Shear Strength

of Beams with
Deformed
Steel Fibers
Evaluating an alternative to minimum transverse reinforcement

By Gustavo J. Parra-Montesinos

E

xcept for beams with an overall height not greater
than 250 mm (10 in.), 2.5 times the flange thickness, or
0.5 times the web width bw, Section 11.5.6.1 of ACI 318M-051
(ACI 318-052) requires minimum shear reinforcement in
the form of stirrups or hoops in beams when the factored
shear force Vu exceeds 0.5φVc. Here, φ is the strength
reduction factor for shear and Vc is the nominal shear
strength provided by concrete. In most cases, Vc is taken
as 0.17 √ f c′ bwd (2 √ f c′ bwd ), where d is the effective depth
of the beam.
Besides providing shear strength through truss action
Vs, the addition of minimum shear reinforcement helps
control diagonal crack widths and fosters a more
uniform distribution of diagonal cracks in the beam
webs. Thus, for a given average state of strain, members
with minimum shear reinforcement exhibit smaller crack
widths and an increase in shear resistance provided by
aggregate interlock compared to members without web
reinforcement. This is particularly important in large
members, where the so-called “size effect” might lead to
shear strengths lower than the concrete contribution
given in ACI 318.3
Although shear reinforcement in beams typically consists
of steel bars bent in the form of stirrups or hoops, the
addition of deformed steel fibers to the concrete has also

been shown to enhance shear resistance and ductility in
reinforced concrete beams.4 These fibers are typically
hooked or crimped, as shown in Fig. 1. When used
in reinforced concrete beams without transverse
reinforcement, fibers increase shear strength by providing
post-cracking diagonal tension resistance. The fibers
also enhance cracking distribution, similar to the effect
of stirrups. This leads to reduced crack widths, and thus
an increase in shear resistance through aggregate
interlock. The ability of fibers to foster multiple web
diagonal cracks is clearly illustrated in Fig. 2(a) and (b),
in which the cracking pattern at failure for a reinforced
concrete beam without shear reinforcement is compared
with that of an identical fiber-reinforced concrete (FRC)

Note: Coefficients and variables are in SI units, followed by conversion
to in.-lb units in parentheses.

Fig. 1: Typical deformed steel fibers: (a) hooked fibers; and (b)
crimped fibers

(a)

(b)

Concrete international

/ November 2006

57

).8 MPa (2. New Materials. An electronic copy of the complete database can be obtained by accessing the online version of this article at www.17 √ f c′ bwd (√ f c′ bwd to 2 √ f c′ bwd ).  Shear span-to-effective depth ratio a/d: 1. 3: Normalized shear stress versus deflection behavior for reinforced concrete beams with and without steel fiber reinforcement tested at the University of Michigan4 .2 would require minimum transverse reinforcement.53 kN/m3 [263 lb/yd3]).1 ksi). compiled into a database. Database of Beam Tests As indicated previously. The ability of fibers to enhance the shear behavior of reinforced concrete flexural members was recently evaluated by ACI Subcommittee 318-F. even though the nominal shear strength attributed to the concrete is not exceeded.8 MPa (15.5 in.4-20 The following parameter ranges were considered:  Effective beam depth d: 180 mm (7 in.concreteinternational. 2: Typical cracking patterns for beams tested at the University of Michigan:4 (a) reinforced concrete beam without steel fibers. The information contained in the database is summarized in Table 1.  Fiber volume fraction Vf : 0. are shown in Fig.085 √ f c′ bwd to 0.com or by contacting ACI Headquarters. which typically correspond to 0.5Vc and Vc. support the use of deformed steel fibers as minimum shear reinforcement in lieu of stirrups or hoops for this range of shear demand. comprising results from the tests of 147 FRC beams with deformed steel fibers and 45 companion beams without fibers. a database was constructed.0% (0. and Ideas. Products.  Cylinder concrete compressive strength f c′: 17.0 ≤ a/d ≤ 6. they are limited to beams without shear reinforcement.  Steel fiber type: hooked or crimped except for five beams in which a combination of straight and hooked (b) Fig. Results from numerous investigations. and (b) reinforced concrete beam containing steel fibers 58 November 2006 / Concrete international Fig. respectively.25% ≤ Vf ≤ 2. as well as those for a pair of identical beams (one with and one without steel fibers) tested to evaluate the consistency of the results.19 kN/m3 [33 lb/yd3] ≤ Vf ≤ 1. These (a) limits typically define the range where ACI 3181. Additional experimental data are required to evaluate the effectiveness of fibers as shear reinforcement in other types of flexural members such as columns or slabs. The addition of hooked steel fibers led to a substantially higher shear resistance and ductility compared with that of the companion beams without fibers.0% volume fraction of hooked steel fibers.) ≤ d ≤ 570 mm (22.6 ksi) ≤ f c′ ≤ 103. 3.beam containing a 1.0. The study evaluated the use of deformed steel fibers as minimum shear reinforcement for beams subjected to shear forces ranging from 0.4 The average shear stress versus deflection responses for these two beams. Although the presented data clearly indicate that fibers improve shear resistance in flexural members.

f c′. All beams without fibers reported in the database failed in shear. Regardless of d or f c′ . the tensile strength of the fiber wire ranged between 1000 and 1240 MPa (145 and 180 ksi).37% ≤ ρ ≤ 4. the shear stress at Fig. The data for beams with a/d < 2.17 √ f c′ (2 √ f c′ ). however. Besides the typical trend of a decrease in shear strength with an increase in a/d. This suggests that the normalized shear stress at failure of FRC beams does not show a significant correlation with changes in d and f c′ for the ranges considered. It should be noted that. it should be noted that the use of fibers in volume fractions smaller than or equal to 0. 5 and 6. In most cases.75%. A lower bound for the shear strength of FRC beams equal to 0. regardless of a/d. Fig. defined herein as those with a/d ≥ 2. 5: Normalized shear stress at failure versus beam effective depth (slender beams) Fig.fibers was used. 4: Normalized shear stress at failure versus shear span-toeffective depth ratio DEFORMED STEEL FIBERS AS MINIMUM SHEAR REINFORCEMENT The effects of a/d. 102 beams can be considered slender (a/d ≥ 2. 4.8). 6: Normalized shear stress at failure versus concrete compressive strength (slender beams) Concrete international / November 2006 59 . and 78 of them failed in shear. 4. respectively. for slender beams.8) failed in shear. As in Fig. and Vf on the shear strength of FRC beams were investigated. and  Longitudinal tensile reinforcement ratio ρ: 0.21 Out of the 147 FRC beams included in the database. an equivalent cylinder strength equal to 80% of the cube strength was used. All fiber reinforced concrete test beams failed at shear stresses greater than 0. the average shear stress at failure (normalized by √ f c′ ) is plotted versus a/d in Fig.3 √ f c′ (3.5% as minimum shear reinforcement when Vu ≤ 0. a much higher lower bound for the shear strength of FRC beams should be used. For cases in which the cube strength of the concrete was reported rather than the cylinder strength.5% < Vf < 0. which could be considered strong enough evidence to support the use of deformed steel fibers in volume fractions greater than or equal to 0. Given the brittle nature and potentially drastic consequences of beam shear failures.5 √ f c′ ) was considered adequate for the purpose of evaluating the use of deformed steel fibers as minimum shear reinforcement.17 √ f c′ (2 √ f c′ ). Ranges of Vf are identified through different data markers.17 √ f c′ bwd (2 √ f c′ bwd ). while 40 out of 45 deep FRC beams (a/d < 2. and two beams in which the steel fiber type could not be determined.8 were excluded to reduce the influence of arching action on beam shear strength. no data could be found for 0. For all of the beams in the database that exhibited a shear failure. ranges for Vf are identified through various data markers. The shear stress data for slender members (again.8) are plotted versus d and f c′ in Fig.  Fiber length-to-diameter ratio Lf /df: 50 ≤ Lf /df ≤ 100.58%. No clear trend can be seen in either plot.5% did not produce shear stresses at failure substantially greater than 0. d.

