RailTel Corporation of India Ltd.

Training
on on
Optical Fiber Networks
By: Raj Kumar Vishwakarma
Dy. Manager/ Network Planning & Implementation
E-Mail: rajvishwakarma@railtelindia.com
Phone #: 09717644139
How fiber cable look like
Advantages of Optical Communication
Explosive demand for higher bandwidth
Low bandwidth of copper
Nearly 25THz possible with fiber
Low Loss-Longer distance transmission(Less Repeaters)
No EMI in fiber-based telecom
Less cross-talk, more reliability
More secure communications
Lighter than copper
Lower cost per unit bandwidth(made of silica which is very cheap)
Safer and more advantages
What is Optical Communication?
•Optical communication is any form of
telecommunication that uses light as the
transmission medium.
•An optical communication system consists of a •An optical communication system consists of a
transmitter, which encodes an electronic pulse
into an optical signal, which carries the signal to
its destination, and a receiver, which reproduces
the message from the received optical signal.
Journey through the “Optical Tunnel” Journey through the “Optical Tunnel”
Transmit-Receive Overview Transmit-Receive Overview
Optical Fiber
•The most common type of
channel for optical
communications
•Flexible optically transparent
fiber made of glass or plastic
through which light can be
transmitted by the process of total
internal reflection internal reflection
•Consists of a core , cladding and
coating
•Core is the inner glass layer of
high refractive index
•Cladding is the outer layer
which covers the core/ has a lower
refractive index
•Coating is the outer most layer
which provides environmental and
physical protection for the fiber
Theory of Optical Fiber
•Transmits light along its axis using the process of total internal reflection
•Based upon the principle of Snell’s Law
•Snell’s Law – Total internal reflection can occur when light attempts to move from a
material with high index of refraction to one with lower index of refraction
–In an optical Fiber, the core has high
refractive index in which the light entering the refractive index in which the light entering the
fiber is guided
–Cladding has a refractive index slightly less
than that of the core
–By principle of total internal reflection the
light entering the fiber (core) at one end travels
along the fiber by bouncing repeatedly of the
inside of the interface of the glass with the
surrounding medium (cladding)
How Does an Optical Fiber Transmit Light?

The light in a fiber-optic cable travels through the core by constantly
bouncing from the cladding (mirror-lined walls), a principle called total
internal reflection. Because the cladding does not absorb any light from the
core, the light wave can travel great distances.
Signal degrades within the fiber Signal degrades within the fiber
essentially due to
–Impurities in glass
–Wavelength of transmitted light
– 850 nm – 60-75% per Km
–1300 nm – 50-60% per KM
Types of Optical Fiber
•Optical Fibers are classified as Single Mode or Multi
Mode fiber
•Multi mode fiber has a core diameter around 50um and
cladding diameter of 125 um
•Single mode fiber core is less than 10um and can support
only one mode of propagation only one mode of propagation
•Optical fiber are also grouped as step index and graded
index fiber
•In a step index fiber, the refractive index of the core is
constant throughout
•A graded index fiber has core with varying refractive
index
Types of Optical Fiber
125um
125um
Single Mode Fiber Multi Mode Fiber
9.2um 50um
Fiber Optic Communication
•History
•Fiber Optic Communication System
•Benefits of Optic Communication
••Limitation of Optic Communication
History
•Early People used light Signal to communicate
•Telegraphs, coaxial cables and micro wave systems
•Due to their limitation in communicating between long distances, in
the second half of the 20
th
century, the idea of optical carrier of
information arrived and found that it is better than other existing carrier
signal signal
•Due to lack of suitable coherent light source and better transmission
medium no remarkable even took place until 1960
•In 1960 laser was developed and ten years later optical fiber was
developed
•Between 1970 and 1980, the first commercial fiber optic system was
developed with a bit rate of 45Mbps and a repeater spacing of 10 Km
Fiber Optic communication System
•Four major parts in the system
• Optical Transmitter – Semi conductors like LED or Lasers
convert electrical signals to Optical signals to send it into the
optical fiber
• Fiber Optic Cable – routed through underground conduits • Fiber Optic Cable – routed through underground conduits
and buildings carry the light signal between transmitters,
amplifiers and receivers
• Optical Amplifier – amplifies the light signals to reduce
effects of distortions and attenuation
• Optical Receiver – Recovers the light signal back to the
electrical signal
Benefits
•Permits transmission over longer distances and at higher
bandwidth (data rates) than other forms of
communication.
