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and inversion

Lecture 1: Torsten Dahm, University of Hamburg

Lecture 2: Simone Cesca, University of Hamburg

2

nd

Winterschool Sudelfeld, 11-16 March 2012, Sudelfeld / Bayrischzell

Content

1. Forward problem: basic equations and terms

• Green functions

• near and far field representations

• moment tensor

2. Physics of rupture

• variation of rupture and slip

• approximate model (Eikonal source model)

3. Representation of extended sources

• frequency and time domain directivity

• how to resolve higher order terms

Green’s mill in Nottingham

(1793 – 1948)

Green’s theorem

2. Apply chain rule for terms like

1. Potential fields ! and G fulfill Poisson‘s equation

3. Form difference

source terms

specified source geometry

f(!)

"(x)

gives representation of field variable ! at x as

0

x

!

A

V

“earthquake”

source V

0

Application I (V infinite):

Application II (f zero): Boundary element representation

Green function representation

Betti’s theorem: “Green theorem for time dependent elasticity”

Application I (displacement and traction vanish on A): force vector representation

t are tractions at the surface, and T is the traction kernel associated with the derivatives of displacement

Green functions multipled by the elasticity tensor! The !denotes time convolution.

displacement u

force f

Green tensor G

traction fields t and T

Example: Static point force representation (Somigliana

solution)

Green‘s tensor displacement vector

force vector

displacement u

force f

Greens „function“ (GF) G

But: internal sources (earthquakes) cannot be represented by single forces!

Internal point sources: GF expansion and moment tensor

gives

where

....

with generalized moment

Taylor‘s series expansion around centroid !

0

:

„internal source“ at centroid!

Moment tensor; generalized force couples

• 3x3 matrix

• symmetric

• related to earthquake rupture

Moment tensor density m of dislocation source

rupture plane

shear modul

fault plane normal

slip vector

A

Full space Green function

direction cosines

radiation pattern term

near field term

far field terms

geometrical attenuation

retarded time of P and S waves

in far field moment rate function

Radiation pattern of Double Couple Source

P wave

S wave

Far field simplifications

using homogeneous slip model, i.e. we have

the Green function derivation may be decomposed (t’ = retardation time)

near field term far field term

with source time function

Far field representation

Idealized moment tensor (MT) inversion: Note!

Fact 2:

The spatially extended source problem is nonunique

but:

The non-uniqueness can be solved if time-dependency of rupture is known/given

(e.g. Bleistein and Cohen (1977). J. Math. Phys. 2, 5-26).

Fact 1:

The spatial point source MT-inversion is unique

Memo plate (theory section)

• Green functions represent wave and displacement response to point loading of the Earth

• Moment tensor defined as generalized force couples

• Moment tensor representation can be given for:

• point sources or extended sources

• near field (may be time-independent) and/or far field

Earthquake rupture: phenomenology

from Lay and Wallace (1995)

physical description of rupture

• rupture front (velocity and shape)

• rise time and slip function (temporal)

• healing front (velocity and shape)

• slip direction and slip pattern (spatial)

• rupture mode

rupture modes

no friction

friction may be important!

1. “slip” of shear cracks without friction (3D simulations)

r

u

p

tu

r

e

f

r

o

n

t

r

u

p

tu

r

e

f

r

o

n

t

shear stress drop is imposed !

Crack solutions of strike slip fault, full space

constant shear

shear stress linearly

growing with depth

constant shear

shear stress linearly

growing with depth

Crack solutions of strike slip fault, half space

Note: earthquake slip may vary at barriers and asperities

Barriers: patches of high strength (compare inclusion).

Asperities: patches of high stess. Larger shear stress

before the earthquake. Points, where new rupture may

nucleate (compare capillare)

2. slip models considering friction

Kostrov (1966) Self-healing slipping model, Heaton (1990)

rupture front

healing front

rupture front

elliptical slip function

slip rate never ceases slip rate ceases

does slip scale with fault size?

Slip pulse model:

slip rate and slip as a

function of position x

s

l

i

p

r

a

t

e

d

(

#

u

)

/

d

t

s

l

i

p

#

u

v

r

position x

position x

0

t v

r

rupture front nucleation point

slip increases linearly from nucleation point to healing front !

Nielson and Madariaga (2003)

2D numerical models:

Slip rate as a function of time and position

If v

h

< v

r

, the rise time

steadily increases.

Typically v

h

= 0.35 v

r

is

found.

