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The Pro*Act Commodity Guide is designed as a quick

reference for buyers, distributors and end users,


providing easy to find information on commodities and
growing regions. Included within this reference guide:

Retail Merchandising and Promotional Ideas
Useful Food Service Tips
Typical Production Regions
Availability Charts
Shipping Information
Grade Standards
Receiving and Handling Guide
Nutritional Information

Knowledge, information, communication and
relationships are the cornerstone to successful produce
purchasing.


Max Yeater Tim Lynch
Vice President of Procurement Quality Assurance Manager
Tab 1: A- C: Tab 5: M- O:
Apples Mangoes
Apricots Melons
Artichokes Mushrooms
Asparagus Nectarines
Avocados Onions
Bananas - Bulb
Beets - Green
Berries Oranges
- Blackberries
- Blueberries Tab 6: P- R:
- Raspberries Papayas
- Strawberries Peaches
Broccoli Pears
Brussels Sprouts Peas
Cabbage Pineapple
Carrots Plums
Cauliflower Potatoes
Celery Radishes
Cherries
Corn Tab 7: S- Z:
Cucumbers Spinach
Squash
Tab 2: D- F: Sweet Peppers
Eggplant Tomatoes
Endive Turnips
Escarole Watermelon
Tab 3: G- I: Tab 8: Misc:
Garlic Glossary
Grapes
Grapefruit
Green Beans
Greens
Tab 4: J- L:
Kiwi
Leeks
Lemons
Lettuce
- Iceberg
- Leaf
- Romaine
Limes
Table of Contents

Apples 04.07
APPLES

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Apples pull consumers into the produce department regularly. The
Packers Fresh Trends reports that 84% of households had bought
apples in the past 12 months.
Provide a choice of varieties for consumers. Smaller stores should display at least
seven varieties at a time; larger stores should carry about 12. Clearly separate and
label each variety to reduce consumer handling.
Rotate regularly using a first-in, first-out stocking technique. Put new apples at the back
or bottom of a display; move older stock to the top and front. Dont dump apples on
the display. Carefully remove and replace bruised, cut, punctured or discolored
product, repacking if necessary. Refrigerate all apple displays.
Be sure to identify each variety display with proper price and variety signs. Display bag
and bulk apples together to offer options. Alternate different color varieties when
stacking.
Stock larger apple sizes as research shows consumers prefer a larger apple. Also
consider promoting apples as a healthy snack option.

Placement:
Apples can be placed in bulk on an island table or in a refrigerated case. Apples ripen
10 times faster at room temperature, and they should not be out of refrigeration for
more than 48 hours. Waterfall displays, built by extending into the aisle by the width of
one carton, can help increase apple sales. Additionally, studies show full-color high
impact graphics also can increase sales.
Merchandise apples with tie-ins such as caramel and candy apple kits and wraps,
caramel dips and apple cider.
For cooking varieties, merchandise pie shells, pie toppings and baking supplies near
apples. Use signs to tell consumers which apples are best for baking.
Gift boxes can increase impulse buying, enhance displays and offer consumers a
convenient gift idea.
Gadgets such as apple corers and peelers should be merchandised nearby.

Promotion:
Post information on the uses of each variety to help consumers select the ones best
suited to their needs. For newer varieties, post trait information to encourage trial.
Take advantage of the fall, especially National Apple Month, a 90-day event from the
first of September through the end of November.
The fall offers the perfect time to use apples in a harvest theme. Use wheelbarrows
and wagons for display. Surrounding the apple display with corn stalks and pumpkins
creates an appealing fall image.
Serve samples of warm apple crisp in the produce department to pique consumer
interest, merchandising next to bagged apples and crisp fixings.



Apples 04.07
FOOD SERVICES:
Granny smiths, golden delicious, braeburns, cortlands, ginger golds and empires are
good for use in salads or on salad bars. Their high acid content means they brown
less quickly than other varieties.
Use a quarter cup apple juice to one cup water to prevent cut apple pieces from turning
brown. Apple juice has about the same acidity as citrus juices and doesnt compete
with the apples flavor. Fresh-cut apples treated with NatureSeal or other
preservatives are another option.
Fresh-cut apples are an attractive option on a childrens menu.

Equivalents:
1 lb. = about 4 small apples
1 lb. = about 3 medium apples
1 lb. = about 2 large apples
1 lb. sliced = about 2 cups
1 lb. diced = about 3 cups
2 medium grated = 1 cup


APPLE AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Year round production from Washington peaks during the late summer and
fall. Supplies are put into controlled atmosphere (CA) storage for year round shipments.
California, Oregon and Idaho add substantial volume during the late summer and fall
harvest period with supplies generally available into the spring months. Numerous states
in the East provide substantial volume for the fall and winter months.

Imports: Available from Canada year round in light volumes. Off shore volume from
Chile, Argentina, New Zealand and South Africa can also provide additional volume
during the spring and summer months (March through August).

Overview: Domestic supplies are fairly steady all year as shippers closely monitor
supply in storage. Apple groves require adequate chilling hours during the winter to
produce strong yields and quality. Adverse weather conditions during critical
growth/development stages (spring), especially in the Pacific Northwest growing regions,
can also impact yields and quality. Domestic supplies will be at a low point during the
mid-summer months as storage supplies wind down prior to fresh harvests.














Apples 04.07
APPLE AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
WA
OR
ID
MI
NY
ME
Other
CAN
IMP

LIGHT
APPLE AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Shape, Cleanliness, Color, Russeting, Overspray,
Sunburn, Cuts, Bruise, Scar/scab, Internal breakdown, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
50-lb. field crates
40- to 45-lb. cartons/boxes, tray-packed
40-lb. bushel baskets/cartons, tray- or cell packed
40-lb. bushel baskets/cartons, loose pack
40-lb. 118-bushel cartons, loose pack
40-lb. cartons, 10 4-lb. film bags
40-lb. cartons, 16-8s tray wrapped
40-lb. cartons, 8 5-lb. bags
38- to 42-lb. cartons/boxes, loose pack
37- to 43-lb. cartons, cell-packed
36-lb. cartons, 12 3-lb. bags
28-lb. euro box
20-lb. 12-bushel cartons, loose
3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, 7-, 8-, 10-lb. polyethylene or cello bags
4-, 8-, 12-count clamshells

Tri-wall Bins:
600-lb. tote bin
300-lb. half tote bin


Sliced Consumer Packs:
1-lb., 2-lb., 14-oz, and 2-oz. bags
1-lb. bowl
1-lb. trays, with or without dip
3.5-oz. trays with dip



Apples 04.07
Foodservice Packs:
3-, 5- and 10-lb. polyethylene or cello bags (sizes range from 214 to 234 inches in
diameter)
Cartons, 12 3-lb. bags or 8 5-lb. bags
13 carton, two-layer tray packs; 4- and 6-lb. cartons
42 lb. bushel boxes

Sliced:
3-lb. bags

Sizes:
Small 100s-216s
Large 88s-70s
Extra-large 64s-36s

U.S. GRADES:
United States:
U.S. Extra Fancy
U.S. Fancy
U.S. No. 1
Combination grades (Combinations of: U.S. extra fancy and U.S. fancy; U.S. Fancy
and U.S. No. 1; U.S. No. 1 and U.S. Utility are permitted when at least 50 percent of
the apples in any lot meet the requirements of the higher grade).

Washington State:
Washington Extra Fancy
Washington Fancy
Washington grades are a higher standard than the corresponding U.S. grade.
Washington has implemented minimum internal condition standards for all grades of
delicious apples.

