UPDATE OF HARMONIC STANDARD IEEE-519

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AND REQUIREMENTS
FOR
HARMONIC CONTROL IN ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS
Copyright Material IEEE
Paper No. PCIC-88-7
C.K. Duffey, Member, IEEE R. P. Stratford, Fellow, IEEE
Power Technologies, Inc.
Schnectady, New York
Abstract - In 1973 two events occurred that changed the
way that utilization equipment is applied on Industrial
Power Systems. The first of these was the oil embargo
that increased the cost of energy; and the second was the
coming of age of adjustable speed drives using static power
converters. To minimize electrical energy costs, which are
made up of demand and kilowatt-hour charges, users began
to apply capacitors to their systems to lower the demand
charges from utility companies. With the increased use of
static power converters that require harmonic currents
from the power system, the stage was set for trouble. The
Static Power Converter Committee of the Industrial
Applications Society recognized the potential problem and
started work on a standard that would give guidelines to
users and engineer-architects in the application of static
power converter drives and other uses on electric power
systems that contained capacitors. The result was IEEE
5 19- 198 1, “IEEE Guide f or Harmonic Control and Reactive
Compensation of Static Power Converters”. Since all
standards are reviewed every five years, a review of IEEE
519-1981 has been in progress for the last two years. The
revision is expected to be submitted to the IEEE Standards
Board in 1988. This paper reports the changes that are
included in the revised standard and includes examples on
the application of IEEE-519.
INTRODUCTION
When the Static Power Converter Committee of IAS
initiated the work on IEEE 519-1981, in general, industry
and utilities were not particularly interested in the problem
of harmonic currents on their systems. Up until the early
1970’s, the major users of static power converters had
developed techniques to minimize harmonic currents into
the power grid. The electro-chemical and electro-
metallurgical industries were the largest users of static
power converters and they had developed multi-pulse
operation of their installations that cancelled harmonic
currents used in their processes. Large metal rolling mills
had also adopted these techniques. These industries had
electrical engineers who with the electrical engineers of
the major manufacturers of static power converters
understood the problem and took steps to minimize
harmonic currents.
With the maturing of static power converter
technologies, based on the new silicon power thyristors,
economical small and medium sized adjustable speed drives
became available from many manufactures. Each drive by
itself, did not present much of a problem with harmonic
currents. However, with the proliferation of many drives,
all operating independently, the problem became more
complicated. Since it is not economical, nor desirable, to
eliminate the harmonic currents from individual drives,
analysis must be performed to determine whether or not
there is going to be a problem caused by the harmonics on
the power system. Many users of these new equipments do
not have electrical engineers that can recognize the
problems and correct them before they cause excessive
costs and failures of equipment. Standard IEEE 519-1981
was developed to aid in the application of these new
equipments so as to minimize the problems associated with
these non-linear loads.
During the five years after the standard was issued, it
proved to be a useful document for all those applying
adjustable speed drives. It was also picked up by electric
utilities that started to be concerned about the number of
static power converter loads that began appearing on their
systems. Within the IEEE-PES (Power Engineering Society)
a Working Group on Harmonics was established as part of
the Transmission and Distribution Committee (T & D
Committee). The membership of this working group was
made up of mainly individuals from the electric utility
industry and academics who recognized the potential
problems. There were also some members that had
participated in the original IEEE 519- 1981 document.
When the time came to review IEEE 519-1981, it
became apparent that there should be a joint effort
between the Working Group on Harmonics of the Power
Engineering Society and the Static Power Converter
Committee of the Industrial Applications Society. This
was accomplished through a co-chairmanship of the new
Task Force. On 23 J anuary 1986, the PAR (Standard
Project Authorization) was submitted to IEEE headquarters
and was approved on 13 March 1986. Since that time,
work has been progressing with six meetings being held
between J anuary 1986 and May 1988. The membership of
the Task Force includes engineers from industry, electric
utilities, manufacturers, consultants, and universities. For
continuity, several of the participants who worked on the
original document are contributing to the revision.
DOCUMENT CHANCES
The document has had enough acceptance that it is
now up-graded to a “Recommended Practice”. In fact, the
new title of the document is:
IEEE Recommended Practices and Requirements for
Harmonic Control in Electric Power Systems
This will give it a higher standing in both user
applications and the electric utility service.
The need for changes in the document became
apparent during the first meeting. The original document
was good in that it brought to the attention of power
engineers the problems associated with non-linear harmonic
producing loads. However, it did not address the concern
that many electric utilities had about one user using up all
the capacity of their system to absorb harmonic currents.
The voltage distortion criteria in the 1981 edition could
not be used to distribute among users the ability of the
utility system to absorb harmonic currents. This problem
is addressed in the revision.
There are now two criteria that are used to evaluate
harmonic distortion. The first is a limitation in the
harmonic current that a user can transmit into the utility
system. The second criteria is the quality of the voltage
that the utility must furnish the user. The
interrelationship of these criteria shows that the harmonic
problem is a system problem and not tied just to the
individual load that requires the harmonic current.
