© 8older 1echnology, lnc.

2011 Þage 1 of 11

A 81I Case Study
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1be wblte popet exomloes tbe sttoteqles ooJ lssoes fot mlqtotloq Joto wotebooses ftom Otocle
plotfotms to tbe 1etoJoto plotfotm. lt Jlscosses tbe motlvotloos ooJ opptoocbes to Joto
woteboose mlqtotloos, qlves exomples of expetleoces, ooJ coocloJes wltb beoeflts teollzeJ,
lessoos leotoeJ, ooJ o syotbesls of key polots. 1be teseotcb wos cooJocteJ osloq ooooymoos
lotetvlews wltb petsoos wbo boJ Jltect expetleoces mlqtotloq Joto wotebooses ftom Otocle to
1etoJoto¹ uotobose. Altbooqb focosloq oo speclflc veoJots, tbls wblte popet sotfoces tbe qeoetlc
lssoes tbot ote osefol to l1 ptofessloools lovolveJ wltb mlqtotloq o Joto woteboose betweeo
Jotobose plotfotms.
Motlvotloos fot uw Mlqtotloos............................................... 2
Apptoocbes to uw Mlqtotloos ................................................ J
Mlqtotloo ltoject íxpetleoces ................................................. 5
kesootces................................................................................. 7
Mlqtotloo ltoject lessoos leotoeJ.......................................... 8
5yotbesls .................................................................................. 9
Aboot 8olJet 1ecbooloqy, loc. ............................................... 11
Aboot tbe 5poosot ................................................................. 11

