n 661 CE, After Imam Ali, Imam Hasan attained to the caliphate.

There was a military conflict
between Imam Hasan and Muawiya which was finished by a peace treaty in the middle of the
month of Jamadi al-UIa, in the year 41 A.H.
[1]

Narrated by Al-Hasan Al-Basri:

By Allah, Al-Hasan bin Ali led large battalions like mountains against Muawiya.
Amr bin Al-As said (to Muawiya), "I surely see battalions which will not turn back
before killing their opponents." Muawiya who was really the best of the two men
said to him, "O 'Amr! If these killed those and those killed these, who would be left
with me for the jobs of the public, who would be left with me for their women, who
would be left with me for their children?" Then Muawiya sent two Quraishi men
from the tribe of 'Abd-i-Shams called 'Abdur Rahman bin Sumura and Abdullah bin
'Amir bin Kuraiz to Al-Hasan saying to them, "Go to this man (i.e. Al-Hasan) and
negotiate peace with him and talk and appeal to him." So, they went to Al-Hasan and
talked and appealed to him to accept peace. Al-Hasan said, "We, the offspring of
'Abdul Muttalib, have got wealth and people have indulged in killing and corruption
(and money only will appease them)." They said to Al-Hasan, "Muawiya offers you
so and so, and appeals to you and entreats you to accept peace." Al-Hasan said to
them, "But who will be responsible for what you have said?" They said, "We will be
responsible for it." So, what-ever Al-Hasan asked they said, "We will be responsible
for it for you." So, Al-Hasan concluded a peace treaty with Muawiya. Al-Hasan (Al-
Basri) said: I heard Abu Bakr saying, "I saw Allah's Apostle on the pulpit and Al-
Hasan bin 'Ali was by his side. The Prophet was looking once at the people and once
at Al-Hasan bin 'Ali saying, 'This son of mine is a Saiyid (i.e. a noble) and may Allah
make peace between two big groups of Muslims through him."
[2]


Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, a 10th century Sunni Islamic scholar writes:

al Hasan had already made peace with Muawiyah on condition that he concede to
him what was in his own treasury plus the revenue of Darabjird and that 'Ali not be
reviled in his hearing.
[3]


The main condition Hasan ibn Ali imposed on Muawiya for handing over power was to be just to
the people and keep them safe and secure.
[4]
Following is the extract of the treaty between Imam
Hassan and Muawiya:
1. Authority will be handed to Muawiya provided that he should act according to the Book
of Allah, the Sunna of the Prophet,
[5]
and the behavior of the righteous Caliphs
[6][7]

2. Authority should be for Imam Hassan after Muawiya,
[8][9][10][11][12]
and if an accident
occurs, authority should go to Imam Hussain,
[13]
Muawiya has no right to entrust
authority to anyone
[14][7][15]

3. Muawiya should abandon cursing the Commander of the faithful (Imam Ali) and the
practice of using the qunut in the salat against him,
[16]
Muawiya should also not mention
Imam Ali unless in a good manner.
[17][18]

4. He (Muawiya) should excluded what is in the treasury of Kufa, that is five million
(dirhams). So handing over authority does not include it (i.e., this sum of money).
Muawiya should send al-Husayn one million dirhams a year, he should prefer the
children of Hashim (banu Hashim) in giving and gifts to the banu Abd Shams, and should
divide one million (dirhams) among the sons of those who were killed with the
Commander of the faithful at the Battle of the Camel and the Battle of Siffin, and should
spend that from the taxes of Dar Abjard.
[19][20][21][22]

5. The people should be safe wherever they are in the earth of Allah. Muawiya should give
security to all races. The companions of Imam Ali should be given security wherever
they are. Muawiya should not seek a calamity secretly or openly for Imam Hassan, nor
for Imam Hussein, nor for any of the Prophet’s Ahlul Bayt.
[23][24][17][18][7][21][25]

