4, November 2011
210
Heat Generation and Thermal Radiation Effects Combined With Soret
Effect on an Unsteady Flow over a Porous Plate
M. A. Samad
1
, Sajid Ahmed
2
1
Department of Mathematics, University of Dhaka, Dhaka1000, Bangladesh.
2
Institute of Natural Sciences, United International University, Dhaka1209, Bangladesh
1
Corresponding Author: mdabduss@yahoo.com
Abstract
The present investigation comprises of unsteady two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic heat and
mass transfer free convection flow along a porous plate in presence of magnetic field with radiation
and Soret effect. The problem has been analyzed by applying NachtsheimSwigert shooting iteration
technique along with sixth order RungeKutta integration scheme. The nonlinear partial differential
equations governing the flow field occurring in the problem have been transformed to dimensionless
nonlinear ordinary differential equations by introducing suitably selected similarity variables. The
ensuing equations are simultaneously solved by applying numerical iteration scheme for velocity,
temperature and concentration fields. The results are displayed graphically in the form of velocity,
temperature and concentration profiles. The corresponding skinfriction coefficient and Nusselt
number which are of physical and engineering interest are displayed in tabular form. Several
important parameters such as the Prandtl number (Pr), radiation parameter (N), magnetic field
parameter (M), heat source parameter (Q), suction parameter (
0
v ), time dependency parameter (n)
and Soret number (So) etc. are confronted. The effects of these parameters on the velocity,
temperature and concentration profiles are studied. A comparison of the present results is made with
Samad and Rahman (2006).
Key Words: MHD, Unsteady Flow, Heat Generation, Thermal Radiation.
Introduction
The problems for time dependent flows
are very important in nature. In recent
years a number of works have been done
on unsteady flows and on porous plates.
These types of models have numerous
applications in today’s industrial and
other scientific worlds. Recently, Samad
and Rahman (2006) investigated thermal
radiation interaction with unsteady MHD
flow past a vertical porous plate immersed
in a porous medium. Radiation effects on
free convection flow of a gas past a semi
infinite flat plate was studied by
Soundalgekar and Takhar (1987). Hossain
and Takhar (1996) studied the effect of
radiation using the Rosseland diffusion
approximation on mixed convection along
a vertical plate with uniform free stream
velocity and surface temperature. Ali et
al. (1984) studied radiation effect on
natural convection flow over a vertical
surface in a gray gas. Followed by Ali et
al. Mansour (1990) studied the interaction
of mixed convection with thermal
radiation in laminar boundary flow over a
horizontal, continuous moving sheet with
suction/ injection. Meanwhile the same
problem considering magnetic effect
taking into account the binary chemical
reaction and Soret Dufour effects was
studied by Alabraba et al. (1992).
The transient free convection flow past a
semiinfinite vertical plate by an integral
method was first studied by Seigal (1958).
Subsequently numerous researchers have
investigated free convection flow past a
semiinfinite vertical plate in different
forms. Raptis and Perdikis (1985) studied
numerically free convection flow through
Canadian Journal on Science and Engineering Mathematics Vol. 2 No. 4, November 2011
211
a porous medium bounded by a semi
infinite vertical porous plate. Sattar
(1992) studied the same problem and
obtained analytical solution by the
perturbation technique adopted by Singh
and Dikshit (1988). Sattar et al. (2000)
studied unsteady free convection flow
along a vertical porous plate embedded in
a porous medium. Anghel et al. (2000)
investigated the Dufour and Soret effects
on free convection boundary layer over a
vertical surface embedded in a porous
medium. Postelnicu (2004) studied
numerically the influence of a magnetic
field on heat and mass transfer by natural
convection from vertical surfaces in
porous media considering Soret and
Dufour effects. Alam and Rahman (2005)
investigated the Dufour and Soret effects
on steady mixed convection flow past a
semiinfinite vertical porous flat plate in a
porous medium with variable suction.
This present work investigated the heat
generation and thermal radiation
interaction combined with Soret effect on
an absorbing emitting fluid permitted by a
transversely applied magnetic field past a
moving vertical porous plate embedded in
a porous medium with time dependent
suction, temperature and concentration.
Mathematical Formulation
We consider the model of an unsteady
MHD free convection flow of a viscous,
incompressible and electrically
conducting fluid along a vertical porous
flat plate under the influence of uniform
magnetic field with heat generation. The
flow is taken along the xdirection, which
is to be in the upward direction along the
plate and yaxis normal to the plate.