88CH2661-7/88/0000-0249$01.00 0 1988 IEEE
- 249 -
rable 1 - Harmonic Current Limits for Non-Linear Loads
at the Point-Of-Common-Coupling with Other
Loads, at Voltages of 2.4 to 69 kV.
Isc/IL
<20*
20-50
50-100
100-1000
*lo00
MAXIMUM HARMONIC CURRENT DISTORTION
HARMONIC ORDER (ODD HARMONICS)
<11 ll<h<17 17<h<23 23<h<35 35<h THD
4.0 2.0 1.5 0.6 0.3 5.0
7.0 3.5 2.5 1.0 0.5 8.0
10.0 4.5 4.0 1.5 0.7 12.0
12.0 5. 5 5.0 2.0 1.0 15.0
15.0 7.0 6.0 2.5 1.4 20.0
- -----
IN % OF FUNDAMENTAL i
2.3-69kV 69-138kV >138kV
Even harmonics are limited to 25% of the odd
limits above.
Maximum for
Total Harmonic
Individual Harmonic
Distortion (THD)
’All power generation equipment is limited to these values
3f current distortion, regardless of actual I
/I sc L‘
Where I = Maximum short circuit current at PCC.
4nd I : = Maximum load current (fundamental
For PCC’s from 69 to 138 kV, the limits are 50 percent of
the limits above. A case-by-case evaluation is required !
ror PCC’s of 138 kV and above.
I
frequency) at PCC
~
Table 1 lists the harmonic current limits based on
the size of the user with respect to the size of the power
system to which he is connected. The ratio of Isc/IL is
the short circuit current available at the point of common
coupling (PCC), to the nominal fundamental load current.
Thus as the size of the user load decreases with respect to
the size of the system, the larger is the percentage of
harmonic current ‘ the user is allowed to inject into the
utility system. This protects other users on the same
feeder as well as the utility which is required to furnish a
certain quality of power to its customers.
The second limitation specifies the quality of the
voltage that the utility must furnish the user. Table 2
lists the amount of voltage distortion that is acceptable
from a utility to a user. This table is similar to the one
in the present edition of IEEE 519-1981. To meet the
power quality values listed in Table 2, cooperation among
all users and the utility is needed to insure that no one
user deteriorates the power quality beyond Table 2. The
values in Table 2 are low enough to insure that equipment
will operate correctly.
Table 2 - Harmonic Voltage Limits for Power Producers
(Public Utilities or CO-generators)
3.0 1.5 1 .O
5.0 2.5 1.5
I
\ HA RMONI C VOLTAGE DISTORTION I N % AT PCC
13.8
I
KV
I
Note: High voltage systems can have up to 2.0% THD
where the cause is an HVDC terminal that will
attenuate by the time it is tapped for a user.
In addition to the changes listed above, (these are
the real meat of the standard), there is additional
application information that aids in the understanding of
static power converters and their effect on the power
system. Information on the ef f ht of harmonic voltage on
different power system components is included; and there is
a more detailed description of how to measure harmonic
currents and voltages and how to evaluate the
measurements. The appendix of this paper lists the
Introduction and Scope of the document and also gives an
outline to the document’s content. The references and
bibliography have also been updated.
APPLICATION EXAMPLES
In order to better understand what the standard
means in practical terms, the following two applications of
the standard are discussed.
Example of Large Industrial Plant Furnished at
Transmission Voltage
Figure 1 shows a large industrial plant such as an oil
refinery or chemical plant being serviced from a utility
transmission voltage at 115 kv. The demand on the utility
system is 50 MVA and 50 percent of its load is twelve
pulse static power converter load. Table 3A shows the
equivalent harmonic current distortion characteristic of this
load.
At the 115 kv PCC, the load current, IL, is 250
amperes, and the static power converter’s (SPC) current is
125 amperes. The amount of each of the harmonic
currents is based on the factors that are listed in the
Table A1 (Appendix). In Table 1, the Standard has
classified the percent allowable harmonic current distortion
in accordance with the harmonic order. Thus for a short
circuit ratio R of 40, the allowable distortion caused by
harmonics less %an the eleventh, is 3.5 percent. (Because
the supply voltage is 115 kV, the allowable current
distortion is one half the values in Table 1.) From the
eleventh to the seventeenth, 1.8 percent is allowed, etc.
In the case of the example, the distortion of the 12-pulse
characteristic harmonics (11, 13, 23, 25, 35, etc.) are
higher than allowed even though it is within the limits for
the fifth and seventh harmonics and other categories.
In the example, the distortion of the load with the
eleventh and the thirteenth harmonic currents are higher
than Table 1 allows for 115 kV even if R is above 100.
