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The present study programme was approved by the Dean of Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences
on 10.04.2013



STUDY PROGRAMME 2013
FOR
MASTER OF SCIENCE IN HUMAN BIOLOGY



Chapter 1 Objectives
Clause 1 Objectives
The objective of the Master of Science in Human Biology is to qualify students for research at the
highest international scientific level and to enable them to critical apply existing knowledge within
the field of biomedicine.
As a minimum, the general competence profile of a Master of Science in Human Biology includes:

Knowledge
 Comprehensive factual and intuitive understanding of how the human organism functions in
health and in disease. Such understanding is based on an ability to critically discuss, assess
and put into perspective physiological, pathophysiological and pharmacological mechanisms
of adjustment and action at various levels that include the molecular, cell, organ and the
integrative system level
 Comprehensive knowledge of the original literature of their selected speciality and
considerable overall knowledge of the original literature of other sub-fields within
biomedical research
 Broad knowledge of research methods and approaches used in the field of biomedical
research
 Knowledge of relevant bioinformation tools and methods
 Knowledge of the clinical everyday life in the hospital sector
 Knowledge of relevant statistical theories and methods
 Knowledge related to the use of laboratory animals
 Comprehensive knowledge of biomedical scientific project design, execution, interpretation,
dissemination and presentation, and the ability to put such knowledge into perspective

Skills
 Have the capacity to design, execute, interpret and present experimental studies in the field
of biomedicine at a high international scientific level
 Have the ability to critically assess the research results of their peers in the biomedical
research field
 Hold a license to work with radioactive isotopes and ionizing radiation in accordance with
current legislation
 Hold a license to work with laboratory animals in accordance with current legislation
 Have the capacity to independently initiate and perform intra- and interdisciplinary
cooperative projects and to assume professional responsibilities
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 Be able to convey research-based knowledge and to communicate at a high academic level
with peers and non-specialists in the fields of biomedicine and health science

Competencies
 Has achieved considerable competence in the use of analytical skills, critical thinking and
the ability to collect/find, compound and present information
 Has achieved considerable competence with regard to the retrieval, evaluation and
summarizing of new knowledge in the fields of biomedicine and health science
 Has achieved competence with regard to controlling complex work and development
situations that are not known in advance and therefore require new solutions
 Has achieved great competence with regard to taking responsibility of continual own
professional development and specialization

Sub-clause 2. Upon completion of the training programme, students become Masters of Science
(MSc) in Human Biology and obtain the right to use such title. The corresponding Danish title is
cand. scient. i humanbiologi.
Sub-clause 3. The Master of Science in Human Biology comprises a total of 120 ECTS points.
Sub-clause 4. The Master of Science in Human Biology is affiliated with the Core of Danish
Medical Examiners (Censorkorpset for Lægeuddannelsen).


Chapter 2 Admission requirements
Clause 2 Admission requirements
A total of 40 students are annually admitted to the master's programme. To achieve admission,
students must hold a bachelor's degree in medicine, odontology, biochemistry, biology,
pharmaceutics, exercise and sport sciences or a corresponding bachelor's degree within the fields of
health science or natural science. The bachelor's degree must have been passed with a weighted
grade average of 7 or above. Furthermore, admission will be limited to applicants with English
language competence corresponding to B level knowledge or above.
Sub-clause 2. Applications will be assessed by an admission committee. Selection of the admitted
students will be made on the basis of an overall evaluation including, e.g. bachelor programme
grade average, research experience and any professionally relevant stays abroad.
Sub-clause 3. The bachelor's degree upon which applicants base their application must have been
passed within three years before the initiation of the first semester of the master's programme.
Sub-clause 4. The Admission Committee may grant exemptions from Sub-clause 3.


Chapter 3 Modules, training activities, exam activities and optional courses
Clause 3 Modules and elements
The study programme is comprised of modules which are divided into three overall categories:
health science, natural science and clinical subjects.
Sub-clause 2. Training consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory exercises, and a clinical
rotation at a hospital ward or department.
Sub-clause 3. On the third and fourth semesters of the master's programme, an experimental thesis
project must be completed. The scope of the thesis project is 50 ECTS points, cf. Clause 9.


