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TxDPS, Texas Ranger Division
Texas
Pat ch of t he TxDPS, Texas Ranger Division.
Logo of t he TxDPS, Texas Ranger Division.
Agency overview
Formed October 17, 1835
Preceding agency Texas State Police
Legal personality Governmental: Government
agency
Jurisdictional structure
Operations
jurisdiction*
U.S. state of Texas, USA
Map of TxDPS, Texas Ranger Division's jurisdict ion.
Size 268,820 square miles
(696,240 km
2
)
Texas Ranger Division
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Texas Rangers (disambiguation).
The Texas Ranger Division, commonly called the
Texas Rangers, is a law enforcement agency with
statewide jurisdiction in Texas, and is based in Austin,
Texas. Over the years, the Texas Rangers have
investigated crimes ranging from murder to political
corruption, acted as riot police and as detectives,
protected the Governor of Texas, tracked down
fugitives, and functioned as a paramilitary force at the
service of both the Republic (1836–45) and the state
of Texas.
The Texas Rangers were unofficially created by
Stephen F. Austin in a call-to-arms written in 1823
and were first headed by Captain Morris. Ten years
later, on August 10, 1835 Daniel Parker introduced a
resolution to the Permanent Council creating a body
of rangers to protect the border.
[3]
The unit was
dissolved by the federal authorities during the
post–Civil War Reconstruction Era, but was quickly
reformed upon the reinstitution of home government.
Since 1935, the organization has been a division of
the Texas Department of Public Safety; it fulfills the
role of Texas's state bureau of investigation. As of
2009, there were 144 commissioned members of the
Ranger force.
[4]
The Rangers are the oldest state law enforcement
body in the United States. The Rangers have taken
part in many of the most important events of Texas
history, and were involved in some of the best-known
criminal cases in the history of the Old West, such as
those of gunfighter John Wesley Hardin, bank robber
Sam Bass, and outlaws Bonnie and Clyde. Scores of
books have been written about the Rangers, from
well-researched works of nonfiction to pulp novels
and other such fiction, making the Rangers significant
participants in the mythology of the Wild West. The
Lone Ranger, for perhaps the best-known example of
Texas Ranger-derived fiction, draws his primary alias
both from having once been a Texas Ranger himself
and from being the only surviving member of a posse
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Population 24,326,974 (2008 est.)
[1]
General nature
Law enforcement
Civilian police
Operational structure
Headquarters Austin, Texas
Texas Rangers 150
[2]
Support Employees 66
[2]
Agency executive Kirby Dendy, Chief
Parent agency Texas Department of Public
Safety
Companys 8
Website
Official Texas Rangers website
(http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/texas_rangers/)
Footnotes
* Di vi si onal agency: Division of t he count ry, over which t he agency
has usual operat ional jurisdict ion.
of six Texas Rangers whose other five members
(including his own older brother, a Texas Rangers
captain) were killed in a massacre at Bryant's Gap.
During their long history, a distinct Ranger tradition
has evolved; their cultural significance to Texians and
later Texans is such that they are legally protected
against disbandment.
[5]
There is a museum dedicated
to the Texas Rangers in Waco, Texas.
Contents
1 History
2 Old West image
2.1 "One Riot, One Ranger"
3 High-profile cases
3.1 Sam Bass
3.2 John Wesley Hardin
3.3 Bonnie and Clyde
4 Duties
5 Organization
6 Badges and uniforms
7 Hall of Fame and Museum
8 Fallen officers
9 See also
10 Notes
11 References
12 External links
History
Main article: History of the Texas Ranger Division
The rangers were founded in 1823, when Stephen F. Austin, father of Texas, employed ten men to act as rangers
to protect 600 to 700 newly settled families who arrived in Texas following the Mexican War of Independence.
While there is some discussion as to when Austin actually employed men as "rangers", Texas Ranger lore dates the
year of their organization to this event.
[6]
The Texas Rangers were formally constituted in 1835 and, in November,
Robert McAlpin Williamson was chosen to be the first Major of the Texas Rangers. Within two years the Rangers
comprised more than 300 men.
