Name :Luu Quoc Tho – Vo Thanh Tan

Group:8
Laboratory Exercise 4
LINEAR, TIME-INVARIANT DISCRETE-TIME SYSTEMS:
FREQUENCY-DOMAIN REPRESENTATIONS
4.1 TRANSFER FUNCTION AND FREQUENCY RESPONSE
Projec 4.1 Tra!"#er Fu!c$o! A!a%&"$"
A!"'er":
Q4. 1 The modi fi ed Program P3_1 to compute and plot the magni tude and phase spectra
of a movi ng average filter of Eq. (2.13) for 0 ≤ ω ≤ 2π is shon !elo:
clf"
# $ input(%Enter the filter length #& %)"
' (ompute the frequenc) sampl es of the *T+T
$ 0&,-pi./11&2-pi "
num $ (1.#)-ones(10#)"den $ 11 2"
h $ freq3(num0 den0 )"
' Plot the *T+T
su!plot(20101)
plot(.pi0a!s(h))"gri d
title(% #agni tude 4pectrum 56(e78 9 : omega; ) 5 % )
<la!el(% :omega .:pi% )"
)la!el(% =mpl i tude% )"
su!plot(20102)
plot(.pi0angl e(h))"gri d
title(%Phase 4pectrum arg16(e7 8 9 : omega; ) 2 % )
<la!el(% :omega .:pi% )"
1
)la!el(%Phase in radians% )"
This program as run for the folloi ng three different values of M and the plots of
the correspondi ng frequenc) responses are shon !elo :
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
0
0.5
1
Magnitude Spectrum |H(e
j
ω)|
ω
/
π
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
-4
-2
0
2
4
Phase Spectrum arg[H(e
j
ω
)]
ω
/
π
P
h
a
s
e

i
n

r
a
d
i
a
n
s

The t)pes of s)mmetri es e<hi!i ted !) the magni tude and phase spectra are due to -
The t)pe of filter represented !) the movi ng average filter is -
The resul ts of >uestion >2.1 can no !e e<plai ned as follos -
Q4. ( The plot of the frequenc) response of the causal ?T@ discreteA ti me s)stem of
>uestion >B.2 o!tained using the modi fi ed program is given !elo :
2
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
0.5
1
Magnitude Spectrum |H(e
j
ω
)|
ω
/
π
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-2
-1
0
1
2
Phase Spectrum arg[H(e
j
ω
)]
ω
/
π
P
h
a
s
e

i
n

r
a
d
i
a
n
s
The t)pe of filter represented !) this transfer functi on is -
Q4. ) The plot of the frequenc) response of the causal ?T@ discreteA ti me s)stem of
>uestion >B.3 o!tained using the modi fi ed program is given !elo :
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
0.5
1
Magnitude Spectrum |H(e
j
ω)|
ω
/
π
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-4
-2
0
2
4
Phase Spectrum arg[H(e
j
ω
)]
ω
/
π
P
h
a
s
e

i
n

r
a
d
i
a
n
s
The t)pe of filter represented !) this transfer functi on is -
3
The difference !eteen the to filters of >uestions B.2 and B.3 is -
@ shall choose the filter of >uestion >B. ___ for the folloi ng reason -
Q4. 4 The group dela) of the filter specified in >uestion >B.B and o!tained using the
functi on grpdelay is shon !elo:
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
+rom this plot e maCe the folloi ng o!servati ons :
Q4. * The plots of the first 100 samples of the impulse responses of the to filters of
>uestions B.2 and B.3 o!tained using the program developed in >uestion >3./0
are shon !elo:
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
-0.25
-0.2
-0.15
-0.1
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
4
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
x 10
7
+rom these plots e maCe the folloi ng o!servati ons :
Q4. + The poleA 3ero plots of the to filters of >uestions B.2 and B.3 developed using
zplane are shon !elo:
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Real Part
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

P
a
r
t
5
-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
Real Part
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