1992. To better evaluate the influence of Vf on beam shear strength. S.” Cement and Concrete Composites. Ann Arbor.-Pierre.. W... pp.H... To ensure adequate material performance and to account for the use of deformed steel fibers other than those used in the tests included in the database. No. No. July-Aug. “High-Strength Concrete Beams Submitted to Shear: Steel Fibers Versus Stirrups. 430 pp. H.” ACI Structural Journal. UMCEE 06-04.. 530-538.. Hasanain. 53-68. 1997. A... MI. Farmington Hills. As mentioned earlier. Regardless of the material performance obtained from ASTM C 1609 beam tests.5% exhibited shear strengths close to the code stress value of 0.. Wight. graduate student at the University of Michigan. Upper Saddle River. B. V.3 √ f c′ (3.” American Concrete Institute.” Structural Applications of Fiber Reinforced Concrete. To meet the performance criteria.” Report No. 2.3 √ f c′ (3. Jan. University of Michigan. Fig. 99.-S. 7. No.transverse shear reinforcement (stirrups or hoops) for beams subjected to factored shear forces ranging from 0. J. 2005. and Wight. 89. the use of a minimum Vf of 0. Farmington Hills. pp. SP-182... 2002. 7. The criteria are based on flexural tests per ASTM C 160922 that are conducted on FRC beam specimens to determine the first-peak flexural strength and the postpeak strengths at specific midspan deflections. The first-peak strength should not be taken smaller than the modulus of rupture of concrete fr calculated from the equation in ACI 318. 2.3.085 √ f c′ bwd to 0. Mendola. Cucchiara. 7.5 √ f c′ ).. Conclusion The data presented in this article support the use of deformed steel fibers as an alternative to minimum 60 November 2006 / Concrete international Acknowledgments The data presented in this paper were compiled by the author as part of an effort undertaken by ACI Subcommittee 318-F to evaluate the use of deformed steel fibers as minimum shear reinforcement in reinforced concrete flexural members. Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics and Design. 3. M...” American Concrete Institute. J. 2006. Y. C. S. respectively.F. “Shear Tests of Fiber Concrete Beams Without Stirrups. Pearson Prentice Hall.” ACI Structural Journal.. 8. 94. Mar. 222-223. Dinh. Libbrecht. 176-184.75% was greater than or equal to 0. P.O.. however. the strengths at midspan deflections of 1/300 and 1/150 of the span length must be greater than or equal to 90 and 75% of the first-peak. J. some FRC beams with Vf ≤ 0. V. Reference 23) of FRC beams containing various types of hooked steel fibers with Vf = 0. ACI Committee 318.76%. ACI Subcommittee 318-F has proposed performance criteria that the fiber concrete must meet.75%. No. M. and Rossi. 2005. V. . 68-76. MI. Parra-Montesinos. Until further data become available. 4. P. 9.75% exhibited a shear stress at failure greater than the conservative lower bound value of 0. ACI Committee 318.K. The proposed performance criteria are based on results from flexural tests (see. 777-786. “Effectiveness of Stirrups and Steel Fibres as Shear Reinforcement. 6..-Apr. 2005. MacGregor. “Shear Strength of Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams Without Stirrups. and Papia. in any flexural test unit.L. respectively.-Feb.. performance criteria should be used for acceptance of steel fibers as minimum shear reinforcement. “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318-05) and Commentary (ACI 318R-05). pp. MI. V. G. MI. 1999. 4th Edition. 1. 5. D. Adebar. Kim. and Wafa. References 1.-K.” ACI Structural Journal.3 √ f c′ (3.2.17 √ f c′ bwd (√ f c′ bwd to 2 √ f c′ bwd ). a minimum Vf of 0. in the development of the database is greatly appreciated. “Shear Behavior of High-Strength Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams. and Kim. Farmington Hills. exhibited shear stresses at failure greater than 0. The increase in shear strength with an increase in Vf is clear from Fig. Eberhard. 26.K.17 √ f c′ (2 √ f c′ ) for the concrete contribution to shear strength.5Vc and Vc.. L. J. pp. Casanova. Fig. All beams containing deformed steel fibers with Vf ≥ 0. G. “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete and Commentary (ACI 318M-05). F. NJ. “Shear Strength of Steel Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Beams Without Stirrups. 4. pp. Ashour. Mindess. and Olund.5 √ f c′ ).. 7: Normalized shear stress at failure versus fiber volume fraction (slender beams) failure for beams with Vf ≥ 0. These values typically correspond to 0. for example. Section 9. Dinh. Oct.5.S. and Padilla. Kwak.. The contribution of H.75% has been recommended by ACI Subcommittee 318-F. P. 2004. 39 pp.. St. C. American Concrete Institute. All slender FRC beams that contained Vf ≥ 0. To ensure adequate material performance and account for the use of deformed steel fibers other than those used in the tests included in the database.G.75% is recommended. 7 shows a plot of normalized shear stress at failure versus Vf for slender beams. pp. 430 pp.5 √ f c′ ).A.

P. Pearson Education. L. No. Lim.. Chen.. 83. R. 86 pp. 1986.F. 41-69. Sharma. 103-114. ASTM C 1609/C 1609M-05. V. Mindess. Schantz. S. A.. and Ideas. Jones.. G.C. S.. Rosenbusch. 209-214. “Shear and Moment Capacity of Reinforced Steel-Fibre-Concrete Beams. Ong.N.” Concrete International.10. and Paramasivam. V. No. Received and reviewed under Institute publication policies.. pp.M.-Feb. and Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 352. No. No. and Lee. 1986.. No.. Jan.” Brite/Euram Project 97-4163. “Shear Strength of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams.T. 1992. and Knab.” ACI Structural Journal. Swamy.. Upper Saddle River. 243-251. S. 12.. M. 2000.. Swamy. Sub Task 4.C.. and Bahia. pp.M. J.. Feb. pp. “Shear Behavior of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams. “Shear Strength of Fibrous Concrete Beams Without Stirrups. pp.2. Young. 1985. A. 126.” Magazine of Concrete Research. P. Composite and Hybrid Structures. “Steel and Synthetic Fibers as Shear Reinforcement. Parra-Montesinos is an Associate Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Michigan. 15.” Testing of Fiber Reinforced Concrete. J. 148-160.I. and Pigeon. D. and Paramasivam.” ACI Materials Journal. 1993. 8 pp. hybrid steel-concrete. 2002. 3-11.K. MI. 1995. and Chiam. pp...P. Second Edition. “The Effectiveness of Steel Fibers as Shear Reinforcement.” Fiber Reinforced Cement and Composites. 14. Noghabai.” ACI Structural Journal. ACI member Gustavo J. No. pp. Mindess. Farmington Hills. His research interests include the seismic behavior and design of reinforced concrete.. 17. pp. 1993. V. Technical University of Braunschweig. 2066-2079..Y.A. “Standard Test Method for Flexural Performance of Fiber-Reinforced Concrete (Using Beam With Third-Point Loading). 369. 2003. Ann Arbor.” Master of Science thesis.... 1993. Clarkson University. 90.H. No. R. No. V. “Influence of Steel Fibers on the Shear Resistance of Lightweight Concrete I-Beams. “The Effect of Shear Stress on Full Scale Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams. 1. “Full Scale Fibre Concrete Beam Tests. 20.R. pp. and Hamza. and Teutsch. M. “Comparative Toughness Testing of Fiber Reinforced Concrete. Williamson.D. L. Mansur. West Conshohocken. P. R. Potsdam.. PA. 22. Morgan.-Oct. 7. “Beams of Fibrous Concrete in Shear and Bending: Experiment and Model.. Proceedings V. NY. 23. SP-155.. V. 4.” Journal of Structural Engineering. Concrete. 21. He is Secretary of ACI Committee 335. 19. 2005. “Trial Beams in Shear.. H. pp.G. K.P. ACI Subcommittee 318-F.. NJ. CIRCLE READER CARD #20 Concrete international / November 2006 61 . 18. 499-508. K. American Concrete Institute. Final Report. V.R. 3. R.. 11.” ACI Journal. A. 2. S.. RILEM Symposium. 1.A. V. New Materials. Sept.. Jan.. Fiber Reinforced Concrete. B. 140.. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. Murugappan.. C. D. T. Shah. Sept. MI.-Feb. Paramasivam. V. 89. 624-628. Joints and Connections in Monolithic Concrete Structures. Johnston.” Journal of Structural Engineering.N. Tan. p. and a member of ACI Committee 544. Sept. 13. Li. 90. 35-40. 9.. and fiber-reinforced concrete structures.L. pp.” ASTM International. July-Aug. Ward. 16. Products.. 1975. and Darwin. Mar. K. 1987. M. 5. K. 39. 112.