However, the system’s ability to absorbSC the harmonic
currents without exceeding the voltage distortion is shown
in Table 3B. In this particular case, a review with the
utility could be made to see if the excess current
distortion is acceptable as long as the voltage distortion is
within limits.
Table 3B lists the resulting harmonic voltages
associated with the harmonic currents listed in Table 3A.
The harmonic voltages depend upon the impedance in the
system through which the harmonic currents must flow.
The listing in Table 3B shows how the harmonic voltages
decrease with the size of the system. It is evident that
the harmonic currents from this plant do not distort the
115 KV
7
*50 MVA
LOADS
25 MVA 12.5
MW
A A
3 12.5
MW
Figure 1 One line diagram of large industrial plant fed
from transmission voltage used in calculation of
current and voltage distortion.
- 250 -
System Size
'sc
(U)
2000 10.0
3500 17.6
5000 25.1
Note: Current Oistortlon Limits are one-half of those listed in Table 1 because of 115 kV level
Ratio Load Demand SPC Load Harmonic Current Ih
'sc'IL IL kW Is '5 '7 I '11 '13 I '17 '19 I '23 '25 '29 '31 1'35 THO
Current in Amperes
Current Distortion X
(Amp)
50 250 25 125 2.4 1.651 9.12 7.12 10.44 0.34 12.50 2.00 0.17 0.151 1.37
0.96 0.66 3.63 2.84 0.13 0.14 1.00 0.80 0.07 0.06 0.55 4.96
1.3 0.5 0.25 4.0
2.0 0.8 0.35 6.0
40 IEEE - Limits X 3.5 1.8
70 IEEE - Limits X 5.0 2.3
IEEE - Limits X 6.0 2.8 2.5 1.0 0.5 7.5
100
L
Ih = (ls)(fh)
Current Distortion In percent
Where: I, is rated current of static power converter
System Size
M"ASc Is,
2000 10.0
3500 17.6
5000 25.1
fh is harmonic factor in per unit of I,
THO IEEE Limit
Harmonic Voltage at 115 kV (percent)
Ratio ZSysf
ISC'Il % V5 V7 Vll V13 V17 VI9 V23 v25 VZ9 Vjl V35 X Individual THD
40 0.5 0.119 0.115 0.999 0.922 0.075 0.064 0.573 0.498 0.049 0.046 0.478 1.64 1.5 2.5
70 0.286 0.068 0.066 0.571 0.527 0.429 0.037 0.328 0.285 0.028 0.026 0.273 0.94 1.5 2.5
100 0.2 0.048 0.026 0.400 0.369 0.017 0.026 0.230 0.199 0.020 0.018 0.199 0.66 1.5 2.5
ITH0 = fx 1 :
x 100
I.
435 18.2 8.7 2.3
L
Distortion at 13.8 kV Bus
0.571 0.552 4.795 4.426 0.360 0.307 2.750 2.390 0.0% 0.221 2.294 7.88 3 5.0
9.12
v h = -- Ih (h)(ZSys)(lOO) X volts (e.g.) V11 =50.20 (11) (.005)(100) =0.999% volts
'base
voltage greater than what is recommended in the standard.
If there are other users on this line, however, the utility
system may be distorted greater than what is allowed by
the standard and if that is the case, this user must correct
his harmonic current to be within the limits recommended
in the standard.
Note that on the 13.8 kV bus, the voltage distortions
are greater than recommended. A properly sized harmonic
filter applied on the 13.8 kV bus would reduce the current
distortion and the voltage distortion to within the current
limits to the utility and the voltage limits on the 13.8 kV
bus.
Example of Several Users on a Single Distribution Feeder
Figure 2 shows a utility distribution feeder that has
four users along the feeder. Each user sees a different
value of short circuit or system size. Tables 5 through 8,
Case A, list the current distortion from each of the Users
as a function of its SPC load. Note that User #1 (Table 5)
is well within the limits as specified by Table 1 of the
Standard, User #2 (Table 6) is marginal, and Users #3 and
#4 (Tables 7 and 8) are both well over the
recommendations. Table 9, Case A, shows the resulting
voltage distortion on the feeder due to the four users. In
all cases the voltage distortion is above the five percent
limit shown in Table 2.
There are two possible solutions to this problem, and
Table 4 tabulates the cases that will be discussed. The
first solution would be for the utility to place a harmonic
filter near User #3 to absorb the harmonic currents coming
0.48 KV
1.875
0.00476 MVA
300
0.0238 MVA
L.3
0.055 MW
4, . 17>, I . -.. : 4.16 KV
I
, I ' " I 1t .-
L L
e r \ MVA
I.ULLbO
I 3.6 MJ
L
3.75
-.. - 2.1 MVAR
'T'
MW
I 5TH FILT
One line diagram of distribution system feeder
used in calculation of current and voltage
distortion.