Initially it is assumed that the plate and
the fluid are at a constant temperature
∞
T
at all points. At time 0 > t the plate is
assumed to be moving in the upward
direction with the velocity ) (t U and there
is a suction velocity ) (
0
t v taken to be a
function of time, the temperature of the
plate raised to ) (t T where
∞
> T t T ) ( . The
plate is considered to be of infinite length,
thus all derivatives with respect to x
vanish and so the physical variables are
functions of y and t only. The flow
configuration and the system of
coordinates are shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 1: Flow configuration and the
coordinates system.
The fluid is considered to be gray;
absorbing emitting radiation but non
scattering medium and the Rosseland
approximation is used to describe the
radiative heat flux in the xdirection is
considered negligible in comparison to
the ydirection. Boussinesq and boundary
layer approximations are assumed to hold
in this case.
The following are the governing
equations of the problem using the Darcy
Forchhemier model:
Continuity equation:
0 =
∂
∂
y
v
(1)
Momentum equation:
( )
2
2
2
2
u
k
b
u
k
u
B
T T g
y
u
y
u
v
t
u
− − −
− +
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
∞
υ
ρ
σ
β υ
(2)
) (
0
t v
) (t U
T
∞
T
C
∞
C
∞
U
v
u
y
x
Canadian Journal on Science and Engineering Mathematics Vol. 2 No. 4, November 2011
212
Energy equation:
( )
y
q
c
T T
c
Q
y
u
c y
T
y
T
v
t
T
r
p p
p
∂
∂
− − +


¹

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
∞
ρ ρ
υ
α
1
0
2
2
2
(3)
Concentration equation:
2
2
2
2
y
T
D
y
C
D
y
C
v
t
C
T m
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
(4)
where (u, v) are the components of
velocity along the x and y directions
respectively, t is the time, υ is the
kinematic viscosity, ρ is the density of
the fluid, g is the gravitational
acceleration, β is the coefficient of
volume expansion, B is the magnetic
induction, T and
∞
T are the temperature
of the fluid within the boundary layer and
in the free stream respectively, σ is the
electric conductivity, α is the thermal
diffusivity,
p
c is the specific heat at
constant pressure, k is the permeability of
the porous medium, C and
∞
C are the
concentration of the fluid within the
boundary layer and in the free stream
respectively,
m
D is the chemical
molecular diffusivity,
0
Q is the
volumetric rate of heat generation, and
0
T
k D
D
T m
T
= , with
T
k is thermal diffusion
ratio, and
0
T is the mean temperature.
The boundary conditions corresponding to
the problem are as follows:
0
as , , 0
0 at
) ( ), (
), ( ), (
0
>
¦
)
¦
`
¹
∞ → = = =
=
)
`
¹
= =
= =
∞ ∞
t
y C C T T u
y
t C C t T T
t v v t U u
(5)
The radiative heat flux
r
q is simplified by
Rosseland approximation as,
y
T
q
r
∂
∂
− =
4
1
1
3
4
κ
σ
(6)
where
1
σ is the Stefan Boltzmann
constant and
1
κ is the mean absorption
coefficient. Here
4
T can be expressed as
a linear function of temperature as the
temperature differences within the flow
are sufficiently small. It can be
accomplished by expanding
4
T in a
Taylor Series about
∞
T and neglecting
higherorders, thus,
4 3 4
3 4
∞ ∞
− ≈ T T T T
(7)
Using the equation (6) and (7) we get
from (3),
( )
2
2
1
3
1 0
2
2
2
4
y
T
c
T
T T
c
Q
y
u
c y
T
y
T
v
t
T
p p
p
∂
∂
+ − +


¹

\

∂
∂
+
∂
∂
=
∂
∂
+
∂
∂
∞
∞
κ ρ
σ
ρ
υ
α
(8)
In light of Sattar and Hossain (1992) let
us introduce a similarity parameter δ as
) (t δ δ = (9)
such that δ is a length scale.
With this similarity parameter, a
similarity variable is then introduced as
δ
η
y
= (10)
In terms of this length scale, a convenient
solution of the equation (1) can be taken
as,
0
) ( v t v v
δ
υ
− = =
where
0
v is the suction parameter, which
is positive for suction and negative for
injection.
