Nokia Siemens Networks

GSM/EDGE BSS, rel.
RG10(BSS), operating
documentation, issue 06
Feature description
Advanced Multilayer Handling
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Table of Contents
This document has 15 pages.
Summary of Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1 Overview of Advanced Multilayer Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2 Technical description of Advanced Multilayer Handling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3 Functionality of Advanced Multilayer Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.1 BSC-initiated traffic reason handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2 IUO load control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.3 Multilayer load control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4 User interface of Advanced Multilayer Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
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List of Figures
Figure 1 Overview of the AMH concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Figure 2 BSC-initiated traffic reason handover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Figure 3 BSC-initiated TRHO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Figure 4 IUO load control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Figure 5 Multilayer load control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
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Summary of Changes
Changes between document issues are cumulative. Therefore, the latest document
issue contains all changes made to previous issues.
Changes between issues 1-0 and 2-0
References have been updated.
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Overview of Advanced Multilayer Handling
1 Overview of Advanced Multilayer Handling
Advanced Multilayer Handling (AMH) is used to redistribute traffic to the appropriate
layer or frequency band according to the prevailing load of the network. Therefore, AMH
can smooth out the traffic over the network. This procedure is also supported on an inter-
BSC basis.
The AMH concept consists of three different features, which are all related to network
load. The AMH features are:
• BSC-initiated traffic reason handover
• IUO load control
• Multilayer load control
BSC-initiated traffic reason handover provides you with both improved quality and
capacity by distributing the traffic evenly over the network. By using BSC-initiated traffic
reason handover, you can relieve the load of the congested cells and balance the load
over the network by selecting the best mobile station (MS) and cell combination that is
likely to survive and give good quality on the new cell. It is particularly useful in multi-
band, microcellular, or multilayer (intelligent underlay-overlay) networks.
By using IUO load control, you can also direct traffic to use only the overlay network
during low traffic periods, and consequently avoid additional handovers between two
layers. Therefore, it is extremely efficient in multilayer networks.
With multilayer load control, you can prevent the use of the microcell layer during low
traffic, and therefore keep the MSS only in the macro network, once they have camped
on it.
To avoid additional handovers back to the heavy loaded cell, AMH has a particular
interval system between the handover attempts. With the interval system the MSS
cannot be directed back to the original heavy loaded cell before the interval timer has
expired.
In general, by using AMH and by setting the AMH-related parameters, you can move the
capacity between different layers according to the prevailing traffic.
Figure Overview of the AMH concept describes the AMH concept.
Figure 1 Overview of the AMH concept
GSM/micro
Intelligent underlay-overlay
Multilayer
handling
GSM/super
BSC-initiated traffic
reason handover
Load
>80
<50
ATPM
0
-
TGT
60
-
IUO
-
Denied
microcellular layer
-
Denied
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Figure Overview of the AMH concept shows that if the load is over 80 %, AMH TRHO
pbgt margin (ATPM) is 0 and TRHO guard time (TGT) is 60 s. If the load is under
50 %, access to IUO and microcellular layer is denied.
Advanced Multilayer Handling is an application software product in the BSC.
Related topics in Advanced Multilayer Handling
• Technical description of Advanced Multilayer Handling
• Functionality of Advanced Multilayer Handling
• User Interface of Advanced Multilayer Handling
Related topics in BSC/TCSM documentation
• Test and activate
• Radio network performance
• BSS8123: Advanced Multilayer Handling
• Activating and Testing BSS8123: Advanced Multilayer Handling
• Reference
• Commands
• MML commands
• EE - Base Station Controller Parameter Handling in BSC
• EH - Handover Control Parameter Handling
• EQ - Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC
• Counters/Performance indicators
• Call control measurements (CS)
• 1 Traffic Measurement
• 4 Handover Measurement
• 51 BSC Level Clear Code (PM) Measurement
• Parameters
• BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary
• Descriptions
• Feature descriptions
• Radio network performance
• Dual Band Network Operation
• Intelligent Underlay-Overlay
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Technical description of Advanced Multilayer Handling
2 Technical description of Advanced Multilayer
Handling
Interworking
Direct Access to Desired Layer/Band
AMH multilayer load control has lower priority than Direct Access to Desired Layer/Band
(DADL/B). For more information on DADL/B, see Direct Access to Desired Layer/Band
under Feature descriptions/Radio network performance in the PDF view.
GSM-WCDMA Inter-System Handover
When deciding on an initiation of a BSC-initiated traffic reason handover (TRHO), both
the completed BSC-initiated TRHOs and the load decrease of the serving cell because
of an inter-system handover (ISHO) are taken into consideration. Correspondingly,
when deciding on an initiation of an ISHO, both the completed ISHOs and the load
decrease of the serving cell because of a BSC-initiated TRHO are taken into consider-
ation.
Both of the above conditions are valid, when a new BSC-initiated TRHO, or ISHO are
evaluated after either a previous BSC-initiated TRHO or ISHO, but before a new load
information report has been received. For more information on GSM-WCDMA Inter-
System Handover, see GSM-WCDMA Interworking under Feature descriptions/Radio
network performance in the PDF view.