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An early depiction of a group of
Texas Rangers, c. 1845
Following the Texas Revolution and the creation of the Republic of Texas, newly elected president Mirabeau B.
Lamar raised a force of 56 Rangers to fight the Cherokee and the Comanche, partly in retaliation for the support
they had given the Mexicans at the Cordova Rebellion against the Republic.
[7]
Ten rangers were killed in the Battle
of Stone Houses in 1837.
[8]
The size of the Ranger force was increased from 56 to 150 men by Sam Houston,
President of the Republic, in 1841.
The Rangers continued to participate in skirmishes with Indians through
1846, when the annexation of Texas within the United States and the
Mexican–American War in 1846 saw several companies of Rangers
mustered into federal service. They played important roles at various
battles, acting as guides and participating in guerrilla warfare, soon
establishing a fearsome reputation among both Mexicans and Americans.
At the Battle of Monterrey in September 1846, famous Texas Rangers
such as John Coffee "Jack" Hays, Ben McCulloch, Bigfoot Wallace, and
Samuel Hamilton Walker played important roles in the battle, to include
advising General William Jenkins Worth on the tactics required to fight
inside a Mexican city. Richard Addison Gillespie, a famed Texas Ranger,
died at Monterrey, and General Worth renamed a hill "Mount Gillespie"
after him.
[9]
Colonel Hayes organized a second regiment of Texas
Rangers, including Rip Ford, which fought with General Winfield Scott in
his Mexico City Campaign.
[10]:60
John Jackson Tumlinson Sr., the first alcalde of the Colorado district, is considered by many Texas Ranger
historians to be the first Texas Ranger killed in the line of duty.
[11]
Following the end of the war in 1848, the
Rangers were largely disbanded, but the election of Hardin Richard Runnels as governor in 1857 meant $70,000
was allocated to fund the Rangers under John Salmon "Rip" Ford,
[10]:223
a veteran of the Mexican war. The now
100-strong Rangers participated in campaigns against the Comanche and other tribes, whose raids against the
settlers and their properties had become common. Ford and his Rangers fought the Comanche in the Battle of Little
Robe Creek in 1858 and then Juan Cortina in the Battle of Rio Grande City the following year.
[10]:236,275
The success of a series of campaigns in the 1860s marked a turning point in Rangers' history. The U.S. Army could
provide only limited and thinly stretched protection in the enormous territory of Texas. In contrast, the Rangers'
effectiveness when dealing with these threats convinced both the people of the state and the political leaders that a
well-funded and organized local Ranger force was essential. Such a force could use the deep familiarity with the
territory and the proximity with the theater of operations as major advantages in its favor. This option was not
pursued in the light of the emerging national political problems, and the Rangers were again dissolved.
[12]
Many Rangers enlisted to fight for the Confederacy following the secession of Texas from the United States in 1861
during the American Civil War. In 1870, during the Reconstruction, the Rangers were briefly replaced by a Union-
controlled version called the Texas State Police, disbanded only three years later in 1873.
[13]
The state election of
1873 saw newly elected Governor Richard Coke and the state legislature recommission the Rangers.
[14][15]
During
these times, many of the Rangers' myths were born, such as their success in capturing or killing notorious criminals
and desperados (including bank robber Sam Bass and gunfighter John Wesley Hardin), their involvement in the
Mason County War, the Horrell-Higgins Feud, and their decisive role in the defeat of the Comanche, Kiowa and
Apache peoples. The Apache "dreaded the Texas Rangers...whose guns were always loaded and whose aim was
unerring; they slept in the saddle and ate while they rode, or done without...when they took up our trail they
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Capt. Monroe Fox and two other
Rangers on horseback with their
lariats around the bodies of dead
Mexican bandits, after the Las Norias
Bandit Raid October 8, 1915
followed it determinedly and doggedly day and night."
[16]
Also during these years, the Rangers suffered the only
defeat in their history when they surrendered at the Salinero Revolt in 1877. Despite the fame of their deeds, the
conduct of the Rangers during this period was questionable. In particular, Leander H. McNelly and his men used
ruthless methods that often rivaled the brutality of their opponents, such as taking part in summary executions and
confessions induced by torture and intimidation.
