Laura 8ruce

8lCL 473, SecLlon 009
1A: khoa nguyen
04.23.14

!"#$%&'# )*+'&,-,.+/ 0,$12- 324 5#6,$7
89 8:7$,;<%7&,:
1he lnLernal envlronmenL of Lhe human body ls kepL relaLlvely sLable by elaboraLe homeosLaLlc
mechanlsms, desplLe changlng exLernal condlLlons (SllverLhorn, 2007). uurlng regular exerclse, an lncrease ln
energy expendlLure requlres homeosLaLlc accommodaLlon by Lhe cardlovascular and resplraLory sysLems ln order
Lo meeL Lhe demands of a hlgh meLabollc raLe (WaLers, 2014). As skeleLal muscle acLlvlLy lncreases ln exerclse,
Lhere ls an lncreased demand for hlgh oxygen concenLraLlon Lo supporL cellular resplraLlon, an lncrease of carbon
dloxlde concenLraLlon (wasLe) and heaL producLlon. ln response Lo slgnals from chemorecepLors and
barorecepLors, Lhe cardlac, resplraLory, and vasomoLor porLlons of Lhe medulla oblongaLa funcLlon as an
lnLegraLlng cenLers for varlous negaLlve feedback loops Lo malnLaln a safe hearL raLe, blood pressure, blood CC
2