1 H 30 60 1 3.4 2.9 H 30 60 1.36 FC10 152 610 558 1.12 40.5 H 60 75 1 1.0 2.1 H 60 75 1.42 B-2-1.5 3.0-A 125 250 215 6.09† B-6-1.5 4.Table 1: Shear test database Ref.6 2.37 0.50 3 152 457 381 3.0 H 30 60 1.0 2.98 0.58 93.0 — — — — 1. 4 5 6 62 Beam bw.58 94.0 2.12 0.5 13.4 2.74 1.12 49. mm d.5 H 60 75 1 † 3. mm a/d ρ.49 2 152 457 381 3.62 B-4-1.5 1.82 0.4 2.18† B-4-1.5-A 125 250 215 6.5 9.0-A 125 250 215 1.5 7.84 97.30 November 2006 / Concrete international .0 0.2 H 60 80 1 3.97 0.84 96.37 92.84 99.12 56. % vu.5 1.5-A 125 250 215 6.96 38.17 0.8 — — — — 1.37 92.8 H 60 75 0.9 H 30 60 1.5 † 1.0-M 125 250 215 2.69 B-4-1.0-L 125 250 215 4.1 H 30 60 0.44 B-2-1.28 0.42 FC11 152 610 558 1.20† B-1-1.0 4.23 FC2 152 610 558 1.4 2.91 B-2-0.6 2.67 49. % f c′.41 5 152 457 381 3.5-A 125 250 215 1.5 H 30 60 0.5-A 125 250 215 2.84 97.0 0.40 B-6-1.96† 0.67 38.20† B-2-1.4 H 60 75 0. mm h.1 H 60 75 0.5 3.67 44.0 H 60 75 1 † 1.53 0.1 H 30 60 1 2.31 B-2-1.9 H 50 100 0.5 2.49 10 152 457 381 3.48 B-4-0.95 0.0 2.6 2.0-L 125 250 215 2.5 2.77 0.06 0.8 — — — — 1.84 95.0 2.5 3.68 0.09 0.08 0.49 11 152 457 381 3.0 4.6 2.67 42.24 0.67 44.12 57.84 101.0 — — — — 1.0 2.46 8 152 457 381 3.17 7 152 457 381 3.67 42.5-A 125 250 215 4.84 95.84 96.0-L 125 250 215 6.5 3.0 H 60 75 0.73 B-4-1.0 0.6 2.56 0.67 31.56† 0.19 FC8 152 610 558 1.12 54.21 0.4 2.54 FC7 152 610 558 1.1 H 30 60 1 3.40 0.56 4 152 457 381 3.26 0.73 0.6 2.61 9 152 457 381 3.75 3.54 FC1 152 610 558 1.9 H 30 60 1.0-A 125 250 215 2.2 H 60 80 1 2.84 100.5-A 125 250 215 4.3 H 60 75 1. MPa Fiber type* Lf.0-M 125 250 215 4.5 H 60 75 1 6.12 54.7 H 60 75 1 0.17 6 152 457 381 3.58 95.6 2.5-A 125 250 215 2.36 B-6-1.12 60.23 B-6-0.4 2.0 2.3 H 60 75 1 12.6 2.0 2.46 0.32 FC9 152 610 558 1.44 FC3 152 610 558 1.5-A 125 250 215 1.93 0.5 2.79 0.27 0.5 2.51 0.0 2.06† B-1-0.95 1.42 12 152 457 381 3.5 3.37 93.67 49.4 2.03 0.96 38.0 2. No.89† 0.90 0.67 38.4 2.43 0.32† B-6-1.84 99.84 95.0 2.3 H 60 75 1 6.0 H 60 75 1 2.73 0.09 0.4 2.8 H 50 100 0.0-A 125 250 215 4.67 31.88 0. mm Lf / df Vf .0 4.4 2.6 H 60 75 1 0.75 0.84 95.6 2.0-M 125 250 215 6.8 H 30 60 0.20 B-1-1.81 0.6 2.0 H 30 60 1.0 2.12 46.4 H 60 75 1.8 H 60 75 1 3. MPa vu / √ f ′c MPa 1 152 457 381 3.1 H 30 60 1 3.5 1.6 H 60 75 1.

38 0.92 41.73 FNB2-3 125 250 212 3.89 0.33 2/0/3.2 — — — — 1.37 0.24† 4/0.50 0.5 1.0 H 30 60 1.5 152 254 221 1.0 — — — — 1.5 1.20 26.09 0.9 H 30 60 1 3.48 68.0 H 30 60 0.74 0.0 1.48 62.39 34.0 H 30 60 1 2.0 1.17 0. No.63 0.2 H 30 60 2 3.19 A10 150 250 219 2.0 1.0 H 30 60 1 4.00 0.Ref.8 H 50 63 0.19 34.0 H 30 60 0.5 2.41 0.0 H 30 60 1 † 3.5 152 254 221 3.5 1.36 127 229 203 3.0 1.37† 150 250 219 2.09 0.64 127 229 203 3.0 — — — — 1.9 3.17 0.5 152 254 221 3.5 1.23† 2/0/1.34 0.79† 0.0 1.64 FHB3-2 125 250 212 2.57 90.0 1.75 4/1.23 0.49 0.6 H 50 63 0.92 40.8 H 50 63 0.04 0.0 1.79 1.0 2.5 2.16 0.54 vu.46 A20 150 250 219 2.05 0.05 0.42 4/1.5 152 254 221 2.98 0.0 1.75 5.48 30.5/1.5 1.72 0.19 34.32 FHB2-3 125 250 212 3.5 1.57 90.5 2. mm HSFRC1 125 250 HSFRC2 125 250 HSFRC3 125 A00 a/d ρ.5 152 254 221 3.0 H 30 60 0.24 B10 150 250 219 2.5 2. mm * 4/0/1.6 — — — — 3.0 H 30 60 1 1.5 1.5 152 254 221 1.58 225 2.5 2.48 30.5 5.5 2.5 152 254 221 2.20 17.39 127 229 203 3.5 1.00 0.0 — — — — 2.6 H 50 63 0.0/3.5 4. 7 8 9 Beam bw.39 34.38† 0.0 H 50 100 1 3. MPa Fiber type 225 2.6 — — — — 2.60 2/0.75 3.31† 2/1.5 152 254 221 1.0/1.0 H 30 60 1 1.5 152 254 221 2.92 40.5/1.44 0.48 63.5 † 3.33 FNB2-2 125 250 212 2.5 2.5 3.8 H 50 63 0.8 H 50 63 0.0/1.48 63.93 0.9 H 30 60 1 2.53 0.51 0.39 34.02 0.39 34.69 4/0. % f c′.19 34.6 — — — — 1.92 43. MPa † FHB1-2 125 250 212 2.46 FNB2-4 125 250 212 4.8 H 50 63 0.2 — — — — 1.5 152 254 221 3.0 H 30 60 1.0 H 30 60 1 2.25 10 11 Lf / df Vf .5 2.48 30.5 † 1.19 34.9 3.79 1.54† 2/1.48 68.5 152 254 221 3.32 4/0.2 H 30 60 2 3.39 FHB3-3 125 250 212 3.40 0.48 62.20 2/1.5/3.19 34.5 1.0 H 30 60 1.03 0.0 H 30 60 0.0 1.92 41.8 H 50 63 0.19 34.5/2.19 34.19 34.5 152 254 221 3.5/3.5 1.39 34.7 H 30 60 1 3.20 22.48 68.3 5.18 4/1.48 62.5 152 254 221 1.38 FHB2-2 125 250 212 2.39 34.5 4.48 63.30 FHB3-4 125 250 212 4.5 2.5 152 254 221 1.5 152 254 221 1. % vu / √ f ′c MPa Lf.0/2.0 1.55 0.21 90.0/2.0 1.54† 2/0.48† B00 150 250 219 2.47 0.0 1.39 34.45† 0.93 0.5 2.45 0.41 4/0/3.0 1.5 1.79 1.0 — — — — 1.0 2.0 1.57† 250 225 2.34 Concrete international / November 2006 63 .0 H 30 60 0.75 2.39 34.14 0.5 152 254 221 2.5/2.55 B20 150 250 219 2. mm d.50† 0.0 2.8 — — — — 1. mm h.00 0.6 H 50 63 0.52 0.41 FHB1-4 125 250 212 4.25 FHB2-4 125 250 212 4.66 FHB1-3 125 250 212 3.0 H 30 60 0.92 43.30 2/0.5 2.3 5.0/3.0 1.3 3.9 2.

mm * Lf / df Vf .4 1.9 3.4 H 60 86 0.86 1 Type C 200 500 410 2. MPa Fiber type Lf.79 20.0 H 60 86 0.0 1.46† 0.7 H 60 86 0.34 30.00 0.75 1.1 H 30 60 0.50 0.50 91.00 81.33 0.34 30.61 5 Type A 200 250 180 3.65 0.15† 0.6 H 30 60 1.8 4.1 H 30 60 0.4 H 30 60 0.75 2.6 H 30 60 0.00 0.2 — — — — 1.8 S-H 1 3.8 0.36 8 Type C 200 500 410 2.34 33.34 29.34 30.9 3.Ref.34 24.1 — — 2.9 3.6 H 30 60 0. mm h.50 0.29† C4 152 229 197 4.00 33.41 A2 152 229 197 2.9 H 30 60 0. 12 13 64 Beam bw.0 H 30 60 1.4 H 60 86 0.83 0.0 H 30 60 1.50 0.8 S-H 1 4.48 0.16† 0. No.26 A4 152 229 197 4.5 6.5 3.0 2.8 0.23† 0.8 H 30 50 1 6.0 1.0 — — — — 5.8 2.53 0.50 91.2 — — — — 2.34 29.2 — — — — 1.79 29.00 86.9 H 30 60 0.4 1.00 29.96 0.25† C5 152 229 200 2.0 † 3.00 78.44 F1 152 229 200 2.99 0.60 0.10 44.5 1.23 B1 152 229 197 2.99 0.8 S-H 1 8.0 H 30 60 1.75 7.9 3.90 81.58† 0.1 H 30 60 0.30 103.30 101.0 1.00 68.12 0.5 3.80 0.3 4.23† C1 152 229 197 2.5 † 1.31† D4 152 229 197 4.3 4.30 A3 152 229 197 3.75 † 1.32 B3 152 229 197 3.46 B2 152 229 197 2.90 68.75 3.0 2.26 0.34 29.8 S-H 1 3.6 1.75 2.0 2.50† 0.86 0.34 24.1 H 30 60 0.8 2.9 H 30 60 0.8 1.39† D3 152 229 197 3.36 November 2006 / Concrete international 60 86 .8 4.52 C2 152 229 197 2.40 D1 152 229 197 2.00 20.44 — — 7 Type C 200 500 410 2.8 1.22† C6 152 229 197 2.4 H 0.75 1. mm a/d ρ.00 78.6 1.86 0.68† 0.75 2.75 2.0 1.8 2.2 — — — — 1.72 1 Type B 200 300 235 2.56† D2 152 229 197 2.7 H 60 86 0.00 81.0 H 30 60 1.50 10 Type C 200 500 410 2.8 1.9 3.65 5 Type B 200 300 235 2.50 6 Type C 200 500 410 2.75 4.8 1.00 79.61 3 Type B 200 300 235 2.4 H 30 60 0.0 1.56 0.9 — — — — 5.75 2.00 0.9 3.5 1.34 29.50 1 Type A 200 250 180 3.3 4.34 29.4 1. % vu.50 90.8 1. mm d.16 0.4 H 30 60 0.34 29.13 0.34 30.37 C3 152 229 197 3.43† F3 152 229 197 2.21 0.27 0.1 3.9 H 30 60 0.27† F2 152 229 197 2.28 0.8 4.75 † 1.76 9 Type A 200 250 195 3.73 6 Type A 200 250 180 3.34 29.28 B4 152 229 197 4.79 33.37 4 Type D 300 700 570 3. MPa vu / √ f ′c MPa A1 152 229 197 2.75 2.75 2.34 24.8 S-H 1 4.43 9 Type C 200 500 410 2.34 29.34 20.9 H 30 60 0.27† E1 152 229 200 2.8 0.9 H 30 60 0.50 0.16 0.8 1.34 24.30 97.75 0.38 3 Type D 300 700 570 3. % f c′.0 1.33 E3 152 229 197 2.98 0.09 0.24 5 Type C 200 500 410 2.6 1.75 1.4 H 60 86 0.36 0.25† E2 152 229 197 2.6 1.9 3.0 1.4 1.5 2.85 0.

