20th Century Design movements ( Rico Farley

)



The Bauhaus
The Bauhaus plays a special role in the history of 20th century culture, architecture, design, art
and new media. As a School of Design, the Bauhaus revolutionised artistic and architectural
thinking and production worldwide, and is considered a headstone of the Modern age, which
may be visited in Dessau until nowadays.




De Stigl


This Style is also known as neoplasticism, was a Dutch artistic movement founded in 1917 in
Amsterdam.
[1]
In a narrower sense, the term De Stijl is used to refer to a body of work from
1917 to 1931 founded in the Netherlands.
Proponents of De Stijl advocated pure abstarction and universality by a reduction to the
essentials of form and colour; they simplified visual compositions to the vertical and horizontal
directions, and used only primary colours along with black and white. Indeed, according to the
Tate Gallery’s online article on neoplasticism, Mondrian himself sets forth these delimitations
in his essay "Neo-Plasticism in Pictorial Art". He writes, "this new plastic idea will ignore the
particulars of appearance, that is to say, natural form and colour.


The Blue Rider was a German exprisonist movement that was established in december 1911 by
Kandinsky, Marc,and Gabriel Munter. This movement was an adventure un the stylization and
simplification of forms and the connection between music, and painting.The blue riders
believed that colors, shapes and forms had equivalence with sounds and music, and sought out
to create colour harmonies which would be purifying to the soul Although in this very earliest
works, the impressionistic influence was recognizable, the artists who took part in The Blue
Rider were considered to be the pioneers of abstract art or abstract expressionism. Their work
promoted individual expression and broke free from any artistic restraints. These Nietzsche's
words sum up the group's motto, "Who wishes to be creative must first blast and destroy
accepted values." The first exhibitions of The Blue Rider included works by Wassily Kandinsky,
Franz Marc, Pablo Picasso, Paul Klee, Henri Rousseau, Robert Delaunay, and Arnold Schönberg.
These artists, who early in their careers broke from the mainstream, were later to become the
driving force behind modern art as we know it today.


Important graphics artist from these movements are

Paul Klee, a Swiss-born painter, printmaker and draughtsman of German nationality, was
originally associated with the German Expressionist group Der Blaue Reiter. He later was a
member and an instructor of the legendary Bauhaus, the international school and philosophy
that aimed to combine art and craft into a functional lifestyle, to ultimately create a kind of
“gothic cathedral” where artists and artisans could make a master structure that was both
beautiful and functional.

Ad Parnassum

This painting, considered Klee’s masterpiece, is an example of Klee’s masterful skill with color.
Small blocks of shifting colors float through the background, set in place with a thick black
outline, evincing the idea of a building or a house. It is also the finest example of Klee’s ability in
pointillism and technical ability as an artist. As an artist with great skill with color, he was also a
great teacher at color mixing and theory. He wrote his great treatise, a collection of lectures,
entitled Writings on Form and Design Theory, which is considered one of the most influential
writings in modern art.

Piet Mondrian (De Stijl Movement)
Dutch painter, theorist and draughtsman. His work marks the transition at the start of the 20th
century from the Hague school and Symbolism to Neo-Impressionism and Cubism. His key
position within the international avant-garde is determined by works produced after
1920.Around 1930 Mondrian's art attained a highpoint of purity and sobriety, for which the
groundwork had been prepared in the paintings of the previous years, the 1929Composition,
for example. Actually, the Composition II in Red, Blue, and Yellow, 1930 is a variation on the
picture of the preceding year, at least in so far as the linear framework is concerned. But for
that very reason the subtle differences in the work - such as the subdivision of the left strip of
the painting into three unequal rectangles, one of which is the blue square - are all the more
remarkable. They show that there can never be any question in Mondrian of a preconceived
pattern for a composition, but that every work arises out of cautious and painstaking
association with the elements of painting, which must be resolved anew in every work.