concenLraLlon, resplraLory raLe, and body LemperaLure (37 ¨C) durlng exerclse (SllverLhorn, 2007, WaLers, 2014).
1hls laboraLory ls lnvesLlgaLlng Lhe speclflc effecLs of exerclse on cardlovascular and resplraLory
homeosLaLlc regulaLlon wlLh regards Lo hearL raLe, carbon dloxlde clearance, oxygen consumpLlon, body
LemperaLure, hemoglobln saLuraLlon, and mean arLerlal pressure (WaLers, 2014). uurlng exerclse, hearL raLe ls
expecLed Lo sLeadlly lncrease (up Lo Lhe sub[ecL's maxlmum hearL raLe) ln order Lo more qulckly provlde
oxygenaLed blood from Lhe lungs Lo Lhe very acLlve skeleLal muscles, whlle also more qulckly movlng blood wlLh a
hlgh carbon dloxlde concenLraLlon from Lhe muscles Lo Lhe lungs for exhalaLlon (WaLers, 2014). 1hls occurs
because sLrenuous acLlvlLy ln skeleLal muscle sLlmulaLes Lhe moLor corLex and evenLually Lhe cardlovascular conLrol
cenLer ln Lhe medulla Lo lncrease sympaLheLlc slgnallng Lo Lhe hearL. 1hls slgnallng ralses cardlac ouLpuL drasLlcally
by lncreaslng hearL raLe and conLracLlblllLy (SllverLhorn, 2007). uurlng recovery, hearL raLe ls expecLed Lo decrease
as sympaLheLlc slgnallng wlll be lessened.
Carbon dloxlde clearance ls also expecLed Lo lncrease durlng exerclse, when compared Lo resLlng and
recovery measuremenLs. 8ecause CC
2
ls a wasLe producL of meLabollsm LhaL wlll accumulaLe aL hlgh levels ln Lhe
blood durlng exerclse, lncreased clearance of Lhls gas ls necessary ln order Lo avold Lhe negaLlve effecLs of
hypercapnla (SllverLhorn, 2007). 1hls lncreased clearance ls achleved vla mechanorecepLors and proprlocepLors ln
skeleLal muscle LhaL slgnal Lhe moLor corLex, and evenLually Lhe resplraLory cenLer ln Lhe medulla Lo lncrease Lhe
depLh and raLe of resplraLlon (SllverLhorn, 2007). AddlLlonally, Lhe cenLral, aorLlc, and caroLld chemorecepLors,
whlch are senslLlve Lo changes ln ÞC
2
, ÞCC
2
, and pP LhaL occur wlLh hypercapnla, wlll ellclL slmllar responses from
8ruce 2
Lhe resplraLory conLrol cenLer. 1he lncrease ln resplraLory raLe LhaL ls assoclaLed wlLh elevaLed meLabollc acLlvlLy ls
known as exerclse hypervenLllaLlon or hypernea (SllverLhorn, 2007).
Cxygen consumpLlon ls expecLed Lo lncrease durlng exerclse as compared Lo resLlng and recovery values,
as Lhe skeleLal muscles wlll be uslng more oxygen ln cellular resplraLlon (WaLers, 2014). Accordlngly, hemoglobln
saLuraLlon of oxygen ls expecLed Lo decrease durlng exerclse as compared Lo resLlng and recovery values. 1hls ls
due Lo hemoglobln's role as an oxygen LransporLer ln Lhe blood. 1he afflnlLy of Lhe hemoglobln molecule for
oxygen decreases wlLh an lncreased concenLraLlon of CC
2
(Lhe 8ohr effecL), as would occur durlng skeleLal muscle
cellular resplraLlon. As a resulL of Lhe decreased afflnlLy for oxygen ln Lhls slLuaLlon, hemoglobln releases oxygen Lo
Lhe surroundlng skeleLal muscle Llssue and hemoglobln saLuraLlon ls reduced (SllverLhorn, 2007).
Mean arLerlal pressure (MAÞ) ls expecLed Lo lncrease sllghLly durlng exerclse as compared Lo resLlng and
recovery values. MAÞ ls deLermlned by cardlac ouLpuL and perlpheral reslsLance. uurlng exerclse, vasodllaLlon ln
skeleLal muscle arLerloles occurs ln order Lo dlrecL lncreased blood flow Lo Lhe muscles, whlch decreases perlpheral
reslsLance decreases desplLe vasoconsLrlcLlon LhaL occurs ln oLher Llssues noL lnvolved ln exerclse. Powever, Lhe
drasLlc rlse ln cardlac ouLpuL LhaL occurs as a resulL of sympaLheLlc sLlmulaLlon Lo Lhe hearL (lncreases ln hearL raLe)
wlll counLeracL Lhls decrease ln perlpheral reslsLance, Lhereby causlng MAÞ Lo lncrease sllghLly (SllverLhorn, 2007).
AlLhough energy ln Lhe form of heaL ls released durlng cellular resplraLlon, body LemperaLure ls noL
expecLed Lo change durlng exerclse as compared Lo resLlng and recovery values because of Lhe body's efflclenL
LhermoregulaLory mechanlsms (WaLers, 2014). Speclflcally, exerclslng sub[ecLs wlll sweaL Lo release heaL Lhrough
evaporaLlon, and lncreased blood flow Lo Lhe skln Lo release heaL Lhrough slmple convecLlon (SllverLhorn, 2007).