COMMON PLUs:

4101 braeburn, small
4103 braeburn, large
3065 cameo, small
3066 cameo, large
4104 cortland, small
4106 cortland, large
4108 crispin/mutsu, small,
East/Central
4109 crispin/mutsu, small, West
4110 crispin/mutsu, large,
East/Central
4111 crispin/mutsu, large, West
4124 empire, small, East/Central
4125 empire, small, West
4126 empire, large, East/Central
4127 empire, large, West
4129 fuji, small
4131 fuji, large
4132 gala, small, East/Central
4133 gala, small, West
4134 gala, large, East/Central
4135 gala, large, West
4097 ginger gold, small
4096 ginger gold, large
4136 golden delicious, small,
East/Central
4021 golden delicious, small, West
4137 golden delicious, large,
East/Central
4020 golden delicious, large, West
3285 golden delicious, extra large,
West
4138 granny smith, small,
East/Central

Apples 04.07
4139 granny smith, small, West
4018 granny smith, large, East/Central
4017 granny smith, large, West
3283 honeycrisp
4144 jonagold, small, East/Central
4145 jonagold, small, West
4146 jonagold, large, East/Central
4147 jonagold, large, West
4148 jonathon, small, East/Central
4149 jonathan, small, West
4150 jonathan, large, East/Central
4151 jonathan, large, West
4152 mcintosh, small, East/Central
4153 mcintosh, small, West
4019 mcintosh, large, East/Central
4154 mcintosh, large, West
4128 pink lady, small
4130 pink lady, large
4167 red delicious, small, East/Central
4015 red delicious, small, West
4168 red delicious, large, East/Central
4016 red delicious, large, West
3284 red delicious, extra large, West
4169 rome, small, East/Central
4170 rome, small, West
4171 rome, large, East/Central
4172 rome, large, West
4185 york, small
4187 york, large

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 to 34 F, 0 to1.1 C
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: No
Typical shelf life: 90 to 240 days (under refrigeration).
Ethylene producer (Do not store with ethylene-sensitive items).
Odor-sensitive (Will absorb odors produced by potatoes, bulb onions or any strong-
flavored item).
Moderately sensitive to freezing injury.
It is especially important that controlled-atmosphere apples are refrigerated at the
proper temperature because they are more susceptible to becoming mealy.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for apples: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free and an
excellent source of fiber.


















Apricots 04.07
APRICOTS

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Sort apricots according to maturity level. Display the
ripest fruit first. Keep apricots in their original
containers to avoid extra handling.
Turnover is essential in keeping fruit fresh and appealing. Be sure to rotate apricots at
least once a day.
To avoid bruising, do not stack bulk displays more than two layers deep.

Placement:
Combine dried apricots with fresh ones to add variety and increase profits. The
combined display also provides a great springboard for dried apricot sales throughout
the year.
Placing fruits of a comparable size and price range nearby can lessen the price shock.
Other early fruits, such as cherries and plums, are higher-priced than other later fruits.
Catch customer attention by grouping apricots between contrasting-colored fruits. Use
tie-in items such as pastry mixes, glazes, canning and preservative items to increase
impulse sales. Use waterfall and island displays to attract interest.

Promotion:
Encourage consumers to ripen apricots by providing ripening bags.
Use stickers or signs to indicate levels of ripeness. Also use point-of-sale materials,
nutrition information and price spots.

FOOD SERVICE:
Apricots can be used as a topping, a sweetener, in breads or as ingredients for salads
and in cooking. They also can be made into a syrup or wine and brandy.

Equivalents:
1-lb. = 3 cups sliced
1-lb. large = 12 to14 apricots

APRICOT AVAILABILITY: Available seasonally with domestic production May-
September and imports available December-February.

Domestic: Domestic availability begins in May from Californias San Joaquin Valley
with supplies typically into July. Availability from Washington State begins in June with
supplies generally lasting into September weather permitting. Domestic supplies are
very susceptible to spring weather patterns in these two major growing regions. Apricot
supplies generally remain light due to demand and growing conditions during this short
production window.

Imports: Light winter time volume derived mainly from Chile become available in
December and January with light volume from New Zealand also available during the
winter period.


Apricots 04.07

Overview: Light supplies are generally the norm due to less acreage devoted to
apricots, the short growing season, growing conditions and generally strong demand
during their short production window. The mid summer months of June and July will
typically provide the heaviest domestic volume. Very light imported volume is the norm
during winter production.


APRICOT AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
WA
IMP

LIGHT
APRICOT AVAILBILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Shape, Color/blush, Cracks, Limb rub, Russeting,
Firmness, Bruise, Insect injury, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
36-lb. cartons, 2-layer tray-pack
24-lb. lugs, loose
20-lb. lugs, 2-layer
18-lb. cartons, 2-layer tray-pack
12-lb. cartons
7-lb. cartons, 1-layer

GRADES:
United States:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2
Minimum size, numerical count or description of the pack must be marked on the
exterior of the fruit container.

California:
All volume-fill fruit from California must be packed only in 24-lb. containers. The number
that makes up 1 pound of fruit identifies the fruit in those containers.

Small = 18 or more
Medium = 16
Large = 14
Extra large = 12
Jumbo = 10
Extra Jumbo = 8
XX Jumbo = 7

Sizes 6, 5 and 4 now are available because of larger varieties coming to the market.


Apricots 04.07
Tray-packs, or Panta-Paks, will continue to be identified by the actual count per box.
Boxes packed under the current row-count designation will remain unchanged.

COMMON PLUs:
4218regular, small
3302regular, large

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F, 0C (Apricots stored in high temperatures become mealy).
Relative humidity: 90 to 95 percent
Mist: no
Typical shelf life 7 to 14 days
Ethylene producer (Do not store with ethylene-sensitive items).

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for apricots: low-fat, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, high in
vitamin A, high in vitamin C and a good source of potassium.





Artichokes 04.07
ARTICHOKES

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Refrigerate in layers, no more than three or four deep.
For best appearance, place stem down in a single
layer on crushed ice.
When not on ice, artichoke stems should be placed outward to facilitate handling and
give customers protection from any points. If ends are blackened and dry, the stems
can be shortened to create a more attractive appearance. Shortening the stem also
refreshes the artichoke and allows water to travel into the bud when placed in ice or
water.
Artichokes are subject to darkening, wilting and molding. Remove any damaged outer
leaves and rework the display frequently.
Cross-merchandise artichokes by placing them between salad items, fresh lemons,
bottled dips and dressings.

Promotion:
Concerns about preparation may be a hindrance to many consumers. Use signs to
suggest consumers microwave the artichokes for six to eight minutes or until a petal
near the center pulls out easily. Provide take-home literature and display signs offering
basic preparation tips and recipes.
Use point-of-sale materials to inform consumers that winter-kissed artichokes are not
bad quality and are very flavorful.
Demonstrations and sampling will help educate consumers. Use dips when providing
artichoke samples.

FOOD SERVICE:
Artichokes should be washed under cold running water. Pull off lower petals and cut
stems to one inch or less. Cut off top quarter of each artichoke. Snip off tips of petals
and dip in acidified water to preserve green color.
Artichokes complement seafood dishes such as jambalaya and paella. They also work
well in poultry, beef, pork or lamb stews.
Small artichokes are better for appetizers, pickling, stews and casseroles. Medium-
sized ones are good for salads and large ones for stuffing.

ARTICHOKE AVAILABILITY: Available year around.

Domestic: Light to moderate year round production from California shifts seasonally
with the bulk (70%) of the production generated from the Salinas Valley. Arizona
provides light volume during the winter production period (January-April).

Imports: Imports are available from Mexico during the winter and early spring
(November-April), along with light seasonal volume from Chile available in May and June
and again in November and December.