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1
st

semester
Module 1
Week 36-45 (9 weeks)
Module 2
Week 46-04 (10 weeks)
Molecular Biology and Genetics and Advanced
Cell Biology (including Bioinformatics) –
15 ECTS – oral exam (including presentation of
written cell biology project)
Human Anatomy and Physiology –
7.5 ECTS – oral exam
Immunology and General Microbiology –
7.5 ECTS – oral exam




2
nd

semester
Module 3
Week 6-14 (9 weeks)
Module 4
Week 16-25 (10 weeks)
Pharmacology and Toxicology –
7.5 ECTS – written exam
Laboratory Animal Science–
5 ECTS – exam

Human Pathophysiology including clinical rotation 5 ECTS – oral exam

Statistics and
Data Analysis
2.5 ECTS





3
rd

semester
Module 5
Week 36-45
Module 6
Week 46-04

* Elective courses –
5ECTS
Master Thesis Project –
25 ECTS



4
th
semester
Module 7
Week 6-14
Module 8
Week 16-25
*Elective course -
5 ECTS

Master Thesis Project –
25 ECTS


* Students must select elective courses equivalent to a total of 10 ECTS.


Clause 4 Elective courses
The master's programme comprises elective courses equivalent to a total of 10 ECTS points. The
elective courses must be within the subfields of human biology. The Study Board ensures that a
number of elective courses is offered every year. Sub-clause 2. A revised list of elective courses
will be made public no later than April 1
st
and October 1
st
in the semester preceding the one in
which the courses are offered. The Study Board decides continually if elective courses shall be
offered in both the spring and autumn semester.
Sub-clause 3. Assessment of elective courses will be done in accordance with the exam types
presented in Clause 14 of the Joint Study Programme Provisions (Studieordningernes Fællesdel) of
the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences
Optional courses are graded using the 7-step grading scale or as passed//failed. External or internal
examiners may be used.
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Sub-clause 4. The Study Board may set a maximum number of students for any optional course.
Where the number of students wishing to attend an optional course exceeds the defined maximum,
students who have completed most ECTS points shall be given priority.

Danish title: Varies
English title: Varies
Admission requirements: Completed all 2
nd
semester courses and have passed all 2
nd
semester
exams
Course objective: Is described separately for each course
ECTS: 5 or 10 ECTS
Training and work forms: Lecturers, group sessions, exercises and possibly other work forms.
Assessment: Assessment of optional courses is done in accordance with the test types presented in
Clause 14 of the Joint Study Programme Provisions (Studieordningernes Fællesdel) of the Faculty
of Health Sciences
Allowed exam aids: Will be stated in the individual course description
Shall be passed by: Prior to participation in the Master's Thesis Project Exam

Clause 5 Languages
All classes and training sessions are imparted in English language.
The clinical rotation will be in English where possible and otherwise in Danish.
Sub-clause 2. The Study Board may decide that one or more optional courses are imparted in
Danish language.

Clause 6 Time limits
No later than three years after initiating his or her studies, the student shall conclude the master's
programme.
Sub-clause 2. The Study Board may grant exceptions from the time limit set out in sub-clause 1 in
case of exceptional circumstances.

Clause 7 Courses and exams
The Master of Science in Human Biology study programme comprises the following courses and
exams:

Danish course title: Kursus i molekylærbiologi og genetik
English course title: Course in Molecular Biology and Genetics
ECTS: 0
Semester: 1
st
semester
Imparted in: English
Objective: The student shall acquire a profound understanding of gene structure, expression and
regulation, and of the mechanisms behind cell differentiation
Course admission requirements: None
Teaching and study methods: Lectures and laboratory exercises
Mandatory elements: Participation in laboratory exercises and subsequent preparation of exercise
reports.
Objectives: To attain the course attestation, the student shall be able to:
 Present the theoretical molecular biological knowledge needed to understand the structure
and regulation of genes, particularly in relation to the human organism
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 Present theoretical human genetic knowledge to an extent enabling him or her to understand
the association between the gene at the molecular level and pathologies caused by gene
mutations, their diagnosis and treatment (gene therapy)
 Present the molecular biology knowledge needed to understand molecular biology issues
and basic gene technology procedures and the fundamental principles of biotechnological
production methods
 Master the practical skills needed to plan and execute fundamental gene technology
procedures
 Critically interpret molecular biological results
Course participation requirements: Course attestation is made on the basis of approved
participation records and approved exercise reports
Shall be passed by: Prior to participation in the Exam in Molecular Biology and Genetics,
Bioinformatics and Systems Biology and Advanced Cell Biology