Nielson and Madariaga (2003)

position x

t

i

m

e

s

l

i

p

r

a

t

e

scaling of slip is accommodated

by increasing rise time (v

r

> v

h

)

3D numerical modeling with weakening

Nielson and Madariaga (2003)

Note:

healing velocity = rupture velocity

rupture front

healing front

scaling of slip accommodated

by increasing slip rate (v

r

= v

h

)

3. how large is rupture front velocity

„shaking and quaking experiment by Gerhard Müller: tensile crack rupture in gelatine

conchoidal lines = snapshots of rupture fronts

rupture front modulation: sketch

v

s

v

rup

Ultraschallgeber für Scherwellen

B

harmonic oscillation (source)

Lab experiments results

• rupture front accelerates quickly after nucleation

• terminal rupture velocity is close shear wave (mode I and III) or Rayleigh wave velocity

typical assumption: v

r

" h v

s

with h = 0.5 – 0.9

rupture velocity accelerates at low stress region

(capillary, low strength region)

Durch Kapillare wird Bruchgeschwindigkeit am Rand zuerst

beschleunigt (etwa 150 m/s) und ab der Mitte der Kapillare

verzögert (ca 20 m/s). Effektiv wirkende Bruchenergie wächst, da

Spannungsfreiheit

rupture velocity slows down at rigid inclusion

(e.g. crystalline CaF

2

, high strength region)

Bruchgeschwindigkeit sinkt vor dem Einschluss von ca 70 m/s

auf ca. 10 m/s. Die effektiv wirkende Bruchenergie sinkt, da

Druckspannungen durch Intrusion erzeugt werden

How to parameterize rupture front,

healing front, and variable slip ?

„ the Eikonal source model“

Lab experiments of tensile cracks:

plumose lines are found orthogonal to rupture fronts

Desiccation cracks in starch: see Müller and Dahm, JGR, 2000

First order approach: ray - rupture front analogy

v

r

= v

0

+ b z

Müller and Dahm (2000)

Müller and Dahm, JGR, 2000

1. steps and jumps cannot be represented by ray analogy

2. reflection of rupture fronts should not be considered

The “Eikonal source” : mathematical model

The “Eikonal source”: numerical realisation

nucleation point

centroid

Isochorones of rupture front and of healing front from

FD Eikonal solver

surface

lower bound

rupture velocity

orientation of rupture plane (inverted)

constant slip (inverted)

Green function source

points

Flexibility

• few parameter

• may consider background structural features

• may consider background wave velocity (and stress)

• flexibel

• geometrical bounds

• variable rupture and healing front velocity

• variable nucelation point (asymmetric rupture)

• (may consider variable slip)

simulation of slow patch simulation of fast patch

bidirectional

circular

complex

unidirectional

Memo plate

• Slip may vary along rupture plane (but often assumed constant)

• Rupture velocity typically scales with shear wave velocity (but may also vary)

• Friction is important for shear cracks and can explain slip pulse ruptures

• The Eikonal source model is an empirical approach (approximation)

• Since space-time dependency of slip is constrained the Eikonal model reduces the non-

uniquenes of the extended source inverse problem

Directivity effects and kinematic inversion

The directivity of surface

waves (grey) explain why

macroseismic intensity

(contourlines) was higher

towards north.

Important!!

Any depth estimate from

macroseismic intensities

should consider the

directivity effects of

radiated waves.

Haskell source

unilateral propagation of line source

rupture duration

directivity of far-field pulse

Rupture duration and slip duration

= trapezoidal displacement pulses

trapezoidal slip

SH Ground motion near the

Epicenter of an earthquake

at Parkfield. SH radiaiton is

maximal, P-waves are nodal

(Aki, 1968)#

source spectra

The convolution of two boxcar function leads

In frequency domain to a multiplication of two

sinc-functions:

source spectra

Simulations by Sebastian Heimann

Synthetic P- and S-waves: uni- and

bilateral rupture

circular rupture

Model set up

Synthetic P- and S-waves

Realistic seismograms: deep earthquake

Waveforms at 58 deg epicentral distance

1: theoretical pulses

2: rupture in oppsoite direction

3: rupture on auxiliary plane

4: bi-drectional instead of one-directionsal

5: slip parallel to rupture instead of orthogonal

Brasilian deep focus earthquakes

Two events with different rupture

Synthetic shallow strike slip earthquake

Surface wave unilateral rupture

Surface wave bi- and unilateral rupture

Since total fault length (100 km) and rupture

velocity (3.5km/s) was the same, the duration

and the directivity pattern differed

Synthetic shallow strike slip earthquake

Test of opposite rupture direction ?

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