25 0.84 33.7 H 60 67 0.15 40.4 2.4 2.72 0.25 1.8 — — — — 4.00 0.1 — — — — 1.6 H 51 83 0.15 0.31 1.8 H 60 67 0.76 2.23 T10x50-SFRC-1 200 500 460 3.76 0.46 T15x100-Plain-1 200 500 460 3.91 2.2 H 60 67 0.26 20x60-SFRC-2 200 600 540 3.7 H 60 67 0.7 H 60 67 0.84 0.2/1 200 300 260 1.5 2.0 H 60 67 0.5 3.5 2.8 H 60 67 0.53 0.3/2 200 300 262 2.5 1.74 0.25 5.24 S2 150 305 276 1.80 37.0 1.5 1.8 H 60 67 0.83 38.8 C 76 80 1.35 20x45-SFRC-1 200 450 410 3.73 38.77 0.5 2.31 0.29 T15x100-SFRC-1 200 500 460 3.35 1.2 H 60 67 0.5 2.80 37.81 41.5 1.1 — — — — 1.20 20x30-SFRC-1 200 300 260 3.81 40.8 — — — — 1.5 C 76 80 1 1.29 20x60-Plain-1 200 600 540 3.81 40.43 20x30-SFRC-2 200 300 260 3.5 2.5 1.36 2.4 2.42 S3F 150 305 276 1.7 H 60 67 0.2 — — — — 2.2/2 200 300 260 1.5 2.44 42.25 2.8 H 60 67 0.2/2 200 300 260 3.3 H 60 67 0.51 2.27 T15x50-SRFC-2 200 500 460 3.5 1.25 1.4/1 200 300 260 2.83 37.81 40.1 — — — — 1.35 S1 150 305 276 1.7 H 60 67 0.5 3.5 1.30 T15x50-SFRC-1 200 500 460 3.7 H 60 67 0.7 H 60 67 0.24 III 305 610 546 2.31 IV 305 610 546 2.5 2.83 32.54 48.80 37.76 2.03 0.8 2.25 2.7 H 60 67 0.4 2.38 0.99 43.Ref.73 32.24 2.53 0.5 1.5 1.44 2.94 0.8 4.05 0.25 2.40 0.2/3 200 300 260 1. No.5 1.65 0.4 2.80 37. mm a/d ρ.3 — — — — 1.5 2.4 2.84 2.3 H 60 67 0.4/2 200 300 260 2. % vu.81 0.0 1.15 38.61 0.78 0.77 0.44 I 305 610 546 2.5 3.6/2 200 300 260 4.43 2.44 0.5 1.5 1.2/4 200 300 260 3.6/1 200 300 260 4.47 T15x75-SFRC-1 200 500 460 3.56 43.8 H 60 67 0.4 2.2/1 200 300 260 3.5 2.1 — — — — 1.56 44. MPa vu / √ f ′c MPa 1.4/3 200 300 260 2. % f c′. mm d.9 2.4 — — — — 1.5 1.5 1.5 2.5 2.26 1.5 2.86 0.81 40.74 0.07 0.81 40. mm h.6/3 200 300 260 4.7 C 76 80 0.7 H 60 67 0.73 37.28 T23x50-SFRC-2 200 500 460 3.65 0.19 II 305 610 546 2.15 40. mm Lf / df Vf .16 0.81 38.63 2.9 H 60 67 0.81 40.50 0.23 2.3/1 200 300 262 2.08 37.18 20x60-SFRC-1 200 600 540 3.98 0.80 32. MPa Fiber type * Lf.3 3.11 0.4 2.13 0.3 H 60 67 0.58 0.3/3 200 300 262 2.0 1.33 2.76 2.56 48.80 38.42 Concrete international / November 2006 65 .74 0.5 1.7 H 60 67 0.5 2.33 2.5 3.42 0.0 — — — — 1.76 5.70 0.06 0.41 38.03 0.8 1.56 46.80 38.2/3 200 300 260 3.4 2.84 31.8 H 60 67 0.84 39.25 2.5 1.30 0.8 1.8 1.1 — — — — 2.84 32.76 2.81 41.80 38.8 1.5 1.0 H 60 67 0.41 20x50-SFRC-2 200 500 460 3. 14 15 16 Beam bw.33 T10x50-SFRC-2 200 500 460 3.57 0.5 2.8 1.35 20x30-Plain-1 200 300 260 3.

62 0.05 0.19 0.5 3.52 1.16 0.8 — — — — 3.2 3.49 3TL-1 55 300 265 2.4 — — — — 1.24 B63R 175 250 210 4.9 1.00 37.5 — — — — 2.48 2TL-1 55 300 265 2.78 0.15 0.36 B53 175 250 210 4.0 4.36 4 305 546 457 4.0 H 30 60 1 5.5 5.76 33.5 4.00 38. mm d.86 5 60 375 340 2.31 36.32 0.31 33. No.9 1.4 — — — — 2.0 — — — — 1.9 C 50 100 1 4.76 33.9 4.5 C 50 100 0.83 0. mm a/d ρ.76 36.0 4.92 1TL-2 55 300 265 3. mm Lf / df Vf .7 2.5 4.86 0.41† B61R 175 250 210 4.31 35.15 0.13 0.44 36. 1 mm = 0.95 41. Notes: h = beam height.55 33.91 0.5 NA NA NA 1.4 C 50 100 0.80 2TL-2 55 300 265 3.57 0. † Beam failed in flexure.22 1TLF-2 55 300 265 3.5 1.8 C 50 100 0.8 C 50 100 1 4.4 2.9 C 50 100 1 2.48† 3TL3 55 300 265 4.54 28.9 4.0 3.55 32.55 37.5 4.00 39.44 36.22 0.21 2TLF-2 55 300 265 3. vu = Vu / bwd = ultimate shear stress.25 1 305 546 457 4.9 2.54 28.0 3.1 C 50 100 1 3.01 0.03 0.55 35.43 0.0 — — — — 1.06 0.5 1.48 0.8 2.35† † † 1TL-1 55 300 265 2.49 0.4 4.00 35.0 H 30 60 1 7.77 3TL-2 55 300 265 3.0 H 30 60 0.34 0.7 2.31 35.54 2 60 375 340 2. % vu.7 C 50 100 1 4. MPa vu / √ f ′c MPa B51 175 250 210 4.76 36.54 2TL-3 55 300 265 4.5 NA NA NA 1.1 — — — — 1.35 C = Crimped fiber.77 0.8 3. H = hooked fiber.23 3 305 546 457 4.37 0.4 4.0 H 30 60 0.0 1.Ref.1 — — — — 1.31 40.5 1.5 1.75 4.35 3TLF-1 55 300 265 2.5 3. NA = unknown fiber type.0 2.77 4 60 375 340 2. S-H = combination of straight and hooked fibers.5 3. * 66 November 2006 / Concrete international .4 1.95 35.44 33.0 2. 1 MPa = 145 psi.4 1.4 2.18 3TLF-2 55 300 265 3.4 — — — — 3.18 2TLF-3 55 300 265 4.8 3.44 32. MPa Fiber type * Lf.90 0.54 32.4 2.35† † † 1 60 375 340 2.0 1.63 6 60 375 340 1. % f c′. other variables are defined in article.10 0.02 0.8 2.55 32..09 0.76 35.0 3.9 2.95 43.0 C 50 100 1 2.11 0.8 — — — — 1.7 2.6 — — — — 1. 17 18 19 20 Beam bw.41 2TLF-1 55 300 265 2.05 38.44 35.1 — — — — 1.03 0.6 C 50 100 1 5.2 C 50 100 0.5 C 50 100 1 2.52 B56 175 250 210 4.5 1.63 0.30 0.18 3TLF-3 55 300 265 4.20 1TLF-3 55 300 265 4.76 37.29 B52 175 250 210 4.5 C 50 100 1 2. mm h.21 0.51 B54 175 250 210 4.1 C 50 100 0.63 1TL-3 55 300 265 4.0 H 30 60 1 3.5 4.90 0.0 3.50 B55 175 250 210 4.31 34.8 — — — — 1.90 3 60 375 340 2.92 0.55 34.8 C 50 100 1.44 36.0394 in.57 1TLF-1 55 300 265 2.