© 8older 1echnology, lnc. 2011 Þage 2 of 11

1be vl of lloooce lookeJ o blt coofoseJ. 5be boJ cotefolly llsteoeJ to o well-tebeotseJ
pteseototloo by tbe clO oboot tbe mlqtotloo of tbtee floooclol Jotoboses loto o sloqle
floooclol Joto woteboose. 1be jostlflcotloo wos tbe cost sovloqs ftom ovolJloq mojot
fotote eoboocemeots to soppott fotote bosloess oeeJs. Aftet o looq poose, sbe oskeJ,
´1be oew ooJ olJ Jotoboses ote boseJ oo tbe 5Ol stooJotJ. wby Joes tbe ptoject cost
so mocb ooJ toke so looq?´ 5be seemeJ mote pozzleJ tboo opset.
Pave you faced a slmllar slLuaLlon?
1hls ls a common slLuaLlon for many corporaLlons Loday. uaLa warehouse (uW) mlgraLlon pro[ecLs are a hlgh-
prlorlLy lLem on mosL l1 agendas. ?eL, Lhey are poorly undersLood by many l1 professlonals and especlally by mosL
buslness execuLlves. 1he pro[ecL seems decepLlvely slmple, slnce one would lmaglne. !usL move daLa from one
SCL sLandardlzed daLabase Lo anoLher. 1hls pro[ecL would seem Lo be a slmple 'fork-llfL' pro[ecL where we plck Lhe
daLa up, move lL, and seL lL down.
1he real slLuaLlon ls more complex, boLh from a buslness and Lechnlcal perspecLlve. ?eL, undersLandlng abouL uW
mlgraLlon pro[ecLs can subsLanLlally reduce Lhe expecLed cosL and duraLlon.
1he pracLlce of daLa warehouslng ls now more Lhan LwenLy years old. 1he flrsL and even second generaLlons of
daLa warehouses are ln need of ma[or renovaLlons. MosL corporaLlons grow lncremenLally, and a uW ls a cenLral
componenL of Lhose large organlzaLlons. Lach year Lhe daLa warehouse changes a llLLle blL Lo accommodaLe
growLh. Cver Llme, Lhese lncremenLal changes resulL ln a messy, fragmenLed sysLem wlLh hlgh malnLenance cosLs
and llmlLed growLh poLenLlal. lurLher, many corporaLlons [usLlfy developmenL of Lhelr daLa warehouslng on a case-
by-case basls, whlch usually creaLes many separaLe daLa marLs, each of whlch ls focused on lLs parLlcular buslness
lssue wlLh lLs speclflc seL of daLa.
1he underlylng Lechnology for daLa warehouslng has dramaLlcally evolved over Lhe pasL decade so LhaL capablllLles
and cosLs LhaL were noL feaslble ln Lhe pasL are now qulLe adequaLe and accepLable. ln parLlcular, Lhe shlfL from
large slngle-processor archlLecLure Lo Masslvely Þarallel Þrocesslng (MÞÞ) archlLecLure llke 1eradaLa's has
revoluLlonlzed daLa warehouslng.
1he challenge ls Lo declde when and how Lo evolve your uW sysLems and Lo do so based on clear buslness
ob[ecLlves. 1hls whlLe paper wlll dlscuss Lhe general moLlvaLlons and approaches for uW mlgraLlons, buL focuses
speclflcally on mlgraLlng from Cracle plaLforms Lo Lhe 1eradaLa plaLform. 1he whlLe paper concludes wlLh beneflLs
reallzed, lessons learned, and a synLhesls of Lhe key polnLs.
Mot|vat|ons for DW M|grat|ons
1he moLlvaLlons for mosL uW mlgraLlon pro[ecLs are a mlxLure of buslness and Lechnology reasons.
CosL, boLh currenL and fuLure, drlves mosL uW mlgraLlons, ofLen ln comblnaLlon wlLh Lhe oLher facLors we wlll
dlscuss laLer. 8ecause of Lechnology lnnovaLlons, currenL cosL could be dramaLlcally reduced, especlally lf many
small daLa warehouses are consolldaLed lnLo a slngle daLa warehouse. CurrenL Lechnology can ofLen supporL such
consolldaLlon aL a reduced cosL, even Lhough Lhls was noL posslble [usL a few years ago.
CosL for a daLa warehouse ranges from hardware/sofLware purchases/subscrlpLlons Lo malnLenance/supporL, boLh
for Lhe lnlLlal developmenL and Lhen for malnLenance and enhancemenLs requlred over Lhe comlng years. When
managlng a daLa warehouse, a company noL only monlLors currenL cosLs buL also pro[ecLs lLs fuLure cosLs. 1hese
fuLure cosLs are ofLen a key moLlvaLlon for uW mlgraLlons slnce Lhe pro[ecLlons show sLeady (perhaps exponenLlal)
lncreases as key buslness processes conLlnue Lo grow. Also, new buslness lnlLlaLlves or corporaLe acqulslLlons
and/or mergers ofLen and suddenly mulLlply fuLure daLa requlremenLs, boLh ln volume and veloclLy.
© 8older 1echnology, lnc. 2011 Þage 3 of 11
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AnoLher reason for mlgraLlng ls Lhe buslness value of havlng an lnLegraLed vlew of Lhe buslness. 1he complexlLy of
any global company ls mlnd-boggllng, resulLlng ln declslon paralysls (or declslon sLupldlLy). 1he enLerprlse daLa
warehouse ls Lhe only place where an lnLegraLed buslness vlew ls posslble. ln parLlcular, crlLlcal buslness
opporLunlLles (and buslness problems) are ofLen hldden ln Lhe ºcracks" beLween funcLlonal unlLs. undersLandlng
cross-funcLlonal dynamlcs becomes crlLlcal Lo growlng Lhe buslness ln a changlng markeLplace.
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lrom Lhe Lechnology perspecLlve, facLors such as scalablllLy, flexlblllLy, and sLablllLy, complemenL Lhe buslness
reasons. Companles ln fasL-paced lndusLrles wlll ofLen sLress scalablllLy Lo supporL lnformaLlon requlremenLs of
posslble mergers and acqulslLlons. lurLher, Lhese companles also sLress flexlblllLy Lo supporL lnformaLlon
requlremenLs for unanLlclpaLed buslness lnlLlaLlves.
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Large global companles wlll sLress sLablllLy of Lhelr daLa warehouse slnce any dlsrupLlon of servlces by Lhe daLa
warehouse wlll reduce buslness efflclency and resulL ln moneLary losses Lo Lhe buslness.
Any comblnaLlon of Lhe above reasons wlll [usLlfy a uW mlgraLlon pro[ecL, provlded LhaL Lhe new plaLform wlll
reduce cosLs and lmprove Lhe ablllLy of Lhe buslness Lo cope wlLh lLs fuLure buslness problems.
Approaches to DW M|grat|ons
1hls secLlon ls an overvlew of Lhe varlous Lypes, scoplng, and Lasks Lo approach a uW mlgraLlon.
9: ;/)*+$/"' <5-(#
ln general, Lhere are Lhree approaches Lo uW mlgraLlons: lork-LlfL, 8edeslgn, and LvoluLlonary.
llrsL, Lhe lork-LlfL (or LlfL and ShlfL) approach ls a uW mlgraLlon LhaL has a slmple, one-Lo-one mapplng of Lhe old
uW deslgn lnLo Lhe new uW. lf posslble, names and aLLrlbuLes for all daLabase Lables, columns, and oLher daLabase
ob[ecLs are preserved Lo mlnlmlze changes Lo appllcaLlons LhaL updaLe or query Lhe daLa. 1he lork-LlfL approach ls
Lhe easlesL and qulckesL way Lo a uW mlgraLlon. 1he lork-LlfL approach does noL provlde as much buslness value
as oLher approaches slnce Lhe buslness funcLlonallLy of Lhe daLa warehouse remalns unchanged. lurLher, many
uW mlgraLlons lnvolve Lhe LranslLlon from a SymmeLrlc MulLl-Þrocesslng (SMÞ) plaLform Lo a MÞÞ plaLform, Lhus
requlrlng daLabase changes even lf Lhe loglcal deslgn ls noL changed. 1he goal of Lhe lork-LlfL approach ls Lo
achleve value qulckly from performance and consolldaLlon.
Second, Lhe 8edeslgn approach ls a uW mlgraLlon LhaL modlfles Lhe loglcal deslgn ln Lhe old uW Lo be conslsLenL
wlLh Lhe new uW. 1he uW redeslgn usually conslsLs of consolldaLlng several daLa marLs wlLh dlmenslonal sLar
schema lnLo a quasl-enLerprlse normallzed 3nl schema. uaLa from Lhe old uW ls exLracLed and exLenslvely
Lransformed Lo load properly lnLo Lhe new daLabase sLrucLures. 1he efforL requlred for Lhls Lype of uW mlgraLlon ls
proporLlonal Lo Lhe degree of lnformaLlon lnLegraLlon deslgned lnLo Lhe new uW. 1he goal of Lhe 8edeslgn
approach ls Lo achleve value from a more lnLegraLed vlew of Lhe buslness, Lhereby allowlng Lhe company Lo pursue
evolvlng buslness opporLunlLles.
1hlrd, Lhe LvoluLlonary approach ls a uW mlgraLlon LhaL lncorporaLes Lhe prevlous Lwo Lypes and lncremenLally
evolves several old daLa warehouses lnLo a new daLa warehouse. AlLhough Lhls Lype of uW mlgraLlon may span
many monLhs, Lhe efforL ls acLually a sequence of smaller pro[ecLs LhaL lnlLlally perform lork-LlfL of Lhe exlsLlng
daLa Lo Lhe new uW plaLform and Lhen gradually emphaslze uW redeslgn and lnLegraLlon of LhaL daLa. Cne
Lechnlque ls Lo ldenLlfy dupllcaLe daLa ln Lhe old uW sysLems and consolldaLe Lhls daLa ln Lhe early sLages of Lhe
efforL. 1hls dupllcaLed daLa ls usually key reference daLa, such as geographlc reglons and Lax Lables, whlch should
be common across Lhe company. 1he goal would be Lo achleve value qulckly wlLh beLLer performance and Lhen
wlLh enhanced buslness funcLlonallLy.
© 8older 1echnology, lnc. 2011 Þage 4 of 11
lor larger uW mlgraLlons, Lhe evoluLlonary approach ls more approprlaLe, especlally when consolldaLlng mulLlple
daLa warehouses. ln oLher words, Lhe goal of Lhese larger uW mlgraLlon pro[ecLs ls noL Lhe desLlnaLlon, lL ls a
[ourney Loward a daLa warehouse LhaL ls more responslve Lo buslness needs.
lurLher, an experlenced mlgraLlon speclallsL observed, ºLach uW mlgraLlon ls unlque, requlrlng each company Lo
carefully examlne Lhelr goals and plan Lhelr mlgraLlon accordlngly."