P
a
r
t
+rom these plots e maCe the folloi ng o!servati ons :
4.( TYPES OF TRANSFER FUNCTIONS
Projec 4.( F$%er"
= cop) of Program PB_1 is given !elo:
% Program P4_1
% Impulse Response of Truncated Ideal Lowpass Filter
clf;
fc = 0!";
n = #$%"&1&%"';
( = !)fc)sinc*!)fc)n+;, = n-%";
stem*,.(+;title*/0 = 11/+;a2is*#0 11 $0! 0%'+;
2la3el*/Time inde2 n/+;(la3el*/4mplitude/+;grid;
A!"'er":
Q4. , The plot of the impulse response of the appro<i mati on to the ideal lopass filter
o!tained using Program PB_1 is shon !elo :
6
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
N = 13
Time index n
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
The length of the +@D lopass filter is -
The statement in Program PB_1 determi ni ng the filter length is -
The parameter control li ng the cutoff fre quenc) is -
Q4. 8 The required modificati ons to Program PB_1 to compute and plot the impulse
response of the +@D lopass filter of Pro9ect B.2 ith a length of 20 and a cutoff
frequenc) of ω
c
= 0.45 are as indicated !elo:
% Program P4_1
% Impulse Response of Truncated Ideal Lowpass Filter
clf;
fc = 04"5*!)pi+;
n = #$6"&1&6"';
( = !)fc)sinc*!)fc)n+;, = n-%";
stem*,.(+;title*/0 = 11/+;a2is*#0 11 $0! 0%'+;
2la3el*/Time inde2 n/+;(la3el*/4mplitude/+;grid;
The plot generated !) runni ng the modified program is given !elo :
7
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
N = 13
Time index n
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Q4. - The required modificati ons to Program PB_1 to compute and plot the impulse
response of the +@D lopass filter of Pro9ect B.2 ith a length of 1/ and a cutoff
frequenc) of ω
c
= 0.65 are as indicated !elo:
% Program P4_1
% Impulse Response of Truncated Ideal Lowpass Filter
clf;
fc = 0%"5*!)pi+;
n = #$7&1&7';
( = !)fc)sinc*!)fc)n+;, = n-%";
stem*,.(+;title*/0 = 11/+;a2is*#0 11 $0! 0%'+;
2la3el*/Time inde2 n/+;(la3el*/4mplitude/+;grid;
The plot generated !) runni ng the modified program is given !elo :
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
N = 13
Time index n
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
8
Q4. 1. The #=T?=E program to compute and plot the ampli tude response of the +@D lo A
pass filter of Pro9ect B.2 is given !elo :
clear;
0 = input*/0& /+;
fc = 0!";
n = #$05!&1&05!';
( = !)fc)sinc*!)fc)n+;
w = 0&pi5"11&pi;
8 = fre9:*(. #1'. w+;
plot*w5pi.a3s*8++;
grid;
Plots of the ampli tude response of the lopass filter for several values of N are
shon !elo:
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
+rom these plots e can maCe the folloi ng o!servati ons -
= cop) of Program PB_2 is given !elo:
% Program P4_!
% ;ain Response of a <o=ing 4=erage Lowpass Filter
clf;
< = !;
num = ones*1.<+5<;
#g.w' = gain*num.1+;
plot*w5pi.g+;grid
a2is*#0 1 $"0 0"'+
2la3el*/>omega 5>pi/+;(la3el*/;ain in d?/+;
title*#/< = /. num!str*<+'+
A!"'er":
9
Q4. 11 = plot of the gain response of a lengthA 2 movi ng aver age filter o!tai ned using
Program PB_2 is shon !elo:
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
ω
/
π
G
a
i
n

i
n

d
B
M= 2
+rom the plot it can !e seen that the 3AdE cutoff frequenc) is at -
Q4. 1( The requi red modificati ons to Program PB_2 to compute and plot the gain
response of a cascade of K lengthA 2 movi ng average filters are given !elo :
@ = input*@& /+;
A = #1';
for i=1&1;
A = *con=*A.#1 1'++5!;
end;
#g.w' = gain*A.1+;
plot*w5pi.g+;grid
a2is*#0 1 $"0 0"'+
2la3el*/>omega 5>pi/+;(la3el*/;ain in d?/+;
The plot of the gain response for a cascade of 3 sections o!tai ned using the
modi fi ed program is shon !elo :
10
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
ω
/
π
G
a
i
n