Danish course title: Kursus i bioinformatik og systembiologi
English course title: Course in Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
ECTS: 0
Semester: 1
st
semester
Imparted in: English
Objective: Computer-based methods play a decisive role in microbiology, biotechnology and
pharmaceutical research. Major international sequence and structure data bases contain information
which may frequently replace experimental work. In other cases, the data serve to increase the yield
of the experimental resources used. The objective of the course is to build students knowledge of a
range of new methods for structure and sequence analysis
Course admission requirements: None
Teaching and study methods: Lectures and practical exercises
Mandatory elements: Participation in laboratory exercises and subsequent preparation of exercise
reports
Objectives: To attain the course attestation, the student shall be able to:
 Explain how the information in biological macro molecules such as DNA and protein may
be represented in an electronic format
 Explain how a shared evolutionary history affects DNA and protein sequence in related
organisms
 Search for data in publicly available sequence and structure data bases such as GenBank,
UniProt and PDB
 Use programs for the visualization of protein 3D structure
 Produce and critically evaluate the quality of DNA and protein alignments
Shall be passed by: Prior to participation in the Exam in Molecular Biology and Genetics,
Bioinformatics and Systems Biology and Advanced Cell Biology


Danish course title: Kursus i avanceret cellebiologi
English course title: Course in Advanced Cell Biology
ECTS: 0
Semester: 1
st
semester
Imparted in: English
Objective: To give students detailed knowledge of cell biology and insight into the methods used in
the analysis of cell structures and biological processes. Furthermore, to build basic knowledge of
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the nerve system's cells and the growth and differentiation of cells, as this is pivotal to the
understanding of conditions of the brain and nervous system
Course admission requirements: None
Teaching and study methods: Project work, lectures, laboratory exercises, literature acquisition
Mandatory elements: Participation in the presentation of articles, participation in laboratory
exercises and subsequent exercise evaluations and punctual handing-in of a written project on a
subject of the student's choice. The written project shall be prepared in English language and the
running text should not exceed 4000 words (excluding the cover page, table of contents, list of
abbreviations, list of figures, an abstract not exceeding 250 words and a reference list with a
maximum of 50 references). The project shall be written in font size 12 with line spacing set to 1.5
and shall comprise a minimum of 3 and a maximum of 12 figures and/or tables. The running text
shall consist of an introduction, a section describing the objective, another section describing the
results and a discussion section

Objectives: To attain course attestation, the student shall be able to:
 Account for the organelles of the cell, the cytoskeleton, the plasma membrane (including
transport across the membrane and endocytosis), cell adhesion molecules and the extracellular
matrix
 Account for the regulation of signal transduction, proliferation, cell death and the fundamental
elements of cancer
 Account for the structure and function of neurones and other brain cells, the structure and
function of the synapsis, synaptic transmission, action potentials, and demonstrate knowledge of
various neurotransmitters
 Prepare a written, theoretical project on a cell/molecular biology subject and present such
project orally.

Course participation approval requirements: Course attestation will be made on the basis of
participation in training sessions including approved participation in the practical exercise course,
approved participation at oral presentations as part of the literature review and on-time handing-in
of the written project
Shall be passed by: Prior to participation in the Exam in Molecular Biology and Genetics,
Bioinformatics and Systems Biology and Advanced Cell Biology