[17]
The Rangers next saw serious action during the Mexican Revolution that
began in 1910 against President Porfirio Díaz. The breakdown of law
and order on the Mexican side of the border, coupled with the lack of
federal military forces, meant the Rangers were once again called upon to
restore and maintain law and order, by any necessary means. However,
the situation necessitated the appointment of hundreds of new special
Rangers by the state, which neglected to carefully screen aspiring
members. The Rangers were responsible for several incidents, ending in
the 1918 massacre of the male population (15 Mexican men and boys
ranging in age from 16 to 72 years) of the tiny community of Porvenir,
Texas on the Mexican border in western Presidio County. Before the
decade was over, thousands of lives were lost, Texans and Mexicans
alike. In January 1919, an investigation by the Texas Legislature found
that from 300 to 5,000 people, mostly of Hispanic descent, had been
killed by Rangers from 1910 to 1919, and that members of the Rangers
had been involved in many acts of brutality and injustice.
[18]
The Rangers
were reformed by a resolution of the Legislature in 1919, which saw the special Ranger groups disbanded and a
complaints system instituted.
The Great Depression forced both the federal and state governments to cut down on personnel and funding of their
organizations, and the number of commissioned officers was reduced to 45, and the only means of transportation
afforded to Rangers were free railroad passes, or using their personal horses. The agency was again damaged after
supporting Governor Ross Sterling in his re-election campaign—but after his opponent Miriam Amanda "Ma"
Ferguson won, she proceeded to discharge all serving Rangers in 1933.
The ensuing disorganization of law enforcement in the state caused the Legislature to engage a firm of consultants to
reorganize the state security agencies. The consultants recommended merging the Rangers with the Texas Highway
Patrol under a new agency called the Texas Department of Public Safety (DPS). This change took place in 1935,
with an initial budget of $450,000. With minor rearrangements over the years, the 1935 reforms have ruled the
Texas Rangers' organization until present day. Hiring new members, which had been largely a political decision, was
achieved through a series of examinations and merit evaluations. Promotion relied on seniority and performance in
the line of duty. Today, the historical importance and symbolism of the Texas Rangers is such that they are
protected by statute from being disbanded.
[19]
Old West image
From its earliest days, the Rangers were surrounded with the mystique of the Old West. Although popular culture's
image of the Rangers is typically one of rough living, tough talk and a quick draw, Ranger Captain John "Rip" Ford
described the men who served him thus:
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Texas Rangers gathered at El Paso
to stop the illegal Maher–
Fitzsimmons fight, 1896. At the
front row from the left are Adj.
General W Mabry, and Capts. J
Hughes, J Brooks, Bill McDonald
(author of the famous phrase) and
J Rogers.
A large proportion ... were unmarried. A few of them drank intoxicating liquors. Still, it was a
company of sober and brave men. They knew their duty and they did it. While in a town they made no
braggadocio demonstration. They did not gallop through the streets, shoot, and yell. They had a
specie of moral discipline which developed moral courage. They did right because it was right.
[20]
As it happened with many Old West myths like Billy the Kid or Wyatt Earp, the Rangers' legendary aura was in
part a result of the work of sensationalistic writers and the contemporary press, who glorified and embellished their
deeds in an idealized manner. While some Rangers could be considered criminals wearing badges by a modern
observer, many documented tales of bravery and selflessness are also intertwined in the group's history.
[21]
Despite the age of the agency, and the many contributions they have made to law enforcement over their entire
history, Texas Rangers developed most of their reputation during the days of the Old West. Of the 79 Rangers
killed in the line of duty, thirty were killed during the Old West period of 1858 through 1901. Also during this
period, two of their three most high-profile captures or killings took place, the capture of John Wesley Hardin and
the killing of Sam Bass, in addition to the capture of Texas gunman Billy Thompson and others.
[22]
American historian Andrew Graybill has argued that the Texas Rangers resemble the Royal Canadian Mounted
Police in many ways. He argues that each organization protected the established order by confining and removing
Indians, by tightly controlling the mixed blood peoples (the African Americans in Texas, and the Métis in Canada),
assisted the large-scale ranchers against the small-scale ranchers and farmers who fenced the land, and broke the
power of labor unions that tried to organize the workers of industrial corporations.