•Signals travel along them with less loss and are also
immune to electromagnetic interference
•No electromagnetic interference hence better S/N ratio •No electromagnetic interference hence better S/N ratio
•High electrical resistance makes it safer to use where
electrical isolation is required
•Light weight and small size makes them ideal for
multiple applications
•High on security, difficult to tap in and read data being
transmitted
Limitations
•Dispersion; spreading of optical pulses as they
travel along fiber
•Attenuation; caused by combination of material
absorption and connection losses absorption and connection losses
• Material absorption of silica is 0.3 db/km, but impurities
increase this amount to 1000 db/km
• Modern fiber has attenuation of 00.3 db/km
• Microscopic fluctuation in density and imperfect
splicing increases attenuation
Contents
•Plesiochronous Digital Heirarchy
•Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
•Wave Division Multiplexing
Plesiochronous Digital Heirarchy
• Plesiochronous is a Greek word meaning
Almost Synchronous , but not fully
synchronous.
• In Plesiochronous system every equipment is
generating its own clock for synchronization.
Plesiochronous Transmission
•Pulse Code Modulation
• Voice Frequency ranges upto 4 Khz
• Sampling the Voice Signal @ 8 Khz
• (Double the Max. Frequency)
• 8 bits per sample
• Digital Bit Rate: 8Khz X 8 = 64 Khz • Digital Bit Rate: 8Khz X 8 = 64 Khz
•Building up the Base Stream (2MB)
• 30 Voice Channels @ 64 Khz
• One channel for Frame (64 K)
• One channel for Signaling (64 K)
• Total number of Channels = 32
• Bit Rate: 32 X 64 K= 2048 Khz (2Mb)
PDH Bit Rates
•E1-2048 Kbps (2Mb) [30 Voice Channel]
•E2-8448 Kbps (8Mb) [120 Voice Channel]
•E3-34368 Kbps (34Mb) [480 Voice Channel]
•E4-139264 Kbps (140Mb) [1920 Voice Channel] •E4-139264 Kbps (140Mb) [1920 Voice Channel]
Bit-Interleaved Multiplexing
• It is TDM
• One bit will be taken from all Tributaries.
Stuffing and Justification
• In a PDH multiplexer individual bits must be running at the
same speed otherwise the bits cannot be interleaved
• The possible “Plesiochronous” difference is catered for by
using a technique known as “Justification”
Extra bits are added(stuffed)into the digital tributaries which • Extra bits are added(stuffed)into the digital tributaries which
effectively increases the speed of the tributary until they are all
identical
• The speed of the higher order side is generated by an internal
oscillator in the multiplexer and is not derived from the
primary reference clock
PDH
• Multiplexing / Demultiplexing is time consuming
• Incompatibility of “standard” equipment from
different vendors
• US and European systems have too little in common - • US and European systems have too little in common -
Expensive mediators for transatlantic transmission
• No self checking - expensive manual check and repair
system
• No standard for high bandwidth links - proprietary
NOVEMBER 1988...