After the peace treaty Imam Hasan received Mu'awiya's letter asking him to counter khariji
threat. He sent him the following reply:

"O Mu'awiya! You have appointed Hasan bin Ali to go like one of your officers and
to ward off a rebellious Khariji. I, Hasan bin Ali, have retired, in the interest of the
Muslims, from the caliphate, which is my right. If I had wished to fight against one
of the people of the Qibla i.e. with a Muslim, whoever he might be, and to which
ever sect he might belong, I would have fought against you in the first instance".
[26]


Imam Hasan retired from the caliphate and thus safeguarded the blood of the Muslims and the
strength of Islam, and prevented the external and internal enemies from taking undue advantage
of the situation. But this does not mean that he surrendered to Muawiya and recognized him as
the caliph and the Commander of the Faithful. One of the conditions of the Peace Treaty between
Imam Hasan and Muawiya reads that, "Hasan bin Ali makes Peace on the condition that he will
not be under an obligation to call Muawiya, the Commander of the Faithful". It is claimed that
Muawiya violated all the conditions of the peace treaty and did not take care of the following
five items of the treaty and committed horrible crimes against the Shias of Ali:
[1]

1. When Muawiya took the reins of government, he did not act according to the Book of
Allah, the Sunna (i.e., practices) of His Apostle, and the practices (Sira) of the Orthodox
Caliphs,
2. nor did he leave the authority after him to the Consultative Committee or to the Owner of
the right (i.e., al-Hasan),
3. nor did he refrain from cursing Ali, he increased cursing Ali to the extent that he ordered
his orators to curse him everywhere
4. nor did he give (al-Hasan) the land taxes,
5. nor did he give security to Ali's Shias and companions
References
1. Shaykh Radi Aal-Yasin; Translated by Jasim al-Rasheed. Sulh al-Hasan (The Peace
Treaty of al-Hasan (a)). Qum: Ansariyan Publications. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
2. "Sahih Al Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 49 (Peacemaking), Number 867". Sahih-
bukhari.com. Retrieved 2013-12-30.
3. History of the Prophets and Kings, Between Civil Wars: The Caliphate of Muawiyah,
Section: The Rendering of Allegiance to al Hasan b. Ali
4. The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate By Wilferd Madelung
Page 232 [1]
5. al-Hadid, Ibn Abu. Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 4. p. 6.
6. al-Nasaih al-Kafiya. p. 156.
7. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 10. p. 115.
8. Tarikh al-Khulafa. p. 194.
9. al-Bidaya wa alNahaya, vol. 8. p. 41.
10. al-Asqalani, Ahmad Shahab al-Din. al-Isaba fi Tamiiz al-Sahaba, vol. 2. pp. 12, 13.
11. al-Dinawari, Ibn Qutayba. al-Imama wa al-Siyasa. p. 150.
12. Wajdi, Farid. Dairat al-Marif al-Islamiya, vol. 3. p. 443.
13. Umdat al-Talib. p. 52.
14. Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 4. p. 8.
15. al-Fusw al Muhimma.
16. al-Amili, Muhsin al-Amin. A'yan al-Shia, vol. 4. p. 43.
17. al-Isfahani, Abu al-Faraj. Maqatil al-Talibiyyin. p. 26.
18. al Hadid, Ibn Abu. Sharh Nahj al-Balagha, vol. 4. p. 15.
19. al-Dinawari, Ibn Qutayba. al-Imama wa al-Siyasa. p. 200.
20. Tarikh, vol. 6. p. 92.
21. Ilal al-Sharaiya. p. 81.
22. al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya, vol. 8. p. 14.
23. Tarikh, vol. 6. p. 97.
24. al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh, vol. 3. p. 166.
25. al-Nasaih al-Kafiya. p. 115.
26. Ayati, Dr. Ibrahim. "Eight". A Probe into the History of Ashura'. Karachi - The Islamic
Republic of Pakistan: Islamic Seminary Publications. Retrieved 30 December 2013.