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uW mlgraLlon pro[ecLs span Lhe exLremes ln cosL and duraLlon. Cood plannlng by people who have Lhe rlghL
experlence and skllls can reduce cosL and duraLlon by facLors of Len or more. 1he companles researched for Lhls
reporL shared Lhelr uW mlgraLlon experlences spannlng small pro[ecLs uslng from Lhree Lo flve persons for Lhree
monLhs Lo large pro[ecLs uslng a hundred persons for many monLhs. Larger pro[ecLs were acLually managed as
mulLlple smaller pro[ecLs (nlne monLhs maxlmum) LhaL overlapped ln Lhelr sequenclng. More Lyplcal pro[ecLs were
ln Lhe range of four Lo slx monLhs.
Þro[ecL cosLs lnvolved Lhe usual employee salarles, buL also off-shore operaLlons, professlonal servlces, hardware
purchases, sofLware Lool purchases, and speclal Lralnlng programs.
llgure 1 shows a Lyplcal pro[ecL Llmellne from Lhe lnlLlal pro[ecL plannlng Lhrough producLlon and decommlsslonlng
old sysLems.

I|gure 1 - 1yp|ca| Þro[ect 1|me||ne

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1he ma[or Lasks (as sLarred ln llgure 1) conslsL of Lhe followlng acLlvlLles:
llrsL, Lhe uaLabase Converslon and uaLa MlgraLlon Lask conslsLs of converLlng Lhe Cracle daLabase ob[ecLs
(Lable/column sLrucLures, lndexes, parLlLlons, eLc.) lnLo compaLlble ob[ecLs on Lhe 1eradaLa plaLform and Lhen
loadlng Lhe revlsed daLa lnLo Lhe 1eradaLa Lables.
Second, Lhe L1L Þrocess Converslon Lask conslsLs of analyzlng and rewrlLlng Lhe scrlpLs LhaL prlmarlly drlve Lhe daLa
flows lnLo Lhe new daLa warehouse. WlLhln Lhese scrlpLs are varlous SCL sLaLemenLs LhaL reLrleve and Lransform
© 8older 1echnology, lnc. 2011 Þage 3 of 11
daLa values from source sysLems and Lhen load lnLo speclflc columns of Lables ln Lhe new daLa warehouse. 1he
converslon efforL focuses on analyzlng each SCL sLaLemenL and assesslng wheLher lL wlll execuLe properly and
efflclenLly ln Lhe new MÞÞ envlronmenL.
1hlrd, Lhe AppllcaLlon and 8l Converslon Lask conslsLs of analyzlng and rewrlLlng Lhe SCL sLaLemenLs embedded ln
elLher appllcaLlon programmlng code (llke CC8CL) or 8l query packages (llke SAÞ 8uslness Cb[ecLs). ln some ways,
Lhls Lask ls slmllar Lo Lhe L1L Þrocess Converslon Lask menLloned above. Powever, a mlgraLlon speclallsL
LhaL lf Lhe program uses a row-based (row-aL-a-Llme) loglc (l.e., read-process-wrlLe each row), Lhe program cannoL
be decomposed for parallel execuLlon and Lhus Lake advanLage of Lhe efflclencles of MÞÞ archlLecLure. 1hls loglc
musL be changed Lo a seL-based (seL-aL-a-Llme) loglc, whlch can be dlfflculL. 1hls ls Lrue of any mlgraLlon Lo MÞÞ
MosL 8l query/reporLlng packages (llke MlcroSLraLegy) are deslgned wlLh seL-based processlng, raLher Lhan row-aL-
a-Llme. Pence, Lhese querles and reporLs usually converL qulckly wlLh llLLle efforL. Powever, older ÞL/SCL scrlpLs
used by Lhe Cracle daLabases ofLen use row-based processlng and should be converLed, wlLh some efforL, Lo seL-
based processlng.
ln Lhe comlng secLlons, we wlll dlscuss Lhe experlences wlLh uW mlgraLlon, along wlLh Lhe resources avallable for
conducLlng uW mlgraLlons. ln parLlcular, 1eradaLa has developed Lools LhaL auLomaLe many of Lhe mlgraLlon Lasks,
especlally Lhe converslon of row-based Lo seL-based loglc, as descrlbed ln a laLer secLlon.
M|grat|on Þro[ect Lxper|ences
1hls secLlon skeLches Lhe slLuaLlons wlLh several recenL experlences wlLh uW mlgraLlons from Cracle Lo 1eradaLa
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8esponslveness and scalablllLy are vlLal because Lhelr buslness ls growlng ln slze and ln complexlLy. 1he company
needed a daLa warehouse plaLform LhaL could grow along wlLh Lhem. Many of Lhelr researchers were creaLlng
hundreds of sophlsLlcaLed algorlLhms Lo explore new approaches Lo dlscoverlng defecLs. 1he 1eradaLa englne
allowed Lhe execuLlon of Lhose algorlLhms on masslve amounLs of daLa.
A senlor manager explalned Lhelr slLuaLlon as follows:
´wbete 1etoJoto sbloes ls tbe speeJ of oJ-boc ooolyses. we oeeJ polck ooswets to tbe ´wbot lf´
poestloos. wltb 1etoJoto, we wete oble to poll boJ ptoJoct off of pollets wltboot pootootloloq tbe
eotlte sblpmeot. 1bls polckly ptoJoceJ koJos wltb oot costomets os well os tbe lotetool stoff.