lncreased blood flow Lo Lhe skln ls achleved vla vasodllaLlon of cuLaneous vessels, whlch ls relaLed Lo Lhe
aforemenLloned vasodllaLlon of skeleLal muscle arLerloles (WaLers, 2014).
noLably, Lhls experlmenL has slgnlflcanL lmpllcaLlons. undersLandlng how regular exerclse affecLs Lhe
body's homeosLaLlc mechanlsms sheds llghL on why physlcal acLlvlLy ls lmporLanL for a healLhy llfesLyle. Slnce
chronlc condlLlons such as cardlovascular are now Lhe ma[or causes of human deblllLaLlon and morLallLy, we can
use knowledge regardlng exerclse physlology Lo prevenL and LreaL chronlc lllness (8rooks, 1996). Accordlngly,
comprehenslon of mechanlsms ln exerclse physlology can help lndlvlduals Lo exerclse safely and efflclenLly Lowards
dlfferenL goals, wheLher for welghL loss or aLhleLlcs. ln cllnlcal sporLs medlclne for recreaLlonal and compeLlLlve
aLhleLlcs, undersLandlng cardlovascular and resplraLory changes can help Lralners and develop safe, efflclenL plans
for aLhleLes, and can allow for qulcker recovery afLer ln[ury (ÞaLe, 2004).
8ruce 3
ll. =#7*,;'
uurlng Lhls experlmenL, *#2$7 $27# (bpm) and *#1,.-,4&: '27<$27&,: wlLh oxygen (°) were measured
wlLh a pulse oxlmeLer placed on Lhe flnger. 1ldal volume (llLers/mlnuLe) was measured uslng a splromeLer and an
aLLached mouLhplece. 8esplraLory raLe (breaLhs/mlnuLe), exhaled Lldal carbon dloxlde (mm Pg), and Lhe amounL
of oxygen ln exhaled alr (°) were measured uslng a comblned capnomeLer/oxygen analyzer lnsLrumenL wlLh an
aLLached mouLhplece. lrom Lhe splromeLer and capnomeLer/oxygen analyzer measuremenLs, %2$4,: ;&,"&;#
%-#2$2:%# (llLers CC
2
/mlnuLe) was calculaLed accordlng Lo Lhe equaLlon: cotboo JloxlJe cleotooce = (exboleJ tlJol
cotboo JloxlJe/760 mm nq) * tlJol volome * tespltototy tote (WaLers, 2014). Slmllarly, ,"+.#: %,:'<167&,: (llLers
C
2
/mlnuLe) was calculaLed accordlng Lo Lhe equaLlon: oxyqeo coosomptloo = (0.209 - O
2
of exboleJ olt) * tlJol
volome * tespltototy tote (WaLers, 2014). >,;+ 7#16#$27<$# (¨C) was measured uslng an oral LhermomeLer.
SysLollc (SÞ) and dlasLollc (uÞ) blood pressures (mm Pg) were measured ln Lhe brachlal arLery uslng a
sphygmomanomeLer. lrom Lhese blood pressures, 1#2: 2$7#$&2- 6$#''<$# ?=@)A, also ln mm Pg, was calculaLed
accordlng Lo Lhe equaLlon: MAl = ul - (1/J)*(5l-ul) (WaLers, 2014).
uaLa was collecLed every Lhree mlnuLes and was collecLed for 24 mlnuLes (Sub[ecLs 1 and 2) or 27 mlnuLes
(Sub[ecL 3), dependlng on when Lhe exerclse perlod ended. Whlle all oLher measuremenLs were Laken every Lhree
mlnuLes, body LemperaLure, hemoglobln saLuraLlon, and blood pressures were only recorded durlng Lhe Lwo
resLlng Llme polnLs (0 and 3 mlnuLes), lmmedlaLely afLer exerclse (varled), and durlng Lhe 6-mlnuLe recovery perlod
followlng exerclse. 1hls was deslgned ln order Lo avold lncorporaLlng hlghly varlable daLa polnLs LhaL would occur
wlLh a moblle sub[ecL (WaLers, 2014).
1he resLlng phase of Lhls experlmenL occurred for 3 mlnuLes, durlng whlch Lhe sub[ecLs were slLLlng. 1he
resLlng polnLs serve as conLrol values ln Lhls experlmenL, so LhaL exerclse and recovery values could be compared
Lo resLlng daLa for each sub[ecL's unlque physlology. 1he exerclse phase of Lhls experlmenL lasLed for
approxlmaLely 13 mlnuLes (Sub[ecLs 1 and 2) or 18 mlnuLes (Sub[ecL 3), durlng whlch Llme Lhe sub[ecLs were
runnlng on a Lreadmlll wlLh an lncreaslng lncllne (0-13¨) and speed (3mph, 7mph afLer 13 mlnuLes). noLably, an
ºexerclse hearL raLe" was deLermlned for each sub[ecL uslng age, helghL, welghL, gender, and smoklng sLaLus. 1hls
value represenLed 80° of Lhe maxlmum hearL raLe for each sub[ecL, whlch was used as a deLermlnanL for when Lhe
exerclse perlod should end, ln comblnaLlon wlLh exhausLlon, ln order Lo avold exLenslvely sLrenuous acLlvlLy. 1he
recovery phase of Lhls experlmenL lasLed on 6 mlnuLes, durlng whlch Lhe sub[ecLs were walklng on Lhe Lreadmlll aL
2mph wlLh no lncllne for 3 mlnuLes, and Lhen slLLlng for Lhe remalnlng 3 mlnuLes (WaLers, 2014).
8ruce 4
8889 5#'<-7'
llgure 1. LffecLs of Lxerclse on PearL 8aLe

