Theoretical Framework
The term biofertilizer or called 'microbial inoculants' can be generally defined as
preparation containing live or latent cells of efficient strains of nitrogen fixing, phosphate
solubilizing or cellulytic microorganisms used for application of seed, soil or composting
areas with the objective of increasing the numbers of such microorganisms and accelerate
certain microbial process to augment the extent of the availability of nutrients in a form
which can assimilated by plant (NIIR Board, 2004). In large sense, the term may be used to
include all organic resources (manure) for plant growth which are rendered in an available
form for plant absorption through microorganisms or plant associations or interactions (NIIR
Board, 2004).
The knowledge of applied microbial inoculums is long history which passes from
generation to generation of farmers. It started with culture of small scale compost production
that has evidently proved the ability of biofertilizer. This is recognize when the cultures
accelerate the decomposition of organics residues and 7agricultural by-products through
various processes and gives healthy harvest of crops (Rahim, 2002). In Malaysia, industrial
scale microbial inoculants are started in the late 1940’s and peaking up in 1970’s taking guide
by Bradyrhizobium inoculation on legumes (Rahim, 2002). Government research institute,
the Malaysian Rubber Board (MRB) had been conducting research on Rhizobium inoculums
for leguminous cover crops in the inter rows of young rubber trees in the large plantations.
Besides, Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) also has conducted many researches since
1980’s on Mycorrhiza and initiated the research to evaluate the contribution of nitrogen from
Azospirillum to oil palm seedlings (Rahim, 2002).
Rahim (2002) reported that Mycorrhiza inoculums are the biofertilizer that is increasingly
being utilized and accepted in agriculture industry of Malaysia. It was also reported that a
decomposer fungus Trichoderma reesei, combine with the nitrogen fixing bacterium
Azotobacter produce compost within shorter time and give high nitrogen count. This can
helps to fertilize unproductive sandy soil and spoiled land that result from mining activities
because biofertilizer can helps to supply nutrient continuously. Large scale productions of
biofertilizer are produced mainly for supplying nutrient, amelioration of toxic effect in soils,
root pest and disease control, improved water usage and soil fertility (Rahim, 2002). Since
the substrate for inoculate are abundant such as mine sands and agricultural wastes, the
production cost is cheaper and environmentally safe.
There are lot of perception is lay on biofertilizer. It is often perceived to be more expensive
than the chemical fertilizers due to the lack of skills and technology to produce biofertilizer
products from abundant wastes (Rahim,2002).Sides, the effect on the crops is slow,
compared to chemical fertilizers. Special care such as storage or mixing with powders is also
needed to handle microbial inocula to make they remain effective for extended use. As
biofertilizers contain living organisms, their performance therefore depends on environment
surrounding. Hence, outcomes are bound to be inconsistent (Rahim, 2002). Short shelf life,
lack of suitable carrier materials, susceptibility to high temperature, problems in
transportation and storage are biofertilizer bottlenecks that still need to be solved in order to
obtain effective inoculation (Chen, 2008).
The advantages of Liquid Bio-fertilizer over conventional carrier based Bio-fertilizers are
listed below:
1. Longer shelf life -12-24 months.
2. No contamination.
3. No loss of properties due to storage upto 45º c.
4. Greater potentials to fight with native population.
5. High populations can be maintained more than 109 cells/ml upto 12 months to 24
6. Easy identification by typical fermented smell.
7. Cost saving on carrier material, pulverization, neutralization, sterilization, packing
and transport.
8. Quality control protocols are easy and quick.
9. Better survival on seeds and soil.
10. No need of running Bio-fertilizer production units throughout the year.
11. Very much easy to use by the farmer.
12. Dosages is 10 time less than carrier based powder Bio-fertilizers.
13. High commercial revenues.
14. High export potential.

Effect of the interaction between biofertilization treatments and nitrogen & potassium
fertilizer levels.