Figure 2
- 251 -
TABLE 5. USER I1 HARMaYIC CURRENT LOAD F
r------
PLANT SPECIFICATIONS
358 MVA, 14.6 KA SC
2.5 MVA, 104 A LOAO
25% SPC' s
26 A SPC LOAO CWRENT
'SC'ILOAO *
W K DISTORTION
HARMONIC CURRENT (AMPS)
1
CASEA TO SYSTEM
% DISTORTION
CASE 8 TO SYSTEM
TO FILTER
% DISTORTION
-
1.49 1.18
0.40 8.30
1.43 1.13
8.73 8.56
8.18 8.14
8.70 8.54
1.53 1.28
8.37 8.28
1.47 1.15
0.74 8.57
8.17 8.13
8.71 8.55
TO SYSTEM
% DISTORTION
-
HARMONIC CURRENT (AMPS)
17 19 1 23 25 29 31 35 THD- 5 7 11 13
48.1 27.6 15.3 11.9 7.31 5.64 , 4.18 3.34 2.93 2.5 2.3
9.59 6.68 3.66 2.85 1.75 1.35 I 1.88 8.88 8.78 8.68 8.55% 12.8%
- CASE 8 TO SYSTEM
TO FILTER
% OISTORTICN
W TO SYSTEM
TO FILTER
% OISTORTICN
8.81 12.5
48.1 15.1
8.80 2.99
0.82 9.73
0.08 2.33
40.1 17.9
E&J TO SYSTEM
TO FILTER
% DISTORTION
IEEE-519 L I MI TS
8.84 18.3 7.50 6.05 3.84 2.99 2.24 1.88 1.58 1.35 1.25
48.1 17.3 7.88 5.85 3.47 2.65 1.94 1.54 1.35 1.15 1.05
8.88 2.46 1.79 1.45 8.92 8.72 0.54 8.43 8.38 8.32 8.38% 3.68%
4% 2.0 1.5% 0.6% 0.3% 5.8%
17 19 I 23 25 29 31
I
5.50 4.24
2.63 2.03
3.34 2.59
2.16 1.64
1.68 1.24
2.40 1.87
3.18 2.37
1.14 8.89
2.89 2.25
2.61 1.99
1.38 1.08
3.14 2.51 2.28
1.50 1.28 1.05
1.94 1.56 1.37
1.20 0.96 8.83
0.93 8.75 0.66
1.40 1.12 0.99
1.74 1.39 1.21
0.67 8.54 8.47
1.68 1.35 1.19
1.46 1.16 1.81
0.88 8.65 0.57
IEEE-519 L I MI TS 7% 2.5% 1.0%
r; 7
4.99 3.43
4.88 3.33
1.98 1.48 8.91 8.78
1.83 1.42 1 0.87 8.67
8.52 8.42 8.36 8.31
8.58 8.48 8.35 8.38
2.49 2.49
2.49 8.94
2.39 2.39
8.42 8.34 8.29 8.25
8.48 8.33 8.28 8.24
0.18 8.08 8.87 8.86
8.22% 4.88%
E I
CASE C TO SYSTEM
l- TO FILTER
8.43 8.34 8.38 8.25
8.89 8.88 8.86 8.86
0.48 8.33 8.29 8.24
8.24
8.05
8.23%
3.58 2.67
1.48 8.76
3.77 2.57
I
4.76%
::;; 1
1.21% 3.84%
0.40 0.32 8.28 8.24
8.12 8.18 8.88 8.87
0.38 8.31 8.27 8.23
CASE 0 TO SYSTEM
TO FILTER
I €€€- 519 L I MI TS
2.58 2.36
2.49 1.88
2.48 2.26
1.- 1 15% 5.5% I 5.0% 2.8% 12%
TABLE 6. USER 12 H, MONIC CURRENT LOAD FI W a OISTORTION
HARMONIC C
17 19
RENT (AMPS)
23 25 29 31
-
35
1.16
8. 56%
8.98
8.25
8. 44%
8.92
8.24
8.45%
8.85
8.31
8.41%
-
5 7 11 13
3.68 2.84
1.76 1.36
2.18 1.68 1.47 1.26
1.88 8.88 8.78 8.68
1.63 1.31 1.14 8.98
8.47 0.37 8.32 8.28
8.78 8.63 8.55 8.47
1.66 1.33 1.16 1.88
8.44 8.35 8.31 8.26
0.79 8.64 8.56 8.48
1.53 1.23 1.87 8.92
8.57 8. 45 8.39 8.34
8.73 8.59 8.51 8.44
CASEA TO SYSTEM
% DISTORTION
TO SYSTEM
TO FILTER
x DISTORTION
W TO SYSTEM
TO FILTER
% DISTORTION
28.2 13.9
9.67 6.65
7.66 5.99
3.67 2.87
PLANT SPECIFICATIONS
388 MVA. 12.55 KA SC
5MVA. 289A LOAO
58% SPC' S
185 A SPC LOAD CURREM
ISC'ILOAD * "
8.42 9.44
11.8 4.41
4.83 4.52
5.76 4.56
1.98 1.43
2.76 2.18
2.84 2.28
8.84 0.64
1.36 1.85
13.2 18.3
7.01 3.6
6.32 4.93
5.94 4.68
1.72 1.31
2.84 2.24
2.89 2.24
8.79 8.68
1.38 1.87
TO SYSTEM
TO FILTER
2.66 2.86
1.82 0.78
1.27 0.99
8.43 8.79
11.8 5.87
4.83 4.21
10%
5.38 4.27
2.28 1.72
2.57 2.84