[23]
"One Riot, One Ranger"
One of the most enduring phrases associated with the Rangers today is One
Riot, One Ranger. It is somewhat apocryphal in that there was never
actually a riot; rather, the phrase was coined by Ranger Captain William
"Bill" McDonald, who was sent to Dallas in 1896 to prevent the illegal
heavyweight prize fight between Pete Maher and Bob Fitzsimmons that had
been organized by Dan Stuart, and patronized by the eccentric "Hanging
Judge" Roy Bean.
[24]
According to the story, McDonald's train was met by
the mayor, who asked the single Ranger where the other lawmen were.
McDonald is said to have replied: "Hell! Ain't I enough? There's only one
prize-fight!"
[citation needed]
Although some measure of truth lies within the tale, it is largely an idealized
account written by author Bigelow Paine and loosely based on McDonald's
statements, published in Paine's classic book Captain Bill McDonald:
Texas Ranger in 1909. In truth, the fight had been so heavily publicized that
nearly every Ranger was at hand, including all the captains and their
superior, Adjutant General Woodford H Mabry. Many of them were not
really sure whether to stop the fight or to attend it; and in fact, other famous lawmen, such as Bat Masterson, were
also present for the occasion. The orders from the governor were clear, however, and the bout was stopped. Stuart
then tried to reorganize it in El Paso and later in Langtry, but the Rangers followed and thwarted his attempts.
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Bank robber Sam Bass
Finally, the fight took place on the Mexican side of the Rio Grande near Langtry.
[25]
The motto appears on the
pedestal of the large bronze statue of a Texas Ranger in the Love Field airport, contributed in 1961 by Mr. and
Mrs. Earle Wyatt.
[citation needed]
High-profile cases
The Texas Rangers have assisted in many high-profile cases throughout the years. Most of them had a short-lived
repercussion, while others have received wide coverage by the press and writers alike. However, there are some
cases that are deeply entrenched in the Rangers' lore, such as those of outlaw John Wesley Hardin, bank robber
Sam Bass, and Bonnie and Clyde.
Sam Bass
Main article: Sam Bass (outlaw)
In 1878, Sam Bass and his gang, who had perpetrated a series of bank and
stagecoach robberies beginning in 1877, held up two stagecoaches and four
trains within 25 miles (40 km) of Dallas. The gang quickly found themselves the
object of pursuit across North Texas by a special company of Texas Rangers
headed by Captain Junius "June" Peak. Bass was able to elude the Rangers until
a member of his party, Jim Murphy, turned informer, cut a deal to save himself,
and led the law to the gang. As Bass's band rode south, Murphy wrote to
Major John B. Jones, commander of the Frontier Battalion of Texas Rangers.
Jones set up an ambush at Round Rock, where the Bass gang had planned to
rob the Williamson County Bank. On July 19, 1878, Bass and his gang scouted
the area before the actual robbery. They bought some tobacco at a store, and
were noticed by Williamson County Sheriff Caige Grimes, who approached the
group and was shot and killed. A heavy gunfight ensued between the outlaws and the Rangers and local lawmen. A
deputy named Moore was mortally wounded, as was Bass. The gang quickly mounted their horses and tried to
escape while continuing to fire, and as they galloped away, Bass was shot again in the back by Ranger George
Herold. Bass was later found lying helpless in a pasture north of town by the authorities. They took him into
custody; he died from his wounds the next day.
John Wesley Hardin
Main article: John Wesley Hardin
One of Texas' deadliest outlaws, John Wesley Hardin, was reputed to be the meanest man alive, an accolade he
supposedly earned by killing a man for snoring. He committed his first murder at age 15, and admitted to killing
more than 40 men over 27 years. In May 1874, Hardin killed Charles Webb, the deputy sheriff of Brown County
and a former Texas Ranger. John Barclay Armstrong, a Texas Ranger known as "McNelly's Bulldog" since he
served with the Special Force as a sergeant and Captain Leander McNelly's right hand, received permission to
arrest the outlaw. He pursued Hardin across Alabama and into Florida, and caught up with him in Pensacola.
