Anna Bettina Andaya

HUME 103 T

Part I
Topic: Politics of Implementation (Power Control/Imperative Model, Bargaining, Gaming,
Negotiation, Political Stumbling Blocks)
Objective/s: This report aimed to:
1.describe the different models (i. e. Power Control/Imperative Model, Bargaining,
Gaming, and Negotiation);
2. relate the said models to policy implementation; and
3. identify the Political Stumbling Blocks.
Summary of the Report:
There are four models related to policy implementation. These are the Power
Control/Imperative Model, Bargaining, Gaming, and Negotiation. Under each of these models
are theories which further explain them.
According to Merriam-Webster (2014), power is the ability to control or influence. In
this sense, power in policy implementation refers to how the government will enforce its
policies to its people. An important concept also related here is organizational/political power,
which results from an existing formal hierarchy in an organization that is based upon the
difficulty of tasks to be performed. This means that as one goes up the hierarchical structure, the
tasks and responsibilities become more difficult; thus, there is also increasing influence. In other
words, there is more power at the top of this structure. The power control/imperative model has
three underlying theories:
 The Pluralist Theory of Power
It states that power is held by different groups and they use this power to compete
with each other. On the other hand, no group can dominate the others. Thus, a plurality of
interests exists. In relation to power control, this means that the ones who have the
greatest influence holds the greatest power and can make the other groups accept their
cause or stand. In relation to policy implementation, on the other hand, the group with the
greatest power can influence a policy to be implemented for their own benefit. An
example for this would be the corporations or big businesses who lobby for the
government to grant them tax holidays. Here, the main concern of the said group is for
their own benefit and would not directly affect other groups in society.
 The Elite Theory
This is similar to the pluralist theory. Here, it states that power is held by
competing elites rather than competing groups. In relation to power control, this means
that the elites who hold the greatest influence, control and wealth can impose their will to
the rest of the society. In relation to policy implementation, on the other hand, the elites
with the greatest power can influence a policy to be implemented for their own benefit. A
good example for this would be our politicians whom we consider as elites because they
have the money and the power to influence society to do what they want, by means of
creating policies which would benefit them. A more concrete case here would be the
passing of a revised version of the Comprehensive Agrarian Reform in the past, which
has a provision stating that instead of granting lands to the tenants, landowners would just
have to give them a portion of the profits earned. At that time, there were some officials
who are actually landowners. By implementing this law, it would serve them the benefit
of still keeping their lands.
 The Ruling Class Theory
It states that power is in the hands of the people who hold the economic
production. In relation to power control, this means that economic ownership is a pre-
requisite of political power; and with political power at hand, the “ruling class” can
influence and control other sectors to serve their interests. In relation to policy
implementation, on the other hand, the creation of policy is already influenced with a
hidden advantage for the ruling class and so is in the implementation. An example for this
would be the state of our country’s political system, which is primarily comprised of the
rich people. Because economic riches are somewhat needed before one can run in the
elections, it is inferred that the policies being enforced are generally created for the
benefit of these people.
Bargaining is a form of negotiation, which is done by two conflicting parties in order to
arrive on an agreement. It is based on the set of conditions laid out by both parties, and is done
through managing impressions and manipulating information. In relation to policy
implementation, when bargaining is not done in the right or acceptable way, there will be a
dysfunctional policy, which eventually results to the issue not being solved or becoming worse.
Such may happen when the parties involved merely arrived on a compromise, but one of them
will take the most benefits because it has more power. An important concept related here is
bargaining power. The two parties involved each have this, but one of them possesses a greater
bargaining power over the other. For a group to have this greater power, it must also have more
alternatives and better assurance of the results that the other group would like to happen. Under
the bargaining model is the Dependence Theory of Bargaining Power, which assumes that: (1)
power is essential to bargaining, (2) bargaining is a process of tactical action, and (3) bargaining
power is subjective power. For the first, power is both an ingredient and an outcome in doing a
bargain. The group with more power has a higher chance of winning the bargain. Moreover,
when a group wins the bargain, it will have greater power. For the second, there is a need for
careful analysis of the conditions because the expected compromise to be arrived at requires
both parties to benefit from it. For the third, the said power is said to be a subjective one
because it makes use of the groups’ opposing perceptions and judgments regarding the situation
or issue. An example that may further illustrate this model is the issue between the corporations
and their union groups. The former would like to produce more outputs at the least possible
costs, part of this is labor. On the other hand, the latter would like to have a justifiable wage and
number of working hours. To achieve a compromise, the two parties agreed on having their
workers paid based on the total number of hours they have worked.
The gaming model may be better understood by considering a typical game. Here, the
end goal is for one of the players to win. To achieve this, the players would each form strategies
and make decisions in order to win. In relation to policy implementation, the same is said to be
true. For a policy to be implemented, the government must employ strategies and make
decisions. Under this model is the game theory, which is the study of rational decisions in
situations wherein two or more participants have choices to make and the outcome depends on
the choices made by each. In addition, it can also help open up the “black-box” of policy
implementation, which is due to the collective decisions and actions of the different yet
interrelated sectors in society. An example here is the issue on the implementation of the
already approved Reproductive Health Law. To ensure its full implementation, the different
groups involved (i.e. the pro, the anti, and the government), must all make sensible decisions.
For instance, the pro-RH could opt to convince the anti-RH to accept and join in making the
said law happen. The anti-RH may opt to change their current position regarding the issue. The
government, on the other hand, must consider all the sectors involved before choosing to
implement it.
According to Lax and Sebenius (1986), negotiation is “a process of potentially
opportunistic interaction by two or more parties with some apparent conflicts that seek to do
better through jointly decided action than they could otherwise.” This means that in contrast
with bargaining, negotiation may involve more than two groups. There are groups who share the
same stand, and there are those who have opposing positions. Aside from these, they need to
also reach a compromise. In relation to policy implementation, negotiation would compromise
the similar and opposing interests of the groups involved, and this is achieved by using less
power. An example here is the Bansang Moro conflict. In this issue, there are many groups
involved. Some of these are the rebel groups, the Philippine National Government, the military,
the Christian and Muslim groups, the civilians, and the business owners. There are also various
interests and concerns among these groups. One would like to have an independent state.
Another would like protect its people. Some simply want to have a safe environment to live.
Considering all these and other concerns, a negotiation among the groups was held through
some peace talks, and the agreement resulted with the establishment of the Autonomous region
of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
Political stumbling blocks are the faults within a political system. It is also the clashing
interests of various political parties and groups. It results to political shambling, which is the
prevailing disorder in the said system. In relation to policy implementation, the presence of such
may result to important policies not being passed and implemented; eventually, this will cause
public dissatisfaction. Examples of political stumbling blocks are the conflicting political
parties, the conflicting interests of elected politicians, the personal conflicts between/among
these officials, their reliability to the public, and the policies that contradict with the actual
interests of the people.

