Simultaneous Equations

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CHAPTER 4 : SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS
Activity 1
State whether each of the following equation are linear or non-linear equation.


Activity 2
Expand the following expression
1
( x + 3 )
2
( )( ) 3 3 x x = + +

2
6 9 x x = + +

6 ( 3x + 4 )
2



2
9 24 16 x x + +

2 ( x + 6 )
2



2
12 36 x x + +
7 ( 4x ÷ 5 )
2



2
16 40 25 x x ÷ +
3 ( x ÷ 5 )
2



2
10 25 x x ÷ +
8 ( 6 ÷ x )
2



2
36 12x x ÷ +
4 ( x ÷ 7 )
2



2
14 49 x x ÷ +
9 ( 3 ÷ 5x )
2



2
9 30 25 x x ÷ +
5 ( 2x + 5 )
2





2
4 20 25 x x + +
10 2 ( 2x ÷ 5)
2





2
8 40 50 x x ÷ +
11 3 ( 5 ÷ 4x )
2





2
75 120 48 x x ÷ +
15 ÷5 ( 2 ÷ 3x )
2





2
20 60 45 x x ÷ + ÷
Equation Linear/non-linear
1. x – 2y = 7 Linear
2. xy = 4 Non linear
3. y = 2x + 3
4. 2x + 3y = 14
5. x
2
+ y
2
= 4
6.
4 15
5
x y
+ =

7. x – 2y ÷ 2 = 0
8. y – x
2
= 2x
9. x
2
+ xy + y
2
= 7
10. x(y – 2x) = 1
Simultaneous Equations
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12 5 ( 3 ÷ 4x )
2







2
45 120 80 x x ÷ +
16 2
2 3
4
2
x ÷ | |
|
\ .





2
4 12 9 x x ÷ +
13 ÷2 ( 3x ÷ 5 )
2







2
18 60 50 x x ÷ + ÷
17 2
1 2
3
3
x ÷ | |
|
\ .





2
1 4 4
3
x x ÷ +

14 ÷3 ( 8 ÷ x )
2







2
192 48 3 x x ÷ + ÷
18 2
1 3
2
2
x ÷ | |
÷
|
\ .





2
1 6 9
2
x x ÷ + ÷




The steps in solving simultaneous equations:

Step 1 : From the linear equation, arrange so that one of the unknown becomes the
subject of the equation (3).( x or y )

Step 2 : Substitute the equation above into the non-linear equation. Eliminate fraction
and bracket before substitution.

Step 3 : Simplify and expressed the equation in the form of ax
2
+ bx + c = 0

Step 4 : Solve the quadratic equation using factorisation or the formula :
2
4
2
b b ac
a
÷ ± ÷


Step 5 : Find the value of the second unknown by substituting the value obtained into
the equation (3) from step 1.
Example :







Simultaneous Equations
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Solve the following simultaneous equations:

1. 2.




















3. 4.




























( )
( )( )
( )( )
( )
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
3 1
29 2
1 3 3
3 2
3 29
3 3 29 0
9 6 29 0
2 6 20 0
3 10 0
5 2 0
5 0 2 0
5 2
3 3
3 5 3 2
x y ...............
x y ...............
From : y x ................
Substitute int o :
x x
x x x
x x x
x x
x x
x x
x or x
x x
From , y x
y y
y
+ =
+ =
= ÷
+ ÷ =
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ + ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ + =
÷ = + =
= = ÷
= ÷
= ÷ = ÷ ÷
2 5 y = ÷ =

( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )( )
( )
2 2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2
5 1
2 13 2
1 5 3
3 2
2 5 5 13
10 2 25 10 13 0
4 20 12 0
5 3 0
5 5 4 1 3
2 1
5 13
2
4 303 0 6972
3 5 4 303 5 0 6
x y .........
x xy y ...........
From , y x ..........
Substitute int o
x x x x
x x x x x
x x
x x
x
x
x . or x .
From , y . y .
+ =
÷ + =
= ÷
÷ ÷ + ÷ =
÷ + + ÷ + ÷ =
÷ + =
÷ + =
÷ ÷ ± ÷ ÷
=
±
=
= =
= ÷ = ÷ 972
0 6970 4 303 y . y . = =
( )
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2 2
2
3 2 1 1
3 4 6 2
1 3
1 3
2
3 2
1 3 1 3
3 4 6
2 2
1 6 9
3 2 1 3 6 0
4
3 18 27
2 6 6 0
4
3 18 27 8 24 4 24 0
x y ..........
y xy x ..........
x
From , y ...........
Substitute int o :
x x
x x
x x
x x x
x x
x x x
x x x x x
x
+ =
+ ÷ =
÷
=
÷ ÷ | | | |
+ ÷ =
| |
\ . \ .
| |
÷ +
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
|
\ .
÷ +
+ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ + + ÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷
( )( )
( ) ( )
2
10 21 0
10 21 0
3 7 0
3 0 7 0
3 7
1 3 3 1 3 7
3
2 2
5 11
x
x x
x x
x or x
x x
From : y y
y y
÷ ÷ =
+ + =
+ + =
+ = + =
= ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= =
= =

( ) ( )
( )( )
2
2
2
2
3 3 1
2 1 3
2 2 6
3
2 3 6 2
1 3 3 3
3 2
2 3 3 3 6 3 3
6 6 3 18 18
18 6 18 3 6 0
18 21 6 0
6 7 2 0
3 2 2 1 0
3 2 0 2 1 0
2 1
3 2
x y ..........
x
x
x y y
y x xy ..........
From , y x ...........
Substitute int o :
x x x x
x x x x
x x x x
x x
x x
x x
x or x
x x
Fr
+ =
+ = ¬ + =
+ =
= ÷
÷ + = ÷
÷ + = ÷
÷ ÷ + + =
÷ + =
÷ + =
÷ ÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
= =
2 1
3 3 3 3 3
3 2
3
1
2
om : y y
y y
| | | |
= ÷ = ÷
| |
\ . \ .
= =

Simultaneous Equations
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5.















Activity 3
Solve each of the following pairs of simultaneous equation using substitution method.

1. 2x + y = 1
5x
2
÷ y
2
= 11










x = 2, 6
y = ÷3, ÷11
2. 2x ÷ y = 1
9x
2
÷ 2y
2
+ 9 = 0










x = ÷1, ÷7
y = ÷3, ÷15
3. x + 2y = 2

1 2
5
x y
+ =














x = 1, 2/5
y = 1/2, 4/5
4. 4x + 2y = x
2
+ xy ÷ 4x = 2
















x = ÷1, ÷2
y = 3, 5
( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2
2
2 2 2
2
2
2 7
2 7 1
7 2
1 7 2 3
3 2
7 2 7 2 7
7 2 49 28 4 7 0
7 35 42 0
5 6 0
2 3 0
2 0 3 0
2 3
3 7 2 2 7 2 3
x y x xy y
x y ...........
x xy y ...........
From , y x ...........
Substitute int o
x x x x
x x x x x
x x
x x
x x
x or x
x x
From , y y
+ = ÷ + =
+ =
÷ + =
= ÷
÷ ÷ + ÷ =
÷ + + ÷ + ÷ =
÷ + =
÷ + =
÷ ÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
= =
= ÷ = ÷
3 1 y y = =

Simultaneous Equations
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5. Solve the following simultaneous equations and give your answers correct to four
decimal places. 2x + 3y + 1 = 0
x
2
+ 6xy + 6 = 0








x =1.1196, ÷1.7863
y = ÷1.0797, 0.8575

Exercise 1
Solve each of the following pairs of simultaneous equations.
1. x – y = 2
x
2
– 5xy + 2y
2
= 8













x =1, 0
y = ÷1, ÷2
2. 3x + y = 8
3x
2
+ y
2
= 28













x =1, 3
y = 5, ÷1
3 x ÷ 2y = 7
x
2
+ 4y
2
= 37















x = 6, 1
y = ÷1/2, ÷3
4. 2y – x = 1
xy + x
2
= 26















x = ÷13/3, 4
y = ÷5/3, ÷5/2
Simultaneous Equations
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5. x – 3y = 4
2x
2
– 9y
2
= 17



















x = 3, ÷11
y = ÷1/3, ÷5
6. 2x – y = 3
2x
2
+ 3xy = ÷1



















x = 1/8, 1
y = ÷11/4, ÷1
7. x
2
– y + y
2
= 2x +2y = 10


























x = 5/2, 2
y = 5/2, 3
8. x + y = 6

2 5
3
x y
+ =
























x = 1, 4
y = 5, 2
Simultaneous Equations
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9. x ÷ 2y = 3