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John Wesley Hardin
John Barclay Armstrong
After Armstrong, Colt pistol in hand, boarded a train that Hardin and four companions were on, the outlaw
shouted, "Texas, by God!" and drew his own pistol. When it was over, one of his gang members was killed, and his
three surviving friends were staring at Armstrong’s pistol. Hardin had been knocked unconscious. Armstrong's hat
had been pierced by a bullet, but he was uninjured. Hardin was tried for murder, convicted, and sentenced to 25
years in prison. Seventeen years later, Hardin was pardoned by Governor Jim Hogg and released from prison on
March 16, 1894. He moved to El Paso, where he began practicing law. On August 19, 1896, he was murdered
during a poker game at the Acme Saloon over a personal disagreement.
[26]
Bonnie and Clyde
Main article: Bonnie and Clyde
Frank Hamer, the longtime Ranger captain, left
the Rangers in 1932. In 1934, at the request of
Col. Lee Simmons, head of the Texas prison
system, Hamer was asked to use his skills to
track down Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow,
whose Barrow gang had engineered a
successful breakout of associates imprisoned at
the Eastham Prison Farm in Houston County.
Prisoner and Barrow friend Joe Palmer had
killed a guard while escaping, and the Barrow
gang was responsible for many murders,
robberies, and car thefts in Texas alone. Nine
law enforcement officers had already died in confrontations with the gang.
After tracking the Barrow gang across nine states, Hamer, in conjunction with officials in Louisiana, learned Bonnie
and Clyde had visited a home in Bienville Parish on May 21, 1934, and that Clyde had designated a rendezvous
point in the vicinity with gang member Henry Methvin, in case they were later separated. Methvin, allegedly
cooperating with law enforcement, made sure he was separated from them that evening in Shreveport, and the
posse set up an ambush along the route to the rendezvous at Highway 154, between Gibsland and Sailes. Led by
former Rangers Hamer and B. M. "Manny" Gault, the posse included Sheriff Henderson Jordan and Deputy
Prentiss Oakley of Bienville Parish, Louisiana, and Dallas County Deputies Bob Alcorn and Ted Hinton. They were
in place by 9:00 that night, waiting all through the next day, but with no sign of Bonnie and Clyde.
Around 9:00 a.m. on May 23, the posse, concealed in the bushes and almost ready to concede defeat, heard
Clyde's stolen Ford V-8 approaching. When he stopped to speak with Henry Methvin's father (planted there with
his truck that morning to distract Clyde and force him into the lane closest to the posse), the lawmen opened fire,
killing Bonnie and Clyde while shooting a combined total of approximately 130 rounds. The United States
Congress awarded Hamer a special citation for trapping and killing the outlaws.
[citation needed]
Duties
The duties of the Texas Ranger Division consist of conducting criminal and special investigations; apprehending
wanted felons; suppressing major disturbances; the protection of life and property; and rendering assistance to local
law enforcement in suppressing crime and violence. The Texas Ranger Division is also responsible for the gathering
and dissemination of criminal intelligence pertaining to all facets of organized crime. The Texas Ranger Division joins
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with all other enforcement agencies in the suppression of the same; under orders of the Director, suppress all
criminal activity in any given area, when it is apparent that the local officials are unwilling or unable to maintain law
and order; also upon the request or order of a judge of a court of record, Texas Rangers may serve as officers of
the court and assist in the maintenance of decorum, the protection of life, and the preservation of property during
any judicial proceeding; and provide protection for elected officials at public functions and at any other time or
place when directed. The Texas Rangers, with the approval of the Director, may conduct investigations of any
alleged misconduct on the part of other Department of Public Safety personnel.
[27]
Organization
The Texas Rangers' internal organization still maintains the basic outlines that were set in 1935. The agency is
divided into seven companies: six District Companies lettered from "A" to "F", and Headquarters Company "H".
The number of personnel is set by the Texas Legislature; as of 2010, the Texas Rangers number 144 commissioned
officers, one forensic artist, one fiscal analyst and 24 civilian support personnel.
[28]
The Legislature has also made a
provision for the appointment of 300 Special Rangers for use in emergency situations. The statewide headquarters
of the Texas Rangers is located in Austin at the Texas DPS headquarters. Since September 1, 2012, the Chief of
the Texas Rangers has been Assistant Director Kirby Dendy.