) (t U , ) (t T and ) (t C are now considered to
have the following form [Sattar and
Hossain (1992)]:
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
− + =
− + =
=
∞ ∞
∞ ∞
+
n
n
n
C C C t C
T T T t T
U t U
2
* 0
2
* 0
2 2
* 0
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) (
δ
δ
δ
(11)
Canadian Journal on Science and Engineering Mathematics Vol. 2 No. 4, November 2011
213
We take n as a nonnegative integer
and
0
U ,
0
T and
0
C are respectively the
free stream velocity, mean temperature
and mean concentration.
Here
0
*
δ
δ
δ = , with
0
δ is the value of δ
at
0
t t = .
With the intention to make the equations
(2), (8) and (4) dimensionless, the
following transformations are introduced:
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
− + =
− + =
= =
∞ ∞
∞ ∞
+
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) (
2
* 0
2
* 0
2 2
* 0
η φ δ
η θ δ
η δ η
n
n
n
C C C C
T T T T
f U f t U u
(12)
Using these transformations we obtain the
following system of nonlinear ordinary
differential equations [following Sattar et
al. (2000), Sattar and Maleque (2000)]:
0 )
1
4 4 ( ) 2 (
2 1
0
= − + +
+ + − ′ + + ′ ′
f
Da
Fs
Gr f
Da
M n f v f
θ
η
(13)
0
4 3
Pr 3
) 4 (
4 3
Pr 3
4 3
Pr 3
) 2 (
2
0
= ′
+
+ −
+
− ′
+
+ + ′ ′
f Ec
N
N
Q n
N
N
N
N
v
θ
θ η θ
(14)
0 4 ) 2 (
0
= ′ ′ + − ′ + + ′ ′ θ φ φ η φ SoSc nSc Sc v
(15)
where
0
2
0 0
) (
U
T T g
Gr
υ
δ β
∞
−
= is the local
Grashof number,
ρυ
δ σ
2 2
B
M = is the local
magnetic parameter,
α
υ
= Pr is the Prandtl
number,
2
δ
k
Da = is the local Darcy
number,
υ
δ
0
Re
U
= is the local Reynolds
number,
δ
b
Fs = is the Forchhemier
number and Re
2 2
0
1
+


¹

\

=
n
b
Fs
δ
δ
δ
is the
modified Forchhemier number,
3
1
1
4
∞
=
T
k
N
σ
κ
is the radiation parameter,
0
0
1
U c
Q
Q
p
ρ
δ
= is the heat source
parameter, Re
1
Q Q = is the modified heat
source parameter,
m
D
Sc
υ
= is the Schmidt
number and
) (
) (
0
0
∞
∞
−
−
=
C C
T T D
So
T
υ
is the Soret
number.
The boundary conditions corresponding to
the above equations for 0 > t are:
)
`
¹
∞ → = = =
= = = =
η φ θ
η φ θ
as 0 , 0 , 0
0 at 1 , 1 , 1
f
f
(16)
Numerical Computation
We have applied NachtsheimSwigert
(1965) shooting iteration technique along
with the sixth order RungeKutta
integration scheme to obtain the
numerical solutions of the nonlinear
ordinary differential equations (13)(15)
under the boundary conditions (16). A
step size of 01 . 0 = ∆η has been chosen to
satisfy the convergence criterion of
6
10
−
in
all cases. The maximum value of η was
selected in accordance with the values of
each group of parameters
1 0
, , , , Pr, , , , Q Sc So N Gr n M v to satisfy the
accuracy requirement.
Canadian Journal on Science and Engineering Mathematics Vol. 2 No. 4, November 2011
214
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
0.01
0.005
0.001
f
η
Vo = 1.0, Pr = 0.71, M = 2.0,
N = 0.5, Sc = 0.22, Ec = 1.0
Gr= +10
Fig. 2: Velocity profiles for various step
sizes.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
η
θ
0.01
0.005
0.001
Vo = 1.0, Pr = 0.71, M = 2.0
N = 0.5, Sc = 0.22, Ec = 1.0
Gr = +10
Fig. 3: Temperature profiles for various step
sizes.
The code has been verified by taking
three different step sizes as 01 . 0 = ∆η ,
005 . 0 = ∆η , and 001 . 0 = ∆η , which were
found to be in excellent agreement among
them (Fig. 2 and Fig. 3).
Results and Discussion
To discuss the results of this model, the
numerical solutions are illustrated in the
form of nondimensional velocity,
temperature and concentration profiles.