Artichokes 04.07
Overview: Light year round production in California is fairly steady, peaking in the
spring (March-May) and again in the late summer (September). Mexico provides light
winter volume from November through April. Light imported volume is also available
from Chile during the spring and fall.


ARTICHOKE AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
ARTICHOKE PRODUCTION MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Trimming, Size/Shape, Compactness, Spread, Discoloration,
Wilting, Freeze injury, Insect injury, Mold, Mildew, Rot.

SHIPPING INFO:
23-lb. wax-treated carton, by count or loose pack, including imports.
Package sizes must not vary by more than 3/4 inch in diameter. Size must be stamped
or marked in terms of numerical count or minimum size. More than 90 percent of
volume is in the 18 to 60 size range.

Carton counts:
12 = jumbo
18 = jumbo
24 = extra large
30 = large
36 = large
48 = medium
60 = small
72 = small
large loose (cocktail)
small loose (baby)

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2



COMMON PLUs:
4516 small, size 48 and smaller
4084 large, sizes 30-36
4762 extra large, size 24 and larger
4519 baby/cocktail





Artichokes 04.07
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Artichokes are subject to darkening, wilting and molding. Check the base end of the
bud for signs of worm injury. Although it may appear negligible on the outside, the
path may run deeply into the heart and cause extensive waste.
Serious discoloration often indicates damage from bruises or a lack of freshness. The
bruises may appear as dark off-color areas at the site of the injury and mold or decay
also may develop.
Over-mature product often is woody and may be undesirably strong-flavored.
Hard-tipped leaf scales that are opening or spreading signal over-maturity.
Center formations may be fuzzy and dark pink or purple in color. Artichokes should be
selected according to season.

Spring: Look for rounded, heavy, compact and plump artichokes with good green color
and tight leaves.

Summer/Fall: Artichokes will be flared and conical in shape. Some fall artichokes may
have white to bronze outer petals because they have been touched by a light frost. The
artichokes should be somewhat heavy for their size.

Winter: Select artichokes that are heavy, compact and plump. Some blistering may be
caused by light frost, which causes a white to bronze appearance.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for artichokes: fat-free, saturated fat-free, low in sodium, cholesterol-free,
low-calorie, a good source of fiber, a good source of vitamin C, a good source of folate
and a good source of magnesium.





Asparagus 04.07
ASPARAGUS

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Bulk displays during peak season help increase sales.
When the season is not at its peak, most retailers
package or bundle supplies.
Place asparagus in front of regular displays, wet racks
or tables. That will interrupt the consumer going down
the aisle.
Because asparagus continues to grow after it is picked by using the water content of
the stalk, the bottom of the stalk quickly becomes fibrous and tough while the tip stays
tender. A moist mat against the end will slow this process, but leaving asparagus
standing in lots of water encourages mold.

Promotion:
Advertise asparagus for extra sales during Passover and Easter.
Cross-merchandise asparagus with Hollandaise sauce, cheese, light olive oil and
butter or margarine. New-crop baby red potatoes also are a good tie-in to asparagus.
Display near tomatoes and red onions and suggest that shoppers toss with Italian
dressing for a healthy salad.
Use signs to inform shoppers that the thickness of the stalk doesnt affect tenderness.
However, let them know that for uniform cooking, it is best to select stalks of the same
general size.

FOOD SERVICE:
When serving by itself as a side dish, be sure to take into account the size of the spear
compared with the size and shape of the serving dish. The plate will determine the
size of spear needed.

ASPARAGUS AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Production derived from California followed by Washington. Production in
California begins in January, gains momentum in February with peak volume March
through early June. In Washington production begins in April with peak volume in May
and June. Numerous local or regional deals will add to domestic volume in the early
summer months.

Imports: Mexico is by far the largest supplier of asparagus to the U.S., with Chile and
Peru also adding to imported volume. Volume from Mexico is basically year round with
peak volume during January through March. Offshore production (Chile/Peru) is also
year round with peak volume October through December.

Overview: The late winter or early spring months of February through May look to be
the heaviest volume months for domestic asparagus supplies with April and May having
the strongest supplies of the year. Imports from Mexico hit their peak production in
March with offshore production strongest in September and October.



Asparagus 04.07





ASPARAGUS AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
WA
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
ASPARAGUS AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Purpling, Color, Discoloration, Feathering, Misshape (crook),
Freeze injury, Insect injury, Aphids, Over mature (spread tip), Wilting, Scarring, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
30-lb. (minimum) pyramid
cartons/crates, bunched or loose
28-lb. cartons/crates, bunched
25-lb. lugs/cartons, loose
24- to 25-lb. cartons, 16 1 packages
21-lb. lugs/cartons, loose
20-lb. -pyramid cartons
20-lb. cartons, bunched
15- to 17-lb. pyramid cartons/crates,
loose or bunched
15-lb. cartons, loose or bunched
14-lb. cartons
12-lb. cartons
12- 13-lb. 1/3 cartons/crates, bunched
11-lb. cartons/crates

Foodservice packs:
Cartons, 6 5-lb. bags

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. grades
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2
Washington grades
Washington XF (extra fancy)

COMMON PLUs:
4080 green, small
4521 green, large
4522 white, small
4523 white, large
4524 tips
California stalk diameters:
small 3/16 inches and larger
standard 5/16 inches and larger
large 7/16 inches and larger
extra large 10/16 inches and larger
jumbo 13/16 inches and larger
colossal 1 6/16 inches and larger









Asparagus 04.07
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 37 to 41 F, 2.8 to 5 C
Relative humidity: 95 to 100 percent
Mist: Lightly
Typical shelf life: 10 to 21 days
Highly sensitive to freezing injury.
Asparagus seldom is stored for more than 10 days. If product is to be held more than
10 days, store at 35 F to avoid low-temperature chilling injury.
Fresh asparagus deteriorates rapidly when low temperatures are not maintained. At
room temperature, it quickly develops a woody tissue and loses sugar content.
Good-quality asparagus will be fresh and firm with closed, compact tips and good
green color.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for asparagus: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, low
in calories, a good source of vitamin C and high in folate.






Avocados 04.07
AVOCADO

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Avoid displaying unripe fruit on refrigerated tables,
which can damage quality. Handle ripe fruit carefully
to avoid internal bruising. Always remove scarred,
overripe or discolored fruit from display immediately.
Research by the California Avocado Commission shows that ripe avocados outsell
nonripe by almost two to one. Ripe avocados are bought as an impulse purchase for
immediate use. According to the commission, more than 35 million consumers buy
ripe and unripe avocados, with 43.1 percent purchasing ripe avocados and 38.1
percent buying unripe avocados.
Provide ripening information with unripe fruit displays. Hard, unripened fruit should be
ripened at room temperature for three to 10 days and then refrigerated.
Give consumers a selection by displaying two sizes or two varieties together, such as
Florida and California avocados or Hass and Fuerte or Pinkerton.
Display one-third ripe, one-third breakers and one-third preconditioned avocados.
Preconditioned avocados, those that ripen in three to four days when placed in 70 F,
21.1 C, cost about one penny more per fruit.
To maximize sales, increase the size of the display and merchandise with tomatoes,
lemons, limes, salsas, chips and guacamole mix. The citrus section is ideal for a
secondary avocado display.

Promotion:
Use point-of-sale materials such as ripe stickers, price cards and recipe tear pads.
Give out samples of guacamole dip with tortilla chips or fresh-cut vegetables. Slice and
dice fresh avocados and squeeze with lime juice.
Build promotions around the Super Bowl, Cinco de Mayo, summer barbecues, salad
promotions and holidays.

