MODULE 9 Describe the human eyesight problems that can affect performance in

the workplace.
High Light Levels
Very high light levels can be found in sunny or snowy parts of the world. These
high light levels contain more high energy blue and ultra-violet wavelengths can
cause damage to the Retina, accumulating over a long period of time. Sunglasses
with the appropriate filtration characteristics and luminance transmittance of 10-
15% should be used. Personnel should be aware of UV hazards associated with
certain NDT processes.
Blind Spots
The point at which the Optic nerve joins the Retina has no light detecting cells
therefore an image falling on this point cannot be seen. This is of particular
significance when looking at objects which are ’close to’. To overcome this
problem, when carrying out a visual inspection, a ‘scanning’ technique should be
Empty Field
In the absence of anything to focus on (Empty Field), the natural focus point of the
eye will be just less than one meter. This makes it difficult to search for distant
objects if visual clues are weak. The problem is made worse if there are objects
close to the empty field range e.g. Rain spots on the windscreen, as the eye will be
naturally drawn to them.
Both eyes see much of the same objects, partially overlapping one another to give
a stereoscopic effect which is useful in calculating the size of objects and their
distance away from the viewer. To function correctly, the image must fall on the
same part of the Retina of each eye. If one eye is slightly out of alignment, two
images are seen, known as Diplopia.
Long Sightedness
The eyeball shape is shorter than normal resulting in the image being focused
behind the Retina. Unless the Cornea and Lens can focus the image, blurring of
vision will result when looking at close images. With age, loss of Lens elasticity
causes long sightedness known as Presbyopia These conditions can be corrected by the
use of convex lenses.
Physical Damage
Physical damage to the cornea, lens or retina will cause impaired vision. Personnel
should be aware of the importance of the correct eye protection.
Short Sightedness
Known as Myopia , the eyeball is longer than
normal resulting in the image focused in front of the Retina and distant objects will
be blurred. This can be corrected with concave lenses.
Colour Perception & Colour Blindness
Many people have some form of color perception problems which are caused by
defective cone vision or the interpretation of the cone images by the brain. This
may be a problem where color coded items are involved. Very few people are
totally color ‘blind’ which is caused by the total absence of cone vision.