llqote 1 Jeplcts tbe effects of exetclse oo beott tote fot J sobjects. cbooqes wete meosoteJ Jotloq test, exetclse,
ooJ tecovety. íxetclse beqoo oftet J mlootes of test. kecovety beqoo ot 18 mlootes fot 5objects 1 ooJ 2, ooJ ot 21
mlootes fot 5object J. lot clotlty, tbe fltst tecovety Joto polot ls motkeJ ot 24 mlootes fot oll sobjects.

llgure 1 compares resLlng, exerclse, and recovery hearL raLe values for Lhree sub[ecLs as measured over
Llme. lor all sub[ecLs, hearL raLe remalned falrly consLanL durlng resL beLween 0 mlnuLes and 3 mlnuLes, and Lhen
lncreased aL Lhe flrsL exerclse daLa polnL (6 mlnuLes). PearL raLe ln Sub[ecL 1 flucLuaLed durlng exerclse (93-168
bpm), buL remalned above Lhe resLlng hearL raLe. PearL raLe ln Sub[ecL 2 lncreased sLeadlly LhroughouL exerclse,
almosL doubllng beLween 9 and 18 mlnuLes (94 Lo 184 bpm) whlle also remalnlng above resLlng values. PearL raLe ln
Sub[ecL 3 decreased durlng exerclse beglnnlng aL 9 mlnuLes, and remalned relaLlvely consLanL unLll an lncrease aL 21
mlnuLes. lor all sub[ecLs, hearL raLe decreased slowly durlng recovery, buL remalned above resLlng values.
llgure 2. LffecLs of Lxerclse on Carbon uloxlde Clearance

llqote 2 Jeplcts tbe effects of exetclse oo cotboo JloxlJe cleotooce fot tbtee sobjects. cbooqes wete meosoteJ
Jotloq test, exetclse, ooJ tecovety. íxetclse beqoo oftet J mlootes of test. kecovety beqoo ot 18 mlootes fot 5objects
1 ooJ 2, ooJ ot 21 mlootes fot 5object J. lot clotlty, tbe fltst tecovety Joto polot ls motkeJ ot 24 mlo. fot oll sobjects.

0
30
100
130
200
0 3 6 9 12 13 18 21 24 27
B
#
2
$
7

5
2
7
#

?
4
#
2
7
'

6
#
$

1
&
:
<
7
#
A

C&1# ?1&:<7#'A
D*2:.#' &: B#2$7 527# EF#$ C&1#
Sub[ecL 1
Sub[ecL 2
Sub[ecL 3
0
2
4
6
8
10
0 3 6 9 12 13 18 21 24 27
D
E
G

D
-
#
2
$
2
:
%
#

?
-
&
7
#
$
'

D
E
G

6
#
$

1
&
:
<
7
#
A

C&1# ?1&:<7#'A
D*2:.#' &: DE
G
D-#2$2:%# EF#$ C&1#
Sub[ecL 1
Sub[ecL 2
Sub[ecL 3
8ruce 3
llgure 2 compares resLlng, exerclse, and recovery values for calculaLed carbon dloxlde clearance ln Lhree
sub[ecLs over Llme. lor all sub[ecLs, carbon dloxlde clearance was found Lo lncrease ln a relaLlvely llnear manner
durlng exerclse. Sub[ecL 1 exhlblLed some flucLuaLlon, and Sub[ecL 3 exhlblLed a decrease ln carbon dloxlde
clearance aL 21 mlnuLes, yeL Lhese values remalned above Lhe resLlng values for Lhese sub[ecLs. lor all sub[ecLs,
carbon dloxlde clearance decreased drasLlcally durlng recovery, and remalned above Lhe resLlng values.
llgure 3. LffecLs of Lxerclse on Cxygen ConsumpLlon

llqote J Jeplcts tbe effects of exetclse oo oxyqeo coosomptloo fot tbtee sobjects. cbooqes wete meosoteJ Jotloq
test, exetclse, ooJ tecovety. íxetclse beqoo oftet J mlootes of test. kecovety beqoo ot 18 mlootes fot 5objects 1 ooJ
2, ooJ ot 21 mlootes fot 5object J. lot clotlty, tbe fltst tecovety Joto polot ls motkeJ ot 24 mlootes fot oll sobjects.

