1 SLIDE MATTER

A fiber optic sensor is a sensor that uses optical fiber either as the sensing element ("intrinsic
sensors"), or as a means of relaying signals from a remote sensor to the electronics that process the
signals ("extrinsic sensors"). Fibers have many uses in remote sensing.
Recently, fibre optical sensors (FOS) have gained increased popularity and market acceptance. In
comparison to conventional sensors they offer a number of distinct advantages which makes them
unique for certain types of applications, mainly where conventional sensors are difficult or impossible
to deploy or can not provide the same wealth of information.
Having many advantages made this to develop into its own branch of science

4 SLIDE:
These were first developed in mid 1960’s. to be exact the date on which it is patented is June
27,1967. It was based on bifurcated fiber bundles with half the bundle used to illuminate a surface
and the reflection from this surface received by the other half of the bundle. After calibration it gave
very precise values. After a decade the first single mode optical fibers were appeared. From then on
rapid development and research is going on to develop more advanced techniques in building these
optical sensors.

5 SLIDE:
The properties or physical quantities that can be used to measure using optical sensor are:
Read out some list and say this is only small list only. Reaasearch is going on to develop more
applications

6 SLIDE
WORKING PRICIPLE: Light is taken to a modulation region using an optical fiber and modulated
therein by a physical, chemical, or biological phenomena, and the modulated light is transmitted
back to a receiver, detected, and demodulated. Hopefully, there is a one-to-one correlation between
the phenomenon of interest and the demodulated signal.
modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier
signal(high frequency signal), with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be
transmitted.

7 & 8 SLIDE
Here we can classify into two types the optical sensors:
Fiber optic sensors (FOS) can be generally
classified in two large groups:
1) extrinsic FOS
2) intrinsic FOS
Extrinsic FOS are basically optical sensor where we deliver (and collect) light signal by optical fiber,
while the modulation of the light signal occurs outside optical fiber. To date, those sensors present
most successfully commercial FOS. Typical examples are fiberized versions of Dopler anemometers
and non-contact vibration measurements systems. These sensors tend to be rather expensive and
are used in industries such as aerospace and automotive. Their major advantage is that the flexible
and dielectric link provided by the fiber allows the instruments to be used where access is difficult or
prohibitiveby means of electrical signals. Intrinsic FOS are “true” fiber optic sensors, meaning that
the modulation of light takes place inside fiber in accordance to measured parameter
9 slide
Comparisions just read out some
10 slide
Now the question is What characteristics propelled the immense applications of these sensors?
It is immune to electromagnetic interference
Fiber optic sensors are also immune to electromagnetic interference, and do not conduct electricity so
they can be used in places where there is high voltage electricity or inflammable material such as jet
fuel. Fiber optic sensors can be designed to withstand high temperatures as well.

No need of power supply to run it
Its hair thin and can be compact.
multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog message
signals or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium. The aim is to
share an expensive resource. For example, in telecommunications, several telephone calls may be
carried using one wire. Multiplexing originated in telegraphy in the 1870s, and is now widely applied in
communications.
Wide dynamic range: covers a large pectrum of frequencies
11 slide

It is used in night vision camera where by using optical sensors the advantages it got over
conventional cameras are:
Exceptional daylight resolution, high contrast levels no haloing or scintillations( the white smudgy
colors on photo)
Continue with 12 SLIDE READ FROM SLIDE.
THERE ARE IMMENSE APPLICATIONS ITS IMPOSSIBLE TO MENTION ALL OF THEM HERE!



13 SLIDE
THIS SHOWS THE TREND IN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR PATENTS OVER THE YEARS.
14 SLIDE
THIS SHOWS THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF DEVELOPMENT CONCENTRATED.As we can see
mostly from US and UK are the two countries in this list. India being in the other countries bar.
15 slide
This shows the distribuion of optical sensors developed based on its application over the years.
Read out the conclusions.
References:
http://qxwave.com/downloads/fsrEVIEW.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiplexing
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fiber_optic_sensor
http://www.sensorland.com/HowPage072.html
http://lpa.feri.uni-mb.si/Summer_School/p8_donlagic.pdf
http://wr.lib.tsinghua.edu.cn/sites/default/files/1066744871461.pdf