i
n

d
B
+rom the plot it can !e seen that the 3AdE cutoff frequenc) of the cascade is at -
Q4. 1) The requi red modificati ons to Program PB_2 to compute and plot the gain
response of the highpass filter of Eq. (B.B2) are given !elo :
< = input*/<& /+;
num = *$1+Bn ) ones*1.<+5<;
#g.w' = gain*num.1+;
plot*w5pi.g+;
grid; a2is*#0 1 $"0 0"'+;
2la3el*/>omega 5>pi/+;(la3el*/;ain in d?/+;
The plot of the gain response for M = 5 o!tained using the modi fi ed program is
shon !elo:
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
ω
/
π
G
a
i
n

i
n

d
B
+rom the plot e can see that the 3AdE cutoff frequenc) is at -
11
Q4. 14 +rom Eq. (B.1F) for a 3AdE cutoff frequenc) ω
c
at 0.45π e o!tai n α = 0.0787
4u!stituti ng this value of α in Eqs. (B.1/) and (B.1G) e arrive at the transfer
functi on of the firstA order @@D lopass and highpass filters0 respecti vel )0 given !)
H
LP
(z) =
1
1
0.4606(1 )
1 0.0787
z
z


+

H
HP
(z) =
1
1
0.5393(1 )
1 0.0787
z
z




The plots of their gain responses o!tai ned using #=T?=E are shon !elo :
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
ω
/
π
G
a
i
n

i
n

d
B
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
-50
-45
-40
-35
-30
-25
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
ω
/
π
G
a
i
n

i
n

d
B
12
+rom these plots e o!serve that the designed filters _______ meet the specificati ons .
= plot of the magni tude response of the sum H
LP
(z) + H
HP
(z) o!tained using
#=T?=E is given !elo:
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0.9999
1
1
ω
/
π
G
a
i
n

i
n

d
B
+rom this plot e o!serve that the to filters are -
= plot of the sum of the squareA magni tude responses of H
LP
(z) and H
HP
(z)
o!tained using #=T?=E is given !elo:
H @nsert #=T?=E figure(s) here. (op) from figure indo(s) and
paste. I
+rom this plot e o!serve that the to filters are -
Q4. 1* +rom Eq. (B.2B)0 e get su!sti tuti ng K = 10, B = 1.866066
4u!stituti ng this value of B and ω
c
= 0.3π in Eq. (B.23) e o!tain α = -0.31079
Jsing this value of α in Eq. (B.22) e arrive at the transfer functi on of the cascade
of 10 @@D lopass filters as
H
LP,10
(z) =
1 – α
2

1+ z
−1
1 – αz
−1






10
=
6 1 10
1 10
23.6157 10 (1 )
(1 0.31079 )
z
z
− −

× +
+
4u!stituti ng ω
c
= 0.3π in Eq. (B.1F) e o!tain α = 0.32492
Jsing this value of α in Eq. (B.1/) e arrive at the transfer functi on of a firstA order
@@D lopass filter
13
H
LP,1
(z) =
1 – α
2

1 + z
−1
1 – αz
−1
=
1
1
0.33754(1 )
1 0.32492
z
z


+

The gain responses of
H
LP,10
(z)
and
H
LP,1
(z)
plotted using #=T?=E are shon
!elo:
H @nsert #=T?=E figure(s) here. (op) from figure indo(s) and
paste. I
+rom these plots e maCe the folloi ng o!servati on -
Q4. 1+ 4u!stituti ng ω
o
= 0.61π in Eq. (B.1K) e get β = cos(0.61π) = -0.3387
4u!stituti ng

∆ω
1d?
= 0.15π in Eq. (B.20) e get (1 + α
2
)cos(0.15π) − 2α = 0,
hose solution )ields α =1.6319 and α = 0.6128 .
4u!stituti ng the value of β and the first value of α in Eq. (B.1,) e arrive at the
transfer function of the @@D !andpass transfer functi on
H
BP,1
(z) =
2
. 1 2
0.31595(1 )
1 0.73291 1.6319
z
z z