[29]
The District Companies' headquarters are distributed in six geographical locations:
[30]
Houston is the headquarters for Company A, commanded by Major Freeman Martin.
Garland is the headquarters for Company B, commanded by Major Dewayne Dockery.
Lubbock is the headquarters for Company C, commanded by Major Tony Bennie.
Weslaco is the headquarters for Company D, commanded by Major Shawn Palmer.
El Paso is the headquarters for Company E, commanded by Major Brooks Long.
Waco is the headquarters for Company F, commanded by Major Frank Malinak.
Division Headquarters:
Austin is the home of Headquarters, commanded by Kirby Dendy, Chief.
Badges and uniforms
Modern-day Rangers (as well as their predecessors) do not have a prescribed uniform, per se, although the State
of Texas does provide guidelines as to appropriate Ranger attire, including a requirement that Rangers wear
clothing that is western in nature. Historically, according to pictorial evidence, Rangers wore whatever clothes they
could afford or muster, which were usually worn out from heavy use. While Rangers still pay for their clothing
today, they receive an initial stipend to offset some of the costs of boots, gunbelts and hats.
To carry out their horseback missions, Rangers adapted tack and personal gear to fit their needs. Until the
beginning of the 20th century, the greatest influence was from the vaqueros (Mexican cowboys). Saddles, spurs,
ropes and vests used by the Rangers were all fashioned after those of the vaqueros. Most Rangers also preferred
to wear broader-brimmed sombreros as opposed to cowboy hats, and they favored square-cut, knee-high boots
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The modern-day badge of a Texas
Ranger is compared to the obverse
and reverse of a 1948 cinco pesos
coin from which it is made.
with a high heel and pointed toes, in a more Spanish style. Both groups carried their guns the same way, with the
holsters positioned high around their hips instead of low on the thigh. This placement made it easier to draw and
shoot while riding a horse.
[31]
The wearing of badges became more common in the late 1800s. Historians have put forth several reasons for the
lack of the regular use of a badge; among them, some Rangers felt a shiny badge was a tempting target. Other
historians have speculated there was no real need to show a badge to a hostile Indian or outlaw. Additionally, from
a historical viewpoint, a Ranger's pay was so scanty that the money required for such fancy accoutrements was
rarely available. Nevertheless, some Rangers did wear badges, and the first of these appeared around 1875. They
were locally made and varied considerably from one to another, but they invariably represented a star cut from a
Mexican silver coin (usually a five-pesos coin). The design is reminiscent of Texas's Lone Star flag.
Although present-day Rangers wear the familiar "star in a wheel" badge,
it was adopted officially only recently. The current design of the Rangers'
badge was incorporated in 1962, when Ranger Hardy L. Purvis and his
mother donated enough Mexican five-pesos coins to the DPS to provide
badges for all 62 Rangers who were working at that time as
commissioned officers.
[32]
Hall of Fame and Museum
Main article: Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum
The Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum opened in Waco in 1968.
Fallen officers
Since the establishment of the Texas Department of Public Safety Texas
Rangers Division, 108 Rangers have died in the line of duty. The following list also contains officers from the Texas
Rangers, which was merged into the Texas Department of Public Safety.
[33][34]
The causes of death are as follows:
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Causes of death Number of deaths
Assault 24
Automobile accident 2
Duty related illness 7
Drowned 2
Gunfire 66
Gunfire (accidental) 3
Stabbed 1
Struck by train 2
Struck by vehicle 1
See also
List of law enforcement agencies in Texas
Notes
1. ^ "2008 Population Estimates" (http://www.census.gov/popest/states/NST-ann-est.html) (xls). US Census.
Retrieved 2008-12-23.
2. ^
a

b
" Texas Department of Public Safety - Texas Rangers" (http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/texasrangersl). Retrieved
2012-04-28.
3. ^ http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/TexasRangers/HistoricalDevelopment.htm
4. ^ http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/metropolitan/6612379.html
5. ^ Under Texas Government Code Sec. 411.024, "The division relating to the Texas Rangers may not be abolished."
