- Permutations_and_Combinations.pdf
- 4mcad14 Qg En
- Maths Finaltest Revision
- week 11 lp geo wheeler
- Quantitative Question
- Class 7 Imo 5 Years e Book14
- Presentation Triangle Midpoint Theorem
- s Puiching02 s
- pags. 24-27
- geometry practice 2
- geometry practice 2
- THE EASIEST WAY TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS IN.ppt
- Three Dimentional Geometry
- Logical reasoning
- Guts Round Solutions
- Thales Theorem Statement
- 4MB0_01_que_20120511
- Staples 11plus Maths 5
- 2009 Mathematics
- Geometry
- Math 3
- ujian2 f2
- Asymptotes and Properties of Asymptotes 2
- 2000 Chapter Solutions
- Untitled
- Coordinate Methods
- Math Word Wall Words Course 3
- 2010 June Higher Non-Calc
- 46P22000
- Harmony South African Olympiad 1998
- Test 2 cho Thế Anh
- New Text Document.txt
- triết 2.docx
- CA4-11-08
- Bai on Tap Tap Kinh Te Luong
- Diali
- triết 2.pdf
- Tổng Hợp Đề Thi Phân Tích Đầu Tư Chứng Khoán Kỳ 3 Năm 2015
- De-HSG-BenTre-L12-2013-Dialy
- [Vnmath.com]-Dap an Chi Tiet Thithuhoalan1-Nguyenquangdieu
- KQ KSTN-CNTT K58.pdf
- PH1010 - 20131A
- nthcbg1
- 1-THOI KHOA BIEU K55 - HK3.2013 (06.09.2013)
- New Text Document

**J61. Find all pairs (m, n) of positive integers such that
**

m

2

+n

2

= 13(m+n).

Proposed by Titu Andreescu, University of Texas at Dallas, USA

J62. Consider a right-angled triangle ABC with ∠A = 90

◦

. Let E ∈ AC and F ∈ AB

such that ∠AEF = ∠ABC and ∠AFE = ∠ACB. Denote by E

and F

the

projections of E and F onto BC, respectively. Prove that

E

E +EF +FF

≤ BC

and determine when equality holds.

Proposed by Alex Anderson, New Trier High School, Winnetka, USA

J63. Find the least n such that no matter how we color an n×n lattice point grid in

two colors we can always ﬁnd a parallelogram with all vertices to be monochro-

matic.

Proposed by Ivan Borsenco, University of Texas at Dallas, USA

J64. Let a, b, c be positive real numbers. Prove that

b +c

a +

3

4(b

3

+c

3

)

+

c +a

b +

3

4(a

3

+c

3

)

+

a +b

c +

3

4(a

3

+b

3

)

≤ 2.

Proposed by Jos´e Luis D´ıaz-Barrero, Barcelona, Spain

J65. Prove that the interval (2

n

+1, 2

n+1

−1), n ≥ 2 contains an integer that can be

represented as a sum of n prime numbers.

Proposed by Radu Sorici, University of Texas at Dallas, USA

J66. Let a

0

= a

1

= 1 and a

n+1

= 2a

n

−a

n−1

+2 for n ≥ 1. Prove that a

n

2

+1

= a

n+1

a

n

for all n ≥ 0.

Proposed by Ivan Borsenco, University of Texas at Dallas, USA

Mathematical Reflections 5 (2007) 1

Senior problems

S61. Let ABC be a triangle. Prove that

1

sin

A

2

+

1

sin

B

2

+

1

sin

C

2

≥ 4

R

r

,

where R and r are its circumradius and inradius, respectively.

Proposed by Titu Andreescu, University of Texas at Dallas, USA

S62. Let ABCD be a parallelogram and let X ∈ AB, Y ∈ BC, Z ∈ CD, and K ∈ AD

such that XZ BC AD and Y K AB CD. Let P = XZ ∩ Y K and

Q = BZ ∩ DY . Prove that A, P, Q are collinear.

Proposed by Juan Bosco Marquez and Francisco Javier Garcia Capitan, Spain

S63. Let a, b, c be positive real numbers such that ab +bc +ca ≥ 3. Prove that

a

√

a +b

+

b

√

b +c

+

c

√

c +a

≥

3

√

2

.