013 0.5 10.020 0.36 0.28 3.013 0.18 1.0 100.26* H 2.043 0.11 3.93 5.5 37.027 0.470 0.72 4.1 145.34 H H 1.20* 5.27 6.014 0.26 1.63 0.18 1.63 5.6 1.035 66.51 2.87 0.4 6.50 0.9 67.002 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.75 0.7 19.3 35.5 156.0 60.4 61.63 0.00 1.87 1.62 0.020 0.6 15.93 0.9 1.5 0.00 83.98 0.5 0.4 0.035 0.38 0.79 36.7 27.5 1.7 23.16 5.8 19.5 1.2 10.6 12.020 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 3 7.012 0.72 5.7 91.37* 8.015 0.0 50.0 60.26 1.9 7.0 1.2 10. in.5 1.10 5.76 H H 2.5 156.3 25.1 15.5 4/1.023 0.94 1.0 2.09 9.7 19.62 0.4 10.75 0. in.0 3.0 1 type A 4 type A 5 type A 6 type A 9 type A 1 type B 3 type B 5 type B 1 type C 5 type C 6 type C 7 type C 8 type C 9 type C 10 type C 3 type D 4 type D Ref.62 0.031 0.88 0.63 0.92 2.0 6.6 220 393 423 2.62 0.63 9.9 42.6 33.4 41.9 1 C 2.0 86.0 9.74 4.0 3.35 0.14 8.0 183.38 12.2 19.1 2.026 0.55 0.4 70.81 3.020 0.2 10.26 9.36 2.7 8.5 33.020 60.43 6.38 0.9 25.0 5.0 159.20 1.7 17.0 21.020 0.66 5.6 1.74 3.24 0.5 62.97 1.93 4.63 0.004 0.97 9.470 0.5 37.0 10.8 7.018 0.4 35.020 60.5 8.36 2.92 2.0 9.026 0.1 15.0 8.8 26.0 15.0 4.7 56.0 5.55 0.5 0.74 3.5 156.93 4.028 0.3 3.9 5.03 4.1 1.043 0.0 10.0 2.024 0.97 0.012 0.020 0.39 0.18 1.8 15.6 21.012 0.5 3.9 1 C 2.8 51.0 13.18 0.2 37.87 0.18 1.7 19.2 174. in.5 1.97 1.38 0.5 37.4 0.98 0.0 183.0 10.470 0.23 2.38 3.25 1.06 13.0 100.38 0.028 0.37 0.2 0.4 49.0 6.5 156.2 34.1 33.93 1.63 0.5 16.9 7.003 0.9 7.0 10.0 0.5 8.5 4/0.11 5.8 7.470 0.38 0.0 152.5 S-H S-H H H H H S-H H 1.8 16.75 0.74 3.0 60.2 8.2 174.9 50.3 13. in.020 0.59 6.18 1.98 1.51 3.18 1.020 0.0 74.2 174.4 55.97 0.3 34.62 0.7 8.62 0.005 0.23 4.9 5.4 58.36 2.5 0.0 12.0 2.2 54.0 10.62 0.62 0.019 0.5 16.0 174.013 0.75 0.22 5.020 100.3/2 2.0 100.022 0.76 H H 2.0 86.24 0.5 2.0 21.9 2.63 0.0 10.61 10.0 30.8 7.024 0.55 0.2 20.98 0.8 1TL-1 1TLF-1 1TL-2 1TLF-2 1TL-3 1TLF-3 2TL-1 2TLF-1 2TL-2 2TLF-2 2TL-3 2TLF-3 3TL-1 3TLF-1 3TL-2 3TLF-2 3TL3 3TLF-3 2.38 0.045 0.29 3.0 6.005 0.5 24.0 9.35 *Beam failed in flexure **There is an inconsistency in the values reported in the original reference.46 1.5 2.00 0.0 10.020 0.0 12.63 5.0 24.5 0.1 18. in.0 22.00 0.63 0.60 14.40 2.022 2 2 2 8 A00 A10 A20 B00 B10 B20 5.0 60.0 10.028 0.4 44.5 0.0 6.75 0.0 183.0 15.18 1.4 2.031 0.6 H H H H H 1.0 9.4 3.0/2.004 0.9 6.87 0.73 7.5 51.0 24.0 9.43 11.36 2.0 256 314 450 454 466 380 228 298 3.38 0.75 4.22 5.63 0.4 10.38 0.0-A B-6-1.8 53.8 7.79 0.0 449 775 643 747 548 1091 6.46 1.38 0.0 21.18 1.81 3.4 30.7 44.1 7.034 0.35 0.0 5.62 0.0 13.48 4.71 0.003 0.4 10.08 4.019 FHB1-2 FHB2-2 FHB3-2 FHB1-3 FHB2-3 FHB3-3 FHB1-4 FHB2-4 FHB3-4 FNB2-2 FNB2-3 FNB2-4 5.9 23.63 0.5 52.36 2.018 0.9 35.5 0.35 0.29 7.40 15.5 37.0 60.470 0.00 0.63 0.9 7.50 0.38 0.031 75.03 14.9 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.8 7.90 5.21 4.36* 17.035 0.93 4.74 I II III IV 12.0 18.0 9.39 0.75 0.89 4.0 75.024 0.5 0.55 0.26 0.20 1.0 18.0 183.38 0.83 3.97 1.5 3.38 0.020 100.019 0.18 1.8 25.013 0.1 8.0 6.10 0.38 0.77 5.028 0.2 2.41 10.8 25.0 21.47 0.38 0.8 9.2/3 1.40 0.5 H H H H H H 1.030 0.98 4.035 0.030 0.045 0.18 1.62 0.14 3 12.98 0.84 4.37 0.7 19.95 3.63 0.6 25.5 2.040 0.74 3.0 60.035 0.7 C C C 3.0 183.4 10.9 1 C 2.8 52.98 1.9 35.1 145.031 0.51 2.035 66.63 15.36 2.0 86.6 1.20 1.9 178 425 455 219 508 511 2.97 1.023 0.63 0.5 1.38** 0.0 60.1 22.7 8.38 0.87 0.3 254 471 553 208 348 396 421 404 2.39 0.0 24.005 0.9 1 C 2.46 1.04* 3.0 9.020 60.0 10.0 5.5-A B-4-1.8 15.5 3.63 0.63 0.003 0.8 25.1 145.63 0.16 6.5 1 1 1 1 1.0 9.4 8.0 21.96 4.50 0.004 0.012 0.4 35.0 183.4 13.4/3 2.9 50.46 0.023 0.37 14.2 51.20 1.6 11.8 8.18 1.92 0.26 1.0 1.4 3.75 1.0 10.5 3.17 3.9 7.79 0.14 7.9 21.5/1.62 0.031 0.36 2.0 152.88 0.0 2.0 86.79 0.75 0.0 60.80 10.7 145.36 2.79 0.0 10.59 13.38 0.1 33.38 0.9 2.0 6.81 3.3 9. bars’ φb’.16 0.1 22.4 2.35 0.8 11.4 3.98 0.66 5.92 0.55 0.020 0.0 6.5 3.0 12.10 0.13 3.0 12.40 2.0-L B-4-1.3 8.8 11.93 0.38 0.3 319.7 19.18 1.0 5.93 5.024 0.034 0.5 2/0.6 27.031 0.1 18.045 0.0 6.38 0.5 37.020 0.0 60.0 6.0 12.3 8.0 60.0 9.0 3.5 8.28 0.0 3.0 24.012 0.3 159.1 145.38 0.20 0.94 0.31 5.27 5.0 24.020 0.0 4.8 9.55 0.020 0.50 0.55 0.47 5.5 16.0 100.38 0.9 7.013 0.79 0.0 10.043 0. a/d 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 6. 20 mm was the reported value in metric units C: Crimped fiber.9 11.0-M B-6-1.027 0.87 1.25 1 12.20 1.035 66.79 0.5 41.20 1.0 36. fufiber: tensile strength of fiber wire.0 60.0 1 1 1 0.98 0.10 0.5 59.0 1.6 25.38 0.4 3.24 0.4 FC1 FC2 FC3 FC7 FC8 FC9 FC10 FC11 5.35 13.4 3.5 S1 S2 S3F 6.8 51.0 174.020 60.0 10.4 9.6 7.31 4.79 0.97 1.3 159.6 25.63 0.88 0.0 5.63 0.36 2.40 0.98 5.9 8.22 0.50 0.4 851 1188 1015 1056 703 865 957 1256 314 650 579 466 551 599 516 483 432 7.023 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0.2 65.8 49.0 60.38 0.025 1.1 7.8 2.0 3.40 2.72 2.8 11.028 0.5 8.2 174.8 7.24 0.024 50.026 0.0 15.75 0.3 290 217 186 163 362 254 217 184* 410 290 229* 198* 178 314 449* 314* 244* 212* 166* 217 290 223* 362* 415 4.60 7.36 0.004 0.99 2.16 7.2 51.0 