4.5%
% DISTORTION
IEEE-519 L I MI TS 8.7%
__
4.8% 1.5%
TABLE 7. USER 13 HI
P L M SPECIFICATIONS
175 MVA. 7.32 KA SC
10 MVA. 418 A LOAD
58% SPC' S
289 A SPC LOAD CURRENT
Isc/ILoAD = 17.5
8.78 7.83
6.52 4.87
2.10 1.68
7.10 5.73
8.28 6.17
1.78 1.37
J
4.37
4.44 3.45
2.87 2.19
1.86 8.83
3.64 2.83
3.67 2.81
8.87 0.68
2.58 2.87 1.82 1.56
1.68 1.27 1.11 8.94
8.62 8.58 0.44 8.37
2.12 1.78 1.58 1.28
2.06 1.64 1.43 1.22
0.51 8.41 0.36 8.31
1.44
8.86
8.34%
1.18
1.12
8. 28%
3.48 1
TABLE 8. USER 1.4 HARMDNIC CURRENT LOAD FLW a OISTM(TION
TO SYSTEM
% DISTORTION
-
35
1.72
8.82%
1.87
8.65
1.51%
0.78
8.94
8. 37%
8.93
0.79
1.45%
-
1 1 13
11.5 8.95
5.58 4.28
6.68 5.38
4.98 3.66
3.16 2.54
4.64 3.76
6.86 5.19
2.22 1.81
1.88
8.98
1.17
8.71
8.66
0.85
1.83
8.41
1.82
8.86
8.49
PLANT SPECIFICATIONS
125 MVA. 5.23 KA SC
5 MVA. 289 A LOAD
75% SPC' S
157 A SPC LOAD CURRENT
ISC' ILOAO = 25
30.1 28.7
14.4 9.98
8.88 9.39
8.88 4.49
8.81 6.17
8.88 2.95
8.83 7.72
8.81 3.69
38.1 11.3
38.1 14.5
38.1 13.8
TO SYSTEM
TO FILTER
% OISTORTICN
TO SYSTEM
TO FILTER
% DISTORTION
TO SYSTEM
TO FILTER
% DISTORTION
5.64 4.55
5.86 4.48
2.78 2.18
8.5%
-
3.5%
- 252 -
Table 9. Harmonic Voltage Distortion for Distribution System Example
USER
#1
#2
#3
U4
CASE
A
B
C
0
A
B
C
0
A
B
C
D
A
B
C
D
' 2 3 ' 2 5 v2'3 ' 3 1
1.56 1.36 1.38 1.26
1.03 0.90 0.92 0.84
0.77 0.67 0.68 0.62
0.92 0.80 0.82 0.75
CASE
A
,1.81 1.57 1.60 1.46
1.19 1.04 1.06 0.97
0.88 0.77 0.78 0.72
1.06 0.92 0.94 0.86
FILTER SIZE LOACATION
MVAR
NONE - - -
5.77 5.55 4.84 4.45
0.00 2.52 2.78 2.63
0.39 1.64 1.87 1.78
0.00 2.07 2.37 2.26
-
B 4.1 AT USER #3
13.8 KV BUS
3.58 3.08
2.18 1.89
1.49 1.29
1.88 1.64
2.77 2.40 2.44 2.23
1.71 1.49 1.52 1.39
1.17 1.03 1.05 0.96
1.48 1.29 1.32 1.21
Note: All values are in percent
A = System with no filters.
B = System with 4.1 MVAR 5t h harmonic filter at User 13, 13.8 k v bus.
C = System with 5th harmonic filter at User's X3 & 14, 4.16 k v bus.
D = System with 5.8 MVAR 5th harmonic filter at User 13, 13.8 k v bus.
from the larger sources, Users #3 and #4. Since
approximately 4 Mvar (Case B) of capacitors are needed to
furnish the vars for these loads, a filter with this value of
capacitance incorporated can be furnished, and the cost
borne by the users that are above the recommended limits
on current distortion. Table 9, Case B shows that the
voltage distortion is within limits for Users #1 and #2, but
still above five percent for Users #3 and #4. Current
distortion and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), are all
within prescribed IEEE-519 limits except for Users #3 and
#4, 1 lth to 22nd harmonic.
The second alternative, is for the two Users #3 and
#4, to furnish filters on their systems (Case C). These
filters would improve their power factor above the penalty
point and also keep the current distortion within limits.
