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CE5101 Lecture 10 - Consolidation Monitoring Using Hyperbolic Method (OCT 2013)

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Consolidation Monitoring

OCT 2013

Prof Harry Tan

1

Outline

• Consolidation Monitoring Principles

• Preconsolidation Pressure

• Strength Increase

• Settlement Records

– Hyperbolic Method

– Asaoka Method

2

Preloading and Surcharge

The Problem: Slow and large

settlements

Solution: Preloading reduces

long-term settlements

3

PVD and Surcharge

The Problem: Slow and large

settlements

Solution: PVD and Surcharge

accelerates settlements. This will

reduce amount of residual

settlements remaining after

surcharge is removed

4

How do we know if consolidation has been

completed

5

•Measure Pc after surcharge is removed

•Take undisturbed thin wall samples, do

Oedometer test to determine Pc

•If Pc > Po+Pf, then we have adequate

preloading of the ground

How do we know if consolidation has been

completed

6

•Alternatively, we can also

measure the Undrained shear

strength of soft clay after

surcharge removal

•Undrained shear strength can

be measured in undisturbed

triaxial samples with UU

compression test to get cu

value. It can also be measured

insitu with filed vane shear test

•Typical cu/Pc ratio is a

function of clay drained friction

angle and is about: 0.2 to 0.3

for Singapore Marine Clay

depending on how cu is

determined. For practical design

we use cu/P = 0.25

•So we obtain Cu/0.25 = Pc

value of the soft clay after

preloading

FV: Field Vane Shear

TC: Triaxial compression Cu/P=0.3

TE: Triaxial Extension Cu/P=0.2

DSS: Direct Simple Shear Cu/P=0.25

FV:Field Vane

PM: Pressuremeter

Use Settlement Records

Most practical method in many cases

• Easy and cheap to measure

• Less prone to error

• Can monitor many locations of the site

• Easy to analyse by:

– Hyperbolic Method

– Asaoka Method

7

Hyperbolic Method

See papers by Tan SA in 1993 to 1996

• Basis of Method – Terzaghi Theory give U vs Tv plot for

1D compression with vertical flow only

• The method was extended by TanSA to Barron Theory

and Carrilo Theory for application to Vertical Drains 1D

compression under combined vertical and horizontal flow

• The method compares very well with the established

Asaoka Method

• It has been validated with many case history data

• It is now widely used in industry for determining when

desired consolidation is achieved

8

Hyperbolic Method – Terzaghi Theory

9

•Replot using Tv/U vs Tv

•Linear section between

U=0.5 and U=0.9 and slope

is 0.824

•Equation of linear section

is:

v

v

T

U

T

•Radial lines through U50

and U90 give slopes of

1/0.5 and 1/0.9

•From linear plot; Ultimate primary settlement is obtained when Tv is infinity

•When Tv is very large, equation reduces

•So we get ultimate settlement from the inverse of slope

1 1

U or

U

Hyperbolic Method – Extend to Vertical Drains

10

Barron and Hansbo theory for PVD

Carrilo Theory for combined Uv and Uh

Hyperbolic Method – Extend to Vertical Drains

a are slopes in Theoretical Plots

11

5 . 0

1

50

9 . 0

1

90

Hyperbolic Method – Extend to Vertical Drains

12

For real field data, we can identify from the relationships,

the slopes of:

90 50

, , S S S

i

90

90

50

50

S S S

i

Hyperbolic Method – What is a for PVD

13

Typical real

problems, a is

between 0.74

and 0.76, use

0.75 as a very

good estimate for

many cases

Hyperbolic Method – Ska Edeby Data

14

•Area I Sand Drains of 180mm diam

with triangular spacing of 2.2, 1.5 and

0.9m

• Area II Sand Drains of 180mm diam

with triangular spacing of 1.5m

•Area IV NO Sand Drains

Hyperbolic Method – Ska Edeby Data

15

Hyperbolic Method – Ska Edeby Area I

16

Hyperbolic Method – Ska Edeby Area IV

17

Hyperbolic Method – Advantage of Method

18

Hyperbolic Method – Advantage of Method

19

Hyperbolic Method – Validation

20

Hyperbolic Method – Validation

21

Hyperbolic Method – Validation

22

Hyperbolic Method – Validation

23

•1/Si over-predicts

primary settlements,

but may be OK when

you include

secondary

compression

Asaoka Method (1978)

24

Asaoka Method (1978)

25

Hyperbolic vs Asaoka Method (Tan 1996)

26

Hyperbolic vs Asaoka Method (Tan 1996)

27

Procedure to Use Hyperbolic Method

28

Van Oord – Lekir Coast Malacca Reclamation

29

Van Oord – Lekir Coast Malacca Reclamation

30

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