FOOD SERVICE:
New recipe research and testing proves avocados can be cooked. When heated
through quickly, avocados retain their familiar, nutty flavor. For hot preparations, use
either ripe or conveniently unripe fruit. During cooking, unripe avocados become softer
and develop a pleasant, piquant flavor.
Successful cooking with avocados begins by protecting the fruit with toppings such as
cheese or batters. As with other tender fruits and vegetables, cook avocados briefly or
stir them in during the last few minutes in long-cooking dishes.
To maintain the color of uncooked avocados, brush the surface of a peeled or sliced
avocado with lemon or lime juice. Covering the pulp surface with plastic wrap will aid
in preservation.

Equivalents:
1 11-oz. fruit = about 1 cup mashed pulp




Avocados 04.07
Size/yield:
Size 32 avocado = 7.5 oz.
Size 36 avocado = 6.5 oz.
Size 40 avocado = 6 oz.
Size 48 avocado = 5 oz.
Size 60 avocado = 4 oz.
Size 70 avocado = 3.5 oz.

Sizes 32, 36 and 40 are best used center of the plate.
Sizes 48 and 60 are best used cubed in salads.
Size 70 is best used sliced on sandwiches.
All sizes are appropriate for guacamole.

AVOCADO (HASS) AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Production is derived mainly from California with Florida contributing light
volume during the late summer and fall. California volume is 90% Hass variety with
production basically year round depending on weather patterns. Heaviest volume is
generally in the spring and summer months of March through August. Volume declines
seasonally with lowest volumes during the fall and winter months of November through
February. Florida harvests moderate volume of mostly non- Hass varieties during the
fall and winter.

Imports: Production from Mexico is basically year round, with peak production from
November through February. Offshore volume (Chile, Dominican Republic, New
Zealand) peak supply period runs from October through December. These imported
supplies fill the void in domestic volume during the fall and winter months.

Overview: Supplies remain generally stable year round minus any major weather
disruptions. The spring and summer months of March through September look to be the
heaviest volume months for avocados. Numerous summertime Holidays (Cinco de
Mayo, July 4
th
, Memorial Day etc) will put pressure on these supplies, causing seasonal
supply and price fluctuations.


AVOCADO AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
FL
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
AVOCADO AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Scarring, Sun Burn, Discoloration, Bruising, Freeze
Injury, Insect Injury, Rot



Avocados 04.07

SHIPPING INFO:
55-lb. bushels
40-lb. 4/5-bushel cartons
35-lb. bruce, 2-layer
26-lb. flats/cartons, 2-layer
25-lb. cartons/lugs, 2-layer bliss, tray-packed or tight-fill
23-lb. cartons, 2-layer
13-lb. flats/cartons, 1-layer
12 -lb. cartons, 1-layer bliss, tray-packed or tight-fill
Foodservice packs:
Hass, Gwen, Pinkerton, Fuerte, and late-season reeds are available in a variety of
foodservice packs, including 12 lb, 1-layer flat, a 25-layer lug, or 6 lb. handy packs.
The fruit is sized according to the numbers packed per containers. Sizes 40, 48, and
60 are the most popular sizes for foodservice, although Hass are available in larger
sizes.

U.S. GRADES:
Florida grades:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. combination
U.S. No. 2
Imported avocados are subject to these requirements.

California grades:
California fruit is required to be basically free from all defects that cause a waste of 10
percent or more by weight of the entire avocado.
The state offers a no.1 and standard grade pack in most sizes.

COMMON PLUs:
4221 green, small, East
4222 green, small, West
4771 green, medium, East
4223 green, large, East
4224 green, large, West
4046 hass, small, West
4225 hass, large, West
4770 hass, extra large, West
3080 pinkerton
4226 cocktail, seedless








Avocados 04.07
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Avocados should be shipped and received at 40 F, 4.4 C pulp temperature.
Major California and Florida shippers offer preconditioned avocados. Softening of
avocados is triggered before shipment by ethylene treatment, and then the fruit is
refrigerated until delivered. That allows uniform softening with rapid turnover and
immediate use.
The hass variety usually will turn black when ripe. Most Florida varieties and non-hass
varieties remain green. An indication of ripeness for all varieties is when the fruit gives
to slight pressure.
Fruit treated with ethylene can be stored up to two weeks. To soften, they should be
kept at room temperature that does not exceed 75 F, 24.08 C.
An avocado produces ethylene gas as it ripens, but treating avocados with ethylene
yields greater uniformity.
Temperature: cold-tolerant, 40 F, 4.4 C; cold-intolerant, 55 F, 13.3 C
Relative humidity: 85 percent
Mist: No
Typical shelf life: 14 to 28 days
Ethylene producer. Do not store or transport with commodities that produce ethylene
odor producer. Do not store or transport with odor-sensitive items, such as pineapple.
Highly sensitive to freezing injury.
Susceptible to chilling injury. Damage sometimes is not apparent until the produce is
returned to a warmer temperature.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for avocados: sodium-free and cholesterol-free.














Bananas 04.07
BANANAS

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Bananas should never be stacked on top of each other on the
display. The bottom layer will be bruised and consumer
handling will increase, furthering the chance for damage.
Display areas should be padded with a soft, pliable material.
Make sure that the fruit with the heaviest yellow is on display first. Rotate merchandise
on display. Cut prices for quick movement as bananas become scarred from handling
or when they ripen beyond a stage six color.
Studies by the International Banana Association show optimal display space is 31
square feet. When expanded from 17 to 31 square feet, sales increase by 60%. Use
original cardboard cartons to transport fruit to the display area; this helps cut down on
handling.

Placement:
Because bananas are a staple item, placing them at the back of the produce
department can draw consumers through the entire department. Some retailers have
found success by placing bananas in the cereal and dairy sections.
Use mobile merchandising units at the check-out lane, or in grocery aisles to
merchandise bananas with dry cereals, pie shells or ingredients for banana cream
pies and banana nut bread (including foil pie plates and loaf pans), or in the dairy
sections with banana split ingredients.
Market bananas using a secondary placement near the cash registers by using a tree-
style display rack. International Banana Association studies have shown a secondary
banana display will boost sales 12-18%.

Themes:
Tie in pudding, vanilla wafers, banana glaze, chocolate toppings and tropical fruits
around the banana display.
Try a Buy Yellow and Green theme displaying both stage two and stage five color
fruit to increase sales.
To target ethnic audiences, include exotic banana varieties such as plantains or red
bananas. When displaying specialty bananas, advise consumers on when the fruit is
ripe and ready-to-eat and give samples to familiarize them with the taste.
Try setting up combination displays featuring bananas and other fruits for fruit salads,
fruit bowls or Christmas stocking stuffers.

Promotion:
Inform consumers of proper handling techniques. Use signs to tell them to take the
bananas out of the plastic produce bag and keep them at room temperature so they
will continue to ripen. Let consumers know that if bananas reach the stage of ripeness
they prefer before theyre ready to use them, bananas can be stored in the
refrigerator. The cold will slow down the ripening process for several days. The peel of
the banana may turn dark brown, but the taste will remain.



Bananas 04.07
FOOD SERVICE:
Try frying or caramelizing regular and petite bananas to offer patrons expanded
dessert choices.
Try green bananas for baking, broiling or boiling.

Equivalents:
1 lb. = about three medium bananas
One sliced banana = about 23 cup
Two diced bananas = about one cup
Three mashed bananas = about one cup

BANANA AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Very light production of Hawaii plantain variety available mainly through
specialty distributors.

Imports: Fairly steady year round supplies are available from Costa Rica, Ecuador,
Honduras, Guatemala and Columbia with lighter production available from Panama,
Mexico and other Central American growing regions.