Part II
Topic: Services for Policy Implementation (Social Research, Social Marketing, Organization/
Institution Development)
Objective/s: This report aimed to:
1. define social research and social marketing;
2. give examples of the said concepts; and
3. distinguish between organization development and institution development.
Summary of the Report:
There are three services for policy implementation. These are social research, social
marketing, and organization/institution development.
Social research is the scientific study of society. It involves the observation of a
society’s attitudes, assumptions, beliefs, trends, stratifications and rules. Its scope can be small
or large, and may range from a single individual to the whole country. Common topics being
studied here are poverty, racism, class issues, sexuality, voting behavior, gender constructs,
policing and criminal behavior. In terms of policy implementation, social research is used in
determining the current problems in society, and the level of need for the enforcement of a
certain policy. An example is the Family Income and Expenditures Survey (FIES).
Social marketing is an approach used to develop activities aimed at changing or
maintaining people’s behavior for the benefit of individuals and society as a whole. In contrast
to the typical marketing, which aims to sell a physical product, it intends to “sell” something
that is intangible, which is the desired behavior. In relation to policy implementation, social
marketing may be used in making the people “buy” it. Examples include those advertisements
that carry a strong message to the people, like the images from different governments and
organizations advocating for people keep themselves safe and healthy, as well as conserve their
environment. Also related to this concept are the eight social marketing P’s:
 Product
This does not automatically refer to something tangible. Aside from an actual
physical product, it could also be a service, practice, and/or idea. For this product to be
bought by the people and be effective, there must be a problem because this will serve as
a solution for that problem. In policy implementation, this is the policy itself.
 Place
It refers to how the people would obtain the product. For the tangible product, this
is the distribution system or the way it moves from the manufacturers to the consumers.
For the intangible product, on the other hand, this is the channel through which people
receive the message. One more important factor here is guaranteeing the accessibility and
quality of the product. This means that people from different groups and areas should
have access to the product and receive the same quality. In policy implementation, these
are the different agencies of government that ensure the implementation of policies
delivery of social services to the people.
 Price
This is what people must let go or give up in other to acquire the product. It could
be in the form of money or something immaterial, like time and effort. This contributes to
whether a product will be accepted or not. The price should not be less than the expected
benefits; otherwise, the product would not be accepted. On the other hand, it should not
be that low, so that people would not think that it is of low quality. In policy
implementation, these are what it will cost people when the policy is enforced on them.
 Promotion
It refers to the use of techniques in informing the people about the product, and in
influencing them to accept it. It involves advertising, public relations, promotions, media
advocacy, as well as personal selling and entertainment vehicles. Its goal is to create and
sustain a demand for the product. In policy implementation, these are the campaigns
made in introducing the policy, its importance, and eventual benefits to the people.
 Publics
This refers to the stakeholders involved in the policy being implemented.
 Partnership
This is a strategy that organizations do in order to lessen their costs in delivering
and promoting the product. Here, these group work together in achieving their goals. In
policy implementation, this is the collaboration among the different government agencies
in enforcing the policies.
 Policy
In social marketing, this is the environment through which the desired changes in
behavior occur. In addition, it should also be welcoming to that change. In policy
implementation, this is society itself, or its current conditions.
 Purse Strings
This is the way organizations obtain the budget for social marketing. In policy
implementation, this includes the taxes that the government gets from its people, which
would eventually be used in their programs.
Organizational development pertains to what organizations do in order to improve its
people and the way they handle their tasks, as well as its relations with all its stakeholders (i.e.
comprising of their partners and beneficiaries) in order more effectively and efficiently reach
their goals. It entails effort as well as the use resources and strategies. In addition, it is entirely
concerned with having an organization to embrace changes within it. In policy implementation,
this refers to the amendments enforced on government agencies. On the other hand, institutional
development is the creation or reinforcement of a network of organizations to generate, allocate
and use human, material and financial resources effectively to attain specific objectives on a
sustainable basis. In policy implementation, this includes the creation of umbrella organizations.


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