The Main Standards
• G.707 , G.708 , G709 (G.707/Y SINCE 96/93)
– Transmission rates
– Signal format
– Multiplexing structures
– Tributary mapping for the network node interface – Tributary mapping for the network node interface
• G782 (Merge with G.783 in 97) , G.783
– Operation of synchronous multiplexers
• G.781
– SDH synchronization networking
• G.784
– SDH network management
The SDH Advantages
• High transmission rates
• Lower level signals embedded and can be
identified from the higher level (much simpler
Add & Drop)
• Optical standard
• Can be introduced into existing networks
• Allowance of European and North American
PDH systems
More of the SDH Advantages:
• High availability and capacity matching
• Reliability
• Centralized synchronization
•• Network management channels (the data used
for maintenance is embedded in the signal)
• Centralized network control enabled through
the management channels
SDH - Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
• An international standard for high-speed
optical /electrical telecommunications
networks
• A synchronous digital transport system with a • A synchronous digital transport system with a
built-in management channel for remote
management of complex topologies
Synchronous Multiplexer Interfaces
Tributaries
1.5 Mbps
2 Mbps
6 Mbps
34 Mbps
45 Mbps
Aggregates
140 Mbps
STM-1 Electrical
STM-1 Optical
STM-4 Optical
LAN / MAN
FDDI
ISDN / BISDN
ATM
Video
Aggregates
STM-1 155 Mbps
STM-4 622 Mbps
STM-16 2.4Gbps
STM-64 10 Gbps
STM-256 40 Gbps
SDH Elements
TERMINAL
MULTIPLEXER
STM-n
STM-m
E1-E4
TM
REGENERATOR
ADD-and-DROP
MULTIPLEXER
E1-E4
STM-n
STM-n
STM-n
ADM
STM-m
REG
STM-n STM-n
STM-n
ADD-and-DROP MULTIPLEXER with
LOCAL CROSS-CONNECT
CAPABILITY
STM-n
E1-E4
STM-n STM-n
LXC
SYNCHRONOUS DIGITAL
CROSS-CONNECT
SDXC
STM-n
STM-n
E1-E4
STM-m
STM-n
Network Topologies
Point-to-Point
Chain
Mesh
Add-Drop Multiplexer
Digital Cross-Connect
Terminal Multiplexer
Ring
Star (Hub)
Network Management
SDH
Multiplexer
Network
Site 4
Site 3
Site 2
Management
Station
Ethernet
Network
Gateway
Site 1
Management Functions
• Alarm / Event Management
• Configuration Management
• Performance Management
• Access and Security Management
Transport Systems
STM-n
Video
34
Mbps
2 Mbps
2 Mbps
...
2 Mbps
S D H
Fiber
Highway
Pleisiochronous
S D H
SDH Network Segments
Regenerator
Section
Multiplexer
Section
Multiplexer
Section
Regenerator
Section
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Regenerator
Section
Path
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SDH
Terminal
Multiplexer
Traffic Assembly
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SDH
Terminal
Multiplexer
SDH
Add & Drop
Multiplexer
SDH
Regenerator
SDH
Regenerator
Traffic Disassembly
Protection Schemes
Path
Protection
Section
Protection
main:
Protection
Protection
protection:
Multiplexing Process – Step By Step
E
1
S
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B
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C-12
P
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VC-12
T
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p
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TU-12
x
3
TUG-2
x
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RS
x
7
TUG-3
x 3
P
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VC-4 AU-4 P.
MS
Example for multiplexing 2 Mbps tributary into STM-1 level
Multiplexing Structure
139.264 Mbps
x3
AU-4 C-4
AU-3 VC-3
VC-4 STM-n
xN
AUG
x1
x3
TUG-3
x1
44.736 Mbps
34.368 Mbps
C-3
TU-3 VC-3
*
*
*
x7 x7 6.312 Mbps
C-2 VC-2 TU-2
2.048 Mbps
C-12 VC-12 TU-12
TUG-2
x1
x3
x4
TU-11 VC-11
1.544 Mbps
C-11
* Pointer Processing
Multiplexing
Aligning
Mapping
AUG Administrative Unit Group
AU Administrative Unit
TUG Tributary Unit Group
TU Tributary Unit