2 5
9
x y
+ = ÷























x =2, ÷1/3
y =÷1/2, ÷5/3
10. x + y = 7

4 15
5
x y
+ =























x = 2, 14/5
y = 5, 21/5
11. 2x ÷ 5y = 7
12x
2
– 5y
2
= 7



















x =1, ÷3/2
y = ÷1, ÷2
12. 2x + 3y = 1
x(x + y) = 10



















x =5, ÷6
y = ÷3, 13/3
Simultaneous Equations
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13. 2x + 3y = 7
x
2
+ xy + y
2
= 7





















x = ÷1, 2
y = 3, 1
14. 2x + 3y + 1 = 0
x
2
+ 6xy + 5 = 0





















x =1, ÷5/3
y = ÷1, 7/9
15. xy = 4
2x + 3y = 14






















x = 1, 6
y = 4, 2/3
16. k ÷ h = 2 (3 decimal places)
k
2
+ 2h
2
= 9






















h = 0.742, ÷6.742
k = 2.742, ÷4.742

Simultaneous Equations
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Activity 4
1. Find the points of intersection between the curve y
2
– 2x = 13 and the straight line
x – y = 1 .

2. If (3,÷1) is one of the solution of simultaneous equation mx – 3y = 15 and
8x
2
– 27y
2
= 5n , find the value of m and n . Hence, find the other solution .

3. The straight line y = 2x + 3 intersect the curve xy + 20 = 5y at point A and point B .
Calculate the coordinates of point A and B.

4. Given that (3k, ÷2p) is a solution of the simultaneous equations x – 2y = 4 and

2 3
1
2 x y
+ = . Find the value of k and p .

Enrichment exercise (Past years SPM questions)

1. Solve the equations 4x + y + 8 = x
2
+ x – y = 2 .

2. Solve the simultaneous equations
2
4
3
x
y
+ = and x + 6y = 3

3. Given the curve y
2
= 8(1 – x) and the straight line
y
x
= 4. Without plotting a graph,
calculate the intersection points for both graphs .

4. Solve the simultaneous equations 2x + 3y = 9 and
6
1
y x
x y
÷ = ÷

5. Solve the simultaneous equations 3 0
3 2
x y
÷ + = and
3 2 1
0
2 x y
+ ÷ = .

6. Solve the simultaneous equations 3x – 5 = 2y and y(x + y) = x(x + y) ÷ 5

7. Given that M = 2x – y , N = 3x + 1 and R = xy – 8 . Find the values of x and y
such that 2M = N = R .

8. Solve the simultaneous equations below and give your answers correct to two decimal
places, x – 4y = 9
3y
2
= 7 ÷
2
x


9. Solve the simultaneous equations 4x + y = ÷ 8 and x
2
+ x – y = 2 .

10. Solve the simultaneous equations p – m = 2 and p
2
+ 2m = 8 . Give your answers
correct to three decimal places .
11. Solve the simultaneous equations x +
1
1
2
y = and y
2
– 10 = 2x .


Simultaneous Equations
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Simultaneous Equations – Answers

Activity 4
1. (÷2, ÷3), (5, 6)
2. m = 4, n = 9
3. ( ) 5 , 1 ) 8 ,
2
5
( B A
4.
4
3
, 1 = ÷ = p p

3
1
,
3
8
= = k k
Enrichment

1. 10 , 2 4 , 1 ÷ = ÷ ÷ = y x

2. 2 ,
2
1
15 , 0 ÷ = = y x
3. ( 2 ,
2
1
) and (- 1, - 4)
4. x = 3 , x = 18
y = 1 , y = - 9
5. x = 9 , x = - 6
y = 12 , y = 2
6. x = 3 , y = 2
7. x = - 2 , y =
2
3
÷
x = 9 , y = 4


8. x = 11.56 , x = 3.76
y = 0.64 , y = - 1.31
9. x = - 2 , - 3
y = 0 , 4
10. m = 0.606 , - 6.606
p = 2.606 , - 4.606
11. x = 3 ,
2
1
÷
y = - 4 , 3