Danish exam title: Eksamen i molekylærbiologi og genetik, bioinformatik og systembiologi samt
avanceret cellebiologi
English exam title: Exam in Molecular Biology and Genetics, Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
and Advanced Cell Biology
ECTS: 15
Semester: 1
st
semester
Exam language: English
Exam registration requirements: Approved participation in Molecular Biology and Genetics,
approved participation in Advanced Cell Biology, approved participation in Bioinformatics and
System Biology and handing-in of a written project on cell biology before the provided project
deadline
To achieve the maximum grade of 12, the student shall be able to:
 Orally present his or her project and in this context compare, combine, critically discuss and
put into perspective the individual project elements
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 Explain a range of elements in cell and molecular biology including their function, objective
or mode of action
 Compare and summarize the functions of each element and provide a coherent description
of cellular and molecular biological processes including a discussion of the role and
importance of each element for the cell's or the organism's overall function
 Account for and engage in an integrative discussion of
 The human genome and the structure of genes
 Regulation of gene expression
 Genetic variation, restriction enzyme fragment length polymorphism, cytogenetics, gene
mapping, functional and positional cloning, mutations and their consequences, genomic
imprinting, genetics of sex chromosomes, multi-factorial inheritance, gene diagnostics,
and gene therapy
 Cloning and expression vectors, library screening, Southern blotting, polymerase chain
reaction (PCR) techniques, DNA sequencing, cytogenetic methods, molecular biological
methods for the detection of mutations and transgene animals
 Structural elements and hierarchies of protein structures
 Proteasome-mediated degradation
 Methods for the detection and characterization of proteins
 The protein and lipid composition and the structural organisation of biomembranes
including type of cellular organelles
 Membrane transport, including demonstration of knowledge of uniport transport of
glucose and water, co-transport via symporters and antiporters, ATP-driven pumps, non-
gated ion channels and membrane potentials
 Transport of proteins to membranes and organelles, including demonstration of
knowledge of transport of secretory proteins across the ER membrane, insertion of
proteins in the ER membrane, folding, modification and quality assessment of ER
proteins, selection of proteins for mitochondria and transport of proteins in and out of
the cell core
 Techniques for the study of protein secretion
 Fundamental mechanisms of intracellular vesicular transport
 The secretory pathway (through the ER, via the Golgi apparatus to lysosomes or plasma
membrane)
 The mechanisms behind receptor-mediated endocytosis
 The mechanisms behind lysosomal degradation
 Signal transduction, including demonstration of knowledge of the concepts of primary
and secondary messsengers and of the function and regulation of GTPases, kinases and
phosphatases
 Signalling through G protein coupled receptors, including receptors activating or
inhibiting adenylate cylases, and receptors activating phospholipase C
 Signalling which controls gene expression, including signalling via the TGF-smad
signalling pathway, the JAK-STAT pathway, receptor tyrosine kinases, and activation
and signalling via the Ras-MAPK pathway, phosphoinositides and 7TM receptors, and
signalling pathways involving signal-induced protein splitting
 Components and function of the actincytoskeleton, including actinpolymer dynamics,
formation of actin filaments, transport along actin filaments, myosin structure and
function
 Function of the actin cytoskeleton in connection with cell migration
 Structure and organisation of tubulin, and microtubule dynamics
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 Microtubule-based motor proteins and the function of microtubuli during cell division
 Structure and function of intermediary filaments
 Components of cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, including various forms of cell
adhesion molecules
 Components of the extracellular matrix
 Regulation of the cell cycle, including knowledge of cell cycle phases, cyclins and
cycline-dependant kinases
 Origins and types of stem cells
 Regulation of programmed cell death
 Cancer, including the origin of cancer, the multi-hit model, the difference between
benign and malignant tumours, metastasizing, the genetic basis for cancer, including
oncogenes and tumour suppressor proteins
 Structure and function of neurones and brain cells
 Fundamental mechanisms such as synaptic transmission and action potentials
 Structure and function of the synapsis and various neurotransmitters
 Neurotrophic factors and their role in signalling and brain functions
Exam form:One-hour oral exam consisting of a Power-Point presentation of the student's cell
biology project followed by a discussion and examination of the project and concluding with a
general examination of the student's knowledge of the curriculum.
Grade scale: 7-step grade scale
External or internal examiner: External
Exam aids allowed: None
Shall be passed by: Before the initiation of any 2
nd
semester courses

Danish course title: Kursus i human anatomi og fysiologi
English course title: Course in Human Anatomy and Systems Physiology
ECTS: 0
Semester: 1
st
semester
Objective: The anatomical part of the course includes histology. When completing the course,
students shall be able to explain the structure and function of tissue, including descriptions of cell
types and cellular structures by microscopy. Furthermore, the course comprises body anatomy
including description of organs and embryology, describing the dynamic development of the body's
structures as well as developmental defects.
Furthermore, it is the objective of the course to impart to students who have not completed a
university level course on systems physiology a series of fundamental prerequisites to the
subsequent acquisition of knowledge in a range of the master's fields of knowledge, particularly
pathophysiology and pharmacology
Course admission requirements: None
Teaching and study methods: Lecturers and class-based training
Mandatory elements: None
Objectives: The course is not mandatory
Course participation approval requirements: None
Shall be passed by: The course is not mandatory