VC Virtual Container
C Container
*
*
*
*
SDH Multiplexing technique
4 3 2 1
9 rows
4 columns
TU – 12
4 X 9
7 4 3 6 5 2 1 7 4 3 6 5 2 1 7 4 3 6 5 2 1
3 2 1
TUG-2
12 X 9
TUG-3
84 X 9
P
O
H
P
O
H
P
O
H
Stuffing and
POH
TUG - 3 TUG - 3 TUG - 3
Section Over
Head
(9 X 9)
261 X 9
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
2.048 Mbps
(E1)
1 2 3
32
32 Bytes
1 2 3 32 C-12
Stuffing Bytes
34 Bytes
1 2 3 32
VC-12
35 Bytes
POH (Lower Order)
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
TU-12
36 Bytes
Pointer
9 Rows
4 Columns
TU 12 is arranged
Into Matrix of 9 X 4
9 Rows
4 Columns 4 Columns 4 Columns
TU-12
TU-12 TU-12
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
TUG-2
9 Rows
12 Columns
4 Columns 4 Columns 4 Columns
Multiplexing
7 TUG-2s
Stuffing Bytes
X 7 TUG-2 TUG-3(multiplexing)
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
Stuffing Bytes
86 Columns
84 Columns
TUG 3
VC - 4
TUG - 3
TUG - 3 TUG - 3
86 Columns
X 3 TUG–3
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
HOPOH
VC - 4
258 Columns
Stuffing Bytes
261 Columns
X 3 TUG–3
Pay Load
VC - 4
9 rows
Mapping of 2Mbps into STM – N
261 Columns
AU – 4 (Adding Pointer)
Pay Load
AU Pointer
9 Columns
4 th Row
261 Columns
The process of matching the signals to the network is called mapping
The container is the basic package unit for tributary channels,a special
container is provided for each PDH tributary signal
Mapping(Stuffing) in SDH
The containers are much larger than the payload to be transported.The
remaining capacity is partly used for justification(stuffing)in order to
equalize out timing inaccuracies in the PDH signals
A virtual container(VC) is made up from the container thus formed
together with the path overhead(POH)
The next step towards formation of a complete STM-N signal is the
addition of a pointer indicating start of the POH
The unit formed by the pointer and the virtual container is called an
administrative unit (AU-n) or a tributary unit(TU-n)
Aligning and Multiplexing in SDH
Several TUs (multiplexed) taken together to form a tributary unit
group(TUG);these are in turn collected together into a VC
One or more AUs form an administrative unit group(AUG)
AUG plus the section overhead(SOH) forms the STM-N
Advantages Of SDH / PDH
PDH SDH
The reference clock is not synchronized
throughout the network
The reference clock is synchronized
throughout the network.
Multiplexing / Demultiplexing operations
have to be performed from one level to the
next level step by step.
The synchronous multiplexing results in
simple access to SDH system has
consistent frame structures throughout the
hierarchy. hierarchy.
The payload is not transparent. The payload is transparent
PDH system has different frame structures
at different hierarchy levels.
SDH system has consistent frame
structures throughout the hierarchy.
Physical cross-connections on the same
level on DDF are forced if any
Digital cross- connections are provided at
different signal levels and in different
ways on NMS
PDH SDH
G.702 specifies maximum 45Mpbs &
140Mpbs & no higher order (faster) signal
structure is not specified
G.707 specified the first level of
SDH.That is, STM-1, Synchronous
Transport Module 1st Order & higher.
(STM-1,STM-4,STM-16, STM-64)
PDH system does not bear capacity to
transport B-ISDN signals.
SDH network is designed to be a transport
medium for B-ISDN, namely ATM
Advantages Of SDH / PDH(Contd..)
transport B-ISDN signals. medium for B-ISDN, namely ATM
structured signal.
Few services are available It will transport variety of services.
Limited amount of extra capacity for user
/ management
It will transport service bandwidths
Sufficient number of OHBs is available
Bit - by - bit stuff multiplexing Byte interleaved synchronous
multiplexing.