The economic incentive for the users to correct the
problem is the lower power cost because of power factor
improvement. If the utility has no penalty, there is little
incentive for the user to make the correction rather than
the utility. Table 9, Case C, lists the improvements in the
voltage distortion with the users furnishing filters on their
4.16 kv buses. In Case C, the voltage distortion values as
well as the current distortion values are within the
Standard.
Case D was calculated to see the effect of increasing
the size of the utility furnished filter. Even a forty
percent increase in the utility filter still leaves the
voltage distortion on Users #3 and #4 above the limits.
TABLE 4 - ARRANGEMENT OF HARMONIC FILTERS
AT USER #3
4.16 KV BUS
AT USER #4
From this example, it is shown that the most
effective way to correct harmonic distortion is at the
source of the harmonic current or at the user's point of
common coupling with the utility.
The Table of Contents, Introduction and Scope, of
the Standard as well as a Harmonic Current Table and
specifications for the filters used are included in the
Appendix.
CONCLUSIONS
The electric power systems in North America have
had very good power quality. The increased use of non-
linear loads on these systems threatens to deteriorate the
quality of this power. The practices recommended in this
revised IEEE Standard 519 will help to insure the high
power quality to which all of North America h e become
accustomed. These limitations will not be a burden on
either the producers or the users of electric power.
APPENDIX
TABLE A1 - Per unit of fundamental current for harmonic
currents based on Xc =0.12 and Alpha =30,
Harmonic PU Value Harmonic PU Value
1 1 .oo
5 0.192 29 0.014
7 0.132 31 0.012
11 0.073 35 0.011
36 0.010 13 0.057
41 0.009 17 0.035
19 0.027 43 0.00s
23 0.020 47 0.008
25 0.016 49 0.007
The magnitude of the 6-pluse harmonic currents (bold type)
in a 12-pulse converter, is normally taken as ten percent of
the 6-pulse value.
253 -
IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR
HARMONIC CONTROL I N ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEMS
SECTION - OUTLINE OF CONTENTS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5 .
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Introduction and Scope
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Scope
Definitions and Letter Symbols
2.1 Definitions
2.2 Letter Symbols
References
3.1 Standards References
3.2 References
Converter Theory and Harmonic Generation
4.1 Converters
4.2 Arc Furnaces
4.3 Static VAR Compensators
4.4 Inverters for Dispersed Generation
4.5 Electronic Control
4.6 Transformers
4.7 Generators
SystemResponse Characteristics
5.1 Resonance Conditions
5.2 Effect of SystemLoading
5.3 Typical Characteristics
5.3.1 Industrial Systems
5.3.2 Distribution Systems - Overhead and
Underground
5.3.3 Transmission Systems
Effects of Harmonics
6.1 Motors and Generators
6.2 Transformers
6.3 Capacitots
6.4 Electronic Equipment
6.5 Metering
6.6 Relaying
6.7 Communications Circuits
6.8 Converters
Reactive Power Compensation and Harmonic Control
7.1 Converter Power Factor
7.2 Reactive Power Compensation
7.3
, Design, etc.
Calculation Methods
8.1 Calculation of Harmonic Currents
8.2 SystemAnalysis
8.3 Telephone Interference
8.4 Line Notching Calculations (For Low Voltage
Systems)
8.5 Distortion Factor
SystemCalculations (Low Voltage System)
8.7 Power Factor Improvement Calculation
Measurements
9.1 Line Notching
9.2 Harmonic Currents and Voltages
8 .4 Flicker
9.5 Power Factor Improvement
9.6 Instrumentation
9.7 Statistical Characteristic of Harmonics
Recommended Practices for Individual Consumers
10.1 Description of Standard Impedance Method
10.2 Standard Impedance
- Function of SystemVoltage
-
Voltage Distortion Limits for a Single Customer
- Individual Frequency
Control of Harmonics - SystemDesign, Filter
e8.6
.3 Telephone Interference
Function of Equipment Power Rating
10.3
1 I .
12.
13.