See http://www.texasranger.org/today/statutes.htm
6. ^ Cox, Mike, The Texas Rangers.
7. ^ Webb, Walter Prescott, The Texas Rangers: A Century of Frontier Defense.
8. ^ odmp.org (http://www.odmp.org/officer/18578-private-lewis-f-scheuster)
9. ^ The Texas Rangers at Monterrey (http://www.battleofmonterrey.com/famoustexans.html).
BattleofMonterrey.com.
10. ^
a

b

c
Ford, J.S., 1963, Rip Ford's Texas. Austin: University of Texas Press, ISBN 0292770340
11. ^ Transactions, Texas Lodge of Research, Captain Peter F. Tumlinson: Texian Ranger and Mason. Doyle, Brett
Laird XXXIX (2004–2005) 83–91.
12. ^ Wilkins, Frederick, Defending the Borders: The Texas Rangers, 1848–1861.
13. ^ Webb, Walter Prescott, The Texas Rangers: A Century of Frontier Justice, University of Texas Press, 1965,
second edition, pp. 219-229.
14. ^ Utley, Robert M., Lone Star Justice: The First Century of the Texas Rangers, Berkley Books, 2003, p. 144.
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References
Barrow, Blanche Caldwell & John Neal Phillips (Ed.). My Life With Bonnie & Clyde, University of
Oklahoma Press (2004). ISBN 0-8061-3625-1.
Cox, Mike. Texas Ranger Tales: Stories That Need Telling, Republic of Texas, (1998). ISBN 1-55622-
537-7
15. ^ Gillett, J.B., Six Years with the Texas Rangers, 1875-1881, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1921
16. ^ Lehmann, H., 1927, 9 Years Among the Indians, 1870-1879, Von Beockmann-Jones Company, pp. 115-116
17. ^ Parsons, Chuck & Hall Little, Marianne E., Captain L. H. McNelly, Texas Ranger: The Life and Times of a
Fighting Man.
18. ^ Harris, Charles H. III & Sadler, Louis R., ibid.
19. ^ "The division relating to the Texas Rangers may not be abolished". Acts 1987, 70th Leg., ch. 147, Sec. 1,
September 1, 1987.
20. ^ Ford, John Salmon, op. cit.
21. ^ Wilkins, Frederick, The Legend Begins: The Texas Rangers, 1823–1845.
22. ^ "Texas Ranger Hall of Fame" (http://www.texasranger.org/ReCenter/killedlist.htm). Texasranger.org. Retrieved
2009-03-06.
23. ^ Andrew R. Graybill, Policing the Great Plains: Rangers, Mounties, and the North American Frontier, 1875-
1910 (University of Nebraska Press, 2007) excerpt and text search (http://www.amazon.com/Policing-Great-
Plains-Mounties-1875-1910/dp/0803260024/)
24. ^ Miletich, Leo N. Dan Stuart's Fistic Carnival (College Station: Texas A&M, 1994), pp. 147–58.
25. ^ Robinson, Charles, op. cit.
26. ^ John Wesley Hardin (http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/fha63) from the Handbook of Texas
Online. Retrieved October 12, 2005.
27. ^ "Texas Department of Public Safety - Texas Ranger Duties"
(http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/texas_rangers/jobduties.htm). Txdps.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2009-03-
06.
28. ^ "Texas Department of Public Safety - Texas Rangers Personnel"
(http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/texas_rangers/personnel.htm). Txdps.state.tx.us. Retrieved 2010-08-
31.
29. ^ "Kirby Dendy named Chief of the Texas Rangers"
(http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/public_information/pr081612a.htm). Retrieved 2012-08-19.
30. ^ http://www.texasranger.org/today/rangerstoday.htm
31. ^ Circelli, Jerry, op. cit.
32. ^ "The Texas Ranger Costume" (http://www.curtrich.com/gs.txrangcost1.html). Retrieved 2005-09-15.