llgure 3 compares resLlng, exerclse, and recovery values for calculaLed oxygen consumpLlon ln Lhree
sub[ecLs over Llme. Cxygen consumpLlon was reporLed as 0 for all sub[ecLs durlng resL. uurlng exerclse, oxygen
consumpLlon ls Sub[ecL 1 was found Lo decrease drasLlcally Lo approxlmaLely -1, whlle values for Sub[ecL 2 remalned
near 0, and values for Sub[ecL 3 decreased slowly. uurlng recovery, oxygen consumpLlon values for Sub[ecL 1
lncreased slowly buL remalned negaLlve, values for Sub[ecLs 2 and 3 remalned near 0.
1able 1. LffecLs of Lxerclse on 8ody 1emperaLure

1oble 1 Jeplcts tbe effects of exetclse oo boJy tempetotote fot tbtee sobjects. cbooqes wete meosoteJ Jotloq 6
mlootes of test, lmmeJlotely oftet exetclse eoJeJ, ooJ Jotloq 6 mlootes of tecovety. Note. exetclse eoJeJ oftet
opptoxlmotely 15 mlootes fot 5objects 1 ooJ 2, ooJ oftet opptoxlmotely 18 mlootes fot 5object J.

-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0 3 6 9 12 13 18 21 24 27
E
G

D
,
:
'
<
1
6
H
,
:

?
-
&
7
#
$
'

E
G

6
#
$

1
&
:
<
7
#
A

C&1# ?1&:<7#'A
D*2:.#' &: E
G
D,:'<16H,: EF#$ C&1#
Sub[ecL 1
Sub[ecL 2
Sub[ecL 3
Sub[ecL 1 Sub[ecL 2 Sub[ecL 3
8esLlng (0 mlnuLes) 36.2 ¨C 34.7 ¨C 33.2 ¨C
8esLlng (3 mlnuLes) 33.6 ¨C 33.0 ¨C 33.3 ¨C
AfLer exerclse perlod 33.3 ¨C 33.7 ¨C 33.0 ¨C
8ecovery (3 mlnuLes) 36.2 ¨C 33.6 ¨C 36.2 ¨C
8ecovery (6 mlnuLes) 36.4 ¨C 36.1 ¨C 36.4 ¨C
8ruce 6
1able 1 compares body LemperaLure readlngs measured orally for Lhree sub[ecLs durlng resL, lmmedlaLely
afLer exerclse, and durlng recovery. uurlng resL, LemperaLure remalned falrly consLanL for all sub[ecLs. AfLer
exerclse, Sub[ecLs 1 and 3 exhlblLed a sllghLly decreased LemperaLure, and Sub[ecL 2 exhlblLed a sllghLly lncreased
LemperaLure. uurlng recovery, all sub[ecLs exhlblLed a sllghL lncrease ln body LemperaLure, whlch resulLed ln values
above resLlng for all sub[ecLs by Lhe end of Lhe experlmenL.
1able 2. LffecLs of Lxerclse on Pemoglobln SaLuraLlon
Sub[ecL 1 Sub[ecL 2 Sub[ecL 3
8esLlng (0 mlnuLes) 98 ° 100 ° 93 °
8esLlng (3 mlnuLes) 96 ° 100 ° 80 °
AfLer exerclse 94 ° 96 ° 87 °
8ecovery (3 mlnuLes) 93 ° 98 ° 98 °
8ecovery (6 mlnuLes) 98 ° 98 ° 98 °
1oble 2 Jeplcts tbe effects of exetclse oo bemoqloblo sotototloo fot tbtee sobjects. cbooqes wete meosoteJ Jotloq 6
mlootes of test, lmmeJlotely oftet exetclse eoJeJ, ooJ Jotloq 6 mlootes of tecovety. Note. exetclse eoJeJ oftet
opptoxlmotely 15 mlootes fot 5objects 1 ooJ 2, ooJ oftet opptoxlmotely 18 mlootes fot 5object J.