18.031 0.7 8.0 3.020 0.18 1.9 14.36 0.02 14.5 2.3 3.1 2.81 9.09 9.020 0.55 14.5 37.81 3.92 6.3 3.63 0.93 0.020 0.85 4.9 7.16 8.0 4.40 2.39 0.0 6.8 6.0 6.0-A B-1-1.9 7.9 24.63 0.020 0.63 0.7 19.4 8.9 33.0-L B-6-1.1 18.9 1 C 2.5 2/1.0 0.1 8.9 33.0 10.015 0.75 H H 1.9 9.0 170.20 NA NA .40 0.87 0.62 0.2 2.8 7.36 2.7 19.020 100.2 1 1 1 1 H H H H H H 1.63 0.0 60.024 0.2 16.0 60.0 60.0 152.88 0.027 0.8 2.25 0.5 10.88 0.5 1 1 1 0.0 6.7 0.50 0.79 0.0 6.38 0.52 7.0 75.2 2.5 2/1.8 8.25 0.98 5.9 12.63 0. f’ccube.18 0.0 2.1 145.92 2.0 10.66 0.2 2.20* 5.81* 2.5-A B-2-1.1 21.95 5.9 5.63 0.28 4.62 0.5 76.0 1.97 1.2 0.0 10.046 0.9 4.18 4.1 11.5 8.18 1.5 21.6 41.52 6.36 2.75 8.5 3.1 16.88 2.3 21.0 6.0 9.24 0.14 5.18 1.9 7.5/0.7 237 443 443 4.8 3.0 5.81 4.9 5.031 0.6 15.013 0.1 7.6 13.7 66.020 100.8 18.93 4.75 0.00 1.470 0.29 10.9 5.4 16.6 8.1 0.55 0.9 35.9 2.18 1.0 0.50 52.9 5.38 0.38 0.031 0.470 0.43 9.022 2 2 2 0.0 36.63 0.0 174.79 0.92 2.2 2.7 0.6 33.9 7.6 25.48 3.0 9.00 60.36 1. other variables are defined in article Vu.27 7.8 3.045 3 3 3 0.7 27.8 9.9 66.22 5.39 0.0 21. √fc psi 39.29 3. in2 ρ No.0 6.2/2 1.012 0.00 83.020 2.38 0.0 227.38 0.2 47.18 0.0 161.5 4.0 6.028 50.027 0.0 60.0/1.93 4.93 6.77 4.75 0.5 3.0 22.25 1.020 0.0 10.47 5.8 7.88 0.79 0.18 1.028 0.34 252 307 335 432 586 781 836 217 228 299 334 301 401 209 230 326 167 308 257 145 206 266 416 408 240 384 367 233 298 247 258 398 3.98 0.2 47.9 3.18 2.5 0.36 2.4 35.005 0.35 2.0 24.98 0.9 7.0 6.0 61.40 2.94 2.9 7.0 10.020 0.030 0.5 156.2 10.17 4.7 23.0 60.79 0.5 21.0 10.2 36.69 7.5 3.90 3.63 0.028 0.62 0.0 61.0 6.7 161.50 2.5 1.8 9.031 62.8 9.1 16.020 0.0 6.015 0.50 0.0 227.79 0.5 3.6 1.0 75.0 75.028 0.13 3. As.57 3.4 8.46 1.4 10.013 0.4/1 2.0 6.38 0.5 0.4 13.74 3.63 0.36 2.93 0.5 0.88 0.020 0.7 145.38 0.5 H H H H H H H 2.0 227.4 18.76 H H 2.90 3.025 7 1.38 0.39 0.98 0.30 H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H 1.0 10.38 0.5 0.8 35.63 0.1 145.5 2/0.9 5.20 1.1 2.82 5.4 8.6 25.7 27.0 0.0 60.74 4.9 13. d.63 0.63 0.8 C 2.9 7.6 27.38 0.79 0.39 0.50 14.5 2.5 0.025 1.5 0.38 H H 1.7 58.018 0.012 0.34 4.0 5.63 20.8 11.035 66.5 4/1.9 33.2 2.62 0.16 1.46 1.0 13.31 6.0 10.40 0.47 5.0 75.016 0.013 0.78 3.2 10.11 1.6 4.7 7.0 7.5 4/1.2/3 2.1 145.92 2.8 9.38 0.36 2.4 2.0 36.4 3.027 0.10 1.5 2/1.3 23.50 0.035 0.2 4.98 0.9 6.5/0.8 11.020 60.028 0.1 0.8 26.96 9.0 9.020 60.25 1.2 37.0 244* 130* 81* 1319 700 329 283 1849 880 460* 284* 2025 1046 509 287* 977 563 425 2.030 0.18 1.6 1.55 0.5 8.0 2.004 0.9 6.9 2.97 0.7 19.0 6.0 75.13 13.20 0.5/0.90 3.9 9.3 13.96 5.5 12.93 12.79 25.9 2.5 0.71 7.004 0.17 488 796 188 585 173 421 362 712 176 452 154 424 312 672 149 411* 150 292* 6.0 10.8 9.9 10.0 60.93 6.0 12.2 37.030 0.1 16.004 0.0 2.0 100.035 66.36 0.9 7.22* 3.0 75.1 21.031 62.0 2.0 12.87 0.3 9.75 0.0 10.36 2.0 75.0 24.0 12.20 1.7 8.026 0.020 60.9 50.98 0.25 0.98 0.005 0.018 0.38 0.023 0.98 0.5 17.9 7.93 4.0 60.55 0.0 6.50 4.5 5.3 58.63 0.72 7.9 2.015 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.4 8.0/3.4 10.8 0.3 8.0 2.3 35.9 34.58 3.04 6.0 183.18 H H 16.5 156.9 69.023 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0.4 35.9 7.5 18.46 1.8 16.36 2.62 0.7 19.39 0.15 5.39 0.0 160.0 114.5 H H H H 2.0 86.93 4.6 25.24 0.5 4.8 61.25 1.93 4.55 0. However.9 2.0 9.0 6.76 2.2 2.1 460 250 195 281 170 458 259 200 581 274 213 344 149 635 356 290 6.028 0.026 0.18 0.028 0.97 0.0 2.38 0.5 8.0 183.63 0.6 8.79 0.019 0.37 5.020 0.8 9.63 0.98 0.48 11.1 169 203 250 295 2.3/3 2.39 0.2 1.18 1.9 11.0 6.97 0.0 9.63 0.26 1.18 1.1 145.004 0.01 3.76 1.4 13.8 11.50 0.0 227.0 13.8 11.5 52.031 0.44 0.3 319.0 183.88 0.9 7.020 60.5 3.24 0.0 183.9 1 C 2.94 1. in.7 8.63 0.31 0.002 0.8 16.018 0.0 2.036 0.026 0.7 19.9 10.36 2.79 0.8 29.00 0.0 4.9 7.00 0.38 0.0 60.020 37.1 145.0-M B-4-1.0 1 1 1 24.0 5.4 10.5/0.1 1 1 9.75 0.63 5.0 60.8 7.0 5.8 9.0 152.0 6.7 8.65 7.0 12.1 0.38 0.36 2.0 4.9 21.4 3.0 12.55 16.38 13.55 0.0 5.2 174.0 61.4 3.5 1 1.92 2.5 797 791 507 6.026 0.0 10.0 6.51 3.38 0.75 H H H H H 1.5 0.5 62.43 4.85 2.20 1.0 75.5 62.76 5.10 0.2 2.4 14.0 183.0 4.97 0.43 5.86 5.39 0.24 0.63 0.027 0.26 9.01 5.2 10.013 0.0 18.66 4.11 0.79 0.38 0.0 18.8 3.031 0.0 60.029 0.99 14.2 14.6 16.0 10.4 10.043 0.0 60.18 1.9 34.4 1.020 0.470 0.5 8.0 9.027 0.38 0.0 5.0 5.93 4.0 A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2 B3 B4 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 D1 D2 D3 D4 E1 E2 E3 F1 F2 F3 6.84 4.57 4.96 5.028 0.8 35.18 1.7 24.6 40.0 12.9 11.5 2.6 8.5 3.7 66.5-A B-6-1.85 4.0 5.79 0.1 21.0 160.36 2.0 15.0 60.47 4.0 10.0 3.2 2.7 19.0 59.020 0.25 0.62 0.3 319.50 10.9 7.18 1.9 21.79 0.024 0.35 0.20 1.024 0.0 6.7 8.82 5.1 55.0 5.0 5.8 11.023 0.6 16.87 0.0/3.8 7.26 35.9 20.031 0.39 0.36 0.8 7.9 33.00 0.3 319.24 5.18 1.29 2.0 17.5 0.31 0.013 0.0 10.020 0.5 51.21 6.8 2.0 24.0 8.75 1 1 1 28.020 0.9 7.79 0.1 145.7 15.36 5.63 0.20 1.9 2.76 5.63 5.9 4.0 5.75 0.1 18.98 0.00 0.79 0.2 18.4 2.7 161.36 2.0 13.8 7.0 10.036 0.35 7 4.035 0.9 6.9 1 C 2.4 45.020 0.19 4.7 8.63 0.8 51.5 8.0 15.4 8.28 1.0 6.24 