Favilli et al. (1993) in India, showed that inoculation seeds of sugar beet with Azospirillum
lipoferum + 60 kg N/ha produced the highest root weight per plant and per hectare compared
with fertilizing plants with 100 kg N/ha alone.
Milic et al. (1995) in Yugoslavia, studied the effect of quantity of free aerobic nitrofixators,
Na, K and P oxides and mineral nitrogen levels (0, 60, 90, 120 and 150 kg N/ha) on seed
emergence and growth of sugar beet. They found that mineral nitrogen fertilizer levels at 60,
90 and 120 kg N/ha had a positive effect upon number of nitrofixators, which led to improve
seed emergence and growth, while application of 150 kg N/ha caused a decrease.
Singh and Bisoyi (1995) in India, concluded that biofertilizers such as Azolla, Azotobacter,
Azospirillum, Rhizobium and phospho microorganisms were important for plantation crops.
They also concluded that nitrogen fixation and biomes accumulation by biofertilizers were
reviewed and their role in mineralization and reclamation of soil problems and balancing of
soil nitrogen.
Sultan et al. (1999) in Egypt, concluded that the maximum yields of sugar beet were
achieved by inoculating seeds with Azotobacterin and application of NPK fertilization at the
rate of 60 kg N + 30 kg P2O5 + 48 kg K2O/fad
(Cakmakci et al., 1999 and Abu EL-Fotoh et al., 2000), in the same time maintenance of
high yielding. Biofertilizers can be generally defined as preparations containing live or latent
cells of efficient strains of nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubility and silicate decomposers
used for application to soil with the objective of acceleration certain microbial processes to
augment the extent of the availability of nutrients in a form which can be easily assimilated
by plants. Biofertilizers may affect plant growth by one or more mechanisms such as nitrogen
fixation enhancing nutrient uptake, production of organic acids, protection against plant
pathogens and excretion growth regulators like IAA and GA3, which stimulated growth and
resulted in high yield.
Abu EL-Fotoh et al. (2000) in Egypt, indicated that using biofertilizers (Microbbin or
Phosphorin) and NPK chemical fertilizers at the rate of 30 kg N + 15 kg P2O5 + 12 kg
K2O/fad induced obvious effect on the quality of sugar beet juice (alpha-amino nitrogen, and
sucrose percentage). Finally, they concluded that biofertilizers alone can not be met the NPK
requirements for sugar beet crop.
Nath B and Korla B.N. (2000). studies on Effect of biofertilizers in ginger. He focus on the
important of biofertilizer for their contribution as agriculture input
Bassal et al. (2001) in Egypt, observed that increasing bio-mineral nitrogen fertilization
level up to 60 kg N/fad + Syrialin inoculation significantly increased root, top and sugar
yields/fad as well as sucrose percentage.
Kandil et al. (2002 c) in Egypt, reviewed that the interaction between biofertilization
treatments and nitrogen fertilizer levels exerted significant effect on root and foliage fresh
weights/plant, root length and diameter, root and top yields/fad. While, root/top ratio, TSS %,
purity% and sugar yield (in the first season) did not differed due to the interaction between
biofertilization treatments and nitrogen fertilizer levels
Ramesh P. Singh Mohan and Rao Subha (2005), Organic farming: It relevance to the
Indian context. Present paper considering the potential environmental benefits of organic
production and its compatibility with integrated agricultural approaches to rural development,
organic agriculture may be considered as a developed vehicle for developing countries like
India in Practical.
Gahukar R.T. (2006), Potential and use of bio-fertilizers in India. Present paper stated that,
Bio-fertilizers are natural and organic products. They help to provides and keep in the soil all
the materials and micro-organism required for the plant growth.
Prabhakar Shetty R.K. (2007), Social perspectives of organic farming. Present paper
discuss as organic farming has the potential to provide positive externalities in social aspects
like job opportunities and rural development. Jadhav A.S. Gaikwad C.B. Shaikh A.A. and
Tumbare A.D. (2001),