1able 2 compares hemoglobln saLuraLlon values for Lhree sub[ecLs durlng resL, lmmedlaLely afLer exerclse,
and durlng recovery. uurlng resL, hemoglobln saLuraLlon remalned falrly consLanL near 100° for Sub[ecLs 1 and 2,
buL decreased from 93° Lo 80° ln Sub[ecL 3. AfLer exerclse, Sub[ecLs 1 and 2 exhlblLed sllghLly decreased
hemoglobln saLuraLlon, and Sub[ecL 3 exhlblLed a decrease when compared Lo Lhe flrsL resLlng value, buL an lncrease
when compared Lo Lhe second resLlng value. uurlng recovery, all sub[ecLs exhlblLed an lncrease ln body
LemperaLure, whlch resulLed ln values slmllar Lo Lhe resLlng values for all sub[ecLs.
1able 3. LffecLs of Lxerclse on Mean ArLerlal Þressure (MAÞ)
Sub[ecL 1 Sub[ecL 2 Sub[ecL 3
8esLlng (0 mlnuLes) 102 mm Pg 83 mm Pg 71 mm Pg
8esLlng (3 mlnuLes) 104 mm Pg 87 mm Pg 73 mm Pg
AfLer exerclse 107 mm Pg 88 mm Pg 99 mm Pg
8ecovery (3 mlnuLes) 113 mm Pg 82 mm Pg 83 mm Pg
8ecovery (6 mlnuLes) 101 mm Pg 79 mm Pg 79 mm Pg
1oble J Jeplcts tbe effects of exetclse oo meoo ottetlol ptessote fot tbtee sobjects. cbooqes wete meosoteJ ovet
tlme Jotloq 6 mlootes of test, lmmeJlotely oftet exetclse eoJeJ, ooJ Jotloq 6 mlootes of tecovety. Note. exetclse
eoJeJ oftet opptoxlmotely 15 mlootes fot 5objects 1 ooJ 2, ooJ oftet opptoxlmotely 18 mlootes fot 5object J.

1able 3 compares values for mean arLerlal pressure (MAÞ) for Lhree sub[ecLs lmmedlaLely afLer exerclse,
and durlng recovery. uurlng resL, MAÞ remalned falrly consLanL, varylng only 2-4 mm Pg for each sub[ecL. AfLer
exerclse, Sub[ecLs 1 and 2 exhlblLed sllghLly lncreased MAÞ, whlle Sub[ecL 3 exhlblLed a larger lncrease. uurlng
recovery, Sub[ecL 1 exhlblLed a sllghL lncrease followed by decrease Lo resLlng MAÞ value, Sub[ecL 2 exhlblLed a slow
8ruce 7
decrease Lo [usL below resLlng values, and Sub[ecL 3 exhlblLed a sllghL decrease ln MAÞ buL remalned above resLlng
values.
8I9 J&'%<''&,:
MosL, buL noL all of Lhe resulLs of Lhls laboraLory can be lnLerpreLed as provldlng supporL for Lhe proposed
hypoLheses. uue Lo lncreased ln mechanosensory lnpuL from acLlve skeleLal muscle and Lhe assoclaLed sympaLheLlc
response of lncreased cardlac ouLpuL, hearL raLe was expecLed Lo lncrease qulLe drasLlcally durlng exerclse as
compared Lo resLlng values, and Lhen decrease as exerclse ceased. 1hls was weakly supporLed by Lhe resulLs of Lhls
laboraLory, as Sub[ecLs 1 and 3 exhlblLed flucLuaLlons (lncreases and decreases) ln hearL raLe durlng exerclse. 1he
daLa from Sub[ecL 2, however, sLrongly supporL Lhls hypoLhesls because a llnear lncrease ln exerclse hearL raLe was
reporLed. All sub[ecLs dld exhlblL a decrease ln hearL raLe durlng recovery, whlch was expecLed.
lor changes ln CC
2
clearance, Lhe resulLs of Lhls laboraLory sLrongly supporL Lhe hypoLhesls LhaL CC
2