Large values (+ve and ve) of Grashof
number (Gr) have been considered due to
natural convection.
Effect of suction parameter (
0
v ) on the
velocity, temperature and concentration
profiles are shown in Fig. 4, Fig. 5, and
Fig. 6 respectively. We observe that with
the increase of suction parameter the
velocity profile decreases. This is because
due to increasing suction the matters are
removed from the flow field in large
amount and thus reducing the velocity of
the flow field (Samad and Rahman,
2006). This also stabilizes the flow from
getting turbulent. A similar event happens
for the temperature and concentration
profiles in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6. In the Fig. 7,
Fig. 8 and Fig. 9 the effects of Prandtl
number is shown. We see that with the
increase of the Prandtl number the
velocity profiles decrease for 10 + = Gr and
increase for 10 − = Gr . The temperature
profiles decrease with the increase of the
Prandtl number. The concentration
profiles increase with the increase of the
Prandtl number.
The effect of the radiation parameter N is
demonstrated in the Fig. 10, Fig. 11, and
Fig. 12. The velocity profiles decrease
with the increase of the radiation
parameter N for 10 + = Gr and increase
for 10 − = Gr . The temperature profiles
decrease with the increase of N. For the
large values of N (for example N = 5.0),
the thermal boundary layer reduces
immensely. So, if we allow radiation in
the flow field then controlling the
temperature as well as the fluid flow
becomes a lot easier. This has large
application in industries where a high
temperature is a byproduct. The
concentration profiles increase with the
increase of N. The effects of magnetic
field parameter M on velocity,
temperature and concentration profiles are
shown in Fig. 13, Fig. 14, Fig. 15
respectively. The velocity curves in Fig.
13 show that the rate of fluid flow is
significantly reduced with the increase of
magnetic field parameter M. The oblique
magnetic field opposes the transport
phenomena. The Lorenz force variation
happens with the variation of the
magnetic field parameter M and the
Canadian Journal on Science and Engineering Mathematics Vol. 2 No. 4, November 2011
215
increase of the Lorenz force produces
more resistance to the transport
phenomena (Ishak et al. 2008).
The effects of the values of n are shown
in the Fig. 16, Fig. 17, and Fig. 18. The
values of n indicate the time dependency
of the flow. When n = 0, it means the
flow is steady. With the increase of the
values of n the velocity profiles, the
temperature profiles and the concentration
profiles decrease. This indicates that time
dependency is a very important feature of
this flow. The effect of the values of heat
generation parameter Q is illustrated in
the Fig. 19, Fig. 20, and Fig. 21. When
heat is generated in the flow field, the
flow activities increase. We see that with
the increase of the heat generation
parameter Q the velocity and the
temperature profiles increase in the Fig.
19 and Fig. 20. This is because of the fact
that soaring heat contributes to the
increase of the velocity and thermal
boundary layer thickness. But the
concentration profiles decrease with the
increase of the heat generation parameter
as shown in Fig. 21.
In the Fig. 22, Fig. 23 and Fig. 24 the
effects of the Soret number So are
demonstrated. The velocity and the
temperature profiles do not show any
difference due to the variation of the
values of Soret number. On the other hand
as the Soret number is related to the mass
transfer of the flow, the concentration
profiles show a large amount of variation.
In the Fig. 24 we see that with the
increase of the Soret number So, the
concentration profiles increase. Thus in
order to affect the concentration without
changing the velocity or the temperature
varying the Soret number So would be
fine.
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
f
η
Pr = 7.0, M = 1.0, Q = 1.0,
N = 1.0, Sc = 1.0, Ec = 5.0
Gr = +10
Vo = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0
Gr= 10
Vo = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0
Fig. 4: Velocity profiles for various values of
0
v .
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
θ
η
Pr = 7.0, M = 1.0, Q = 1.0,
N = 1.0, Sc = 1.0, Ec = 1.0
Gr = +10
Vo = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0
Fig. 5: Temperature profiles for various values of
0
v .
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
φ
η
Pr = 7.0, M = 1.0, Q = 1.0,
N = 1.0, Sc = 1.0, Ec = 1.0
Gr = +10
Vo = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0
Fig. 6: Concentration profiles for various values
of
0
v .