- Distortion
- TIF (Balanced and Residual)
-
Function of SystemVoltage Level
10.4 Customer Application of Capacitors or Filters
10.5 Effect of Multiple Sources at a Single Customer
- WorseCase
- Statistical
- RMS
10.6 Line Notching Calculations
Recommended Harmonic Limits on the System
11.1 Voltage Distortion Limits at Various Voltage
Levels
-
- Statistical Limits
TI F Limits vs Voltage Level (Balanced and
Residual)
-
- Statistical Limits
-
- Statistical Limits
Worst Case Short Time Limits
11.2
Worst Case Short Time Limits
11.3 IT Product
Worst Case Short Time Limits
Recommended Methodology for Evaluation of New
Harmonic Sources
Bibliography
13.1 Books and General Discussions
13.2 Real and Reactive Power
13.3 WaveformAnalysis and Measurement Techniques
13.4 Standards and Engineering Recommendations
13.5 WaveformAnalysis and Means of Harmonic
Suppression
13.6 Effects on Components and Systems
1.0 Introduction and Scope
1.1 Introduction. The use of nonlinear loads
connected to electric power systems include: static power
converters, arc discharge devices, saturated magnetic
devices and to a lesser degree, rotation machines. Static
power converters of electric power are the largest
nonlinear load and are used in industry for a variety Of
purposes, such as electrochemical power supplies, adjustable
speed drives, and uninterruptible power supplies. These
devices are useful because they can convert ac to dc, dc to
dc, dc to ac, and ac to ac. The characteristic of nonlinear
loads however, changes the sinusoidal nature of the ac
power current (and consequently the ac voltage drop),
resulting in the flow of harmonic currents in the ac power
system that can cause interference with communication
circuits and other equipments. When reactive power
compensation in the form of power capacitors are used
with these nonlinear loads, resonance conditions can cause
high harmonic voltages and current when they occur at a
harmonic associated with nonlinear loads.
1.2 Scope. This Recommended Practice applies to
all types of power systems where a user of electrical
energy is connected to a source of electrical energy. The
purpose is to establish limits to the distortion of the
sinusoidal ac current a user may induce into a power
distribution system which affects other users and
communications. It also sets the quality of the power
that will be furnished by the producer to the user with
respect to the distortion of the sinusoidal ac voltage
serving the user. This document is not intended to cover
the effect of radio-frequency interference.
1.3 Application of the Standard. This Standard is to
be used for guidance in the design of power systems with
non-linear loads. The limits set are for steady-state
operation and are recommended for the "worst case"
conditions. Transient conditions exceeding these limits may
be encountered.
254
SAMPLES OF HARMONIC FILTER SPECIFICATION
ITEM: I - 300 Hertz Shunt Filter Bank Case B
I -
shunt filter. outdoor, ungrounded wye, rated as follows:
Capacitor 57.480 ufdlphase
14.49 kV maximum Reactor 4.896 mhrylphase
1 IO BIL (kV) high Capacitor Bank 4.127 Mvar nominal
110 BIL (kV) low Ambient Temp. 4OC
60 Hertz system
13.80 kV nominal Tolerance +4%
Capacitor Reactance (ohms) """w 46.148
Reactor Reactance (ohms) 1.846 9.230
. .
Wominal Con-
Current (amps)
kV across capacitor
kV across reactor
179.843 95.000 2 0 3 x r ms
0.877 9.176 kV 8.299
0.332 0.877 1.209 kV
PU volts across capacitor . . . . 1.103
Maximum p\uy
. .
105.000 216.063 rms Current (amps) 188.835
8.714 0.969 9.683 kV
kV across capacitor
kV across reactor 0.349 0.969 1.318 kV
Pu volts across capacitor . . . . 1.164
The filter will be constructed from the following components:
A) I - Stack rack capacitor bank with these features:
I5 - 300.0 kvar l ow stress capacitors
Cat. No.:
Each Rated: 300.0 kvar. 11.4959 urd, at 8320.volts
1 -
1 - 8 foot substructure 1 - Set of Expulsion fuses
Extra creep bushings
Blown fuse indicators
Grounding and disconnecting switch
Bus work within rack
Single bushing units
(List capacitors with ufd values for each location in rack)
B) 3 - Reactors with these features:
Outdoor, Single-phase operating on the systemabove,
Connected on the capacitor line side,
And rated as followwr:
Inductance at 300 H r
Current 238. amps RMS
Reactance at 60 H r
Max Thru Short Circuits: 3Mx) sym. amps
Reactor to be mounted on
creep insultators for:
Standard Q-Factor
180 degree Terminal Displacement
4.896 mhry
1.846 ohms
1 IO kV BIL
I TEM 2 - 300 Hertz Shunt Filter Bank Case C
1 - shunt filter. outdoor, ungrounded "ye, rated as follows:
60 Hertz system Capacitor 552.622 ufdjphase
4.16 kV nominal Tolerance t4%
4.23 kV maximum Reactor 0 509 mhry/phase
75 OIL (kV) high Capacitor Bank 3.605 Mvar nominal
75 BIL (kV) l ow Ambient Temp. 40C
flQHm2 300 Hertz
Capacitor Reactance (ohms) 4.800 0.960
Reactor Reactance (ohms) 0.192 0.960
p\uy
Current (amps) 521.219 130.000 537.185 rms
kV across capacitor 2.502 0.125 2.627 kV
kV across reactor 0.I00 0.125 0.225 kV
PU volts across capacitor . . . . 0.948
DUY
..