− −
− −
+ +
4u!stituti ng the value of β and the second value of α in Eq. (B.1,) e arri ve at the
transfer function of the @@D !andpass transfer functi on
H
BP,2
(z) =
2
. 1 2
0.1936(1 )
1 0.54626 0.6128
z
z z

− −

+ +
14
Le<t using the zplane command e find the pole locations of H
BP,1
(z) and
H
BP,2
(z) from hich e conclude that the sta!le transfer function H
BP
(z) is given
!) -
-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
Real Part
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

P
a
r
t
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Real Part
I
m
a
g
i
n
a
r
y

P
a
r
t
The plot of the gain response of the sta!le transfer functi on H
BP
(z) o!tained
using #=T?=E is shon !elo:
H @nsert #=T?=E figure(s) here. (op) from figure indo(s) and
paste. I
Jsing the same value of α and β in Eq. (B.21) e ne<t o!tai n the transfer function
of a sta!le @@D !andstop filter as
H
BS
(z) =
15
The plot of the gain response of the transfer functi on H
BS
(z) o!tained using
#=T?=E is shon !elo&
H @nsert #=T?=E figure(s) here. (op) from figure indo(s) and
paste. I
+rom these plots e o!serve that the designed filters do.do not meet the
specifications .
= plot of the magni tude response of the sum H
BP
(z) + H
BS
(z) o!tained using
#=T?=E is given !elo:
H @nsert #=T?=E figure(s) here. (op) from figure indo(s) and
paste. I
+rom this plot e o!serve that the to filters are -
= plot of the sum of the squareA magni tude responses of H
BP
(z) and H
BS
(z)
o!tained using #=T?=E is given !elo:
H @nsert #=T?=E figure(s) here. (op) from figure indo(s) and
paste. I
+rom this plot e o!serve that the to filters are -
Q4. 1, The transfer functi on of a com! filter derived from the protot)pe +@D lopass filter
of Eq. (B.3,) is given !)
G(z) = H
0
(z
L
) = 0.5(1 )
L
z

+
Plots of the magni tude response of the a!ove com! filter for the folloi ng values
of ? are shon !elo&
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
ω
/
π
G
a
i
n