Overview: Numerous growing regions provide for fairly steady year round production
minus any major weather events (hurricanes) or disease impacting the regions.

BANANA AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CR
EC
HD
GU
CB
PN

LIGHT
BANANA AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common defects: Appearance, Shape, Ripeness, Bruising, Freeze injury, Scarring,
Mold, Discoloration, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
40-lb. boxes/cartons

Foodservice packs:
Smaller bananas, called petites, institutional packs or singles, commonly are packed in
a 150-count box, which generally weighs about 50 pounds.





Bananas 04.07
U.S. GRADES:
Bananas are subject to no official U.S. grade standards. Bananas generally are
considered No. 1 premium by major banana companies as part of their own grading
standards. Smaller bananas sometimes are graded No. 2.

COMMON PLUs:
3287 Hawaiian plantain
4229 burrow
4230 dominique
4233 manzano/apple
4234 nino
4235 plantain/macho
4236 red
4011 yellow
4186 yellow, small

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Gray-yellow or dull yellow bananas, an indicator of improper temperature handling,
lose eye-appeal but not taste unless severely mishandled. Off-color bananas may
work well cut up in fruit salads or used in recipes in the deli and bakery departments.
Bananas are susceptible to scarring and bruising if roughly handled. Promptly unload
container delivery trucks with care. Never drop, roll or tip boxes. Do not stack on wet
floors. Leave them on a pallet for protection from damp floors and for even air
circulation. Do not place heavy objects on top of cartons.

Ripening:
Bananas are picked off the plant green and shipped under refrigeration to wholesalers.
Wholesalers ripen the fruit for about four days before shipping to the end user. The
ripening process cannot be accelerated at this stage or quality may be sacrificed.
Ripening rooms, which can closely control the heat from respiration during ripening in
the 58 to 64 F pulp temperature range, and ethylene gas, which is a natural byproduct
of bananas, are used to
obtain uniform ripening.
Although the ripening
process begins in a
ripening room, retailers
can slow or speed the
process to achieve the
best color. To speed
ripening if bananas are
too green, leave them in
the box stacked on top of
each other. To slow
ripening, take the lids off
the boxes, open the plastic liner and air-stack or stagger-stack the boxes to ventilate
them.
Air-stack boxes no more than four high to avoid crushing.


Bananas 04.07
Bananas are extremely susceptible to fluctuating temperatures. Do not expose them to
extremes of cold or heat. Avoid setting containers in drafts, near heating vents,
windows or motors.
Temperature to store: 56 to 58 F, 13.3 to 14.4 C
Temperature for ripening: 60 to 65 F, 15.6 to 18.3 C
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 3 to 7 days (ripened, depending on conditions).
Ethylene-sensitive. Do not store or transport with commodities that produce ethylene.
Highly sensitive to freezing injury.
Susceptible to chilling injury if kept below 56 F, 13.3 C. Damage sometimes is not
apparent until the produce is returned to a warmer temperature.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for bananas: fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, a good source of fiber, a
good source of vitamin C, a good source of vitamin B-6, and a good source of
potassium.


Beets 04.07
BEETS
RETAIL:
Display under refrigeration and mist to prevent drying.
Those with tops can be used to make an interesting
display with red roots pointing one way and green tops
pointing the other way. Ice beets that are kept
overnight.

FOOD SERVICE:
Beets can be served boiled, pickled or in salads. They make a hearty addition to soups
and can be baked or fried. Beet tops can be prepared like spinach.

BEET AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Year round production drives from numerous growing regions with
California, New York and Texas providing the majority of volume. Seasonal production
is also available from many states and regional growers throughout the U.S.

Imports: Available from Mexico year round

Overview: Availability fairly steady year round. Production hits a low point during
winter harvests due mainly to less acreage and winter growing conditions.

BEET AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
NY
TX
MEX

LIGHT
BEET AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Shape, Smoothness, Cleanliness, Firmness, Trim, Color, Wilt,
Cracks, Insect injury, Scar, Freeze injury, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
50-lb. mesh sacks
45-lb. wire bound crates/cartons,
bunched 12s
38-lb. cartons/crates, bunched 24s
25-lb. sacks, loose
20-lb. cartons/crates, bunched 12s

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2
For each grade, three types are
designated: bunched beets with short-
trimmed tops topped beet
Retail/Foodservice packs:
12-count bunches per carton

Beets 04.07

COMMON PLUs:
3273 golden
4537 baby golden
4538 baby red
4539 bunch
4540 loose

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Good-quality product will be relatively smooth and firm with dark color and
unblemished skins. Tops should be young, clean, fresh and tender.
Bulk beets should be fresh and dirt-free. Any dry or damaged leaves should be
removed. Avoid beets that are shriveled, soft or have flabby skins.
To avoid damage, store in pallet boxes or crates rather than bulk containers. Early- or
new-crop beets usually are sold in small bunches with tops attached. Late-crop beets
usually are sold topped. Beets are subject to wilting because of rapid water loss and
should be kept in sufficiently high humidity. Small beets soften and shrivel faster than
larger ones. Before storage, beets should be topped and well-sorted to remove
diseased items and those with mechanical injuries. Sorting out suspect specimens will
prevent undue shrinkage because of storage decay.
Temperature: 32 F, 0 C
Relative humidity: 98-100%
Mist: lightly
Typical shelf life: 30 to 90 days, 10 days for bunched beets
Somewhat sensitive to freezing. Can be lightly frozen several times without sustaining
serious damage.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for beets: low-fat, saturated fat-free, low-sodium (must state that beets
contain 140 mg sodium or less per 85g of beets), cholesterol-free and a good source of
folate.








Berries, Blackberries 04.07
BERRIES, BLACKBERRIES


RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Blackberries commonly are delivered to stores to be sold immediately because of
perishability. Keep them dry and refrigerated.
Often, blackberries are displayed in the packages in which they are shipped.
Boxes should be displayed in a single layer to avoid crushing, or use protective
clamshell packaging.
A Berry Patch promotion, displaying strawberries, blueberries, raspberries and even
kiwifruit will encourage impulse buying. Cross-merchandise with dairy products, such
as whipped cream, or other produce items, such as bananas, peaches or other fruit
that might be used in a fruit salad.
Reduce consumer handling of loose berries by packing them in a clamshell, or on a
tray over wrapped with film.

FOOD SERVICE:
Use on cereals, yogurt and in sour cream, or as a garnish for egg dishes. Use as an
ingredient for breakfast breads and in green salads, chicken salads and on fruit plates.

Equivalents:
pint = about 1 cup
pint = about 8 oz.
pint = 16.8 cubic inches

BLACKBERRY AVAILABILITY: Available most of the year.

Domestic: Domestic production shifts seasonally from California to the Pacific
Northwest. Harvests begin in May in Central California finishing up in Washington
around early October.

Imports: Available from Mexico, Guatemala and Chile. Harvests begin in late October
with supplies generally available into April, weather permitting.

Overview: Supplies shift seasonally from California to the Pacific Northwest for late
spring and summer production, harvests will then move to Mexico and off shore imports
for fall and winter production. Supplies are highly susceptible to weather patterns which
tend to cause supply shortages throughout the season. Rains, winds, cool temperatures
or excessive heat can drastically impact supplies, especially during the transition from
old to new acreage. Supplies will be at a low point during the various transitions
especially during the transition from imported fruit to domestic harvests in the spring.

.