1he sLory of a recenL acqulslLlon of Lhe 1eradaLa sysLem ls amazlng and lnsLrucLlve. When dally daLa loads Lo Lhe
Cracle daLa warehouse began requlrlng 18 hours, Lhe developmenL manager and hls Leam knew LhaL Lhe old
Cracle sysLem was ºrunnlng up agalnsL Lhe wall" and needed Lo be replaced. ln !anuary of 2008, Lhe Leam sLarLed
procuremenL procedures for a new daLa warehouse plaLform. 1hey selecLed Lhe 1eradaLa uaLa Warehouse
Appllance 2300. When asked abouL Lhe reasons for Lhelr cholce, Lhe developmenL manager sLaLed, ºno one else
came close Lo Lhe prlce/performance or Lo Lhe maLurlLy."
1he purchase was approved ln !une of 2008, and Lhe 1eradaLa sysLem was dellvered one week laLer. 1he
developmenL manager descrlbed LhaL hecLlc Llme saylng, º1he box was on slLe by lrlday, all Lhe pleces were ln
place by 1hursday, and ln producLlon by Lhe followlng 1uesday." 1he converslon Leam conslsLed of Lhe manager
and Lwo daLabase admlnlsLraLors. 1he Leam was pleasanLly surprlsed LhaL lL Look less Lhan Lhree weeks from
purchase Lo producLlon. lL's a LesLlmony Lo Lhe quallLy of Lhe u8As and Lhe sysLem Lhey had archlLecLed LhaL
hundreds of converslon sLeps and challenges were handled llLerally all ln one week. 1he old sysLem was phased ouL
by mld-!uly.
© 8older 1echnology, lnc. 2011 Þage 6 of 11
@+*)( D(*"#-+2( 6/*C
A uW mlgraLlon speclallsL
skeLched Lhe slLuaLlon wlLh an aerospace company LhaL ls mlgraLlng abouL 30 flnanclal
daLa warehouses from Cracle Lo Lhe 1eradaLa plaLform. 8ecause of poor lnLegraLlon among Lhese daLa
warehouses, Lhe corporaLlon had conLlnulng problems wlLh rolllng up corporaLe flnanclals.
1he goal of Lhe uW mlgraLlon pro[ecL was noL Lo creaLe a slngle consolldaLed daLa warehouse. 8aLher Lhe goal was
Lo brlng LogeLher all Lhe daLa onLo one plaLform and ºde-dup" (ellmlnaLe any obvlous dupllcaLlon ln) Lhe daLa. 1hls
de-dup process concenLraLed on Lhose Lables LhaL were ºreference daLa" for deLalled daLa and should be common
across Lhe corporaLlon. An example was Lhe common labor raLes charged by varlous pro[ecLs.
1he lnlLlal uW mlgraLlon pro[ecL focused on Lhe largesL daLabase because lLs daLa warehouse was more llkely ºLo
break" on Cracle under lncreaslng loads. 1hls daLabase ls falrly large, wlLh abouL Lwo LerabyLes of raw user daLa ln
more Lhan 10,000 Lables. 1he mlgraLlon pro[ecL focused on abouL 3,000 Lables, 1,000 Cognos cubes, and 300 L1L
[obs (wlLh 10,000 sLeps).
1he pro[ecL requlred slx monLhs for Lhls daLabase. 1he resL of Lhe daLabases are esLlmaLed Lo requlre less Llme,
esLlmaLed aL 90 Lo 120 days. 1he sequenclng of Lhese daLabases wlll be based on buslness prlorlLles.
As a besL pracLlce, lL was recommended LhaL pro[ecLs should noL lasL longer Lhan nlne monLhs. lf Lhe pro[ecL ls
longer, lL should be decomposed lnLo smaller pro[ecLs, each wlLh lLs speclflc buslness ob[ecLlve.
Pe also sLressed Lhe lmporLance of Lhe lnlLlal ºdaLa audlL" Lo deLermlne whaL daLa ls acLually belng used and from
where Lhe daLa ls belng sourced. verlfylng Lhe compleLeness and accuracy of Lhls lnformaLlon ls complex and Llme
consumlng. A uW mlgraLlon pro[ecL wlll Lyplcally spend more Lhan half of Lhe Llme dolng a daLa audlL before any
daLa converslon or codlng ls performed.
@+*)( E(+3$F2+*( !"C-+'5
1he lnfrasLrucLure was enLlrely composed of SMÞ plaLforms runnlng Cracle under unlx wlLh LMC sLorage unlLs.
1hls Lechnology has served well for almosL a decade, buL Lhe company concluded LhaL Lhey were unable Lo scale
and saLlsfy Lhe anLlclpaLed Len-fold lncrease ln daLa volume and workloads. lurLher, Lhe company had ouLsourced
lLs lnfrasLrucLure supporL, lmplylng a reduced level of experLlse Lo Lune and opLlmlze mulLl-Llered archlLecLure
composed of Cracle, Sun, LMC, eLc. 1he concluslon of Lhelr l1 archlLecLs was Lhe need for an MÞÞ daLabase
1he lead developmenL manager descrlbed Lhe llmlLs of Lhelr currenL Cracle soluLlons:
´1be complexlty of osloq Otocle-boseJ solotloos wos locteosloq os tbe Joto volomes wete qtowloq.
1be compooy oeeJeJ o oew Jotobose plotfotm tbot woolJ scole. votloos veoJots wete teleosloq
Joto woteboose oppllooce ptoJocts tbot oppeoteJ to offet qooJ cost petfotmooce oJvootoqes.
losplteJ by tbe emetqeoce of Joto woteboose oppllooces ftom Netezzo ooJ otbets, tbe compooy
beqoo sotveyloq tbe motket fot Mll Jotobose tecbooloqy fot bollJloq Joto wotebooses.´
1helr l1 experLs revlewed Lhelr opLlons and concluded LhaL shared-noLhlng MÞÞ plaLforms allowed Lhe archlLecLural
lnLegraLlon of hardware, operaLlng sysLem, daLabase managemenL, and sLorage onLo one sysLem LhaL could be
opLlmlzed for Lhelr speclflc workloads. 1he MÞÞ Lechnology was proven Lo supporL ad-hoc querles and complex
analyLlcs agalnsL mulLlple LerabyLes of daLa, a Lask LhaL was very uncerLaln uslng Lhelr currenL SMÞ plaLforms.
Shared-noLhlng MÞÞ plaLforms were also deslgned for hlgh avallablllLy wlLh componenL redundancy so LhaL Lhere
was no slngle polnL-of-fallure. lf one componenL falled, anoLher would Lake lLs place. 1he dlsk drlves were able Lo be
ºhoL swappable" meanlng LhaL lf a drlve falled, oLher drlves would lmmedlaLely Lake over lLs funcLlon. And, a new dlsk
drlve could be physlcally swapped wlLh Lhe falled one, wlLhouL causlng Lhe enLlre sysLem Lo be shuL down.
llnally, Lhe mosL lmporLanL characLerlsLlc of a MÞÞ plaLform was lLs ablllLy Lo scale ln lLs capaclLy Lo sLore daLa and
process querles. 1here was plenLy of evldence from prlor cusLomer experlences LhaL lf a company has a Lwo-node
MÞÞ plaLform, Lhey could buy Lwo addlLlonal nodes and double Lhelr capaclLy wlLhouL havlng Lo add Lechnlcal
supporL sLaff.
© 8older 1echnology, lnc. 2011 Þage 7 of 11
@+*)( G(H(*+)( !"C-+'5