Signal Structure
M Columns
F
B
B B
B
N x M Bytes
F F F F
N Rows
B B
B B
N x M Bytes
1
2
Order of
transmission
STM-1 Frame Structure
AU Pointer
Regenerator
Section
Overhead
(RSOH)
261 Bytes 9 Bytes
1
2
3
4
9 rows x 270 columns x 8 bits / byte x 8000 f/s = 155.52 Mbps
Multiplexer
Section
Overhead
(MSOH)
270 Columns (Bytes)
5
6
7
8
9
P a y l o a d
STM-1 - Virtual Container (VC-4)
Section
F F F F
Serial Signal Stream
155.52 Mbps
Section
Overhead
Payload Capacity = 149.76 Mbps
Designed for 140 Mbps transport
P
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Tributary Unit Frame Structure
155.52 Mbps Serial Signal Stream
F F F F
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9

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261
Columns
Tributary
Unit Frame
STM-1
Payload
area
Tributary Unit Frame Structure
S
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155.52 Mbps Serial Signal Stream
F F F F
TU Pointer
VC Path
S
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VC Path
Overhead
Low-rate
Tributary
Signal
Container
Virtual
Container
Different Sizes of Tributary Unit Frames
TU-2 TU-12
9



R


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w


s
TU-11 TU-3
TU pointers area
Optimized for Optimized for
N. American
DS2 signal
(6.312 Mbps)
12
columns
6.912 Mbps
European
signal
(2.048 Mbps)
4
columns
2.304 Mbps
N. American
DS1 signal
(1.544 Mbps)
3
columns
1.728 Mbps
N. American
DS3 signal
(44.736 Mbps)
Will also carry a
European
signal
(34.368 Mbps)
86
columns
49.54 Mbps
TU Numbering System: KLM
TU-12
1-4-2
TU-3
3
TU-2
2-4
Synchronous Byte-Interleaved Multiplexing
Byte-
Interleaved
τ ττ τ
τ ττ τ
STM-1
Signal “A”
STM-1
Signal “B”
τ ττ τ = timing rate
Interleaved
Multiplexer
STM-4
(4 * STM-1)
Denotes 8-bit Byte
At STM-4 Signal Rate
τ ττ τ
STM-1
Signal “C”
STM-1
Signal “D”
Denotes 8-bit Byte
At STM-1 Signal Rate
STM-4 Frame Structure
Byte-
Interleaved
F F F
125 µ µµ µsec. Serial Signal Stream
9720 Bytes / Frame
STM-1 “A”
STM-1 “B”
STM-1 “C”
9 Rows
Interleaved
Multiplexer
9720 (270 * 9 * 4 Bytes / Frame) x 8 (Bits / Byte) x 8000 f/s = 622.08 Mbps
9720 Bytes / Frame
STM-1 “C”
STM-1 “D”
261 columns
VC-4
9 columns
SOH
9 Rows
36 columns
Interleaved
Section
Overhead
1044 columns
4 Interleaved VC-4s
9 Rows
Overhead Functions
• Define and build the SDH frame structure
• Provide data transportation monitoring
indicators
• Provide alarm state indications • Provide alarm state indications
• Enable maintenance activities
• Provide routing functions (protection
switching)
STM-1 Overhead Detail
Path
Overhead
(POH)
Administrative
Unit
Regenerator
Section
Overhead
(RSOH)
H1 H2 H3
D1
Datacom
D2
Datacom
D3
Datacom
E1
Order-
wire
F1
User
A1
Framing
A1
Framing
A1
Framing
A2
Framing
A2
Framing
A2
Framing
J1
Path
Trace
J0
Reg. Sec.
Trace
B3
BIP-8
B1
BIP-8
Section Overhead
(SOH)
G1
Path
C2
Signal
Label
Media
dependent
usage (MDU)
M
D
U
Reserved for
national use
Unit
Pointers
Multiplexer
Section
Overhead
(MSOH)
S1
Synch.
Quality
Z1
Growth
Z2
Growth
M1
REI
K3
APS
K1
MPS
K2
RDI
H4
Multi-
frame
H1
AU Pointer
H2
AU Pointer
H3
AU Pointer
D10
Datacom
D11
Datacom
D12
Datacom
D7
Datacom
D8
Datacom
D9
Datacom
D4
Datacom
D5
Datacom
D6
Datacom
E2
Order-
wire
F3
User
F2
User
B2
BIP-24
N1
Tandem
Conn.
Path
Status
STM-4 Section Overhead Byte Structure
36 columns
B1 E1 F1
D1 D2 D3
A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 A2 Z0 Z0 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A1 A2 A2 J0 Z0
Administrative Unit Pointer(s)
Bytes reserved for national use
B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 B2 K1 K2
D4 D5 D6
D7 D8 D9
D10
D11 D12
S1 M1 E2
DENSE WAVE DIVISION
MULTIPLEXING
(DWDM) (DWDM)
Wavelength Multiplexing Wavelength Multiplexing
MULTIPLE FIBER
OPTICAL MULTIPLEXERS
SINGLE FIBER
Wave Length Multiplexing
• Multiplexing multiple wavelengths over a
single fiber
• Two Major Types
– CWDM – Coarse Wave Length Division – CWDM – Coarse Wave Length Division
Multiplexing
• Channel Spacing – 20 nanometers
– DWDM – Dense Wave Length Division
Multiplexing
• Channel Spacing – 8 nanometers
WDM Categories
• Wrapperless Systems
– Protocol Independent
• Wrapper Systems
– Framed optical channel
– Various low-level transmission functions
• Error checking
• Performance monitoring
• Forward Error Correction (FEC)
– Management channel to support OAM&P
– Optical bitstream interpretable by higher-level
protocols
TDM Vs WDM TDM Vs WDM
DWDM Evolution DWDM Evolution
WAVELENGTH WINDOWS WAVELENGTH WINDOWS
ITU-T WAVELENGTH GRID ITU-T WAVELENGTH GRID
A Typical DWDM Link
Channel
2
Channel 1
λ
1
λ
2
OA OA
Fiber
OADM
λ
1
λ
2
Channel
N
λ
N
Opt.
