologies
How to defend yourself after negative outcome, just to reduce the consequences or to reduce the
consequences you start using some tactics in advance
The required individual‟s characteristic for these tactics is Self-Monitoring, which means that adjusting you
according to external environment. Now we shall try to understand that how these tactics work in
performance appraisal?
According to Von Glemnol (1983):
“What is the criteria for evolution; either it is Task or People (which is basically the concern for people)
Caring Culture, expectation is least linked with task and more linked with corporation, friendship and social
relationship. (just like the situation in Pakistan, where the criteria would be ambiguous, as the concern is not
on task performance and that is why such various kinds of tactics work at such kind of cultures where people
are obsessed with people concern)
Heggins, Feris and Judge (2000) did a meta-analysis from 1967 to 2000 and through their paper the use of these
tactics have been found, positively related with performance appraisal. Another prevailing concept was
generated in 1980‟s and because of the emergence of this concept, even it raised questions and doubts (from
management‟s perspective) upon OCB (organizational citizenship behavior), as there is a possibility of the use
of tactics in showing extremely favorable and uncommon behavior towards organization.
Suggested to read article on OCB, entitled ‘Good Soldiers or Good Actors’, which is basically containing the
theme that why this extra performance has been taking place? As the extreme of anything is not good that is
why the intentions have to be tested before labeling such kind of performance as OCB.
There are topic for research such as: Integration  Focus on self-interests VS OCB Focus on
organizational interests
Another topic: Performance as Accountability
Schneider (1988) said:
“Performance Appraisals are aircrafts built upon the underline assumptions of national culture”
Thus, he directly linked Performance Appraisal with National culture. Li and Karakowsky (2001) said:
“Language and mental models affect Performance rating”
Feris, Frank and Galang (1993) said:
“In performance evaluation, minorities receive less favorable evaluation, which is why they engage more in
ingratiation*”
43 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
It can be assumed by this statement that only top level gets the favor from majority.
* The act of gaining acceptance or affection for yourself by persuasive and subtle blandishments
Cox (1966) had an analysis regarding Performance Appraisal and he found:
1. Same Race Dyad
2. Cross Race Dyad
And these dyads have an impact on dyadic relationship in Performance appraisal.
Associations (tactics):
It is also used as tactics. One of the ability is knowledge or information with the object or the target upon whom
you want to use your tactics in order to gain benefits for yourself, in this way you try to find out some common
grounds, for building up a sense of association or belongingness with the target or subject, for instance
similarity in hobbies or it can also be said in other words as dying in the color of the target person or trend that
is prevailing just to be more important or increase your value or repute and that is the point which gives birth to
Similarity Biases.
Since we have been talking about tactics, it is important to know that tactics are adopted in order to target the
psyche of that particular person.
Compensation Management:
Whenever we talk about the motivation, it is always about two things:
1. Extrinsic factors
2. Intrinsic factors
And since we are talking about compensation, we should know that it is the extrinsic factor. Many people have
different opinion about extrinsic factors and one of those opinions is that extrinsic motivation has not been
valued as much as intrinsic motivation has been valued, in regards with satisfaction. But even here we can see
the impact of different cultures on this perception as well, because as we observe around in Pakistan. In this
regard we shall be studying about what possible variations, that can be emerged in compensation
management with culture? And this discussion basically starts from the definition of compensation
management.
Basic concept of Compensation:
The only practice of Human Resource Management, that has been practiced more than any other practice of HR
and that is compensation, we shall be starting from the concept of compensation through the Economics‟
perspective, starting from:
Incentives:
Rewarding an individual on the basis of performance.
Social Exchange Theory:
Exerting efforts by individual etc  s a return, reciprocal demands to give him reward.
Two issues come have regarding the reference related with rewards:
1. Individual‟s preference (difference of psychology)
2. Culture Specific Characteristic
Further study on your own 3 need theory, a study by Mehcland (1941) which was presented in 1960’s. (1-
Indvidual Specific Needs and 2-Cultural Specific Needs).
Compensation/Salary:
Compensation can be used for resolving Conflicts etc.
Agency Theory :( Principle-Agent)
The basic theory‟s concept given by Eisenhant (1985) can be understood by his statement:
“Pay is a mechanism to align manager‟s interests with owners”
Goal Theory:
Locke & Lalham (1980) said:
44 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
“Pay is a feedback mechanism”
When you get pay or salary or increment, it is the feedback from your boss about your performance.
Perception (expectation of pay or reward is based on perception of individual)
 Nature of relationship
 Effort
 Expectation
All of the above mentioned elements are based on individual‟s perception.
Equity Theory:
Adams (1963,1965) this theory is significant with:
 Culture (which is very important)
 Overall Management
Basic philosophy as per social exchange theory is that Input should be equal to Output (input = output), which
means that with each input, we expect some output. And balance between these two things and through the
psychological equity that is there in an individual‟s mind, in this way the individual will be satisfied. After this,
individual look around him (surroundings). (O/Ia=O/Ib)is my output’s equity equal with other individuals.
It all has been calculated psychologically, in an individual‟s mind.
In case of O/Ia < O/Ib, then this is the stage of inequity which has been stated by Adams as Inequity (under-
rewarded) while there is another possible case, when it is over rewarded and at this level as a worker or
employee, the individual must be containing the feeling of guilt internally as O/Ia>O/Ib. the serious problem
comes in the case of under-rewarding and Adams used the word Referent Other.(company with others)
although Adams has not talked about the culture, but yet it is influenced by culture as this comparison between
individual with others, he will defiantly be affected by the context, culture or the perception of inequity and its
concept, which will be varying from culture to culture. And later on, equity theories were discussed with
regards to culture and responses etc.
That is why all of the discussion in this lecture was with regard to Perception Based. And along with this, we have been
also talking and discussing about the impact of different cultures on the input, which varies accordingly.
Developing Background of Input:
There are two kinds of possible inputs, as in different cultures, the concept of input vary:
If there is an Achievement Oriented Cultures where the complete focus is on (1) Performance, which is why
the concept of performance based appraisal exists. Along with performance, perception is also influenced by (2)
Status. And that is why Kluckhorn (1961) said:
“Individuals at higher positions are different people all together”
This is also the perception of lower people about the higher or upper level people and this opinion is also vice
versa. There are cultures where Status has been given more importance in high power distance cultures.
Interlinking status plus performance at times and at higher level of power distance cultures, the performance of
lower people has been credited to the higher level people and comes, Seniority and this list goes on like Age
and Networking and content etc.
So now we can calculate that now there are two kinds of inputs and these variations in inputs exist because of
the difference in the nature of inputs, which varies culture to culture.
Inputs:





Input
Performance
Status, Seniority, age, Networking etc
45 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
Perhaps this inequity exists, but it is not recognized by members of the society and that is why it has been
accepted by them as well.
Output:
From nature and quantity etc, output will vary in many forms. Now the nature of both input and output varies
from person to person on individual level and context wise on cultural level.(here the focus of our discussion
would be on cultural level not individual level)
EIV Model:
Expectancy Theory:
Here we will be linking this theory with lecture, as this theory has been given by Vroom (1964)(as said above
that this theory was focusing on individual level, but we have discussed and linked it with culture and it does not focus on
equity concept) variance in:
1. Efforts Performance
2. Performance  Reward
3. Reward  Personal Goal Attainment
PGA is something through which individual get satisfaction. (Such as what am I gaining as reward?). Although
Goal Attainment concept is person specific but culture matters a lot as deciding about at which level and
through what kind of nature of reward will satisfy the individual?
Flexible Benefits:
(IHRM) a set of choices or multiple choices are given, so that one could be selected which is suited to the
particular culture.
Issues:
When there is inequality or no balance between input and output at that point, then the one, who is suffering
will react and respond (when Input ≠ Output). In this situation what will happen then perhaps on High power
distance cultures, there would be a sense of Powerlessness and in individualistic cultures, Master of fate. In this
regard the one who has been victimized by this inequality will react accordingly, which will vary from person
to person. Let‟s talk about the first case, where there is a sense of powerlessness it will lead to the reactions that
will be either Passive (cannot change) or Active (will change everything).
Go through the Check by Richman (1971)
EVLN Model:
There are four methods of responding or reacting, when there exists; inequality:
1. Exit
2. Voice
3. Loyalty
4. Neglect
Exit and Voice, come under Active responses while loyalty and neglect are passive responses and these
reactions or responses will also vary from culture to culture. And here neglect will finally result in Counter-
Work-Behavior (which is basically provoking and increasing the passiveness in the organization) and Loyalty
refers to Continuous commitment.
This model has been modified by Naur (2007) and there has been an addition of Cynicism in it. Thus it can be
said that culture has its impact on input and output‟s inequality but culture‟s major impact can be seen in the
responses that are generated as a result of such inequalities.
Another Issue:
Another major issue in this regard is the debate upon Intrinsic and Extrinsic rewards, which is a very common
debate as well in theories. The main debate begins with the concept that salary or compensation, which is the
most common and important function of HRM, which has been practiced in almost every organization, is an
extrinsic reward but in literature, there is more focus given to the intrinsic rewards.
46 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
Deci and Ryan gave two theories:
1. Self-Determination Theory
2. Cognitive Evaluation Theory
These theories say that if you want to motivate a person through extrinsic motivational factors, it will lessen or
decrease the intrinsic motivation, which is already prevailing in individuals. This simply means that:









Thus, we can conclude these theories that if the organization focuses more or over focus is there on extrinsic
motivation, the intrinsic element of motivation will be reduced.
Whereas the Economists’ view about this is:
“Extrinsic motivation is constant and everything is controlled by it”
Titmus (1970) has challenged this view through the experiments done on blood donation where he has proved
and found that there are chances of reduction or elimination of donation of blood, when there had been extrinsic
motivational factors were conditioned with blood donation (such as rewards). That is how through the
increment and focus on extrinsic motivation only, increases the practice but reduced the essence or motive
behind that practice or performance.


York (1908) and Doldson‟s Basis were used.

When extrinsic motivation is increased,
intrinsic motivation is reduced and outcomes
are reduced as well. That is why organizations
need to define a level of Adequacy And for
effective use of internsic motivation, they have
to be at leats at adiquet level, otherwise
externsic motivation will matter, as in the case
of Pakistan and the organzation which has
achieved adiquet level, externic motivation will
not effect.
the reasons behind variours variables may vary
slightly, but the variation could be based on the
intencidy of those varibale, in different cultures.
if you are developong your own scale, you have to
jusftify the reasonof doreaesraching so, by defining the
need of developing a new scale or instrument and what was the deficiency that was found by you in the previous scale.that is why
whenever a new scale has been developed the researcher has to do a critical analysis of the previous scales.
you have to make sure that the sample, that you are taking is the true representator of your population. For example for a true
representatio0n of pakistan, you have to go for collecting data from majority of Pakistan’s population.
today’s formal/educational discussion will be ending the HR practices.
E
x
t
r
i
n
s
i
c

