MURAD ALAM (7494

)
(ASSIGNMENT #1)
TAKE OFF:
Takeoff is the phase of flight in which an aerospace vehicle goes from the ground to flying in
the air.
LANDING:
Landing is the last part of flight where a flying spacecraft returns to the ground.

TYPES OF TAKEOFFS AND LANDING:
1) Horizontal takeoff and landing (HTOL)
(a) Conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL)
(b) Short takeoff and landing (STOL)
(c) Catapult launch and arrested recovery (CATOBAR)
(d)Short takeoff But Arrested Recovery (STOBAR)
(e) Horizontal takeoff Horizontal landing (HTHL)
2) Vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL)
(a) Rotor Type
(b) Propeller Type
(c) Ducted Fan Type
(d) Turbojet Type
(e) Rocket Type
3) Vertical takeoff and horizontal landing (VTHL)
4) Horizontal takeoff and Vertical landing (HTVL)
5) Vertical/Short takeoff landing (V/STOL)
Differences among VLA, CS 23 & CS 25:

Controlling Agency:
European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) is entitled to control the above
mentioned aircrafts.

Relevence with AWC:
AWC lies in VLA and CS 23 category.

Similarities in Aircrafts & Weapons:
Both have Wings, Tail, GU Section,Engine Section, Stablizers, Fins, Payload, Fuselage,
Avionics, Fuel Tank, Electronics, Batteries, Motor, Seeker ,






VLA CS 23 CS 25
Very Light Aircraft Light Aircraft Large Aircraft
Mass Take Off Weight
750 kg or less
Mass Take Off Weight
greater than 750 kg and
less than or equal to 5670
kg
Mass Take Off Weight
greater than 5670 kg
Max 2 seats
Max 9 seats excluding
Pilot
Number of seats
Single Engine
Propeller driven twin
Engine
2 to 4 Engines
Differences in Aircraft & Weapons:










AIRCRAFT WEAPON
Cockpit No Cockpit
Not designed for Warheads Designed for Warheads
Landing Gears No Landing Gears
Payload is Passengers & Cargo Payload is Warhead
Follows Federal Aviation Regulations
Standards
Follows Military Standards
Follow flight path according to the situation Definite Flight Path Fire & Forget
Numerous Accesses No Access
Long Durability while in operation Durable
Not designed for Speed requirements Designed for Speed
Low Maneuaerability High Maneuaerability
No Fuze Fuze
Use when required One time use
Low Mech High Mech
Fatigue analysis is compulsary Fatigue analysis
MURAD ALAM (7494)
(ASSIGNEMNT# 2)
Why Coefficient of Lift (c
l
) is Dimensionless?
According to the definition of lift
Lift = (dynamic Pressure).(Coefficient of Lift).(Area)
L = (1/2 ρ v
2
).(c
l
).(A)
c
l
= (L) / (1/2 ρ v
2
).(A)
Putting units
c
l
= (kg.m/ s
2
) / ((kg/ m
3
).(m/s)
2
.(m
2
)
As all units cancel each other that is why coefficient of lift is dimensionless i.e.
c
l =
Dimensionless
When & Why is the Pitch Angle (θ) equal to Angle of Attack (α)?
Pitch Angle is the angle between the horizontal axis and the longitudinal axis of the aircraft &
Angle of Attack is the angle between the trajectory and the longitudinal axis of the aircraft.
When the aircraft is flying in cruise condition (level Flight) then both the Pitch Angle and Angle
of Attack are the same.
In cruise condition the velocity vector of the trajectory of aircraft becomes parallel to the ground
i.e. the horizontal axis and as horizontal axis or ground is one of the involving sides in both the
angles so now both the angles will make angle with the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. That is
why both angles are same.
(Level Flight)



States of Aircraft When Pitch Angle (θ) is not equal to the Angle of Attack (α)?
When Pich Angle is not equal to the Angle of Attack then the aircraft is either in the state of
climb or descent.


Why Symmetrical Airfoils do not produce lift at Zero Angle of Attack?


Symmetrical airfoils have identical upper and lower surfaces .Lift is produce due to the pressure
difference between the upper and lower surface of the airfoil. At Zero Angle of Attack the
symmetrical airfoil will move parallel to the chord line of the airfoil also this chord line will be
parallel to the ground so when air passes through upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil then due
to symmetry there is no velocity differential so the change in pressure will be zero and zero lift is
generated. In other words at zero Angle of Attack equal amount of lift is generated but in
opposite sides of the symmetric airfoil so cancels each other’s effect thus the net lift force is
zero.