9.7 19.9 7.1 2.5 62.0 6.6 23.020 0.019 0.7 66.20 1. in.020 0.020 100.36 2.74 4.5 24.53 6.79 0.9 4.77 11.79 0.1 33.77 13.7 10.62 0.015 0.0 36.25 0.97 0.63 0.0 5.020 0.63 0.0 60.028 0.18 2.40 0.0 60.0 24.020 0.5 37.0 9.0 18.5 4.62 0.0 4.97 1.63 0.8 9.5 21.0 10.020 0.58 15. H: hooked fiber h: beam height.81* 4.031 0.81 6.9 33.63 0.7 8.7 66.0/2.98 0.63 0.40 2.027 0.020 100.5 20.09 14.36 2.97 5.70* 11.38 0.63 0.75 0.36 0.8 11.39 0.028 0.470 0. % H H H H 1.0 10.5 3.0 75.9 42.9 7.5 0.0A B-2-1.55 0.98 0.45 H H 1.38 0.1 22.0 183.0 18.5 9.3 1.6 17.63 0.8 2.5 21.031 0.0 1.36 2.5 1.4 3.92 2.5 1 1 H H 1.20 1.7 12.0 10.7 319.1 15.0 75.6 8.0 0.0-A B-4-1.0 152.40 2.9 74.2 174.53 3.1 42.27 7.013 0.40 0.39 6.7 145.0 13.0 6.5 0.71 7.3 8.13 2.0 9.0 30.97 1.8 27.9 7.0 12.023 0.72 13.5 0.8 2.8 3.83 14.035 0.26 1.0 10.2 66.030 0.0 21.38 0.0 100.24 0.002 0.0 61.15 14.00 2.470 0.40 0.1 145.54 7.020 0.4 2.38 0.87 0.9 32.0 15.97 1.0 2.38 0.87 4.1 145.18 1.0 60.012 0.4 2.66 5.4 3.5 33.1 2.5 0.2 33.0 40.020 0.5 0.04 5.8 11.5 4/0/1.68 7.8 2.6 25.26 0. Bars: number of tension reinforcing bars.97 0.020 0.0 10.26 1.0 6.38 0.87 3.034 0.75 0.0 2.0 60.1 2.81 5.5 53.7 319.85 4.34 4.9 7.53 5.75 0.4 66.5-A B-2-0.6 38.5 4.50 0.0 30.40 2.9 5.0 8.38 0.0 160.035 66.7 0.10 0.9 5.0 10.4 0.5 16.47 2.0 15.034 0.48 11.4 2.4 2.0 9.1 1.39 0.28 3.2 47.36 2.0 160.75 0.027 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 0.6/2 2.39 0.2 10.0 4.020 60.8 9.01* 2.8 47.0 6.3 10.024 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 0.036 0.8 11.8 11.5 51.98 0.24 8.5-A B-2-1.24 0.36 0.031 0.5 51.13 4.023 0.94 2.72 13.39 0.98 0.9 7.7 69.0 5.55 0.8 14.5 8.1 17.6 8.91 3.47 5.9 5.3 18.0 4.9 6.2 440 449 502 368 162 157 371 490 476 473 431 547 5.79 0.0 17.97 0.62 0.0-M 5.87 0.2 2.0 6.470 0.30 5.0 24.99 3.28 2.93 4.0 12.0 100.8 2.8 11.2 3.030 0.0 18.34 2.0 152.18 1.18 1.6 7.18 0.0 15.6 25.4 3.0 5.5 0.7 2.78 5.38 H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H 2.74 0.6 4.36 2.013 0.1 14.0 9.62 5.4 17.20 1.5 8.10 7 HSFRC1 HSFRC2 HSFRC3 5.74 2.28 2.5 38.0 15.6 4.0 5.5 1.024 0.045 0.62 0.62 0.18 0.0 100.12 5.36 2.5 59.75 0.20 1.0 24.0 61.99 5.20 1.8 11.0 6.88 5.0 1.63 0.35 7 4.07 6.0 60.024 0.3 11.5 2.89 2.0 18.38 0.22 4.5 51.91 4.4 22.75 0.18 2.0 12.38 0.1 13.58 0.0 6.06 4.028 0.88 0.93 4. psi vu.18 1.87 11.9 4.36 2.81 5.0 5.55 0.40 0.026 0.3 10.5 16.0 227.020 0.5 156.92 2.00 0.0 9.5 37.27 0.040 0.18 1.00 83.35 7.36 0.5 51.63 0.62 0.83 13.6 1.47 0.7 8.38 0.470 0.031 0.0 36.0 30.0 78.0 6.8 1.4 3.0 80.0 9.8 2.9 1 C 2.7 27.5 18.79 0.6 0.0 152.81 3.035 0.98 0.38 0.9 34.62 0.8 33.75 0.40 3.4 10.0 10.0 17.12 8.27 4.93 4.0 72.6 0.1 6 6 6 6 6 6 0.47 4.020 100.07 14.63 0.2 20.0 5.0-L B-1-0.75 0.0 60.7 1 0.92 2.3 32.63 0.8 14.38 0.5 73.1 2.7 24.92 2.2 10.18 1.63 0.87 0.33 2.62 0.2 2.008 0.016 0.09 1.75 0.2 10.8 9.035 0.035 0.63 0.0 5.0 2.0 8.20 1.4 4.5 0.3 56.8 11.029 1.36 2.0 3.63 0.004 0.75 0.5 21.93 0.63 0.46 2.14 2.8 7.1 18.7 66.0 5.38 0.38 0.4 8.3 9.027 0.5-A B-1-1.9 4.9 7.0 60.98 0.040 0.031 0.012 0.9 7.002 0.26 0.0 13.8 35.63 0.0 6.75 H H H 2.031 0.76 H H 2.0 80.29 3.06 13.020 0.018 0.63 0.016 0.9 7.018 0.8 19.79 1.38 H H H 1.5 21.5 156.63 0.4 8.18 1.62 0.0 6.5 37.57 4.8 0.0 5.3 64.0 36.16 0.6 2.031 0. in.79 5.25 1.2 0.5 37.51 1.0 50.47 5.1 25. Bars’: number of compression reinforcement bars φb: tensile reinforcing bar diameter.4 41.043 0.0 10.9 33.63 0.0 5.0 9.0 8.0 75.470 0.5 1 1 1 10.0 24.85 7.00 0.20 1.0 10.004 0.95 8.5 4.45 4.4 0.8 9.0 0.63 0.4 3.8 11.5/3.6 4.5 39.3 1.36 2.00 0.38 0.93 4.0 75.29 5.55 0.36 2.5/0.4 3.0 1.39 0.79 0.9 18.38 0.0 6.6 14. Df.9 50.18 1.0 60.43 5.1 10.2 37.0 174.35 4.035 0.87 2.0 5.14 6.0 12.015 0.0 60.92 2.37 6.8 1.031 0.06 1.0 6.8 2.9 7.2 47.5 3.015 0.9 6.7 8.63 0.6 25.38 0.63 0.8 20.76 0.1 0.5 37.9 8.043 0.0 18.82* 6.0 12.00 0.50 0.50 0.020 0.38 0.3 8.38 0.2 174.7 66.88 0.020 0.9 7.79 0.7 27.93 0.55 0.9 10.0 60.5/2.5 4/0/3.5 8.38 0.6 8.87 0.8 33.004 0. ρ’: compression reinforcement ratio vu: ultimate shear stress.008 0.031 62.5 18.69 0.0/1.9 5.5 3.6 19.8 11.63 0.63 0.62 60.8 14.9 7.3 10.9 2.024 0.6 23.9 7. ksi Fiber type Lf.012 0.62 0.63 0.0 6.020 0.34 4.4 10.00 4.1 16.4 10.24 0.005 0.38 0.90 4.5 3.83 6.06 0.52 5.63 0.75 0.5 21.8 C 1.5 3.35 0.22 4.98 0.0 183.0 86.0 24.7 11.34 4.016 0.38 0.3 2.5 8.0 161.031 0. 