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Danish exam title: Eksamen i human anatomi og fysiologi
English exam title: Exam in Human Anatomy and Systems Physiology
ECTS: 7.5
Semester: 1
st
semester
Exam registration requirements: None
To pass exam the student shall be able to:
 Account for various cell types
 Explain and discuss the composition of specific tissue types such as epithelial, muscle,
connective tissue and similar.
 Explain and compare the anatomy of viscera, skin and reproductive organs
 Explain and discuss the macroscopic skeleton and the neuromuscular system
 Explain embryology
 Explain and compare the structures of the nervous system, neurones, glial cells, etc.
 Account for the central nervous system
 Explain the concept of physiological homeostasis
 Explain and discuss general qualitative models for physiological control systems
 Employ such models as analytical tools to explain and compare the function of major
physiological systems, including the circulatory and respiratory systems, the gastrointestinal
system, the kidneys, the metabolism and the endocrine glands
 Explain and discuss general principles of cellular communication, including the importance
of various forms of signal molecules, cellular receptors and intracellular events leading to
impulse generation, muscle contraction or transport of matter, e.g. internal and external
secretion
 Explain selected classical examples of pathophysiological mechanisms
 Provide classical examples of the mode of action of pharmaceuticals
Exam form: 20-minute oral exam with no preparation time
Grade scale: Passed/failed
External or internal examiner: Internal
Exam aids allowed: None
Shall be passed by: Before the initiation of any 2
nd
semester courses

Danish course title: Kursus i immunologi og generel mikrobiologi
English course title: Course in Immunology and General Microbiology
ECTS: 0
Semester: 1
st
semester
Imparted in: English
Objective: The student shall acquire the knowledge needed to understand the molecular and
structural background for the integrated functions of cells and tissues in immunological recognition
and activation. Furthermore, students shall acquire knowledge and understanding of immunology in
a medical and biotechnological context sufficient for him or her to recognize, understand and act on
immunological issues when these occur throughout his or her career. Additionally, the student shall
acquire an overview of microbiology (bacteriology, virology and parasitology).
Course admission requirements: None
Teaching and study methods: Lectures, case-based training, article revision and laboratory
exercises.
Mandatory elements: Participation in case-based training, article revision and laboratory exercises
Objectives: To attain the course attestation, the student shall be able to discuss the:
 Composition of the immune response, cells and organs
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 Composition and function of the innate immune response
 Development of B and T cells
 Tissue-specific immunity
 Activation and regulation of the specific immune response
 Autoimmunity and allergy
 Tumour immunology
 Manipulation of the immune response, including vaccination
 The general composition of bacteria and the pathogenesis in selected bacterial conditions
 The general composition of virus and the pathogenesis in selected viral conditions
 The general composition of parasites and the pathogenesis in selected viral conditions
Course participation approval requirements: Approved participation in the training activities,
including approved participation in the practical exercises
Shall be passed by: Prior to participation in the exam in Immunology and General Immunology

Danish exam title: Eksamen i immunologi og generel mikrobiologi
English exam title: Exam in Immunology and General Microbiology
ECTS: 7.5
Semester: 1
st
semester
Exam language: English
Exam registration requirements: Course attestation from the course in Immunology and General
Immunology
To achieve the maximum grade of 12 the student shall be able to:
 Discuss the anatomical, biochemical and physiological composition and development of the
immune system
 Discuss the immune system's function, non-stimulated (reposing) as well as stimulated (e.g.
during an infection)
 Discuss the immune system's role in health (e.g. vaccination principles) and disease
(infectious immunology, autoimmunity etc.)
 Discuss the lymphatic system's macroscopic and microscopic anatomy
 Discuss antigen (immune) receptors' (BCR, TCR, MHC) composition and function and the
development of their diversity
 Discuss the establishment of innate and adaptive immune responses, including effector
mechanisms and long-term immunological memory
 Discuss unspecific and specific inflammation
 Discuss pathogenesis in diseases caused by immune deficiencies and immune-mediated
tissue damage (hypersensibility, autoimmunity etc.).
 Discuss the use of immunological principles in the treatment and prevention of disease
 Discuss the general composition of bacteria and the pathogenesis in selected bacterial
conditions
 Discuss the general composition of virus and the pathogenesis in selected viral conditions
 Discuss the general composition of parasites and the pathogenesis in selected viral
conditions
Exam form: Oral 20-minute exam with 20 minutes preparation time
Grade scale: 7-step grade scale
External or internal examiner: External
Exam aids allowed: All, except for external communication devices
Shall be passed by: Before the initiation of any 2
nd
semester courses
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2
nd
semester