MaximumCond 1 1 1 0 ~
Current (amps) 547.280 145.000 566.161 rms
kV across capacitor 2.627 0.139 2.766 kV
kV across reactor 0.105 0. I39 0.244 kV
PU volts across capacitor . . , . 0.998
The filter will be constructed fromthe following components:
A) I - Stack rack capacitor bank with these features:
24 - 200.0 kvar l ow stress capacitors
Cat. No.:
Each Rated 200.0 kvar. 69.0777 ufd. at 2771.volts
Grounding and disconnecting switch
Bus work within rack
Single bushing units
I -
I - 8 foot substructure I - Set of Expulsion fuses
Extra creep bushings
Blown fuse indicators
(List Capacitors with ufd values for each location in rack)
Reactors with these features:
Outdoor, Single-phase operating on the systemabove,
Connected on the capacitor line side,
And rated as follows:
Inductance at 300 H r
Cur r en t
Reactance at 60 H r
Max Thru Short Circuits:
Reactor to be mounted on
creep insultators for:
Standard Q-Factor
0.509 mhry
623. amps RMS
0.192 ohms
10400 sym. amps
75 kV BIL
I TEMI A - 300 Hertz Shunt Filter Bank Case D
I - shunt filter, outdoor, ungrounded wye. rated as follows:
60 Hertz system
13.80 kV nominal
14.49 kV maximum
I IO BIL (kV) high
I IO BIL (kV) l ow
Capacitor Reactance (ohms)
Reactor Reactance (ohms)
Wominal CO-
Current (amps)
kV across capacitor
kV across reactor
PU volts across capacitor .
Current (amps)
kV across capacitor
kV across reactor
PU volts across capacitor .
Capacitor
Tolerance
Reactor
Capacitor Bank
Ambient Temp.
6OlkuL
32.963
1.319
25 1.780
8.299
0.332
, . 1.073
264.369
8.714
0.349
. . 1. 131
57.472 ufdlphase
+4%
3.497 mhrylphase
5.777 Mvar nominal
40C
XQHmz
6.593
6.593
DLW
95.000 269.105 rms
0.626 8.926 kV
0.626 0.958 kV
p\uy
105.000 284.456 rms
0.692 9.407 kV
0.692 1.041 kV
The filter will be constructed from the following components:
A) 1 - Stack rack capacitor bank with these features:
21 - 300.0 kvar l ow stress capacitors
Cat. No.:
Each Rated 300.0 kvar, 11.4959 ufd. at 8320.voltS
Grounding and disconnecting switch
Bus work within rack
Single bushing units
I -
I - 8 foot substructure I - Set of Expulsion fuses
Extra creep bushings
Blown fuse indicators
(List capacitors with ufd values for each location in rack)
B) 3 - Reactors with these features:
Outdoor. Single-phase operating on the system above.
Connected on the capacitor line side,
And rated M fol l ow:
Inductance at 300 H r 3.497 mhry
Current 313. amps RMS
Reactance at 60 H r 1.319 ohms
5000 sym. amps Max Thru Short Circuits:
Reactor IO be mounted on
creep insultators for: I IO kV BIL
Standard Q-Factor
180 degree Terminal Displacement
ITEM:3 - 300 Hertz Shunt Filter Bank Case c
I -
shunt filter, outdoor. ungrounded wye. rated as follows:
60 Hertz system Capacitor 414.466ufdjphase
4.16 kV nominal
4.37 kV maximum Reactor 0.679 mhryfphase
7 5 BIL (kV) high Capacitor Bank 2.704 Mvar nominal
7 5 BIL (kV) l ow
Tolerance +4%
Ambient Temp. 40C
Ml l I uutML tl er u
6.400 1.280
0.256 1.280
Capacitor Reactance (ohms)
Reactor Reactance (ohms)
Nominal CO- p\uy
390.9 I5 100.000 403.501 rms Current (amps)
kV across capacitor 2.502 0.128 2.630 kV
kV across reactor 0.100 0.128 0.228 kV
PU volts across capacitor . . . . 0.949
RUY
Current (amps) 390.91 5 100.000 403.501 rms
2.502 0.128 2.630 kV kV across capacitor
kV across reactor 0.100 0.128 0.228 kV
PU vol t s across capacitor. . . . 0.949
The filter will be constructed from the following components:
A) 1 - Stack rack capacitor bank with these features:
18 - 200.0 kvar low stress capacitors
Cat. No.:
Each Rated: 200.0 kvar, 69.0777 ufd. at 2771.volts
Grounding and disconnecting switch
Bus work within rack
Single bushing units
I -
I - 8 foot substructure 1 - Set of Expulsion fuses
Extra creep bushings
Blown fuse indicators
(List capacitors with ufd values for each location in rack)
B) 3 Reactors with these features:
Outdoor, Single-phase operating on the system above,
connected on the capacitor line side.
And rated M follows:
Inductance at 300 Hr 0.679 mhry
Current 467. amps RMS
Reactance at 60 H r 0.256 ohms
Max Thru Short Circuits: 7800 sym. amps
Reactor to be mounted on
creep insultators for: 75 kV BIL
Standard Q-Factor
I80 degree Terminal Displacement
- 255 -