Proposed by Pham Huu Duc, Ballajura, Australia

S64. Let ABC be a triangle with centroid G and let g be a line through G. Line

g intersects BC at a point X. The parallels to lines BG and CG through A

intersect line g at points X

b

and X

c

, respectively. Prove that

1

−−→

GX

+

1

−−→

GX

b

+

1

−−→

GX

c

= 0.

Proposed by Darij Grinberg, Germany

S65. Let n be an integer greater than 1 and let X be a set with n + 1 elements. Let

A

1

, A

2

, . . . , A

2n+1

be subsets of X such that the union of any n has at least n

elements. Prove that among these 2n + 1 subsets there exist three such that

any two of them have a common element.

Proposed by Gabriel Dospinescu, Ecole Normale Superieure, France

S66. Consider a triangle ABC and let D and E be the reﬂections of vertices B and C

into AC and AB, respectively. Let F = BE ∩CD and let H

a

be the projection

of the altitude from A onto BC. Denote by F

a

, F

b

, F

c

the projections of F onto

BC, CA, AB, respectively. Prove that F

a

, F

b

, F

c

, H

a

are concyclic.

Proposed by Mihai Miculita, Oradea, Romania

Mathematical Reflections 5 (2007) 2

Undergraduate problems

U61. Find the sum of the series

∞

i=1

∞

j=1

i!j!

(i +j + 1)!

.

Proposed by Titu Andreescu, University of Texas at Dallas, USA

U62. Let x

1

, x

2

, . . . , x

n

> 0 such that x

1

+ x

2

+ . . . + x

n

= n and let y

k

= n − x

k

,

k = 1, 2, . . . , n. Prove that

x

x

1

1

· x

x

2

2

· · · x

xn

n

≥

y

1

n −1

y

1

·

y

2

n −1

y

2

· · ·

y

n

n −1

yn

.

Proposed by Cezar Lupu, University of Bucharest, Romania

U63. Let f and g be polynomials with complex coeﬃcients and let a be a nonzero

complex number. Prove that if

(f(x))

3

= (g(x))

2

+a

for all x ∈ C, then the polynomials f and g are constant.

Proposed by Magkos Athanasios, Kozani, Greece

U64. Let x be a real number. Deﬁne the sequence (x

n

)

n≥1

recursively by x

1

= 1 and

x

n+1

= x

n

+nx

n

, n ≥ 1. Prove that

∞

n=0

1 −

x

n

x

n+1

= e

−x

.

Proposed by Titu Andreescu, University of Texas at Dallas, USA

U65. Let A, B, C be 3 × 3 invertible matrices such that their elements are in the

interval [0, 1] and entries in each row sum up to 1. Prove that AC

−1

BA

−1

CB

−1

and CA

−1

BC

−1

AB

−1

have the same trace.

Proposed by Jean-Charles Mathieux, Dakar University, S´en´egal

U66. Let V = {v

1

, v

2

, . . . , v

k

, . . .} be a set of vectors in R

n

containing n linearly

independent vectors. A ﬁnite subset S ⊂ V is called ”crucial” if the set V \ S

contains no n independent vectors, but every set V \ T where T ⊂ S does.

Prove that there are ﬁnitely many ”crucial” subsets.

Proposed by Iurie Boreico, Harvard University, USA

Mathematical Reflections 5 (2007) 3

Olympiad problems

O61. Let a, b, c be positive numbers such that 4abc = a +b +c + 1. Prove that

b

2

+c

2

a

+

c

2

+a

2

b

+

a

2

+b

2

c

≥ 2(ab +bc +ca).

Proposed by Ciupan Andrei, Bucharest, Romania

O62. Consider the Cartesian plane. Let us call a point X rational if both its coordi-

nates are rational numbers. Prove that if a circle passes through three rational

points, then it passes through inﬁnitely many of them.

Proposed by Ivan Borsenco, University of Texas at Dallas, USA

O63. Let M and N be two point inside the circle C(O) such that O is the midpoint

of MN and let S be an arbitrary point on this circle. Let E and F be the

second intersections of the lines SM and SN with the circle. Tangents at E

and F to C(O) intersect each other at I. Prove that the perpendicular bisector

of the segment MN passes through the midpoint of SI.

Proposed by Son Hong Ta, Ha Noi University, Vietnam

O64. Let F

n

be the n-th Fibonacci number. Prove that for all n ≥ 4, F

n

+ 1 is not

a prime.