Danish course title: Kursus i human patofysiologi
English course title: Course in Human Pathophysiology
ECTS: 0
Semester: 2
nd
semester
Imparted in: English
Objective: The overall objective is to give students insight into the various human diseases and to
relate human biology to clinical pathology, pathological anatomy and pharmacology. Particular
importance shall be attributed to the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the origin and
development of diseases and for the interaction between the various organ systems at the structural
as well as at the functional level. In contrast, only overall knowledge of disease diagnostics and
therapy are required. Furthermore, the objective of the training is to give students insight into
current pathophysiological research and an understanding of research-based assessment. The
training also serves to sharpen students' interest in and capacity to fight against disease and preserve
health through their own research, developmental and administrative efforts. Finally, the training
shall contribute to teaching the future master of Human Biology how to communicate
professionally in health science contexts
Course admission requirements: Approved completion of all 1
st
semester course elements and
passing of all 1
st
semester exams
Teaching and study methods: Lectures, research lectures, clinical sessions, practical exercises,
home assignments and integrated student-activating lectures based on clinical case stories.
Mandatory elements: Participation in practical exercises and presentation of cases
Objectives: To attain the course attestation, the student shall be able to:
 State the primary diseases and disease complexes of chosen organ systems with regard to
symptomatology and pathophysiological mechanisms and hereby associated structural
changes at organ and cell level
 Account for the normal physiological mechanisms at cell and organ levels including the
pathophysiological changes causing diseases and their development
 State the research-related aspects of the diseases of the various organ systems at the
following levels: cell-physiology, organ-physiology/pathophysiology, integrative
pathophysiology and the translational medical level, and, additionally, to describe the use of
clinical physiology/clinical biochemistry and image diagnostic modalities of disease
diagnosis
 Explain at the integrative level how disease in one organ system can affect the physiological
and pathophysiological regulation mechanisms of other organ systems and of the entire
organism
Course participation approval requirements: Course attestation on the basis of approved
participation in the training activities, including in exercises and approved case presentations
Shall be passed by: Prior to participation in the exam in Human Pathophysiology

Danish course title: Kursus i klinisk ophold
English course title: Clinical Rotation
ECTS: 0
Semester: 2
nd
semester
Imparted in: English/Danish
Objective: The objective of the course is to give students knowledge of direct contact with patients
and hospital staff from a one-week clinical rotation
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Course admission requirements: Approved completion of all 1
st
semester course elements and
passing of all 1
st
semester exams
Teaching and study methods: Introductory lectures and stay at hospital wards/departments
Mandatory elements: Attendance at lectures and hospital wards/departments
Objectives: To attain course attestation, the student shall be able - in general terms - to:
 State the overall treatment principles of a given disease
 Describe the use of clinical and paraclinical tests/examinations associated with a given
disease
 Account for principles of communication with patients and relatives
Course participation approval requirements: 80% participation at training activities and 100%
attendance at hospital departments/wards
Shall be passed by: Prior to exam in Human Pathophysiology

Danish exam title: Eksamen i human patofysiologi
English exam title: Exam in Human Pathophysiology
ECTS: 15
Semester: 2
nd
semester
Exam language: English
Exam registration requirements: Course attestation from the course on Human Pathophysiology
To achieve the maximum grade of 12, the student shall be able to:
 Explain the primary diseases and disease complexes of chosen organ systems with regard to
symptomatology and pathophysiological mechanisms and hereby associated structural
changes at organ and cell level
 State the overall treatment principles of a given disease
 Compare the normal physiological mechanisms at cell and organ levels with the
pathophysiological changes causing diseases and their development
 Account for the research-related aspects of the diseases of the various organ systems at the
following levels: cell-physiology, organ-physiology/pathophysiology, integrative
pathophysiology and the translational medical level, and describe the use of clinical
physiology/clinical biochemistry and image diagnostic modalities of disease diagnosis
 Discuss - at the integrative level - how disease in one organ system can affect the
physiological and pathophysiological regulation mechanisms of other organ systems and of
the entire organism.
Exam form: Oral 50-minute exam with 30 minutes preparation time
Grade scale: 7-step grade scale
External or internal examiner: External
Exam aids allowed: All, except for external communication devices
Shall be passed by: Prior to thesis project initiation