8ecause of a recenL merger, Lhls company declded on an lnLegraLed reporLlng sysLem based on 1eradaLa
Lechnology. 1helr ob[ecLlve was Lo dellver buslness value qulckly by creaLlng an lnLegraLed vlew of Lhe merged
buslness. SLarLlng wlLh Lhe deslgn of an lnLegraLed daLa model, Lhe company ls consolldaLlng Lhelr source sysLems
onLo Lhe 1eradaLa uaLabase.
1he company lnherlLed abouL 13 daLa marLs on Lhe Cracle plaLform and needed Lo converL Lhem Lo Lhe 1eradaLa
plaLform. WlLhln slx monLhs, Lhey acqulred Lhe 1eradaLa plaLform and had Lhe flrsL (and largesL) daLa marL
mlgraLed and operaLlng. 1hls daLa marL conslsLed of one bllllon rows LhaL requlred one LerabyLe of sLorage. 1he
remalnlng daLa marLs are esLlmaLed Lo conLrlbuLe anoLher LerabyLe Lo Lhe new daLa warehouse. 1he company
used off-shore servlces for Lhe L1L developmenL, whlch lnvolved Lhree lead persons aL Lhelr company worklng wlLh
Len off-shore developers.
Cne observaLlon was LhaL worklng wlLh MÞÞ plaLforms llke 1eradaLa uaLabase requlred a dlfferenL mlndseL for
deslgnlng and malnLalnlng uW sysLems. lor example, a u8A wlLh Cracle needs Lo choose whlch lndex Lo bulld
whlle a u8A wlLh 1eradaLa uaLabase needs Lo monlLor Lhe lndex Lo deLermlne wheLher or noL lL ls used properly.
1here are several Lools LhaL can asslsL wlLh a uW mlgraLlon. A new offerlng
from 1eradaLa spans mosL of Lhe uW mlgraLlon Lasks. 1eradaLa MlgraLlon
AcceleraLor ls an lnLegraLed LoolseL for dolng varlous uW mlgraLlons Lo a
1eradaLa plaLform. 1he lnlLlal focus of Lhls Lool ls uW mlgraLlons from
Cracle plaLforms, alLhough addlLlonal adapLers are planned for mlgraLlons
from oLher plaLforms.
1eradaLa MlgraLlon AcceleraLor also does daLa exLracLlon from Lhe Cracle
daLabase, auLomaLlc LargeL Lable creaLlon ln 1eradaLa uaLabase based on
Lhe Lables ln Cracle and daLa load and auLo daLa Lype converslon. ln
parLlcular, Lhe Lool LranslaLes varlous Cracle daLabase code lnLo compaLlble
code for Lhe 1eradaLa uaLabase, such as:
• Cracle SCL and ÞL/SCL scrlpL lnLo AnSl SCL
• Cracle SCLÞlus scrlpLs Lo 81LC scrlpLs
• MlxLures of SCL uuL+uML and ÞL/SCL lnLo AnSl SCL
• Cracle bullL-ln SCL funcLlons Lo 1eradaLa funcLlons
• Cracle cursor-based processlng lnLo more efflclenL seL-based processlng
8eflecLlng on hls experlence wlLh developlng mlgraLlon Lools, a mlgraLlon Lool developer remarked, ºln Lhe pasL,
varlous Lools were wrlLLen by fleld englneers Lo mlgraLe daLa warehouses from Cracle plaLforms Lo Lhe 1eradaLa
plaLform. 1hese Lools performed 30 percenL Lo 70 percenL of Lhe work, leavlng Lhe remalnder Lo manual efforL.
1hey were wrlLLen ln varlous languages, maklng malnLenance and enhancemenLs dlfflculL. 1hese Lools were used
by 1eradaLa professlonal servlces consulLanLs slnce Lhey were Loo fraglle for use by mosL cusLomers."

