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CHAPTER 8

OBJ ECTIVES

• Identify and characterize different types of

flow.

• Discuss the main properties of laminar and

turbulent flow for both Newtonian and non-

Newtonian fluid.

• Calculate losses in straight pipes and fittings.

• Apply appropriate equations and principles to

analyze various pipe flow situations.

fig_08_01

FLOW CHARACTERISTICS

FLOW CHARACTERISTICS

From Cengel and Cimbala

NON-CIRCULAR GEOMETRY

Transitional Reynolds Number for Power-Law

Fluids

From J. F. Steffe – Rheological Measurements

REYNOLDS NUMBER FOR BINGHAM

FLUID

From J. F. Steffe – Rheological Measurements

From J. F. Steffe – Rheological Measurements

ENTRANCE REGION

THE ENTRANCE REGION

Velocity boundary layer: The region of the flow in which the effects of the viscous

shearing forces caused by fluid viscosity are felt.

Boundary layer region: The viscous effects and the velocity changes are significant.

Irrotational (core) flow region: The frictional effects are negligible and the velocity

remains essentially constant in the radial direction.

The development of the velocityboundary layer in a pipe. Thedeveloped average

velocity profile isparabolic in laminar flow, but somewhat flatter or fuller inturbulent

flow.

From Fluid Mechanics by Cengel and Cimbala

Hydrodynamic entrance region: The region from the pipe inlet to the point at which

the boundary layer merges at the centerline.

Hydrodynamic entry length L

h

: The length of this region.

Hydrodynamically developing flow: Flow in the entrance region. This is the region

where the velocity profile develops.

Hydrodynamically fully developed region: The region beyond the entrance region in

which the velocity profile is fully developed and remains unchanged.

Fully developed: When both the velocity profile the normalized temperature profile

remain unchanged.

Hydrodynamically fully developed

In the fully developed flow region of

a pipe, the velocity profile does not

change downstream, and thus the

wall shear stress remains constant as

well.

From Fluid Mechanics by Cengel and Cimbala

ENTRY LENGTHS FOR NEWTONIAN FLUIDS

ENTRY LENGTHS FOR POWER LAW FLUIDS

From J. F. Steffe – Rheological Measurements

From J. F. Steffe – Rheological Measurements

ENTRY LENGTH FOR BINGHAM FLUIDS

From J. F. Steffe – Rheological Measurements

PRESSURE DROP AND HEAD LOSS

The friction factor f relations are

given in Table 8–1 for fully

developed laminar flow in pipes

of various cross sections. The

Reynolds number for flow in

these pipes is based on the

hydraulic diameter D

h

= 4A

c

/p,

where A

c

is the cross-sectional

area of the pipe and p is its wetted

perimeter

Laminar Flow in

Noncircular Pipes

From Cengel and Cimbala

TURBULENT FLOW

• Flows encountered in engineering practice are

predominantly turbulent, and thus it is

important to understand the nature of

turbulence flow.

• Turbulent flow is complex and dominated by

fluctuations, andisstill not fully understood.

• These fluctuationsprovide an additional

mechanism for momentum and energy transfer.

• We rely on experiments and the empirical or

semi-empirical correlations developed for

different situations.

CHARACTERISTICS OF TURBULENT FLOW

• Turbulent flow is characterized bydisorderly and rapid

fluctuations of swirling regions of fluid, called eddies,

throughout the flow.

• In turbulent flow, the swirling eddiestransport mass,

momentum, and energy to other regions of flow much more

rapidlythan molecular diffusion, greatly enhancing mass,

momentum, and heat transfer.

• As a result, turbulent flow is associated with much higher

values of friction, heat transfer, and mass transfer

coefficients.

• The intense mixing in turbulent flowbrings fluid particles at

different momentums into close contact andthus enhances

momentum transfer.

From Fluid Mechanics by Cengel and Cimbala

From Cengel and Cimbala

Turbulent Velocity Profile

The velocity profile in fully developedpipe flow is parabolic in laminar flow,

but much fuller in turbulent flow. Notethat u(r) in the turbulent case is the

time-averaged velocity component inthe axial direction (the overbar on u has

been dropped for simplicity).