Danish course title: Kursus i farmakologi og toksikologi
English course title: Course in Pharmacology and Toxicology
ECTS: 0
Semester: 2
nd
semester
Imparted in: English
Objective: To give students an understanding of molecular pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and
pharmacodynamics including detailed insight into drug effect and side-effects. To achieve
knowledge about each therapeutic group and its effects. To obtain knowledge of toxicology and
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poisoning caused by pharmacological treatment and to avoid such poisoning, and to build a capacity
to assess the efficacy and any toxicities of new medicinal products
Course admission requirements: Approved completion of all 1
st
semester course elements and
passing of all 1
st
semester exams
Teaching and study methods: Lectures, laboratory exercises and theoretical exercises
Mandatory elements: Participation in the practical course and preparation of assignments and
reports
Objectives: To attain the subject attestation, the student shall be able to:
 Account for general pharmacodynamic principles
 Account for the action mechanisms of pharmaceuticals
 Describe the therapeutic potential and adverse event profile of pharmaceuticals
 Describe the main elements involved in the development of pharmaceuticals, including in
vitro studies, animal studies and clinical studies
 Account for toxic reactions to pharmaceuticals
Course participation approval requirements: Approved participation in training activities and
approval of assignments and reports
Shall be passed by: Prior to participation in the exam on Pharmacology and Toxicology

Danish exam title: Eksamen i farmakologi og toksikologi
English exam title: Exam in Pharmacology and Toxicology
ECTS: 7.5
Semester: 2
nd
semester
Exam language: English
Exam registration requirements: Course approval attestation from Course in Pharmacology and
Toxicology
To achieve the maximum grade of 12, the student shall be able to:
 Discuss the overall principles of pharmaceutical absorption, distribution biotransformation
and excretion
 Explain the mathematical principles behind plasma concentration development in
pharmaceutical dosage
 Discuss the principles behind pharmaceutical-receptor binding including the dose-response
curve for agonists, antagonists and partial agonists.
 Employ pharmacodynamic and kinetic principles in the assessment of therapeutic and
adverse effects of pharmaceuticals
 Explain the importance of external factors on the effects of pharmaceuticals (polymorphy,
social factors, age, disease)
 Discuss the main therapeutic groups to which the drugs of the drugs list belong, which
includes their known or presumed action mechanism at the molecular and cellular level and
the primary side effects.
 Use the acquired knowledge about each main therapeutic group in the assessment of any
given pharmaco-therapy, e.g. in collaboration with medical staff
 Discuss the primary toxicological treatment principles by reference to relevant examples
 Perform toxicological assessments in connection with the use of pharmaceuticals as well as
chemicals on the basis of concepts as accumulated dose-adverse effect graph, toxic and
therapeutic index
 Use the acquired toxicological knowledge in the assessment of new drugs and products
aimed at preventing poisoning
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 Plan, perform and analyse fundamental pharmacology and toxicology studies.
 Explain different phases in the development of a pharmaceutical - from idea to finished
medicinal product, including principles and methods used to discover and develop
pharmaceuticals, particularly in the field of biotechnology
Exam form: 4-hour written exam
Grade scale: 7-step grade scale
External or internal examiner: External
Exam aids allowed: Alphabetical list of pharmaceuticals (will be handed out at the exam) and own
calculator without stored data
Shall be passed by: Prior to thesis project initiation


Danish course title: Kursus i forsøgsdyrskundskab
English course title: Course in Laboratory Animal Science
ECTS: 0
Semester: 2
nd
semester
Imparted in: English
Objective: Upon completion of the course in Laboratory Animal Science, the student shall have
acquired knowledge about the ethical aspects and legislation concerning animal studies, general
laboratory animal science and about theoretical and practical conditions of importance to the
planning, execution and assessment of animal studies. The course includes practical exercises in the
handling of laboratory animals and a range of interventions in sedated laboratory animals. Upon
completion of the course and passed exam, the student is qualified to apply for an authorization to
perform animal studies and can contribute to the planning and execution of animal studies.
Course admission requirements: None
Teaching and study methods: Lectures and practical exercises involving live animals
Mandatory elements: Practical exercises in the handling of laboratory animals including
interventions in sedated animals
Objectives:
To attain course attestation, the student shall be able to:
 Account for the legislation on laboratory animals and animal studies
 Provide a basic account of laboratory animal biology
 Account for the importance of animals in biomedical research
 Explain how research may be done while taking into account to the greatest extent possible the
well-being of the laboratory animals
Course participation approval requirements: Approved participation in the training activities,
including approved participation in the practical exercises
Shall be passed by: Prior to participation in the exam on Laboratory Animal Science