Canadian Journal on Science and Engineering Mathematics Vol. 2 No. 4, November 2011
216
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
f
η
Vo = 1.0, M = 1.0, Q = 1.0,
N = 1.0, Sc = 1.0, Ec = 1.0
Gr= 10
Pr = 0.10, 0.71, 1.0, 7.0, 10
Gr= +10
Pr = 0.10, 0.71, 1.0, 7.0, 10
Fig. 7: Velocity profiles for various values of Pr .
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
θ
η
Vo = 1.0, M = 1.0, Q = 1.0,
N = 1.0, Sc = 1.0, Ec = 1.0
Gr= +10
Pr = 0.10, 0.71, 1.0, 7.0, 10
Fig. 8: Temperature profiles for various values of
Pr .
0 0.25 0.5 0.75
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
φ
η
Vo = 1.0, M = 1.0, Q = 1.0,
N = 1.0, Sc = 1.0, Ec = 1.0
Gr= +10
Pr = 0.10, 0.71, 1.0, 7.0, 10
Fig. 9: Concentration profiles for various values
of Pr .
0 0.5 1 1.5
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
f
η
Vo = 1.0, M = 1.0, Q = 1.0,
Pr = 7.0, Sc = 1.0, Ec = 1.0
Gr = +10
N = 0.01, 0.10, 0.50, 1.0, 5.0
Gr = 10
N = 0.01, 0.10, 0.50, 1.0, 5.0
Fig. 10: Velocity profiles for various values of N .
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
θ
η
Vo = 1.0, M = 1.0, Q = 1.0,
Pr = 7.0, Sc = 1.0, Ec = 1.0
Gr = +10
N = 0.01, 0.10, 0.50, 1.0, 5.0
Fig. 11: Temperature profiles for various values
of N .
0 0.25 0.5
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
φ
η
Vo = 1.0, M = 1.0, Q = 1.0,
Pr = 7.0, Sc = 1.0, Ec = 1.0
Gr = +10
N = 0.01, 0.10, 0.50, 1.0, 5.0
Fig. 12: Concentration profiles for various values
of N .
Canadian Journal on Science and Engineering Mathematics Vol. 2 No. 4, November 2011
217
0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
f
η
Vo = 1.0, Pr = 0.71, Q = 1.0,
N = 0.5, Sc = 1.0, Ec = 1.0
Gr= +10
M = 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0
Gr= 10
M = 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0
Fig. 13: Velocity profiles for various values of M .
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
θ
η
Vo = 1.0, Pr = 0.71, Q = 1.0,
N = 0.5, Sc = 1.0, Ec = 1.0
Gr= 10
M = 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0
Fig. 14: Temperature profiles for various values
of M .
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
φ
η
Vo = 1.0, Pr = 0.71, Q = 1.0,
N = 0.5, Sc = 1.0, Ec = 1.0
Gr= 10
M = 0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0
Fig. 15: Concentration profiles for various values
of M .
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
f
η
Vo = 1.0, Pr = 0.71, Q = 1.0,
N = 0.5, Sc = 1.0, Ec = 1.0
Gr= +10
n = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0
Gr= 10
n = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0
Fig. 16: Velocity profiles for various values of n .
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
θ
η
Vo = 1.0, Pr = 0.71, Q = 1.0,
N = 0.5, Sc = 1.0, Ec = 1.0
Gr= +10
n = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0
Fig. 17: Temperature profiles for various values
of n .
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
φ
η
Vo = 1.0, Pr = 0.71, Q = 1.0,
N = 0.5, Sc = 1.0, Ec = 1.0
Gr= +10
n = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0
Fig. 18: Concentration profiles for various values
of n .
Canadian Journal on Science and Engineering Mathematics Vol. 2 No. 4, November 2011
218
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
f
η
Vo = 1.0, Pr = 0.71, M = 2.0,
N = 2.0, Sc = 0.22, Ec = 1.0
Gr= +10
Q= 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0
Gr= 10
Q= 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0
Fig. 19: Velocity profiles for various values of Q .
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
θ
η
Vo = 1.0, Pr = 0.71, M = 2.0,
N = 2.0, Sc = 0.22, Ec = 1.0
Gr= +10
Q= 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0
Fig. 20: Temperature profiles for various values
of Q .
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
φ
η
Vo = 1.0, Pr = 0.71, M = 2.0,
N = 2.0, Sc = 0.22, Ec = 1.0
Gr= +10
Q= 0.0, 2.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0
Fig. 21: Concentration profiles for various values
of Q .