Thevery thin layer next to the wall where viscous

effects are dominant is theviscous(or laminar or

linear or wall) sublayer.

The velocity profile in thislayer is very nearly

linear, and the flow is streamlined.

Next to the viscoussublayer is the buffer layer, in

which turbulent effects arebecoming significant,

but the flow is still dominated by viscous effects.

Above the buffer layer is the overlap(or transition)

layer, also called the inertial sublayer, in which the

turbulent effects are much more significant, but

still not dominant.

Above that is the outer (or turbulent) layer in the

remaining part of the flow in which turbulent

effects dominate over molecular diffusion

(viscous) effects.

From Cengel and Cimbala

friction velocity

law of the wall

The thickness of the viscous sublayer is proportional to the kinematic

viscosity and inversely proportional to the average flow velocity.

Viscous length; it is used to nondimensionalize the distance y from

the surface.

From Cengel and Cimbala

Comparison of the law of the wall and the

logarithmic-law velocity profiles with

experimental data for fully developed turbulent

flow in a pipe.

Velocity

defect law

The deviation of velocity from the centerline value u

max

- u is called the velocity defect.

Power-law velocity profiles for

fully developed turbulent flow in

a pipe for different exponents,

and its comparison with the

laminar velocity profile.

The value n = 7 generally approximates

many flows in practice, giving rise to the

term one-seventh power-law velocity

profile.

From Cengel and Cimbala

Friction Factor in Turbulent Flow

The friction factor is minimum for a smooth pipe and increases withroughness.

Use the actual internal diameter of a pipe for calculation of Re and roughness.

• For laminar flow, the friction factor decreases with increasing Reynolds

number, and it is independent of surface roughness.

• The friction factor is a minimum for a smooth pipe and increases with

roughness. The Colebrook equation in this case ( =0) reduces to the Prandtl

equation.

• At small relative roughnesses, the friction factor increases in the transition

region and approaches the value for smooth pipes.

• At very large Reynolds numbers (to the right of the dashed line on the Moody

chart) the friction factor curves corresponding to specified relative roughness

curves are nearly horizontal, and thus the friction factors are independent of

the Reynolds number. The flow in that region is called fully rough turbulent

flow or just fully rough flow because the thickness of the viscous sublayer

decreases with increasing Reynolds number, andit becomes so thin that it is

negligibly small compared to the surface roughness height. The Colebrook

equation in the fully rough zone reduces to the von Kármán equation.

Moody’s chart

From Cengel and Cimbala

FRICTION FACTOR FOR NON-NEWTONIAN

FLOW

From J. F. Steffe – Rheological Measurements

Note that Fanning

Friction factor and

friction factor in the

book are not the

same.

From J. F. Steffe – Rheological Measurements

VELOCITY PROFILE FOR POWER LAW

FLUID IN TURBULENT FLOW

From J. F. Steffe – Rheological Measurements

Types of Fluid Flow Problems

1. Determining the pressure drop (or head

loss) when the pipe length anddiameter are

given for a specified flow rate (or velocity)

2. Determining the flow rate when the pipe

length and diameter are givenfor a specified

pressure drop (or head loss)

3. Determining the pipe diameter when the

pipe length and flow rate aregiven for a

specified pressure drop (or head loss)

The three types of problems

encountered in pipe flow.

To avoid tedious

iterations in head loss,

flow rate, and diameter

calculations,

these explicit relations

that are accurate to

within 2 percent of the

Moody chart may be

used.

From Cengel and Cimbala

MINOR LOSSES

The fluid in a typical piping system passes

through various fittings, valves, bends, elbows,

tees, inlets, exits, enlargements, and

contractions in additionto the pipes.

These components interrupt the smooth flow of

the fluid andcause additional losses because of

the flow separation and mixing theyinduce.

In a typical system with long pipes, these losses

are minor comparedto the total head loss in the

pipes (the major losses) and are called minor

losses.

Minor losses are usually expressed in terms of

the loss coefficient K

L

.

For a constant-diameter section of apipe with a

minor loss component, the loss coefficient of

the component (such as the gate valve shown)

isdetermined by measuring theadditional

pressure loss it causesand dividing it by the

dynamicpressure in the pipe.