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 d’.01 4.3 8.7 4.023 0.55 0.0 2.0 6.62 0.0 12.028 0.6 23.55 0.25 1.0 183.4 2.8 11.8 7.07 2.2 10.63 0.4 4.98 4.023 0.13 3.9 7.7 8.5 37.62 0.0 10.69 2.7 1 2 9.28 3.0 3.22 4.4/2 2.018 0.38 0.0 10.52 2.3 49.9 6.0 6.1 25.5 19.3 27.0 6.0 80.8 2.0 5.79 0.3 37.85 13.4 10.020 0.38 0.0 60.75 2.020 0.8 2.5 1.81 5.4 10.70* 3.020 100.70 13. ksi 5.75 1 1 1 1 0.5 4/0.75 S-H H H S-H 1.50 0.26 37.26 9.5 1.6 25.018 0.3 3.25 1.24 0.97 0.8 2.24 0.020 60.56 2.31 0.0 75.18 1.0 20.026 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 6 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 3 3 3 1.5 1.7 66.5 8.39 0.6 19.028 0.0 24.63 0.5 3.47 5.5 37.00 3.5 3.51 2.0 183.023 0. Lf/Df fufiber Vf.0 6.8 2.0 30.50 0.3 14.50 6.09 9.00 0.023 0.4 8.54 4.92 2.75 0.96 47.71 4.5 0.0 10.92 2.63 0.52 5.0 75.3 3.55 0.035 0.0 6.4 8.8 26.24 0.00 1.18 1.0 75.58 1.5 8.5 52.38 0.5 37.18 1.50 0.38 0.5 0.031 0.020 0.62 0.14 4 12.035 80.4 10.6 20.12* 0.7 66.0 60.7 9.18 1.035 0.62 5.8 7.0 13.470 0.38 0.0 9.93 0.75 0.8 2.70 4.5 62.7 145.020 0.018 6 6 6 6 1.0 3. No.2 37. φb’: compression reinforcing bar diameter.51 4.0 61.0 34.5 4.24 0.035 0.79 2.70 7.63 0.63 0.0 14.98 0.4 30.62 0.0 10.0 9. The number shown corresponds to the value reported in US units.018 0.0 227.18 1.0 183.36 2.79 0.89 3.0 183.24 0.63 0.63 0.38 0.5 1.9 14.62 2.9 7.020 0.75 24.2/2 2.8 82.9 7.024 0.035 0.1 16.18 1.87 2.2 47.028 0.5 2/0/3.76* 3.0 4.4 3.7 66.24 0.023 0.5-A B-4-0.7 8.63 0.5 1.8 25.036 0.0 0.75 0.5 20.38 8 8 8 8 6 10 10 10 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 10 10 0.2 51.0 10.5 0.028 0.5 62.93 0.14 Max.4 192 275 270 2.63 0.4 6.0 86.5 37.8 9.5/2.020 60.0 12.4 bw.1 2.5 2/0/1.040 0.40 0.97 0.5 0.97 1.7 27.2 174.63 5.5 12.51 3.0 10.18 0.63 0.0 2.99 4.0 6.015 0.38 0.8 35.015 0.93 4.0 35.9 7.21 H H H 1.5 26.0 21.7 47.9 35.63 0.25 0.38 0.95 5.87 9.11* 1.1 13.f’c – cylinder.024 83.4 8.0 3.50 0.5 62.0 60.3 0.5 0.0 15.62 0.004 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.3/1 2.5 10.0 22.8 1.0 2.51 3.99 2.74 3.63 0.62 0.83 4.2 174.008 0.1 170.002 0.4 10.0 22.0 60.36 0.0 183.9 7.5 1.57 3.9 21.13 9.0 60. in.1 18.59 2.93 5.34 4.027 0.4 61.81 11.8 26.75 0.020 0.7 145.81 4.1 0.5 8.97 3.8 5.034 0.5-A B-6-0.16 3.0 4.8 7.97 6.035 66.34 4.8 7.62 0.97 6.0 2/0.38 0.5 4/0.62 0.40 0.0 8.00 3.39 0.55 3.9 B51 B52 B53 B54 B55 B56 B61R B63R 6.020 0.028 0.046 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 0.9 2.028 0. kips vu.0 10.0 2.18 1.2 4.18 2.18 0.18 0.85 5. in.3 24.19 13.79 0.87* 2.0 5.020 0.62 4.004 0.028 0.3 3.6 1.7 8.34 7.9 2.33 2.5 4.0 227.2 3. d’: distance from centroid of compression reinforcement to extreme compression fiber.87 9.93 4.7 22.93 4.74 1.020 0.36 2.00 1.020 0.0 60.5 51.00 5.10 10.2 16.96 9.36 2.39 0.63 0.51 0.024 0.38 0.0 15.028 0.036 0.8 8.63 0.5 0.74 4.4 13.36 2.035 0.8 17.76 6.0 10.0 6.62 0.92 2.25 0.013 0.20 1.55 0.043 0.61 5.0 12.0 6.98 5.18 1.0 50.3 16.5 37.9 34.5 3.62 0.1 25.5 0.0 36.75 2.50 0.005 0.10 1.36 1.2 10.62 0.027 0.0 18.7 8.5 6.36 2.2 2.9 7.046 0.3 18.2 62.0 2.61 13.88 0.3 34.97 0.81 7.20 1.10 6.7 145.18 1.63 0.72 4.8 9.020 0.031 0.89 4.9 20.0 60.18 1.48* 3.0 60.0 4.8 9.020 0.9 7.0 9.7 66.9 7.22 4.5 3.75 0.8 7.1 145.0 100.38 0.031 0.98 1.020 0.6 47.2 10.62 0.013 0.018 0.7 66.0 10.028 0.60 5.18 1.2 1 2 3 4 5 6 2.1 145.035 66.63 0.62 1.47 4.9 9.6 23.5 2.012 0.3 8.36 2.3 21.0 15.0 6.036 0.0 2.0 60.45 4.63 0.7 66.2 438 739 790 367 448 493 287 350 398 586 370 290 4.63 0.38 0.0 24.1 145.18 1.9 5.7 66.022 0.5 0.0 18.55 0.75 0.4 13.030 0.44 13.1 145.3 3.9 21.38 0.35 4.98 23.5 10.5 1.7 145.043 0.8 2.90 13.6 23.18 0.10 1.2 2.028 0.81 5.10 1.9 7.97 0.37 0.63 0.0 17.035 0.25 0.39 0.1 0.3 C C C C C 1.85 4.031 0.0 24.93 4.53 6.1 22.0 183.9 3.11 1.0 5.20 6.8 9.1 7.53 5.4 74.020 0.0 9.0 100.38 0.80 2.0 30.0 3.5 2.40 0.2 37.1 16.5 156.28 2.21 5.7 66.38 0.4 4.020 0.93 0.62 0.2 2.0 50. h.1 18.2/4 2.0 227.016 0.1 2.0 10.2/1 2.9 50.0 227.018 0.0 60.91 3.63 0.88 0.5/0.7 159.0 10.62 0.5 43.55 0.0 2.38 1.9 5.4 0.9 7.2 10.63 0.7 66.50 0.4 45.0 6.5 8.52 5.1 18.6 8. aggregate size.4 3.9 7.0 6.5 H H H H 1.6 23.0 183.8 2.99 4.2/1 1.98 5.0 12.2 2.38 0.5 18.7 13.62 0.27 2.2 2.013 0. 0.8 14.2 37.004 0.1 15.019 0.9 7.9 20.93 0.5 4.7 0.8 13.034 26.015 0. in2 ρ’ No.027 0.470 0.62 0.2 2.3 5.6/1 2.8 7.76 H H 2.0 6.40 0.2 47.91 4.035 0.024 50.5 51.0 20.031 0.0 159.020 100.7 159.9 21.39 0.5/1.40 2.4 2.38 0.0 75.79 0.83 2.0 12.043 0.5 H H H 1. a.97 1.24 0.79 0.2 10.5 3.5 0.81 3.023 0. bars φb.87 2.8 11.1 1.031 0.0 6.36 0.9 7.5 52.028 0. 4 5 9 Beam No.015 0.0 6.63 0.8 8.8 2.79 24.8 29.47 4.7 21.0 152.62 0.020 0.013 0.38 0.0 159.85 0.5 0.0 9.08 15.4 3.0 5.5 2.98 0.9 1 11.0 85.0 5.24 5.0 5.1 0.79 0.27 13.36 2.92 0.015 0.87 11.1 0.5 0.7 9.38 0.05 8.24 0.0 13.63 3.63 0.63 0.470 0.62 0.0 12.38 0.0 6.6 18.20 1.1 2.8 10.6 134.7 145.63 0.020 100.63 0.0 10.55 0.5/3.0 10.30 3.0 3. As’: area of compression longitudinal reinforcement No.85 8.0 6 B-2-1.63 0.79 0.6/3 20x30-Plain Series 1 20x30-SFRC Series 1 20x45-SFRC Series 1 20x60-Plain Series 1 20x60-SFRC Series 1 T10x50-SFRC Series 1 T15x50-SFRC Series 1 T15x75-SFRC Series 1 T15x100-Plain Series 1 T15x100-SFRC Series 1 20x30-SFRC Series 2 20x50-SFRC Series 2 20x60-SFRC Series 2 T10x50-SFRC Series 2 T15x50-SFRC Series 2 T23x50-SFRC Series 2 7.5 H S-H 1.34 4.020 0.4 10.40 0.5 37.5 2.38 0.20 5.8 7.5 62.0 80.2 2.67 3.50 0.020 0.36 2.61 5.75 0.57 3.36 0.9 7.004 0.75 0.8 14.79 0.35 4.0 10.4 3.5 0.0 10.36 2.2 41.5 0.0 2.50 0.88 0.46 1.1 76.8 11.63 0.023 0.020 0.9 7.016 20.4 10. As’.53 5.98 0.7 66.7 21.63 0.9 4.42 5.0 60.9 7.5 1.63 0.75 5.0 60.5 0.020 100.28 2.5 4.0 5.9 7.0 10.4 15.7 319.9 19.013 0.9 7.0 12.79 0.028 0.7 1 2 1.0 5.54 6.99 8.020 60.10 1.013 0.9 21.75 0.6 25.98 1.75 0.8 11.5 4.020 0.8 3.