Proposed by Dorin Andrica, Cluj-Napoca, Romania

O65. Let ABC be a triangle and let D, E, and F be the tangency points of its incircle

γ(I) with BC, CA, and AB, respectively. Let X

1

and X

2

be the intersections

of line EF with the circumcircle ρ(O) of triangle ABC. Similarly, deﬁne Y

1

,

Y

2

, and Z

1

, Z

2

. Prove that the radical center of the circles DX

1

X

2

, EY

1

Y

2

,

and FZ

1

Z

2

lies on line OI.

Proposed by Cosmin Pohoata, Romania and Darij Grinberg, Germany

O66. Let m a ﬁxed positive integer. Prove that there is a constant c(m) such that

for each integer n > 0, there is a prime number p < c(m)n with the following

property: the equation k

2

m

≡ n(mod p) has integer solutions while the equation

k

2

m

≡ −n(mod p) does not have integer solutions.

Proposed by Adrian Zahariuc, Princeton University, USA

Mathematical Reflections 5 (2007) 4

- Permutations_and_Combinations.pdfUploaded bySambit Patra
- 4mcad14 Qg EnUploaded byolgf
- Maths Finaltest RevisionUploaded bydevyani36
- week 11 lp geo wheelerUploaded byapi-350364406
- Quantitative QuestionUploaded byAtanu Brainless Roy
- Class 7 Imo 5 Years e Book14Uploaded byptv7105
- Presentation Triangle Midpoint TheoremUploaded bypriya86240
- s Puiching02 sUploaded byCarlos Torres
- pags. 24-27Uploaded byJuan M. Agosto Torres
- geometry practice 2Uploaded byapi-248877347
- geometry practice 2Uploaded byapi-248877347
- THE EASIEST WAY TO SOLVE THE PROBLEMS IN.pptUploaded byNur Syima
- Three Dimentional GeometryUploaded byVijendra Pal Singh
- Logical reasoningUploaded byRahul Gupta Korada
- Guts Round SolutionsUploaded byankurtomar1234
- Thales Theorem StatementUploaded byJuanita Dominguez
- 4MB0_01_que_20120511Uploaded bySanjida Siddiqua Shuma
- Staples 11plus Maths 5Uploaded bydeyaa1000000
- 2009 MathematicsUploaded byYash Mathur
- GeometryUploaded bycondo_danny_1234
- Math 3Uploaded byธนัชเปลวเทียนยิ่งทวี
- ujian2 f2Uploaded byJira Ibrahim
- Asymptotes and Properties of Asymptotes 2Uploaded byShehbaz Thakur
- 2000 Chapter SolutionsUploaded bySwetha Iyengar
- UntitledUploaded byapi-162641823
- Coordinate MethodsUploaded byAnthony Mak
- Math Word Wall Words Course 3Uploaded byTaleese Walsh
- 2010 June Higher Non-CalcUploaded byAkashVaria
- 46P22000Uploaded bypmhzsilu
- Harmony South African Olympiad 1998Uploaded bySiddhartha Gupta

- Test 2 cho Thế AnhUploaded byNguyễn Thế Hiệp
- New Text Document.txtUploaded byNguyễn Thế Hiệp
- triết 2.docxUploaded byNguyễn Thế Hiệp
- CA4-11-08Uploaded byNguyễn Thế Hiệp
- Bai on Tap Tap Kinh Te LuongUploaded byNguyễn Thế Hiệp
- DialiUploaded byNguyễn Thế Hiệp
- triết 2.pdfUploaded byNguyễn Thế Hiệp
- Tổng Hợp Đề Thi Phân Tích Đầu Tư Chứng Khoán Kỳ 3 Năm 2015Uploaded byNguyễn Thế Hiệp
- De-HSG-BenTre-L12-2013-DialyUploaded byNguyễn Thế Hiệp
- [Vnmath.com]-Dap an Chi Tiet Thithuhoalan1-NguyenquangdieuUploaded byNguyễn Thế Hiệp
- KQ KSTN-CNTT K58.pdfUploaded byNguyễn Thế Hiệp
- PH1010 - 20131AUploaded byNguyễn Thế Hiệp
- nthcbg1Uploaded byNguyễn Thế Hiệp
- 1-THOI KHOA BIEU K55 - HK3.2013 (06.09.2013)Uploaded byNguyễn Thế Hiệp
- New Text DocumentUploaded byNguyễn Thế Hiệp