Danish exam title: Eksamen i forsøgsdyrskundskab
English exam title: Exam in Laboratory Animal Science
ECTS: 5 ECTS
Semester: 2
nd
semester
Exam language: English
Exam registration requirements: Course attestation from the course of Laboratory Animal
Science
To pass the exam the student shall be able to:
 Account for well-being in laboratory animals
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 Reproduce the statutory rules and provisions on laboratory animals and studies
 Account for the comparative biology of frequently used laboratory animal species
 Describe ethics in animal studies
 Explain animal models and study design
 Account for gene-modified laboratory animals as models
 Describe the importance of environmental factors for homeostasis and study results
 Account for the handling and administration of drugs and for blood sampling
 Account for working environment in the animal stables - allergies and zoonoses
 Describe diseases and health control in laboratory animals
 Describe the genetics and standardization of laboratory animals
 Account for principles for breeding of laboratory animals
 Explain anaesthesia, analgesia and euthanasia
 Account for the principles of experimental surgery
 Describe pharmaceutical development and GLP
 Account for the planning, execution and publication of experimental animal studies
 Account for the alternatives to animal studies
 Explain experimental and humane endpoints
Exam form: 2-hour written exam
Grade scale: Passed/failed
External or internal examiner: Internal
Exam aids allowed: None
Shall be passed by: Prior to the Master's thesis project exam

Danish course title: Kursus i statistik og dataanalyse for humanbiologer
English course title: Course in Statistics and Data Analysis for Human Biologists
ECTS: 2.5
Semester: 2
nd
semester
Imparted in: English
Objective: Achieve an understanding of the significance of statistics on own science. Fundamental
understanding of statistically based conclusions, data structures and statistical methods. Be able to
extract information from statistical software, formulate statistical conclusions and calculate sample
sizes in connection with the planning of studies. Introduction to statistical software
Course admission requirements:
Teaching and study methods: Lecturers and it-exercices
Mandatory elements: Participation in lectures and it-exercises
Objectives: To achieve course attestation, the student shall be able to:
 Test simple descriptive calculations and descriptive plots
 Discuss statistical concepts such as p-value, regression, standard deviation, standard error,
test, correlation, median, mean, boxplot, level of significance and statistical interaction
 Discuss the results of simple statistical analyses
 Test simple statistical analyses by use of statistical software
Course participation approval requirements: Course attestation on the basis of approved
participation in training activities
Shall be passed by: Prior to the Master's thesis project exam


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Danish course title: Master's Thesis
English course title: Master’s thesis
ECTS: 0
Semester: 3
rd
and 4
th
semesters
Imparted in: English
Objective: Under the supervision of a researcher to critically acquire knowledge about scientific
method and to apply such knowledge for the solution of a scientific problem of the student's own
choice within the field of health science
Course admission requirements: Approved completion of all 2
nd
semester course elements
Teaching and study methods: Supervised experimental laboratory work
Mandatory elements: None
Objectives: The course is not mandatory
Course participation approval requirements: None
Shall be passed by: The course is not mandatory

Danish exam title: Master's thesis project exam
English exam title: Exam in master’s thesis
ECTS: 50 ECTS
Semester: 4
th
semester
Exam language: English
Exam registration requirements: The master's thesis project exam shall conclude the training
programme
To achieve the maximum grade of 12, the student shall be able to:
 Select and process a well-defined and clear health science problem of research relevance
 Convey the work in writing as well as orally at a high international academic level
 Critically discuss, assess, conclude and put into perspective own and others' research results
at a high international scientific level while including relevant literature
Exam form: Oral 60-minute exam consisting of 25 minutes of oral presentation of the master's
thesis using AV equipment followed by 30 minutes of scientific discussion focussing on the issues
of the thesis
Grade scale: 7-step grade scale
External or internal examiner: External
Exam aids allowed: None
Shall be passed by: Before concluding the Master's Programme

Clause 9 Master's thesis
In the third and fourth semesters, the student prepares a master's thesis. The thesis shall demonstrate
the student's ability to formulate, analyse, qualify, discuss and assess issues within a relevant, well-
defined subject area.
Sub-clause 2. The master's thesis shall be prepared in accordance with the approved thesis
agreement and shall correspond to approx. 50-60 A4 pages written in Times New Roman 12 points
with line spacing set to 1.5 lines. The master's thesis shall contain a summary not exceeding one A4
page. The summary shall sum up the thesis problem, the methods applied, the main results and,
where relevant, also include a discussion and conclusion. The summary may be in Danish or
English language. The summary forms part of the overall assessment of the master's thesis.
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Sub-clause 3. At the assessment of the master's thesis, both the academic contents and the student's
ability to convey such contents shall be taken into consideration. The academic contents shall carry
more weight during the assessment.
Sub-clause 4. The master's thesis corresponds to 45 ECTS-point.

Clause 10 Commencement
This study programme is effective as from 1 September 2013 and shall be applied to any students
enrolled as from that date.