Berries, Blackberries 04.07

BLACKBERRY AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
OR
WA
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
BLACKBERRY AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Size, Color, Shape, Cleanness, Maturity, Development, Bruising,
Soft, Overripe, Leaking, Discoloration, Freeze injury, Dry Cell, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
Master shipping containers, 12 6-oz. clamshells

Consumer packs:
Usual retail containers are the 6-oz. clamshell or half-pint. The most common container
in California for blackberries is the tray holding 12 6-oz. baskets with weight ranging
from 5 to 6 lbs.
In New Jersey, the usual retail-size container for blackberries is the pint, marketed in
flats, typically 12 per tray. Oregon, Texas, California and Washington provide the bulk
of supplies with limited acreage on a line from Maine to Michigan.

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2

COMMON PLUs:
4239 Regular

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Berries with caps attached may be immature.
Good-quality product will be bright, clean and fresh with good
color and plumpness. Overripe berries are dull, soft and
sometimes leaky indicated by stained containers.
Temperature: 32 to 34 F, 0 to 1.1 C
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 2 to 3 days
Highly sensitive to freezing injury.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the
following nutrient content descriptors for blackberries: low-fat,
saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, high in fiber,
high in vitamin C and a good source of folate.


Berries, Blueberries 04.07
BERRIES, BLUEBERRIES

RETAIL:
Cross-merchandising ideas include displaying blueberries with pie shells, shortcakes
and glazes, dairy products or incorporating them in cut fruit mixtures.
Blueberries are an attractive filler for cut cantaloupe and honeydew halves in the
summer. They can also join strawberries, sliced kiwifruit and melon chunks in
watermelon boats.
Blueberries pair up nicely with other fresh fruits for a blueberry-peach or blueberry-
rhubarb pie.
Use point-of-purchase materials such as consumer recipes and nutritional and health
information to attract sales.
Promote blueberries as an all-American fruit around Memorial Day and the Fourth of
July. These summer holidays lend themselves to fruit salads and pies.
Take advantage of National Blueberry Month in July to promote the fruit.

FOOD SERVICE:
Operators only need to rinse and drain blueberries before use.
To reduce color streaking in batters, stir blueberries in last. For better-looking
pancakes and waffles, add blueberries immediately after the batter is poured on the
griddle or waffle iron.

Equivalents:
1 pint = about 2 cups
1 dry pint = about 33.6 cubic inches
1 dry pint = about 12-oz.


BLUEBERRY AVAILABILITY: Available most of the year

Domestic: Domestic production is derived from numerous growing regions throughout
the U.S. with many small growers contributing to supply. Harvests begin in the spring
usually lasting through the fall period.

Import: Canada adds to the domestic volume with harvests in the summer time period.
Off shore imports from Chile and Argentina provide the bulk of imported supply.
Harvests begin in the late summer with supplies available into the early spring time
frame.

Overview: Domestic production shifts seasonally between many growing regions.
Numerous transitions in the various growing regions leave these supplies highly
susceptible to weather patterns which can cause supply disruptions throughout the
season. Supplies are at a low point during the early spring as production transitions
from imported to domestic supply.





Berries, Blueberries 04.07

BLUEBERRY AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
FL
NC
MI
NJ
OR
CAN
IMP

LIGHT
BLUEBERRY AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Size, Shape, Color, Sheen/Bloom, Cracks, Shrivel, Bruise,
Leaking, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
12-dry pint cups
12-12-oz. cups
12-8-oz. cups
12-6-oz. cups
12-1-dry pint cups
12-125-gram cups
12-100-gram cups



8-1-quart cups
8-22-oz. cups
6-1-quart cups
6-1-dry pint cups
4-2.5-lb. clamshells

Various bulk master packs of 2 -, 5-,
10- and 20-lbs. are available.

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. grades
U.S. No. 1
The grade applies to selected and hybrid varieties of the high-bush blueberry. Size is
the general basis for sale. Larger berries bring a higher price. The number required to
fill a half-pint measure determines size.

COMMON PLUs:
4240 regular










Berries, Blueberries 04.07
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Color and brightness of fruit will vary depending on varieties. Look for berries that are
blue to dark blue in color. Most varieties of fresh blueberries have silver-white frost,
which is referred to as "bloom." Lack of bloom on some varieties may be an indication
of excessive handling and lack of freshness. Size doesnt denote quality or maturity
level.
If blueberries are exposed to higher than recommended temperatures, shelf life will be
reduced significantly and skin will become rough-textured.
Temperature: 32 to 34 F, -0.6 to 0 C
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 10 to 18 days
Highly sensitive to freezing injuries.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for blueberries: low-fat, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, a
good source of fiber and a good source of vitamin C.




















Berries, Raspberries 04.07

BERRIES, RASPBERRIES

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Buy raspberries on a day-to-day basis and aim for same-day sales. If some fruit
remains unsold, refrigerate the product to ensure a longer shelf life.
There are different types of raspberries. Red and purple raspberries are two main
types that are sold to the fresh market. The red type has many varieties: Willamette,
sweetbriar, meeker, amity and heritage. Sweet briar, the proprietary variety,
accounts for more than 50% of the nations raspberry supply.
Three groups of cultivated raspberries are grown in North America: red raspberries,
a native European berry; black raspberries or blackcaps, a North American native
fruit; and purple canes, a range of hybrids between the two groups.
About 90% of fresh-market red raspberry supplies are produced in California,
Washington and Oregon. Michigan and New York also supply some quantities.
Fresh supplies are fairly limited but are usually available from domestic sources
year-round with peaks in June and early September.
Golden raspberries are available in limited supplies, and although theyre available
during the same season, golden raspberries are similar in size and shape to red
raspberries but are yellow to gold in color and have a sweeter taste.

Placement:
Raspberries are best displayed in covered cups or clamshells to prevent handling by
shoppers. A natural placement for them is next to strawberries, blueberries and
other seasonal berries.

Promotion:
Placing strawberries with other types of berries results in a berry patch setup.
Promote raspberries for summertime dishes and during the summer holidays.

FOOD SERVICES:
Raspberries are versatile ingredients for a number of dishes, from breakfast to
dessert.
For breakfast, rasp-berries can be mixed with yogurt, sprinkled over oatmeal or
cereal and used in pancake and waffle syrups.
Raspberries can also be used in pie, on ice cream, in punch, as an ingredient in cake
or dipped in dark chocolate.

RASPBERRY AVAILABILITY: Available most of the year

Domestic: Year round domestic production from California shifts seasonally from
Southern to Central California with additional volume from the Pacific Northwest
available during the summer time frame. Supplies are generated throughout various
growing regions and micro-climates from numerous small to medium sized operations.
The use of covered tunnels or hoops has allowed domestic growers to extend their
season to basically year round production. Production will typically be very light during
the winter time period.


Berries, Raspberries 04.07

Imports: Available from Mexico and Chile during the late fall and winter time frame.

Overview: Supplies are highly susceptible to weather patterns which tend to cause
supply disruptions throughout the year. Rains, winds, cold temperatures or excessive
heat can drastically impact supplies, especially during the numerous transitions.
Production will peak during the summer months with supplies at a low point during the
late fall and winter time frame.

RASPBERRY AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
OR
WA
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
RASPBERRY PRODUCTION MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Size, Color, Shape, Cleanness, Maturity, Development, Bruising,
Soft, Overripe, Leaking, Discoloration, Dry cell, Freeze injury, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
6-lb. flats, 12-8-oz. cups
5-lb. flats, 12-6-oz. or 9-8-oz. cups
6 6-oz. cups (1/2 flat)
12 dry pints
12 dry pints
RPC 6409, 6411

Consumer Packs:
6-oz. clamshell

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2

COMMON PLUs:
4244 black
4245 golden
4054 red







Berries, Raspberries 04.07
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 to 34 F (0 to 1.1 C)
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 2 to 3 days
Highly sensitive to freezing injury (Likely to suffer injury by one light freezing).
Product is pre-cooled immediately after harvest to slow decay. It is transported in
constant refrigeration because of high perishability. Additional protection against
decay and ripening is obtained by charging the load with carbon dioxide while in
transit.


NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for rasp-berries: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free,
high in fiber, high in vitamin C and a good source of folate.



Berries, Strawberries 04.07
BERRIES, STRAWBERRIES

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
When sales are strong and product turnover is good, strawberries do not need to be
displayed under refrigeration. Use this advantage to generate sales and build eye-
catching displays in high-traffic locations, especially during peak shopping hours, which
are 3 to 7 p.m. If strawberry turnover is low, however, they will need to be refrigerated,
since strawberries do normally require refrigeration.
Consumer-ready packaging accounts for more than 50 percent of pack out. Packaged
berries require less labor and upkeep, plus are stackable and UPC-stickered. Present
your customers with a variety of choices in packaging and quantity. According to
California Strawberry Commission research, a variety of packaging options can
increase sales by 17 percent.
Do not display strawberries more than one layer deep.
Educate consumers that strawberries top the list of fruits high in antioxidants, which are
important for disease prevention. The berries also contain folic acid, which may help
reduce the risk of heart disease.

Placement:
Impulse purchases account for 60 percent of strawberry sales, according to the
California Strawberry Commission. To maximize this, place strawberries on an end-
aisle or a large dry-table display.

Promotion:
Strawberries can be cross-merchandised with other types of berries.
Display strawberries next to racks of shortcake and whipped topping for a strawberry
shortcake theme. Strawberries also work well with ice cream, sherbet, frozen yogurt,
and other cakes. Make recipes available to customers.

FOOD SERVICE:
Strawberries can be used cooked or uncooked in pies, tarts, jams, jellies, creams,
compotes and salad.
They can be dipped in powdered sugar, cheese fondue, yogurt and chocolate or added
to breakfast cereals or pancakes and French toast.
They can also be added to cream or blended into shakes, breezes or smoothies, and
make a nice addition to champagne or punches.

Equivalents:
1 pint = about 3 1/2 cups whole
1 pint = about 2 1/2 cups sliced
1 pint = about 1 2/3 cups pureed
1 pint = about 12 large stemberries
1 pint = about 36 smaller berries
1 cup whole = about 4 oz.
1 pint = 12 oz.





Berries, Strawberries 04.07
STRAWBERRY AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Production is mainly from California with Florida contributing light volume
during the winter months. California production is basically year round depending on
weather patterns, providing approximately 85% of U.S. production. Peak production
period is from April through July. Florida begins shipping berries in late November through
April with peak production in March. Supplies are at a low point November through
January.

Imports: The majority of strawberries are imported from Mexico with light volume
contributed from New Zealand, Canada and Guatemala. Production usually begins in
November peaking in December through February.

Overview: The spring and summer months of April through July will generally be the
heaviest volume months for strawberries. However, numerous spring and summertime
Holidays and weather events will put seasonal pressure on these supplies. Various ad
campaigns and untimely rains may cause supply and price fluctuations however, this
time period will generally provide you with good volume and quality.


STRAWBERRY AVAILABILITY

Common Defects: Size, Color, Shape, Cleanness, Maturity, Development. Bruise,
Freeze injury, Insect injury, Discoloration, Brightness/sheen, Cat face, Green tip, White
shoulder, Seedy, Overripe, Soft, Leaking, Mold, Rot, Decay

SHIPPING INFO:
12-lb. flats, 12-1 pint containers
12-lb. flats, 6 quart
12-10-oz. clamshells
12-8-oz. clamshells
12-8.8-oz. clamshells
8-8-oz. long stem clamshells
4-16-oz. long stem clamshells
9-lb. crates, 8-16-oz. clamshells
5-lb. 1/2 trays
4-2-lb. clamshells




JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
FL
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
STRAWBERRY AVAILABILITY MODERATE
PEAK



Berries, Strawberries 04.07

Consumer Packs:
Pint and quart baskets and clamshell containers are popular consumer packs. Both
allow full view of the product and protect berries from handling.

Foodservice Packs:
Offered in 12 pint flats or bulk, shippers also will place-pack stemberries when available.

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. combination
U.S. No. 2

COMMON PLUs:
4246 pint, East
4028 pint, West
4247 quart, East
4248 quart, West
4249 bulk 3-pack (3 pints), East
4250 bulk 3-pack (3 pints), West
4323 bulk
4251 long Stem

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 to 34 F, 0 C
Relative humidity: 90 to 95 percent
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 5 to 7 days
Highly sensitive to freezing injury (Likely to suffer injury by one light freezing).
Brief storage is the rule for maintaining quality product. After a few days in storage,
strawberries will begin to lose coloring and flavor and may shrivel.
Strawberries should be kept cold, unless immediate sale is expected.
Do not wash strawberries for display, as moisture causes them to break down.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved
the following nutrient content descriptors for
strawberries: fat-free (must state that strawberries
contain less than 0.5 g of fat per 140 g serving),
saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, a
good source of fiber, high in vitamin C, and high in
folate (add 20 percent folate to label).








Broccoli 04.07
BROCCOLI

RETAIL:
To satisfy customer needs offer them a choice of
options including bunches, florets and gourmet
spears of uncut stalks 4 to 6 inches long.
Place broccoli on a rack one or two layers deep so
cold air from below will circulate throughout. Icing or misting will replace water lost
through evaporation. If stacked deeper, the top layer probably wont get the benefit of
refrigeration.
Cross-merchandise broccoli with refrigerated vegetable dips, cheese sauces or salad
dressings. This can increase impulse buying.

FOOD SERVICE:
To prepare broccoli for cooking, wash and trim the main stem lightly. Do not remove
the whole stem because the stalk is edible. Cook as briefly as possible in a small
amount of water to preserve the crisp texture and to conserve nutrients.

BROCCOLI AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Year round production from California shifts seasonally, beginning in the
southwest desert regions for winter production and moving north as the season
progresses. Arizona and Texas provide the majority of winter production (December-
March). Many states will have local or regional supplies during the summer and fall.

Imports: Available from Mexico most of the year and Canada during the summer and
fall months.

Overview: Broccoli supplies are fairly steady year round. Rain, freezing temperatures
and excessive heat can affect yields and production for the short term as fields recover.
The transition periods in the fall (November) and spring (March) will typically produce
limited supplies as growers move between growing districts.

BROCCOLI AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
TX
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
BROCCOLI AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK
Common Defects: Size/Shape, Cleanness, Compactness, Color, Discoloration,
Flowering Bead, Spread, Freeze Damage, Insect Damage, Rot



Broccoli 04.07
SHIPPING INFO:
Bunched:
23-lb. cartons/crates, 14s and 18s
Crowns:
20-lb. box, bulk

Consumer pack:
Broccoli packs are available in florets, bunch, broccoli coleslaw, spears and stalk cuts
(which are available diced, coin-cut and shredded).

Value-added packs:
Florets come in cello bags packed in 9- to 18-lb. cardboard cartons and 8-oz. and 1-lb.
retail packs.
Fresh-cut spears are offered in 10-, 15-, and 20-lb. loose-packed cartons.
Florets (2-inches or less) are available to foodservice in 3-lb. cello bags and loose.
Broccoli coleslaw (shredded broccoli, red cabbage and carrots) is available in 8-oz.
and 1- and 5-lb. bags.
Iceless broccoli is also available.