HSCSD
The BSC-initiated TRHO is only made for single-slot connections. The HSCSD cell
load upper limit (HCU) parameter should be set to a greater value than the AMH
upper load threshold (AUT) parameter. Consequently, unnecessary down-
grades are avoided and radio resources are used efficiently. For more information on
HSCSD, see HSCSD and 14.4 kbit/s Data Services in BSC under Feature descrip-
tions/Data in the PDF view.
Restrictions
MSC Controlled Traffic Reason Handover
It is not recommended that you use MSC controlled TRHO and BSC-initiated TRHO in
the same cell at the same time.
Queueing
Queueing is not used with BSC-initiated traffic reason handover.
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3 Functionality of Advanced Multilayer
Handling
3.1 BSC-initiated traffic reason handover
You can smooth out the overall traffic load of the network by using the BSC-initiated
traffic reason handover (TRHO). BSC-initiated TRHO directs the traffic to the appropri-
ate cell according to the prevailing load of the network and consequently smooths out
the traffic over the network. The traffic is redistributed from the congested regular layer
to other cells. The best MS and cell combination that is likely to survive and provide good
quality on the new cell is selected.
The figure BSC-initiated traffic reason handover shows the process leading to a BSC-
initiated TRHO.
g Do not use BSC-initiated traffic reason handover at the same time and in the same
cell as the existing MSC-controlled traffic reason handover.
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Figure 2 BSC-initiated traffic reason handover
BSC-initiated traffic reason handover is based on the traffic load situation of the serving
cell. The load of the serving cell is calculated by dividing the number of busy TCH
channels by the number of working TCH channels. If the traffic load of the serving cell
exceeds the parameter AMH upper load threshold (AUT), the parameter AMH
TRHO pbgt margin (ATPM) is used for all adjacent cells in the power budget equation
instead of the existing HO margin pbgt (PMRG).
The basic evaluation algorithm calculated according to radio link properties is based on
the following strategy and order:
1. AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n)>TRHO_TARGET_LEVEL(n)+Max(0,(MS_TXPWR_MAX_CELL(n)-P))
Target cell evaluation:
AND
where
Order of preference of target cells
Interval between handovers and handover attempts:
AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n) > TrhoTargetLevel(n) + Max(0,Pa)
PBGT (n) > AmhTrhoMarginPBGTAND PBGT (n) <HOMarginPBGT
P = maximum power of MS
IF
AmhTrho PbgtMargin = from -24 to 24 dBm
PRIORITY (n) =HoPriorityLevel(n) - HoLoadFactor(n)
HoLoadFactor value is taken into
If the percentage of free channels in the
channel for BSC initiated traffic reason handover is allocated.
Power budget handovers back to the original heavy
GUARD_TIME =TrhoGuardTime
EnablePowerBudgetHO= Yes
HoPeriodPBGT - interval between the power budget
threshold comparisons
AND
PBGT(n) = (B - AV_RXLEV_DL_HO -
(BsTxPwrMax - BS_TXPWR)) - (A - AV_RXLEV_NCELL(n))
where B = MsTxPwrMaxGSM(BTS) if serving cell is GSM 900 or GSM 850
B = MsTxPwrMaxGSM1x00(BTS) if serving cell isGSM 1800 or GSM 1900
A = MsTxPwrMaxGSM(ADJ)(n) if adjacent cell is GSM 900 or GSM 850
A = MsTxPwrMaxGSM1x00(ADJ)(n) if adjacent cell isGSM 1800 or GSM 1900
Pa = (MsTxPwrMaxGSM(ADJ)(n) - P) if adjacent cell is GSM 900 or GSM 850
Pa = (MsTxPwrMaxGSM1x00(ADJ)(n) - P)
loaded cell are not allowed during the guard time
if adjacent cell is GSM 1800 or GSM 1900
account when BTSLoadThreshold is exceeded.
target cell is below AmhMaxLoadOfTgtCell,
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2. PBGT(n)>AmhTrhoMarginPBGT AND PBGT(n)<HOMarginPBGT
For more information on the basic evaluation algorithms, see RF Power Control and
Handover Algorithm.
If the power budget (PBGT) value is between AMH TRHO pbgt margin and HO
margin pbgt, a handover is triggered because of BSC-initiated Traffic Reason Han-
dover. If the PBGT value exceeds the parameter HO margin pbgt, a handover is trig-
gered because of power budget handover. The range of the parameter AMH TRHO pbgt
margin is from -24 to 24 dBm and of the parameter HO margin pbgt from -24 to 63
dB.
For the BSC-initiated traffic reason handover to be triggered, power budget handover
has to be enabled. BSC-initiated traffic reason handover uses the same periods as the
normal power budget handover. BSC-initiated traffic reason handover has lower priority
than the normal power budget handover.
☞ Pay attention to the following:
• Queuing is not used with BSC-initiated traffic reason handover.
• To make an external BSC-initiated traffic reason handover successful, the
parameter CauseFieldInHandoverRequestSupported must have the
value YES in the BSSAP version profile of the MSC. The value must be YES so
that HO guard timers are used and queuing is not used.