clearance wlll lncrease durlng exerclse. lor all sub[ecLs, Lhe carbon dloxlde clearance was found Lo lncrease qulLe
sLeadlly durlng exerclse, followed by a decrease durlng recovery. 1hls ls conslsLenL wlLh Lhe response from Lhe
resplraLory conLrol cenLer of Lhe medulla Lo lncrease venLllaLlon durlng exerclse when ÞCC
2
lncreases (WaLers,
2014). Powever, for oxygen consumpLlon, Lhe resulLs of Lhe laboraLory are enLlrely lnaccuraLe and do noL represenL
Lhe acLual oxygen consumpLlon for Lhe sub[ecLs or supporL Lhe hypoLhesls LhaL oxygen consumpLlon wlll lncrease
durlng exerclse. 1hls ls because Lhe oxygen sensor was noL correcLly swlLched on durlng Lhe experlmenL, so Lhe
obLalned values represenL Lhe percenL of oxygen ln Lhe alr ln Lhe room and noL from Lhe sub[ecLs. lurLher, oxygen
consumpLlon cannoL be negaLlve ln a llvlng, breaLhlng human because cells requlre oxygen for cellular resplraLlon.
Powever, because Lhe CC
2
clearance was found Lo lncrease, lL ls llkely LhaL C
2
consumpLlon also lncreased for all
sub[ecLs, because Lhe skeleLal muscle produclng CC
2
wasLe ln cellular resplraLlon was also consumlng oxygen
(WaLers, 2014).
lor changes ln body LemperaLure, Lhe resulLs sLrongly supporLed Lhe hypoLhesls LhaL LemperaLure should
noL change durlng exerclse due Lo Lhe body's qulck LhermoregulaLory mechanlsms (sweaLlng and cuLaneous
vasodllaLlon) (SllverLhorn, 2007). AlLhough sllghL flucLuaLlons were reporLed ln all sub[ecLs, Lhese changes may be
aLLrlbuLed Lo locallzed changes ln LemperaLure LhaL may have occurred ln Lhe sub[ecL's mouLhs. lor changes ln
hemoglobln saLuraLlon, Lhe resulLs of Lhls laboraLory sLrongly supporL Lhe hypoLhesls LhaL saLuraLlon wlll decrease
durlng exerclse due Lo Lhe 8ohr effecL and hemoglobln's decreased afflnlLy for oxygen ln areas wlLh a hlgh meLabollc
raLe (SllverLhorn, 2007). lor all sub[ecLs, a decrease was seen ln hemoglobln saLuraLlon lmmedlaLely afLer exerclse
when compared Lo aL leasL one resLlng value, and Lhe saLuraLlon lncreased durlng Lhe recovery perlod.
8ruce 8
LasLly, for mean arLerlal pressure (MAÞ), Lhe resulLs of Lhls laboraLory sLrongly supporL Lhe hypoLhesls LhaL
MAÞ should sllghLly lncrease durlng exerclse due Lo lncreased cardlac ouLpuL. lor Sub[ecLs 1 and 2, a sllghL lncrease
as compared Lo aL leasL one resLlng value was reporLed for MAÞ lmmedlaLely afLer exerclse. ln Sub[ecL 3, a drasLlc
lncrease ln MAÞ lmmedlaLely afLer exerclse was seen, whlch may be due Lo Lhe facL LhaL Sub[ecL 3 exerclsed for
longer Lhan Sub[ecLs 1 and 2 and exhlblLed a hlgher cardlac ouLpuL.
Whlle Lhls laboraLory wenL well overall and mosL daLa was obLalned efflclenLly, sources of error ln Lhls
experlmenL are relaLed Lo experlmenLal deslgn and Lechnlque. 1he experlmenL was conducLed ln a relaLlvely small
space wlLh only 3 mlnuLes beLween each daLa polnL. 1hls creaLed delays ln daLa recordlng and dlfferences ln Lhe
order of daLa collecLlon aL almosL every polnL, whlch llkely alLered Lhe resulLs. lurLher, a more preclse Lechnlque ls
needed, as Lhe oxygen sensor was noL enabled, and several daLa polnLs were noL obLalned, llmlLlng Lhe resulLs of Lhls