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
f
η
Vo = 1.0, Pr = 0.71, M = 2.0,
N = 0.05, Sc = 0.22, Q = 5.0
Gr= +10
So = 0.08, 0.4, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0
Gr= 10
So = 0.08, 0.4, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0
Fig. 22: Velocity profiles for various values of So .
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
θ
η
Vo = 1.0, Pr = 0.71, M = 2.0,
N = 0.05, Sc = 0.22, Q = 5.0
Gr= +10
So = 0.08, 0.4, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0
Fig. 23: Temperature profiles for various values
of So .
2 3 4
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
0.12
0.14
φ
η
Vo = 1.0, Pr = 0.71, M = 2.0,
N = 0.05, Sc = 0.22, Q = 5.0
Gr= +10
So = 0.08, 0.4, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0
Fig. 24: Concentration profiles for various values
of So .
Canadian Journal on Science and Engineering Mathematics Vol. 2 No. 4, November 2011
219
Table 1: Skinfriction coefficients
f
C for
different values of
0
v for Pr = 0.71, Ec =
0.2, N = 0.5, M = 0.5, n = 1.0, So = 1.0.
0
v Gr
with Q =
0.0
with Q =
2.0
Samad et
al. 2006
0.0 10 2.02397 1.93645 2.0239
0.5 10 2.20140 2.10787 2.20139
1.0 10 2.39637 2.29712 2.39638
2.0 10 2.84176 2.73247 2.84188
0.0 10 6.16329 6.28518 6.16298
0.5 10 6.51235 6.64218 6.51201
1.0 10 6.87308 7.00983 6.87269
2.0 10 7.62299 7.76993 7.62243
Table 2: Skinfriction coefficients
f
C for
different values of
0
v = 0.5, Gr = 10, Pr =
0.71, Ec = 0.2, n = 1.0, So = 1.0.
M N
with Q =
0.0
with Q =
2.0
Samad et
al. 2006
0.0 0.5 2.11352 2.01778 2.11351
1.5 0.5 2.37177 2.28238 2.37175
3.0 0.5 2.61503 2.53124 2.61501
5.0 0.5 2.91939 2.84212 2.91936
0.5 0.01 1.77483 1.76620 1.71445
0.5 0.10 1.93142 1.87832 1.92589
0.5 0.50 2.20140 2.10787 2.20139
0.5 1.0 2.32428 2.22053 2.32422
Table 3: Rate of heat transfer
u
N for
different values of M and N for Pr = 0.71,
Ec = 0.2, N = 0.5, M = 0.5, n = 1.0, So =
1.0.
0
v Gr
with Q =
0.0
with Q =
2.0
Samad et
al. 2006
0.0 10 0.96751 0.75644 0.96755
0.5 10 1.01869 0.81023 1.01875
1.0 10 1.07175 0.86629 1.07183
2.0 10 1.18321 0.98468 1.18337
0.0 10 0.84112 0.61457 0.84126
0.5 10 0.88633 0.66218 0.88650
1.0 10 0.93369 0.71244 0.93390
2.0 10 1.03479 0.82057 1.03513
Table 4: Rate of heat transfer
u
N for
different values of M and N for
0
v = 0.5,
Gr = 10, Pr = 0.71, Ec = 0.2, n = 1.0, So
= 1.0.
M N
with Q =
0.0
with Q =
2.0
Samad et
al. 2006
0.0 0.5 1.01988 0.81143 1.01995
1.5 0.5 1.01630 0.80782 1.01636
3.0 0.5 1.01273 0.80421 1.01279
5.0 0.5 1.00805 0.79945 1.011811
0.5 0.01 0.25708 0.24223 0.17387
0.5 0.10 0.51828 0.42120 0.51118
0.5 0.50 1.01869 0.81023 1.01875
0.5 1.0 1.28084 1.02057 1.28088
Conclusion
In this work we have investigated the heat
generation and thermal radiation
interaction effects with unsteady MHD
flow past a moving porous plate
immersed in a porous medium. From the
studies above we can derive the following
conclusions:
1. The suction can be used to control the
boundary layer very effectively.
2. Prandtl number has significant effect
on the flow field.
3. Allowing the radiation parameter to
vary gives flexibility to control the
flow temperature.
4. Heat generation has significant effect
on the velocity and temperature of the
flow.
5. The time dependency parameter n
influences the flow patterns.
6. Soret number has strong effects on the
concentration of the flow field.
Canadian Journal on Science and Engineering Mathematics Vol. 2 No. 4, November 2011
220
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