i
n

d
B
16
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
ω
/
π
G
a
i
n

i
n

d
B
+rom these plots e o!serve that the com! filter has _____ notches at ω
C
$ _______
= _______and _____ peaCs at ω
C
$ _______ = _______, here C $ 00 10 . . .0 _____.
Q4. 18 The transfer functi on of a com! filter derived from the protot)pe +@D highpass filter
of Eq. (B.B1) ith # $ 2 is given !)
G(z) = H
1
(z
L
) =
Plots of the magni tude response of the a!ove com! filter for the folloi ng values
of ? are shon !elo -
H @nsert #=T?=E figure(s) here. (op) from figure indo(s) and
paste. I
+rom these plots e o!serve that the com! filter has _____ notches at ω
C
=
_______
and _____ peaCs at ω
C
= _______.
Q4. 1- = cop) of Program PB_3 is given !elo:
% Program P4_1
% Cero Locations of Linear P8ase FIR Filters
clf;
3 = #1 $D" 10" $%1';
num1 = #3 D1 fliplr*3+';
num! = #3 D1 D1 fliplr*3+';
num1 = #3 0 $fliplr*3+';
num4 = #3 D1 $D1 $fliplr*3+';
n1 = 0&lengt8*num1+$1;
n! = 0&lengt8*num!+$1;
su3plot*!.!.1+; stem*n1.num1+;
2la3el*/Time inde2 n/+;(la3el*/4mplitude/+; grid;
17
title*/T(pe 1 FIR Filter/+;
su3plot*!.!.!+; stem*n!.num!+;
2la3el*/Time inde2 n/+;(la3el*/4mplitude/+; grid;
title*/T(pe ! FIR Filter/+;
su3plot*!.!.1+; stem*n1.num1+;
2la3el*/Time inde2 n/+;(la3el*/4mplitude/+; grid;
title*/T(pe 1 FIR Filter/+;
su3plot*!.!.4+; stem*n!.num4+;
2la3el*/Time inde2 n/+;(la3el*/4mplitude/+; grid;
title*/T(pe 4 FIR Filter/+;
pause
su3plot*!.!.1+; :plane*num1.1+;
title*/T(pe 1 FIR Filter/+;
su3plot*!.!.!+; :plane*num!.1+;
title*/T(pe ! FIR Filter/+;
su3plot*!.!.1+; :plane*num1.1+;
title*/T(pe 1 FIR Filter/+;
su3plot*!.!.4+; :plane*num4.1+;
title*/T(pe 4 FIR Filter/+;
disp*/Ceros of T(pe 1 FIR Filter are/+;
disp*roots*num1++;
disp*/Ceros of T(pe ! FIR Filter are/+;
disp*roots*num!++;
disp*/Ceros of T(pe 1 FIR Filter are/+;
disp*roots*num1++;
disp*/Ceros of T(pe 4 FIR Filter are/+;
disp*roots*num4++;
The plots of the impulse responses of the four +@D filters generated !) runni ng
Program PB_3 are given !elo:
0 2 4 6 8
-100
-50
0
50
100
Time index n
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Type 1 FIRFilter
0 5 10
-100
-50
0
50
100
Time index n
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Type 2 FIRFilter
0 2 4 6 8
-100
-50
0
50
100
Time index n
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Type 3 FIRFilter
0 5 10
-100
-50
0
50
100
Time index n
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
Type 4 FIRFilter
+rom the plots e maCe the folloi ng o!servati ons :
+ilter M1 is of length __________ ith a __________ impulse response and is
therefore a T)pe __ linearA phase +@D filter .
18
+ilter M2 is of length __________ ith a __________ impulse response and is
therefore a T)pe __ linearA phase +@D filter .
+ilter M3 is of length __________ ith a __________ impulse response and is
therefore a T)pe __ linearA phase +@D filter .
+ilter MB is of length __________ ith a __________ impulse response and is
therefore a T)pe __ linearA phase +@D filter .
+rom the 3eros of these filters generated !) Program PB_3 e o!serve that :
+ilter M1 has 3eros at 3 = 2.9744, 2.0888, 0.9790 + 1.4110i, 0.9790 - 1.4110i,
0.3319 + 0.4784i, 0.3319 - 0.4784i, 0.4787, 0.3362
+ilter M2 has 3eros at 3 = 3.7585 + 1.5147i, 3.7585 - 1.5147i, 0.6733 + 2.6623i,
0.6733 - 2.6623i, -1.0000, 0.0893 + 0.3530i, 0.0893 - 0.3530i, 0.2289 + 0.0922i, 0.2289
- 0.0922i
+ilter M3 has 3eros at 3 = 4.7627, 1.6279 + 3.0565i, 1 .6279 - 3.0565i, -1.0000,
1.0000, 0.1357 + 0.2549i, 0.1357 - 0.2549i, 0.2100
+ilter MB has 3eros at 3 = 3.4139,1.6541 + 1.5813i, 1.6541 - 1.5813i, -0.0733 +
0.9973i ,-0.0733 - 0.9973i, 1.0000, 0.3159 + 0.3020i, 0.3159 - 0.3020i, 0.2929
-1 0 1 2 3
-1
0
1
Real Part
I
m
a
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i
n
a
r
y