Main fine arts movements:
Expressionism:
Edvard Munch in Norway
The late nineteenth-century Norwegian Post-Impressionist painter Edvard Munch emerged as
an important source of inspiration for the Expressionists. His vibrant and emotionally charged
works opened up new possibilities for introspective expression. In particular, Munch's frenetic
canvases expressed the anxiety of the individual within the newly modernized European society;
his famous painting The Scream (1893) evidenced the conflict between spirituality and
modernity as a central theme of his work. By 1905 Munch's work was well known within
Germany and he was spending much of his time there as well, putting him in direct contact with
the Expressionists.


Cubism

Pablo Picasso was the most dominant and influential artist of the first half of the twentieth
century. Associated most of all with pioneering Cubism, alongside Georges Braque, he also
invented collage.

This painting was painted in 1907 and it was called the most innovative painting since the work
of Giotto. he reductionism and contortion of space in the painting was incredible, and
dislocation of faces explosive.
Surrealism
Salvado Dali
The Persistence of Memory (1931)
This is one of the best. After entertaining guests in the evening, Dalí sat at the table looking
upon the soft, half melted Camembert cheese. Suddenly the idea of melting watches came to
him and he immediately got to work.



Constructivism
Vladimir Tatlin was a prominent Russian avant-garde artist and architect. He was one of the key
figures of the Constructivist movement.
Vladimir Tatlin’s Monument to the Third International became famous partly because it was
never built.
Tatlin first planned to create a monument to celebrate the 1917 Russian Revolution. In March
1919, however, communist parties from across the world met in Moscow to unite under a
single organisation, the Communist International, and he rededicated his project to this historic
meeting and its vision for the future.



Man Ray and The Gift
The American artist Man Ray (born Emanuel Radnitzky in 1890; d. 1976) arrived in Paris in 1921.
Within a year, the artist had his first solo show at a Parisian gallery. Among the works he
exhibited was one unlisted sculpture: the object, which he called The Gift, was an everyday
flatiron with brass tacks glued in a column down its center. According to Man Ray in his
autobiography Self-Portrait, the object was made quickly, in a bout of inspiration, the day of the
gallery opening.



Fauvism
At the start of the 20th century, two young artists, Henri Matisse and André Derain formed the
basis of a group of painters who enjoyed painting pictures with outrageously bold colors. The
group were nicknamed 'Les Fauves' which meant 'wild beasts' in French. Their title was coined
by the art critic Louis Vauxcelles who was amused by the exaggerated color in their art. At the
Salon d'automne of 1905 he entered a gallery where Les Fauves were exhibiting their paintings.
Surprised by the contrast with a typical renaissance sculpture that stood in the centre of this
room, he exclaimed with irony, "Donatello au mileau des fauves!" (Donatello in the middle of
the wild beasts!). The name stuck.

Futurism
Gino Severini was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. He was
associated with neo-classicism and the pictorial return to order in the decade after the First
World War. During his career he worked in a variety of media, including mosaic and fresco.

Here a woman with brown curls and a white, blue, and pink flounced dress dances in the Paris
nightclub Bal Tabarin. Elements of the work point to current events—the Arab riding a camel
refers to the Turco-Italian War of 1911 and flags indicate sentiments of nationalism. In his
depiction of Bal Tabarin the artist merges his interest in capturing the dynamism of motion,
shared with fellow Futurists, with the integration of text and collage elements, such as sequins,
influenced by his study of French Cubism.
Vorticism
Wyndham Lewis
Percy Wyndham Lewis (1882–1957) was one of the most important British artists of his time. A
highly skilled painter and draughtsman, Lewis was also a writer, soldier, critic and editor. The
exhibition presents a wide variety of portraits of early modern celebrities known by Lewis, such
as T. S. Eliot and James Joyce, as well as his self-portraits and images of his wife, Froanna.
Through the portraits, this exhibition explores Lewis’s ideas about human personality, which he
viewed as complex and unsettled. Lewis tended to present himself to the public in personas
which he often reinvented, and the self-portraits strongly reflect these different inventions.
This exhibition provides a fascinating insight into Lewis’s life and work, as well as the cultural
world in which he operated.(http://www.npg.org.uk/wyndhamlewis/exhibition.html)