1eradaLa MlgraLlon AcceleraLor uses !ava as lLs developmenL language, whlch allows qulck exLenslblllLy of lLs
funcLlons. leaLures llke securlLy, llcenslng, and oLher admlnlsLraLlve funcLlons were added, along wlLh
collaboraLlon Lools for mulLl-person pro[ecLs. A meLadaLa ob[ecL lnvenLory can Lrack Lhe converslon of Lhousands
of Lables. lurLher, 1eradaLa MlgraLlon AcceleraLor can handle several Lhousand L1L rouLlnes, whlch may be
requlred Lo malnLaln a Lhousand Lables.
llnally, Lhere are several 1eradaLa parLner Lools LhaL perform speclallzed converslon Lasks. Wlsdomforce lasL
8eader does a block-level exLracLlon from Cracle and pushes Lhe blocks dlrecLly lnLo 1eradaLa uaLabase. 1hls
processlng ls very fasL daLa load, especlally for daLabase sysLems LhaL are CÞu bounded. ZCPC's Swlss SCL does
on-Lhe-fly converslon of Cracle SCL lnLo AnSl SCL. Change Lhe app Lo Lhe Swlss SCL AÞl. noL ÞL/SCL and noL
cursor-based loglc converslon.
© 8older 1echnology, lnc. 2011 Þage 8 of 11
1he key advanLage of uslng 1eradaLa MlgraLlon AcceleraLor and Lhese oLher Lools ls Lhe slgnlflcanL reducLlon of
cosL for uW mlgraLlons, ln Lerms of duraLlon, skllls requlred, and person-days. An example glven was a large 12-
monLh pro[ecL LhaL was scaled down Lo Lhree monLhs aL one-Lhlrd Lhe cosL, Lhrough Lhe use of Lhese Lools.
M|grat|on Þro[ect Lessons Learned
Pere are some lessons LhaL Lhe companles descrlbed ln Lhls whlLe paper learned durlng varlous uW mlgraLlon
1$+5 6"2A#(, "' <F(#( J(5 1A22(## 6+2$"*#
A uW mlgraLlon speclallsL sLaLed LhaL a successful uW mlgraLlon was slmple lf you.
a) Þlan everyLhlng ouL.
b) Make a compleLe lnvenLory.of everyLhlng (Lables, L1L scrlpLs, lndexes, eLc.).
c) 1rack your progress.
!3(+*35 1$+$( $F( GA#/'(## .+3A( "B $F( 9+$+ :+*(F"A#(
1he beverage company noLed LhaL Lhe 1eradaLa sysLem ls a large, vlslble cosL lLem, as compared Lo many smaller
daLa marLs, whlch Lend Lo be embedded ln varlous budgeLs. AlLhough Lhe LoLal cosL for Lhe smaller sysLems may be
greaLer, Lhe 1eradaLa sysLem requlres a clear sLaLemenL of buslness value. lurLher, Lhe pro[ecL needs a buslness
sponsor early ln Lhe process.
@(H(*+)( $F( K--"*$A'/$5
A uW mlgraLlon speclallsL phrased Lhe beneflLs of Lhe mlgraLlon pro[ecL dlfferenLly. 8efore a uW mlgraLlon, Lhe
Lyplcal company has ºhlL a wall" and cannoL see oLher ways of uslng Lhe daLa. AfLer Lhe uW mlgraLlon, Lhe
company ls aL ºLhe nexL plaLeau" and can see many more uses for Lhe daLa. Powever, he cauLloned companles noL
Lo mlgraLe for Lhe sake of mlgraLlng. 1here musL be a clear buslness [usLlflcaLlon.
&'H(#$ /' 9+$+ &'$()*+$/"'
laclng a recenL corporaLe merger, Lhe beverage company
recommended LhaL Lhelr focus of uW mlgraLlon should be on daLa
lnLegraLlon so LhaL Lhe corporaLlon can undersLand ºhow well Lhey
are dolng." lurLher, Lhls mlgraLlon musL be lmplemenLed wlLh a
Llmeframe LhaL dellvers buslness value qulckly.
AlLhough daLa lnLegraLlon durlng Lhe uW mlgraLlon has huge
buslness value, lL ls Lough Lo do! 1he large healLhcare company
chose a sLepwlse approach LhaL balanced payoffs ln buslness value
wlLh consLralnLs ln Lechnlcal resources. 1he approach ls Lo
consolldaLe each domaln lnLo a common envlronmenL, Lhen
raLlonallze each domaln, and flnally lnLegraLe Lhe common elemenLs lnLo a slngle enLerprlse-wlde vlew of Lhe
buslness. 1hls ls a long-Lerm lncremenLal sLraLegy LhaL has a hlgh probablllLy of success and has flexlblllLy Lo
respond Lo unexpecLed lndusLry changes.
D,"-$ +' &'2*(C('$+3 1$*+$()5
1he beverage company sLrongly recommended avoldlng Lhe º8lg 8ang" sLraLegy. A daLa warehouse should be
evolved lncremenLally. lor lnsLance, Lhey are Lrylng Lo add a new sub[ecL area every year.
<*+'#/$/"' $" ;== 8(LA/*(# M(0 <F/'?/')
Several lnLervlewees menLloned LhaL Lhe LranslLlon Lo an MÞÞ daLa warehouse, such as a 1eradaLa sysLem,
requlres new Lhlnklng abouL lLs deslgn and operaLlon. lor example, lL ls more lmporLanL Lo properly deslgn Lhe
prlmary key dlsLrlbuLlon Lo spread daLa unlformly Lhan Lo creaLe varlous lndexes. 1here are new concepLs LhaL you
© 8older 1echnology, lnc. 2011 Þage 9 of 11
musL undersLand Lo cusLomlze Lhe MÞÞ daLa warehouse Lo your unlque slLuaLlon. lurLher, daLabase admlnlsLraLors
may have Lo unlearn pracLlces LhaL are unnecessary, such as dlsk/space managemenL.
1he large healLhcare company menLloned, ºWe had bumps. And, lL Look Llme Lo geL Lhe Leam up-Lo-speed. We
under-esLlmaLed Lhe Llme requlred." As an analogy, uW mlgraLlon ls llke movlng furnlLure from one house Lo
anoLher - some Lhlngs wlll flL nlcely, buL some Lhlngs musL be dlscarded, and oLher Lhlngs musL be added Lo explolL
Lhe new space.
DH"/, 9"/') GA#/'(## +', <(2F'"3")5 !F+')(# !"'2A**('$35
Any pro[ecL LhaL makes ma[or buslness and Lechnology changes aL Lhe same Llme ls a rlsky pro[ecL. 8uL, lncurrlng
Lhls rlsk ls someLlmes necessary for Lhe buslness. lurLher, Lhe pro[ecL aL Lhe large healLhcare company wlLh lLs
dual buslness/Lechnology changes was a key caLalysL for Lhe paradlgm shlfL ln archlLecLlng daLa warehouse
envlronmenLs for Lhe large healLhcare company.
6*+)/3( 1A--"*$ B"* K*+23( 9+$+ :+*(F"A#(
lor Lhe beverage company, one of Lhe reasons for movlng from an Cracle plaLform was, ºWe had dlfflculLy flndlng
Lhe rlghL Cracle consulLanL Lo advlse us abouL speclflc daLa warehouslng lssues. Cracle has loLs of experLs ln loLs of
areas, buL Lhe advlce we goL varled wldely abouL daLa warehouslng. Cn Lhe oLher hand, 1eradaLa ls a daLa
warehouslng company and could supply us wlLh Lhe proper experLlse."