• BSC-initiated traffic reason handover is made only for single-slot connections.
The parameter HSCSD cell load upper limit (HCU) should be set to a
greater value than the parameter AMH upper load threshold. Then unnec-
essary downgrades are avoided and radio resources are used efficiently.
• TRHO guard time (TGT) applies only to power budget handovers.
Figure 3 BSC-initiated TRHO
Note that only calls from the regular layer can be redirected because of the traffic reason
handover.
3.2 IUO load control
AMH can be applied with Intelligent Underlay-Overlay (IUO) to avoid congestion on the
overlay layer, thereby providing more trunking gain.
IUO is applied into the network to increase capacity. On the other hand, when the
capacity needs are not so high, IUO is still performing many handovers. Therefore, the
quality of the network can be improved by avoiding additional handovers between differ-
ent frequency layers.
BSC-initiated traffic
reason handover
+0 db +4 db +6 db
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Figure 4 IUO load control
You can use AMH to prevent the use of IUO during very low traffic, and therefore keep
the MSS only in the overlay network. The solution is based on the traffic load of the
serving cell. If the traffic load of the serving cell does not exceed AMH lower load
threshold (ALT) the IUO handover and the Direct Access to Super-reuse TRX are
not allowed. If the traffic load of the serving cell exceeds AMH lower load threshold
(ALT), the Intelligent Underlay-Overlay handover and Direct Access to Super-reuse
TRX are allowed again. The function is controlled by the parameter AMH traffic
control IUO (ATCI).
For more information on IUO, see Intelligent Underlay-Overlay under Feature descrip-
tions/Radio network performance in the PDF view.
3.3 Multilayer load control
As the number of network layers increases, the number of handovers between the
layers also increase. When the traffic is low, that is, at night, extra capacity is not needed
and the underlay capacity is not necessarily needed either. Therefore, an adequate
capacity can be achieved by using only the overlay network.
On the other hand, most of the traffic at night occurs outside, particularly from fast
moving vehicles. Furthermore, fast moving mobiles (FMMS) in the microcell network
generate many handovers with a relatively high speed. Therefore, it is more reasonable
to keep the traffic in the overlay network instead of the underlay network to provide
better quality to end users.
AMH can be used to prevent the use of the microcell layer during low traffic and there-
fore to keep the MSS only in the macro network, once they have camped on it.
Figure 5 Multilayer load control
GSM/macro
GSM/micro
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If the traffic load of the serving cell decreases under the predefined threshold AMH
lower load threshold (ALT), the FMMS, MS Speed Detection, DADL/B, and
Umbrella handovers are not allowed to the lower layer cells. The function is controlled
by the parameter AMH traffic control MCN (ATCM).
Note that the access to microcells cannot be prevented, but C2 reselection can be used
to keep the fast moving mobiles in the overlay network during idle mode.
For more information, see Dual Band Network Operation under Feature descrip-
tions/Radio network performance in the PDF view.
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User interface of Advanced Multilayer Handling
4 User interface of Advanced Multilayer
Handling
MMLs and Parameters
The following parameters are controlled by means of the Base Station Controller Param-
eter Handling in BSC (EE command group):
• AMH upper load threshold (AUT)
• AMH lower load threshold (ALT)
• AMH max load of target cell (AML)
• TRHO guard time (TGT)
☞ The above-mentioned parameters can also be configured on BTS level with the
Base Transceiver Station Handling in BSC commands (EQ command group). Note
that if you have set a value for the BTS level parameters, the BTS level parameters
take preference over the BSC level parameters.
The following parameters are controlled by means of the Handover Control Parameter
Handling (EH command group):
• AMH TRHO pbgt margin (ATPM)
• AMH traffic control MCN (ATCM)
• AMH traffic control IUO (ATCI)
For more information on parameters, see BSS Radio Network Parameter Dictionary
under Reference/Parameters in the PDF view.
Interfaces
The BSC-controlled TRHO is mapped to the 'better cell' cause on the A interface.
There are no effects to either the Abis interface or the Radio interface.
Measurements and Counters
Traffic Measurement
• 001167 TCH REQUEST FOR A BSC CONTROLLED TRHO PROCEDURE
• 001168 SUCC TCH SEIZ FOR A BSC CONTROLLED TRHO
• 001169 REJ TCH SEIZ FOR A BSC CONTROLLED TRHO DUE LACK OF
RESOURCES
Handover Measurement
• 004035 CAUSE HO STARTED BY TRAFFIC REASON
BSC Level Clear Code (PM) Measurement
• 051078 EXT IN BSC TRHO
• 051140 INTER BSC TRHO
• 051145 EXT OUT BSC TRHO
For more information on the measurements and counters, see:
• 1 Traffic Measurement under Reference/Counters/performance indicators/Call
control measurements (CS)
• 4 Handover Measurement under Reference/Counters/performance indicators/Call
control measurements (CS)
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• 51 BSC Level Clear Code (PM) Measurement under Reference/Counters/perfor-
mance indicators/Call control measurements (CS)
Alarms
Advanced Multilayer Handling involves no alarms.