Head loss due to

component

From Cengel and Cimbala

When the inlet diameter equals outlet diameter,

the loss coefficient of acomponent can also be

determined by measuring the pressure loss

across thecomponent and dividing it by the

dynamic pressure:

K

L

= P

L

/(V

2

/2).

When the loss coefficient for a component is

available, the head loss for that component is

Minor

loss

Minor losses are alsoexpressed in terms of

the equivalent length L

equiv

.

The head loss caused by a component

(such as the angle valve shown) is

equivalent to the head loss caused by

asection of the pipe whose length is

theequivalent length.

Total head loss (general)

From Cengel and Cimbala

See Fig 8.22 on Pg 417

From Cengel and Cimbala

fig_08_24

fig_08_25

KINETIC ENERGY CORRECTION

FACTOR

44

45

46

47

From J. F. Steffe – Rheological Measurements

48

From J. F. Steffe – Rheological Measurements

49

PIPING NETWORKS AND PUMP SELECTION

A piping network in an

industrial facility.

For pipes in series, the flow rate is thesame in

each pipe, and the total headloss is the sum of

the head losses inindividual pipes.

For pipes in parallel, the head

loss isthe same in each pipe,

and the total flow rate is the

sum of the flow ratesin

individual pipes.

From Cengel and Cimbala

From Cengel and Cimbala

The relative flow rates in parallel pipes are established from the

requirement that the head loss in each pipe be the same.

The analysis of piping networks is based on two simple principles:

1. Conservation of mass throughout the system must be satisfied. This is done by

requiring the total flow into a junction to be equal to the total flow out of the

junction for all junctions in the system.

2. Pressure drop (and thus head loss) between two junctions must be the same for

all paths between the two junctions. This is because pressure is a point function

and it cannot have two values at a specified point. In practice this rule is used by

requiring that the algebraic sum of head losses in a loop (for all loops) be equal

to zero.

The flow rate in one of the parallel branches is proportional to its

diameter to the power 5/2 and is inversely proportional to the

squareroot of its length and friction factor.

51

FLOW RATE AND VELOCITY MEASUREMENT

A major application area of fluid mechanics is the determination of the flow rate of

fluids, and numerous devices have been developed over the years for the purpose of

flow metering.

Flowmeters range widely in their level of sophistication, size, cost, accuracy, versatility,

capacity, pressure drop, and the operating principle.

We give an overview of the meters commonly used to measure the flow rate of liquids

and gases flowing through pipes or ducts.

We limit our consideration to incompressible flow.

A primitive (but fairly accurate) way of measuring

the flow rate of water through a garden hose

involves collecting water in a bucket and recording

the collection time.

Measuring the flow rate is usually done by measuring

flow velocity, and many flowmeters are

simply velocimeters used for the purpose of metering

flow.

52

Pitot and Pitot-Static Probes

(a) A Pitot probe measures stagnation pressure at the nose of the probe,

while (b) a Pitot-static probe measures both stagnation pressure and static

pressure, from which the flow speed is calculated.

Pitot probes (also called Pitot tubes) and Pitot-static probes are widely used for flow speed

measurement.

A Pitot probe is just a tube with a pressure tap at the stagnation point that measures

stagnation pressure, while a Pitot-static probe has both a stagnation pressure tap and

several circumferential static pressure taps and it measures both stagnation and static

pressures

53

Measuring flow velocity with a

Pitotstatic probe. (A manometer may

be used in place of the differential

pressure transducer.)

Close-up of a Pitot-static probe, showing the

stagnation pressure hole and two of the five

static circumferential pressure holes.

54

Obstruction Flowmeters:

Orifice, Venturi, and Nozzle

Meters

Flow through a constriction in a pipe.

Flowmeters based on this principle are

called obstruction flowmetersand are

widely used to measure flow rates of

gases and liquids.

55

The losses can be accounted for by incorporating a correction factor called the

discharge coefficient C

d

whose value (which is less than 1) is determined

experimentally.

The value of C

d

depends on both b and the Reynolds number, and charts and

curve-fit correlations for C

d

are available for various types of obstruction

meters.

For flows with high Reynolds numbers (Re >30,000), the value of C

d

can be taken to be 0.96 for flow nozzles and 0.61 for orifices.

56

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