MUX
Opt.
De-MUX
λ
1
, λ
2
,….., λ
N
λ
1
, λ
2
,….., λ
N
λ
N
= Laser Diode
= Receiver
Transmitter Simple Block Diagram Transmitter Simple Block Diagram
Transmitter Basic Specifications Transmitter Basic Specifications
Laser/ LED Drivers Laser/ LED Drivers
LASER Temperature Compensation LASER Temperature Compensation
Receiver Basic Specifications Receiver Basic Specifications
Receiver Block Diagram Receiver Block Diagram
Dense Wave Division Multiplexing Dense Wave Division Multiplexing
• DWDM
– Standard support 1000 colors of light, only 160 colors supported
today
– Key players - Ciena, Cerent (Cisco), Lucent, Marconi, Nortel,
Siemens, Sycamore
– Supports PoS – packet over Sonet to Wavelength
Supports LAMBDA routing – Supports LAMBDA routing
Attenuation
Wavelength
1.3
1.4 1.5 1.6
(µm)
1.0 dB/KM
0.3
What is an Optical Wave? What is an Optical Wave? What is an Optical Wave? What is an Optical Wave?
An optical wave is a transponder-based service which
provides unprotected, customized bandwidth primarily
for data traffic and allows data carriers requiring low
restoration rates to provide protection switching using
their own equipment.
Wave 1 Wave 1
Wave 1 Wave 1
Wave 2 Wave 2
Wave 3 Wave 3
Wave 4 Wave 4
Wave 1 Wave 1
Wave 2 Wave 2
Wave 3 Wave 3
Wave 4 Wave 4
Customized Bandwidth Customized Bandwidth Customized Bandwidth Customized Bandwidth
OC OC OC OC- -- -48 48 48 48
STM16 STM16 STM16 STM16
OC OC OC OC- -- -3/STM1 3/STM1 3/STM1 3/STM1
OC OC OC OC- -- -12/STM4 12/STM4 12/STM4 12/STM4
OC OC OC OC- -- -
24/STM8 24/STM8 24/STM8 24/STM8
OC OC OC OC- -- -N NN N
Delhi
Bombay
Cal
Chennai
Nagpur
X-Connect
Propagation mode Propagation mode
Single Mode Fiber Single Mode Fiber
Multi Mode Fiber Multi Mode Fiber
Number of Modes:
M = V
2
/2
Graded Index Fiber Graded Index Fiber
Propagation in Graded Index Fiber Propagation in Graded Index Fiber
Number of Modes, M = (a/(a+2))*(v
2
/2)
where a is Profile parameter
Energy Distribution in SM Fiber Energy Distribution in SM Fiber
Attenuation in Optical Fiber Attenuation in Optical Fiber
Power expressed in dbm Power expressed in dbm
It’s simple to relate to attenuation if Power is also expressed in terms of db.
So if mW is the reference: Power in dbm = 10log
10
(P/mW)
Where µW is the reference: Power in dbm = 10log
10
(P/µW)
Dispersion –BW Losses Dispersion –BW Losses
Dispersions in MM & SM Fiber Dispersions in MM & SM Fiber
Dispersion in Step Indexed Fiber Dispersion in Step Indexed Fiber
Graded Index Fiber – less dispersion Graded Index Fiber – less dispersion
Chromatic Dispersion Chromatic Dispersion
LED: Typical spectral width 75-125 nm LASER: Typical spectral width 2-5 nm
Material Dispersion Material Dispersion
Wave guide Dispersion Wave guide Dispersion
Polarization Polarization
Bending Losses