Quality Management ECC 6.0 Rev.

04/20/10 1
SAPtips Sample Basic Quality Management Quality Inspection
This segment from our 234 page Basic Quality Management manual is being made available
as a sample of our training manuals. Please contact David.Haynes@ERPtips.com if you have
any SAP training needs, or visit www.ERPtips.com for more information.

Written by Nadine Baghdadi
Published by Klee Associates, Inc.
Copyright Klee Associates, Inc., 2010

Unit 3: Quality Inspection
In Quality Management, you process quality inspections on the basis of inspection lots. If you
want to inspect a specific quantity of a material or a piece of equipment, an inspection lot must be
created in the system. Once an inspection lot has been created, you can inspect the goods,
record the inspection results or defects, and complete the inspection with a usage decision.
Inspection Lots
An inspection lot is a request to a plant to inspect a specific quantity of material or one or more
pieces of equipment or functional locations. An inspection lot is documented by an inspection lot
record in the SAP system.
Inspection lots facilitate the recording, processing, and management of information for a quality
inspection. They include:
 Inspection processing data such as:
 Inspection lot origin
 Inspection date
 Processing status of inspection lot
 Inspection specifications (for example, the inspection plan according to which the goods in
the inspection lot will be inspected)
 Inspection results
 Recorded characteristic values and recorded defects
 Usage decision (a decision that specifies whether the goods in the inspection have been
accepted or rejected)
An inspection lot can be created manually by the user or automatically by the system.
Inspection lots can be created automatically by events triggered in other SAP modules. For
example:
 Goods movements or stock postings in the Materials Management module (for example,
goods receipt, goods issue, or a stock transfer)
 Creation of production orders or process orders in the Production Planning module.

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Process Flow
Inspection processing begins with the creation of an inspection lot. The figure below describes
the steps involved in the inspection lot creation process:

Each of the steps in the above process can be executed automatically by the system or manually
by the user. A combination of automatically and manually executed steps is also possible.
Depending on your inspection processing requirements, not all of these steps are required.
Step 1 – Create Inspection Lot
SAP uses the following to create an inspection lot and to determine how the inspection will be
processed:
 Inspection Lot Origin: Name for the origin of an inspection lot.
 Inspection Type: Determines how the inspection will be performed. Examples of inspection
types are as follows:

Inspection lot
origin
Inspection
types
Description
01 01 Goods receipt inspection for a purchase order
0101 Model inspection for a goods receipt for a
purchase order
0130 Goods receipt inspection for external processing
02 02 Goods issue inspection
03 03 In-process inspection for a production order
04 04 Goods receipt inspection from production

An inspection type is assigned to an inspection lot origin. You can assign more than one
inspection type to an inspection lot origin.
Inspection Setup in the Material Master: The above settings are made in the QM module.
However, a material will not be subject to inspection until its inspection setup has been activated
in the material master.
If you are to change the inspection setup, this does not affect existing inspection lots. Only
newly created inspection lots are affected by this change.


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Step 2 – Assignment of Inspection Specification
Once an inspection lot has been created, an inspection specification is usually assigned to it,
such as the inspection plan. SAP can assigns an inspection specification automatically or you can
assign one manually.
An inspection specification must be assigned to an inspection lot if you want to record inspection
results for inspection characteristics (that is, the corresponding indicator is set in the inspection
settings of the material master). If you do not set this indicator, an inspection specification does
not have to be assigned to the inspection lot. In this case, you can only record defects for the
inspection lot.

Step 3 – Calculation of Sample Size

Once an inspection specification has been assigned to an inspection lot, the sample size must be
calculated for the inspection lot. The sample size can be determined in several ways:
 SAP can calculate the sample size automatically
 You trigger the sample determination manually and SAP can then calculate the sample size
 You can enter the sample size manually
The sample size must be calculated before you can print the sample drawing instructions or the
inspection instructions. After the sample has been calculated or entered manually, SAP changes
the inspection lot status to reflect that the sample size has been calculated. If in the process of
determining the sample size, SAP determines that the current inspection stage for the lot is a
SKIP, SAP will display a message and the inspection lot status is set accordingly.

When all steps in the inspection lot creation process have been executed, the inspector can:
 Inspect the goods in the inspection lot
 Record inspection results and/or defects
 Complete the inspection
Demonstration: Create Inspection Lot
In this demonstration, we will manually create an inspection lot. The inspection lot we create is
for the material for which we created an inspection plan in the previous unit.
Menu Path: Logistics > Quality Management > Quality Inspection > Inspection Lot > Processing >
Create

Transaction Code: QA01
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1. In the above screen, fill in the following fields:
Field Value
Material T-BQ110
Plant 1000
Insp. lot origin 05
2. Click to continue.