&'H(#$ /' =*"B(##/"'+3 1(*H/2(# B*"C $F( .(',"*
1he beverage company concluded LhaL 1eradaLa Þrofesslonal Servlces consulLanLs asslsLed Lhem Lhrough Lhe lnlLlal
crlLlcal perlod by provldlng speclflc skllls and knowledge abouL Lhe 1eradaLa plaLform. 1hey felL LhaL Lhese
consulLanLs LaughL Lhem Lo flsh, raLher Lhan flshlng for Lhem.
G(0+*( "B !A*#"*NG+#(, =*"2(##/')
A uW mlgraLlon speclallsL noLed LhaL Lhere ls a huge dlfference ln daLabase processlng beLween cursor-based and
seL-based processlng. Þerformance can be one hundred Llmes fasLer wlLh seL-based processlng. Pe gave an
example of converLlng Cracle ÞL/SCL code Lo a 1eradaLa SLored Þrocedure Lo process a one mllllon-row Lable wlLh
varlous lookups Lo oLher Lables. 1he Cracle processlng was Laklng one hour and four mlnuLes. WlLh a half day of
converslon efforL, 1eradaLa reduced processlng Llme from 64 mlnuLes Lo 43 seconds! AlLhough Lhls example ls
exLreme, mosL converslons from cursor-based Lo seL-based lmproved execuLlon Llmes by aL leasL Len-fold.
ln summary, here are Lhe Lhemes crlLlcal Lo a successful daLa warehouse mlgraLlon.
=(*B"*C+'2( +# ;"$/H+$/"'
1he companles lnLervlewed clLed performance problems as one of Lhe drlvlng lssues Lo mlgraLe from an older SMÞ
daLa warehouslng plaLform Lo a newer MÞÞ plaLform. 1he performance problems sLem from boLh L1L load
processlng and from reporL generaLlon. 1he new plaLform (on 1eradaLa) was slgnlflcanLly beLLer for all Lhe
companles. 1here were no negaLlve commenLs abouL 1eradaLa performance.
ComplexlLy of daLabase admlnlsLraLlon was a ma[or facLor for companles mlgraLlng from Cracle. 1he Cracle
daLabase ls percelved Lo be dlfflculL Lo manage and requlred speclallzed skllls. 1eradaLa was percelved Lo be
slmpler Lo manage as a sysLem and Lo develop newer, more comprehenslve daLabases.
1('#( "B O*)('25
1here was a sense of urgency ln mosL companles LhaL Lhls mlgraLlon musL be accompllshed qulckly. 1he problems
had been bulldlng over several years. ManagemenL flnally undersLood Lhe gravlLy of Lhelr slLuaLlon and concluded
© 8older 1echnology, lnc. 2011 Þage 10 of 11
LhaL some acLlon had Lo be Laken. Cver Lhe years, daLa warehouslng had maLured as a crlLlcal Lool of buslness
managemenL, Lhe absence of whlch was now recognlzed as a LhreaL Lo Lhe company.
1$*+$()5 B"* 9: ;/)*+$/"'
1he efforL, Llme, and complexlLy of a uW mlgraLlon pro[ecL were under-
esLlmaLed by mosL companles. 1here was an over-rellance on Lhe slmple
'fork-llfL' sLraLegy LhaL appeared an easy and qulck soluLlon. Movlng daLa
from one dlsk Lo anoLher ls easy. Maklng sense of LhaL daLa, and lnLegraLlng
lL for effecLlve declslon supporL, ls dlfflculL and Lakes Llme. Companles
should spend more efforL ln undersLandlng, caLegorlzlng, and deflnlng Lhe
overall sLraLegy for uW mlgraLlon. Companles should enLer lnLo a uW
mlgraLlon pro[ecL wlLh 'open eyes,' raLher Lhan belng surprlsed by Lhe
complexlLy of enLerprlse daLa lnLegraLlon (whlch ls really aL Lhe hearL of a
corporaLe uW mlgraLlon sLraLegy).
@(H(*+)( $F( K--"*$A'/$5
All Lhe companles lnLervlewed recognlze LhaL Lhelr new daLa warehouses have subsLanLlally more capablllLy Lhan
Lhelr old ones. Sadly, only a few companles recognlze LhaL Lhls was an opporLunlLy Lo challenge key buslness
assumpLlons and Lo revoluLlonlze Lhelr buslness processes. ln oLher words, a uW mlgraLlon pro[ecL opens a door
for buslness lnnovaLlon. lor some companles, Lhls opporLunlLy was a surprlslng consequence. uo noL be surprlsed.
8e prepared Lo leverage Lhe opporLunlLy.