M
o
t
i
v
a
t
i
o
n

I
n
t
r
i
n
s
i
c

M
o
t
i
v
a
t
i
o
n

47 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
health and sfaety attidtue is very cultur specific
attitude towards safety and security really has a huge impact towards Health and safety practices.
You cannmot identify a single HR practice, that are not out of culture’s influence but the topics, discussed in the class, were the most
important practices and the direction of class’s discussion was as:
Going from HR practices towards culture‟s domain
Career Management and Development:
One of the huge challenge in this area is to define career. Rsearchers have huge differnece on the basic meaning
or perspective of career. And there are so much variation in the prespectives of differnet researchers about
career and that is why they have taken each of those perspectivbes and conducted researches on that particuylar
selected perspectiev of career. Greenhans (1987) has conducted a meta-analysis on all perspectives. As we shall
only be focusing on two prespective of career and now we are going to go through the definitions and wes hall
be able to define careeer after fristly defining the perspective of career.
Themes or Perspectives of Career:
1. Occuptaional Perspective Choice of an occupation
2. Tenure Theme Tenure with organzation (my career wuth my orgainzation; the tiem that has been
spend in being a part of organzation; as long as you are with an organization, you will say this much of
my career was with this particular orginazation)
3. Advanccemenet Theme Progression in Organization or occupation. (designation of job;feidl of
indvidual; within organization growing in its position)
4. Involvmenet ThemeOne sentence would better explain this perspective when someone gets involved
in a particular profession or thing os much we say him;Do not make it career out of it.
5. Stability of work Patterns Sequence of Related jobs (for a person who has been invloved in multiple
tasks cannot be included in career but it is essential to have sequence of related or interlined jobs,
occupation or professions)
These perspectives show that in how many multiple perspective or dimeniosn we use career in regular basis in
life. The two perspectives that we had discussed in the class are basically popular in Pakistani context or
Orgaiznational context.
 Occupational theme
 Advancement theme
There are somne theories at the back end of these themes such as:
Holland (1958) Occupational theme (he has discussed career or occupational theme in the aspect of
Psychology) and Super (1957)  Advancement theme (overall life is the advancement of stages and it starts
with the role of a child and you move onwards gradually).
Holland (1958) said:
“indvidual‟s choice of acreer is experssion of Personality”
He linked career with Personality directly. Whatever work has been done by him is purely done in
psychological perspective.while Super gave the concept that you perform a roles and these roles are played in
foru different theaters. Tis is how in a single day you perform different roles at different theaters. And Role is
the expected behavior patterns. And accordingly to the theaters, our behavoir patterns varies according to the
demand of each of the theater. And as you have advanced in life, you also have such kinds of advancement in
oragnation( Career Programming).
RIASEC Model:
This model defines that for which kind of personality,w hich career should be selected.
Holland gave specifically for occupational personbality type (six dimensions of Personlity) and he identified
perosnality types after 28 years in the occupational or career field and after identifying them he has realted
these perosnality types with suitable careers:
1. Realistic
48 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq
2. Investigative
3. Artistic
4. Social
5. Enterprising
6. Conventional
These all are present in everyone witj differnet propotions but the one that will be dominating, that would be the
personality type that will be considered for sleection for career. As for performing upto th elevel of excellence,
one has to select career according to the personality type one has.
Realistic Type:
 One of the generic type of personbality.
 These kind of people are liking mannual works and they use machines and toold etc.
 They can do repairs, dislike educational work
 Like to work indvidually etc.
Investigative Type:
 Abstract problem(solving multiple or complex problems)solvers, who like to work alone
 Observe, learn and solve the problems
 Solving problems scientifically
 Dislike repeatative work rather they go for novality and new things etc
Artistic Type:
 Creativty
 Work with ideas (focal point if ideas) rather than actual problems
 Imaginations
 Dislike structured environement
Social Type:
 Care givers
 Like to work with people
 Informing training and developing them (people)
 Dislike physical exertion
 Dislike Machines
Enterpricing Type:
 Influencers
 Like to work with others
 Ability to manage, to lead and to direct
 Dislike a systematic appraoch to work
 Affective manager or leader etc
Conventional Type:
 Conforming people, who like to work with words and figures
 They like systamatic
 Ordered enviroenemnt
 Dislike ambigious
 Dislike unstractured situation

They are three improtant stages or elements to consider:
Personality typeAbilitySkill developmenet
49 | P a g e
Notes by Noureen Mushtaq

RIASEC:
They make hierarchy or dominant traist which will help to evaluate or consider about the personality fo an
indvidual. 3-digit codes are used for this purpose, which means the top three traist have to be considered, as
mor ebelow then that may not and should not be considered for selection the career as the existance of all traist
is there in every indvidual but those traits which are dominant, take hold of the personality and indvidual should
go for that relavent career, accordinlyg.
ASROccupational (example of some traits, which are written in 3 digit codes alog with ethe related career)
All of these efforts are made just to avoid onething amnd that is:
Personality-Job MisMatch!
Now this model will be applied and discussed along with the culture.
Different studies have been used in order to relate this theory with culture, for example: Dynamic Social impact
Theory (social Conext); your attitude, belife is developed, because of repeatition of social interaction (Latine,
1981).
Rent etc all (2008) has developed a very comprehencive model and said:
“the enviormenet In your sorrounsidng, at where your interact repeatly, that is why one has to consider that
what kind of sorruounding is there (which means people‟s type of personality or traits).
(Since we are talking here in a particular perspective that is why you have to consider this model with regards to DSIT).
He made paths (A,B.C,D) and where th emajor difference is because of culture:







Artistic/Investigative  Curiousty/Imagination/Creativity  When a number of people will be
influenced, this varaible will be generated in that culture or region (such as Artistic culture). We cana lso say
that geographical response to the persobality of majority and that is because pf environment.













Environment Personality
Geographical
Response