P
a
r
t
Type1FIRFilter
8
-2 0 2 4
-2
-1
0
1
2
Real Part
I
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a
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a
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P
a
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t
Type2FIRFilter
9
-2 0 2 4 6
-2
0
2
Real Part
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P
a
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Type3FIRFilter
8
-1 0 1 2 3
-1
0
1
Real Part
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P
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Type4FIRFilter
9
Plots of the phase response of each of these filters o!tained using #=T?=E are
shon !elo:
H @nsert #=T?=E figure(s) here. (op) from figure indo(s) and
paste. I
+rom these plots e conclude that each of these filters have __________ phase.
The group dela) of +ilter M 1 is -
19
The group dela) of +ilter M 2 is -
The group dela) of +ilter M 3 is -
The group dela) of +ilter M B is -
Q4. (. The plots of the impulse responses of the four +@D filters generated !) runni ng
Program PB_3 are given !elo:
H @nsert #=T?=E figure(s) here. (op) from figure indo(s) and
paste. I
+rom the plots e maCe the folloi ng o!servati ons :
+ilter M1 is of length __________ ith a __________ impulse response and is
therefore a T)pe __ linearA phase +@D filter .
+ilter M2 is of length __________ ith a __________ impulse response and is
therefore a T)pe __ linearA phase +@D filter .
+ilter M3 is of length __________ ith a __________ impulse response and is
therefore a T)pe __ linearA phase +@D filter .
+ilter MB is of length __________ ith a __________ impulse response and is
therefore a T)pe __ linearA phase +@D filter .
+rom the 3eros of these filters generated !) Program PB_3 e o!serve that :
+ilter M1 has 3eros at 3 =
+ilter M2 has 3eros at 3 =
+ilter M3 has 3eros at 3 =
+ilter MB has 3eros at 3 =
Plots of the phase response of each of these filters o!tained using #=T?=E are
shon !elo:
H @nsert #=T?=E figure(s) here. (op) from figure indo(s) and
paste. I
+rom these plots e conclude that each of these filters have __________ phase.
The group dela) of +ilter M 1 is -
The group dela) of +ilter M 2 is -
The group dela) of +ilter M 3 is -
The group dela) of +ilter M B is -
20
A!"'er":
Q4. (1 = plot of the magni tude response of H
1
(z) o!tained using #=T?=E is shon !elo :
H @nsert #=T?=E figure(s) here. (op) from figure indo(s) and
paste. I
+rom this plot e o!serve that the magni tude response has a ma<i mum at ω =
ith a value =
Jsing zplane e o!serve that the poles of H
1
(z) are __________ the unit circle
and hence the transfer functi on is.is not sta!le .
4ince the ma<i mum value of the magni tude response of H
1
(z) is = 0 e scale
H
1
(z) by _____ and arrive at a !oundedA real transfer function
H
2
(z) =
Q4.22 = plot of the magni tude response of G
1
(z) o!tained using #=T?=E is shon !elo :
H @nsert #=T?=E figure(s) here. (op) from figure indo(s) and
paste. I
+rom this plot e o!serve that the magni tude response has a ma<i mum at ω =
ith a value =
Jsing zplane e o!serve that the poles of G
1
(z) are __________ the unit circle
and hence the transfer functi on is.is not sta!le .
4ince the ma<i mum value of the magni tude response of G
1
(z) is = 0 e scale
G
1
(z) by _____ and arrive at a !oundedA real transfer function
G
2
(z) =
4.) STA/I0ITY TEST
= cop) of Program PB_B is given !elo&
% Program P4_4
% Eta3ilit( Test
clf;
den = input*/Fenominator coefficients = /+;
,i = pol(!rc*den+;
disp*/Eta3ilit( test parameters are/+;
disp*,i+;
A!"'er":
21
Q4. () The poleA 3ero plots of 6
1
(3) and 6
2
(3) o!tai ned using 3plane are shon !elo :
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Real Part
I
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P
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t
2
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Real Part
I
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a
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P
a
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t
2
+rom the a!ove poleA 3ero plots e o!serve that -
Q4. (4 Jsing Program PB_B e tested the sta!ili t) of 6
1
(3) and arrive at the folloi ng
sta!ili t) test parameters 8C
i
; : -0.9989 0.8500
+rom these parameters e conclude that 6
1
(3) is ____Stable____ .
Jsing Program PB_B e tested the sta!ili t) of 6
2
(3) and arrive at the folloi ng
sta!ili t) test parameters 8C
i
; : -1.0005 0.8500
+rom these parameters e conclude that 6
2
(3) is _____Unstable ____ .
22
Q4. (* Jsing Program PB_B e tested the root locations of *(3) and arri ve at the folloi ng
sta!ili t) test parameters 8C
i
; : 0.9630 0.8726 0.6225 0.2346 0.0313
+rom these parameters e conclude that all roots of *(3) are ________ the unit
circle .
Q4. (+ Jsing Program PB_B e tested the root locations of *(3) and arri ve at the folloi ng
sta!ili t) test parameters 8C
i
; : -0.6087 0.7958 0.6742 0.5938 0.6000
+rom these parameters e conclude that all roots of *(3) are ________ the unit
circle .
Dae : S$1!aure :
23