1hls paper presenLs Lhe dlverse lssues LhaL wlll asslsL ln a successful mlgraLlon of your daLa warehouse. uW
mlgraLlon ls a ma[or l1 lnvesLmenL for mosL corporaLlons, boLh ln cosL reducLlons and ln buslness enhancemenLs.
© 8older 1echnology, lnc. 2011 Þage 11 of 11

AppreclaLlon ls glven Lo 1eradaLa CorporaLlon for lLs sponsorshlp of Lhls research lnLo daLa warehouse mlgraLlon
sLraLegles and Lo Lhe people who Look Llme Lo share Lhelr experlences abouL Lhese exclLlng developmenLs.

About 8o|der 1echno|ogy, Inc.
8older 1echnology ls a LwenLy-year-old consulLancy focused on 8uslness lnLelllgence and uaLa Warehouslng. 1he
founder and presldenL ls ur. 8lchard PackaLhorn, who has more Lhan LhlrLy years of experlence ln Lhe lnformaLlon
1echnology lndusLry as a well-known lndusLry analysL, Lechnology lnnovaLor, and lnLernaLlonal educaLor. Pe has
ploneered many lnnovaLlons ln daLabase managemenL, declslon supporL, cllenL-server compuLlng, daLabase
connecLlvlLy, assoclaLlve llnk analysls, daLa warehouslng, and web farmlng.
8lchard was a member of Codd & uaLe AssoclaLes and uaLabase AssoclaLes, early ploneers ln relaLlonal daLabase
managemenL sysLems. ln 1982, he founded Mlcroueclslonware, lnc. (Mul), an early vendor of daLabase
connecLlvlLy producLs, growlng Lhe company Lo 180 employees. 1he company was acqulred by Sybase, now parL of
SAÞ, ln 1994. Pe ls a member of Lhe l8M Cold ConsulLanLs and Lhe 8oulder 8l 8raln 1rusL. Pe has wrlLLen Lhree
books and has been a professor aL Lhe WharLon School and Lhe unlverslLy of Colorado.
About the Sponsor
1eradaLa ls Lhe world's largesL company solely focused on daLa warehouslng and lnLegraLed markeLlng
managemenL Lhrough daLabase sofLware, enLerprlse daLa warehouslng, daLa warehouse appllances, and analyLlcs.
1eradaLa provldes Lhe besL daLabase for analyLlcs wlLh Lhe archlLecLural flexlblllLy Lo address any Lechnology and
buslness need for companles of all slzes. SupporLed by acLlve Lechnology for unmaLched performance and
scalablllLy, 1eradaLa's experlenced professlonals and analyLlc soluLlons empower leaders and lnnovaLors Lo creaLe
vlslblllLy, cuLLlng Lhrough Lhe complexlLles of buslness Lo make smarLer, fasLer declslons. Slmply puL, 1eradaLa
soluLlons glve companles Lhe aglllLy Lo ouLperform and ouLmaneuver for Lhe compeLlLlve edge.
Anonymous lnLervlew wlLh flrsL mlgraLlon speclallsL on lebruary 22, 2011.
Cracle-Lo-1eradaLa Warehouse MlgraLlon Þrogram: MeLhods and 1ools, 2011.
Anonymous lnLervlew wlLh second mlgraLlon speclallsL on March 18, 2011.
Anonymous lnLervlew wlLh flrsL mlgraLlon speclallsL on lebruary 22, 2011.
Anonymous lnLervlew wlLh large beverage company on March 23, 2011.
Anonymous lnLervlew wlLh mlgraLlon Lools developer on lebruary 23, 2011.
Anonymous lnLervlew wlLh large beverage company on March 23, 2011.

1eradaLa and Lhe 1eradaLa logo are reglsLered Lrademarks of 1eradaLa CorporaLlon and/or lLs afflllaLes ln Lhe u.S. and
L8-6368 > 0311