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3. In the above screen, fill in the following fields:

Field Value
Insp. Lot Qty 1

4. Click to continue.
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This pop up appears because the material has more than one inspection plan assigned to it.
We will choose the inspection plan group number which we previously created, which is 22.
5. Double click on Group 22.

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6. Click to save the inspection lot.

Record inspection lot number: ____________________

Exercise: Create Inspection Lot
In this exercise, you will manually create an inspection lot. The inspection lot you will create is for
the material for which you created an inspection plan in the previous unit.
Menu Path: Logistics > Quality Management > Quality Inspection > Inspection Lot > Processing >
Create

Transaction Code: QA01

Record inspection lot number: ____________________

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Recording Inspection Results
Once the inspection lot is created, and inspection takes place, you can now enter inspection
results into SAP. You can use a work list for recording inspection results for all objects that allow
results recording. Since an inspection lot is assigned an inspection plan, you enter results for
characteristics that are assigned to operations as per the inspection plan.

Demonstration: Results Recording
In this demonstration, we will enter results for the inspection lot we previously created.
Menu Path: Logistics > Quality Management > Quality Inspection > Inspection Result > Results
Recording

Transaction Code: QE51N

The Results Recording screen shows several tabs. You can enter results based on several
parameters; we will enter results based on the inspection lot previously created.
1. Click to continue.

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2. In the above screen, fill in the following fields:
Field Value
Inspection lot Enter the inspection lot
previously created

3. Click to continue.

The Results Recording: Characteristic Overview screen is structured so that the inspection lot
shows as a work list in the left pane. In the work list pane, the inspection lot number is listed,
and under it are the two operations that come from the inspection plan. As you remember,
each operation had two characteristics that must be inspected. We will enter the results
starting with operation 0010.
4. In the work list from the left pane, click on the link, under
operation 0010.

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5. In the above screen, fill in the following fields:
Field Value
Inspected 1
Nonconf. 0

6. Click to close the characteristic and accept the results.

Note how the characteristic now has a green status.

7. Click to save your entries.

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8. Next, click on under operation 0010, to enter results for the next
characteristic.



9. Click in the search icon in the Code field.
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10. In the above Catalog selection pop up, double click to select it.


11. Click to close the characteristic and accept the results.

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Click to save your entries.


12. Next, click on to expand operation 0020.

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13. Click under operation 0020.



14. In the Code field, click on the search icon.

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15. Double click on to select it.



16. Click to close the characteristic and accept the results.
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17. Click to accept the result.


18. Click to save your entries.



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19. Next click on under 0020.



20. In the above screen, you will need to enter the diameter measurement in the Mean value
field. For this item, we will enter a mean diameter of 69.99.



21. Click to close the characteristic and accept the results.
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22. Click to save your entries.


Now all characteristics have a green status. Your results recording is now complete.

Exercise: Results Recording
In this exercise, you will enter results for the inspection lot you previously created.
Menu Path: Logistics > Quality Management > Quality Inspection > Inspection Result > Results
Recording

Transaction Code: QE51N

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1. Click to continue.



2. In the above screen, fill in the following fields:
Field Value
Inspection lot Enter the inspection lot
previously created

3. Click to continue.

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Defects Recording
When you process an inspection lot, you can record the results for the inspection in the form of
characteristic values or defects. A defect is any property or attribute of a material, product, or
process that does not meet the inspection characteristic specifications. You record the defects
with the help of predefined defect codes maintained in the inspection catalogs.
Defects recording allow you to improve quality and optimize processes, while reducing costs and
increasing productivity. You can record defects in the form of defect records using the Quality
Management component. You can analyze defects and their causes on the basis of defect
records. You can determine what corrective action is necessary to eliminate the defect causes
and prevent them from recurring. Defect records can be created in the following ways:
 SAP can create defect records automatically during results recording.
 You can create defect records manually using the defects recording function.
Once a defect record has been created, it is saved in the system as a quality notification. A
quality notification is a system-supported problem message that you can use to process different
types of problems relating to poor-quality goods or services.
Information in a Defect Record
A defect record may contain all or part of the following information:
 Defect type
 Defect location
 Defect cause
 Corrective action taken
 Defect valuation
SAP can create defect records automatically during results recording. It creates defect records
when you valuate the characteristic with a rejection. SAP assigns the generated defect record to
the corresponding object.
If a defect record was created automatically or manually, it is initially inactive. The system stores
this inactive defect record as a quality notification with the following status:
 DEFR (outstanding defect record)
 OSNO (outstanding quality notification)
Critical defects must be processed further as quality notifications. In the inspection type, you can
specify that all recorded defects for an inspection lot be documented in a single quality
notification.
Exercise: Create Inspection Lot
In this exercise, you will create an inspection lot so we can use it for defects recording later. The
instructor will need to complete the exercise as well in order to use the inspection lot in the next
exercise.
Menu Path: Logistics > Quality Management > Quality Inspection > Inspection Lot > Processing >
Create

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Transaction Code: QA01


1. In the above screen, fill in the following fields:
Field Value
Material T-BQ110
Plant 1000
Insp. lot origin 05

2. Click to continue.
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3. In the screen above, fill in the following values:
Foll
Field Value
Insp. Lot Qty 1

4. Click to continue.

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5. Double click on group 22 to select it.