33. ^ http://odmp.org/agency/3825-texas-department-of-public-safety---texas-rangers-texas
34. ^ http://odmp.org/agency/4777-texas-rangers-texas
5/7/2014 Texas Ranger Division - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Ranger_Division 12/13
Dishman, Christopher. "A Perfect Gibraltar: The Battle for Monterrey, Mexico," University of Oklahoma
Press (2010. 978-0806141404
Stephen F. Austin: Empresario of Texas. By Gregg Cantrell. (New Haven and London: Yale University
Press, (1999). ISBN 978-0-300-09093-2.
Ford, John Salmon. Rip Ford's Texas, University of Texas Press (1987). ISBN 0-292-77034-0.
Harris, Charles H. III & Sadler, Louis R., The Texas Rangers And The Mexican Revolution: The
Bloodiest Decade. 1910–1920, University of New Mexico Press (2004). ISBN 0-8263-3483-0.
Johnson, Benmamin Herber. Revolution in Texas: How a Forgotten Rebellion and Its Bloody
Suppression Turned Mexicans into Americans, Yale University Press (2003). ISBN 0-300-09425-6
Knight, James R. & Davis, Jonathan. Bonnie and Clyde: A Twenty-First-Century Update, Eakin Press
(2003). ISBN 1-57168-794-7
Miller, Rick. Texas Ranger John B. Jones and the Frontier Battalion, 1874-1881 (University of North
Texas Press; 2012) 401 pages; a history of the battalion that focuses on Jones
Parsons, Chuck & Marianne E. Hall Little. Captain L. H. McNelly, Texas Ranger: The Life and Times of
a Fighting Man, State House Press (2000). ISBN 1-880510-73-1.
Robinson, Charles. The Men Who Wear the Star: The Story of the Texas Rangers, Modern Library,
(2001). ISBN 0-375-75748-1
Webb, Walter Prescott. The Texas Rangers: A Century of Frontier Defense, University of Texas Press
(1989). ISBN 0-292-78110-5
Wilkins, Frederick. Defending the Borders: The Texas Rangers, 1848–1861, State House Press, (2001).
ISBN 1-880510-41-3
Wilkins, Frederick. The Law Comes to Texas: The Texas Rangers 1870–1901, State House Press,
(1999). ISBN 1-880510-61-8.
Wilkins, Frederick. The Legend Begins: The Texas Rangers, 1823–1845, State House Press, (1996).
ISBN 1-880510-41-3
External links
Official Texas Rangers website (Texas Department of Public Safety)
(http://www.txdps.state.tx.us/director_staff/texas_rangers/)
Official Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum (http://www.texasranger.org/)
Rangers and Sovereignty (http://texashistory.unt.edu/permalink/meta-pth-5833), Published 1914, hosted
by the Portal to Texas History (http://texashistory.unt.edu/)
Texas Rangers (http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/met04) from the Handbook of Texas
Online
In the Ranging Tradition: Texas Rangers in Worldwide Popular Culture
(http://www.texasranger.org/ReCenter/popular.htm).
5/7/2014 Texas Ranger Division - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Ranger_Division 13/13
Excerpt detailing Ranger misconduct during the Mexican-American War.
(http://www.houstonculture.org/hispanic/conquest3.html)
Lone Stars and Gunsmoke (http://texashistory.unt.edu/young/educators/rangers/index.shtml) a Primary
Source Adventure, a lesson plan hosted by The Portal to Texas History (http://texashistory.unt.edu/)
The Adventures of Big-Foot Wallace, the Texas Ranger and Hunter
(http://texashistory.unt.edu/permalink/meta-pth-5831), Published 1870, hosted by the Portal to Texas
History (http://texashistory.unt.edu/)
Full text digital copy of Captain Bill McDonald, Texas ranger: a story of frontier reform
(http://collections.lib.ttu.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?
CISOROOT=/htc&CISOPTR=2&CISOBOX=1&REC=2) by Paine, Albert Bigelow, 1861–1937
Texas Rangers at Monterrey - Battle of Monterrey.com
(http://www.battleofmonterrey.com/famoustexans.html)
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Texas_Ranger_Division&oldid=607256532"
Categories: Law enforcement agencies of Texas 1823 establishments Organizations based in Austin, Texas
Texas Department of Public Safety Texas Ranger Division Ranger organizations of the United States
American Old West Lawmen of the American Old West
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