experlmenL. 1hls experlmenL could have been deslgned wlLh more sub[ecLs ln order Lo lmprove Lhe accuracy of Lhe
resulLs. WlLh only Lhree sub[ecLs, Lhe loss and unrellablllLy of several daLa polnLs made some resulLs dlfflculL Lo
analyze. Also, only one Lype of exerclse was employed, whlch llmlLed Lhe sLudy. ln fuLure, dlfferenL Lypes of
cardlovascular acLlvlLy such a cycllng or danclng could also be lncluded Lo exLend Lhe appllcaLlons of Lhe resulLs.
AlLhough Lhere ls room for lmprovemenL ln Lhls experlmenL, and alLhough Lhe noL all of Lhe resulLs were
expecLed, Lhls daLa does conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe undersLandlng of exerclse physlology and Lhe homeosLaLlc regulaLlon of
resplraLory and cardlovascular changes LhaL occur wlLh exerclse. As exhlblLed by Lhe resulLs of Lhls laboraLory, less
Lhan one half-hour of exerclse can lnduce changes ln cardlac ouLpuL LhaL can help Lo sLrengLhen Lhe hearL and
promoLe healLhy clrculaLlon of blood Lo Lhe skeleLal muscles due Lo lncreases ln hearL raLe and vasodllaLlon ln
skeleLal muscle arLerloles. SLudles have shown LhaL Lhese changes ln physlology help Lo malnLaln a healLhy blood
pressure, reduce sLress levels, manage welghL, and prevenL condlLlons such as 1ype ll ulabeLes (SllverLhorn, 2007).
Moreover, ln sporLs medlclne, Lhe resulLs of Lhls laboraLory can help cllnlclans Lo beLLer undersLand cerLaln
condlLlons LhaL compeLlLlve aLhleLes face. lor lnsLance, aLhleLes LhaL parLlclpaLe ln frequenL hlgh-endurance
exerclse ofLen develop an enlarged ºALhleLe's hearL" (Zlllnskl, 2014). 1hls occurs because Lhe hearL beglns Lo
compensaLe for Lhe shorLened dlasLole perlod LhaL ls assoclaLed wlLh lncreased hearL raLe by Lhlckenlng Lhe
muscular wall of Lhe lefL venLrlcle (cardlac hyperLrophy). 1hls allows enough blood Lo be pumped ouL of Lhe hearL Lo
Lhe skeleLal muscles durlng exerclse, buL can lead Lo lssues lncludlng bradycardla when Lhe lndlvldual ls resLlng, slnce
less beaLs per mlnuLe are needed Lo pump blood Lo Lhe body when Lhe lefL venLrlcle ls lncreased ln slze and can flll
wlLh more blood (Zlllnskl, 2014). ln concluslon, Lhe cllnlcal appllcaLlons LhaL exLend from knowledge ln exerclse
physlology are slgnlflcanL and should be furLher explored Lo prevenL and LreaL varlous condlLlons.
8ruce 9
v. 5#K#$#:%#'
8rooks, Ceorge AusLln, 1homas uavln lahey, and 1lmoLhy Þ. WhlLe. íxetclse pbysloloqy. nomoo bloeoetqetlcs ooJ
lts oppllcotloos. no. Ld. 2. Mayfleld publlshlng company, 1996.
WaLers, !ohn 8. and 1omlcek, naneLLe !. Þhyslology LaboraLory Manual. noyJeo-McNell lobllsbloq. ÞlymouLh, Ml.
(2014): 38-64.
ÞaLe, 8ussell 8., and !. Larry uursLlne. "Lxerclse physlology and lLs role ln cllnlcal sporLs medlclne." 5ootbeto
meJlcol jootool 97.9 (2004): 881-883.
SllverLhorn, uee u. nomoo lbysloloqy. Ao loteqtoteJ Apptoocb. San lranclsco: Þearson/8en[amln Cummlngs,
2007. ÞrlnL.
Zlllnskl, !odl L., and Aaron L. 8agglsh. "1he ALhleLe's PearL: Cardlovascular ulsease ln Lhe ALhleLe." ívlJeoce-8oseJ
cotJloloqy coosolt. Sprlnger London, 2014. 283-298.