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6. Click to save your entries.

Record inspection lot number: ______________
Demonstration: Reject Characteristics during Results Recording
In this demonstration, we will record results for an inspection lot that has characteristics that do
not meet specifications.
Menu Path: Logistics > Quality Management > Quality Inspection > Inspection Result > Results
Recording

Transaction Code: QE51N


1. Click to continue.



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2. In the above screen, fill in the following fields:
Field Value
Inspection lot Enter the inspection lot
previously created

3. Click to continue.


4. Click on under operation 0010.

5. In the screen above, fill in the following values:
Foll
Field Value
Inspected 1
Nonconf. 0
6. Click to valuate and close the characteristic.
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7. Click to save your entries.

8. Click under operation 0010.

9. In the Code field, click on the search icon.

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10. For this particular characteristic, we will indicate that there is no filling material. Double click
on "No filling material" to select it.

11. Click to valuate and close the characteristic.
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Note how the second characteristic has a red status, meaning it was rejected.
12. Click to save your entries.

13. Click under operation 0020.


14. In the Code field, click on the search icon.

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15. Double click on Dirty to select it.


16. Click to valuate and close the characteristic.


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17. Click to accept the Reject status.

18. Next we will click on under operation 0020.

19. In the Mean value field, enter 70.85.
20. Click to valuate and close the characteristic.

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21. Click to save your entries.


Exercise: Reject Characteristics during Results Recording
In this exercise, you will record results for an inspection lot that has characteristics that do not
meet specifications.
Menu Path: Logistics > Quality Management > Quality Inspection > Inspection Result > Results
Recording

Transaction Code: QE51N
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Inspection Lot Completion
After the results have been recorded for an inspection lot and the inspection is finished, you must
reach a decision about the usage of the inspected material. With the Inspection Lot Completion
functionality, you set the controls that:
 Complete an inspection (inspection lot completion)
 Make the usage decision for the inspection lot
 Perform stock postings for inspection lots created on the basis of goods movements (for
example, to unrestricted-use stock, blocked stock, scrap)
When you make a usage decision for an inspection lot, the following occur automatically:
 A quality score is determined for the inspection lot
 Quality level (inspection stages for the next inspection lot) is updated
 Automatic follow-up actions are triggered
You can only make the usage decision for an inspection lot if all required characteristics and all
processed optional characteristics have been completed. When you have made a usage decision,
the inspection is completed.
You can complete an inspection without making a usage decision (for example, if you are not
sure about the usage of the material but you want to complete the inspection). When you
complete an inspection, you can no longer change the inspection results.
Demonstration: Enter Usage Decision
In this demonstration, we will enter a usage decision for the first inspection lot previously created.
Menu Path: Logistics > Quality Management > Quality Inspection > Inspection Result > Usage
Decision > Record

Transaction Code: QA11


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1. Enter the inspection lot number which you previously created where all characteristics were in
good status.
2. Click to continue.

3. Click to display characteristics.

4. In the UD code field, click the search button.
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5. Click to expand it.

6. Double click on to select it.

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7. Click to save your entries.

Exercise: Enter Usage Decision
In this exercise, you will enter a usage decision for the first inspection lot previously created,
based on the steps in the preceding demo.
Menu Path: Logistics > Quality Management > Quality Inspection > Inspection Result > Usage
Decision > Record

Transaction Code: QA11

Quality Score and Quality Score Procedures
When you make a usage decision for an inspection lot created for goods receipt, the quality score
must also be determined for the lot. A quality score is a statistical value that describes the quality
of an inspection lot. A quality score can be entered directly or can be calculated by a predefined
procedure. A procedure for calculating a quality score can be defined for an inspection type in the
material master. You then activate the inspection type that contains a quality score procedure
when you create or change a material master.
A quality score can be derived from the:
 Usage decision
 Share of defects in the lot
 Share of defects for the characteristics
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 Quality score for the characteristics
With the Quality Score report you can generate a graphic of changes to the quality scores of
inspection lots over time. Only inspection lots with usage decisions are taken into account.

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Klee Associates, Inc.

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