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. grades for snap beans
U.S. fancy
U.S. No. 1
U.S. combination
U.S. No. 2
COMMON PLUs:
4060 regular
4547 broccoli raab
4548 florets
3082 crowns

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F, 0 C
Relative humidity: 95 to 100 percent
Mist: lightly (unpackaged)
Typical shelf life: bunched 10 to 14 days, packaged 14 to 16 days
Ethylene-sensitive. Do not store or transport with commodities that produce ethylene.
Moderately sensitive to freezing injury.
Dunking in cold water can revive slightly wilted broccoli.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the
following nutrient content descriptors for broccoli: fat-free
(must state that broccoli contains less than 0.5g fat per 85g of
broccoli), saturated fat-free, low-sodium, cholesterol-free, low
in calories, high in vitamin C and a good source of folate.




Brussels Sprouts 04.07
BRUSSELS SPROUTS

RETAIL:
When on display, brussels sprouts should be kept under refrigeration.
Leaves will yellow quickly at room temperature.
Bulk, over wrapped cardboard cups or clamshell packs are common display
approaches. Display signs telling consumers that brussels sprouts can be
blanched/boiled, steamed, stewed/braised, microwaved and pressure-cooked.
Use signs to tell consumers brussels sprouts are thought to contain cancer-fighting
agents.
Also provide consumers with recipes. Brussels sprouts make a robust addition to
winter soups, plus they pair well with game meats such as duck or pheasant.

FOOD SERVICE:
To microwave, use 2 cups brussels sprouts: place in a covered 1-quart casserole dish
with 2 tablespoons water. Cook 4 to 5 minutes. Stir once during cooking and let stand
5 minutes before serving.
To blanch, boil just until vegetable is crisp-tender. To braise, saut or brown brussels
sprouts for color and flavor, then cook slowly in a small amount of water in an airtight
pot.

BRUSSELS SPROUT AVAILABILITY: Available most of the year.

Domestic: Light to moderate production from California begins in the mid-summer
lasting into January. Production will hit a high point in the November-December time
frame.

Imports: Light volume is available from Mexico beginning in the late fall with supplies
usually available into June.

Overview: Availability hits a high point during the late fall and early winter time frame
of November through January. Supplies will be at a low point during the mid summer
months of June and July as production transitions from Mexico to California. Supply
gaps are possible during this transition due to limited acreage, concentrated growing
regions and weather patterns.

BRUSSELS SPROUT AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
MEX

LIGHT
BRUSSELS SPROUT AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK


Common Defects: Size, Color, Shape, Bruise, Yellowing, Spotting, Discoloration,
Crack, Burst, Wilt, Mildew, Mold, Rot

Brussels Sprouts 04.07

SHIPPING INFO:
25-lb. cartons, loose
10-lb. flats and cartons, 16 12-oz. cello bags
8-lb. cartons, 12 10-oz. cups
6, 8 or 12 1-lb. clamshells
12 1-lb. mesh bags

Stalks:
8 1-lb. clamshells
24 1-lb. vexar bags

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2
COMMON PLUs:
4550 regular
3083 stalk

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F, 0 C
Relative humidity: 95-100%
Mist: yes
Typical shelf life: 3 to 5 weeks
Ethylene-sensitive. Do not store or transport with commodities that produce ethylene.
Somewhat sensitive to freezing injury.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for brussels sprouts: low-fat, saturated fat-free, very low sodium, cholesterol-
free, low in calories, a good source of fiber, high in vitamin C and a good source of
folate.




Cabbage 04.07
CABBAGE

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Display butt down. Cutting heads of red cabbage in
wedges and displaying with lettuce will add to sales.
Plan to move product within a week.
Tell consumers not to wash cabbage before storage extra moisture will hasten
decay. Consumers should wrap cabbage in perforated plastic bags for storage in the
refrigerator to prevent moisture loss. Consumers shouldnt shred cabbage and then
store it.

Placement/color break:
In winter, cabbage can go in the cooking vegetable section. Later, cabbage can be
used as a buffer between salad and cooking vegetables.
Feature large displays of several varieties using purple and green to create attention-
getting color breaks.
Place sliced, over wrapped heads of red cabbage among the whole cabbage to spark
consumers to dress up salads with color.

Themes:
Use cabbage instead of lettuce for tacos. Tomatoes, avocados, taco shells and
shredded cabbage can be grouped together for a Mexican theme.
For a Chinese cooking theme, group cabbage with sprouts, almonds and water
chestnuts. Promote napa cabbage around Chinese New Year.
Promote as a traditional dish around St. Patricks Day.

FOOD SERVICE:
Fresh cabbage shreds provide extra texture and taste in casseroles, soups, stews and
salads. Cabbage can be boiled, steamed, roasted and stir-fried.

CABBAGE AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Moderate year round production from California shifts seasonally,
beginning in the southwest desert regions for winter production moving north as the
season progresses. Arizona provides light volume as well with peak production during
the winter and spring. Texas and Florida also provide substantial volume during the
winter and spring production period. New York along with numerous other eastern
states (Wisconsin, Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia) add to the mix with peak production
during the late summer and fall.

Imports: Available from Canada and Mexico year round with peak production during
the fall and early winter months.

Overview: Supplies are generally steady year round given the numerous growing
regions. Adverse weather conditions during peak production periods (spring) especially
in the major growing regions of California, Florida and Texas can impact supplies and
markets during the spring and early summer months. The transition periods in the fall


Cabbage 04.07
and spring will typically produce limited supplies as growers move between growing
regions.

CABBAGE AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
FL
TX
NY
Other
MEX
CAN

LIGHT
CABBAGE AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Firmness, Growth Crack, Burst, Seed Stems (Seeder), Insect
Injury, Aphids, Freeze Injury, Color, Discoloration, Tip Burn, Spotting, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
2,000-lb. bulk bins
1,000-lb. bulk bins
50- to 60-lb. flat crates
50-lb. cartons/mesh sacks
50-lb. 1 bushel crates
45-lb. cartons
20-lb. cartons (savoy)

Consumer packs:
10-oz. bags coleslaw
1-lb. bags coleslaw
1-lb. bags shredded cabbage


Value-added packs:
Coleslaw, diced cabbage and shredded red cabbage are packed in two 10-lb. bags per
carton or in four 5-lb. bags per carton.

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. commercial

COMMON PLUs:
3051 spring
4069 green
4552 Chinese/napa
4554 red
4555 savoy, green
3396 savoy, red


Cabbage 04.07


RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Heads with some outer leaves separated from the stem and held in place only by
natural folding over the head may have an undesirable flavor or coarse texture.
Provide adequate ventilation. Cabbage loses moisture easily and will wilt if retained at
room temperature. Cabbage may be tightly wrapped and refrigerated for about a
week.
Temperature: 32 F, 0 C
Relative humidity: 98-100%
Mist: yes
Typical shelf life: 90 to 180 days
Ethylene-sensitive. Do not store or transport with commodities that produce ethylene.
Odor-sensitive. Do not store or transport with commodities that produce odors, such as
apples and pears.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for cabbage: fat-free, saturated fat-free, very-low-sodium, cholesterol-free,
low in calories and high in vitamin C.







Carrots 04.07
CARROTS

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Always display on refrigerated racks and keep sufficiently
moist to keep from wilting. If bunched carrots are
displayed, tops should be fluffed so air can circulate,
and keep them misted to maintain freshness.
Bulk carrots frequently are purchased for juicing by
customers who have their own juice machines.

Placement:
Shredded carrots and carrot sticks can be merchandised in the fresh-cut section along
with dips. Cooking vegetables, such as cabbage, turnips and squash, are a popular
spot for cello-wrapped carrots.
Because bunched or bulk carrots are misted, its a good idea to position them next to
salad vegetables such as endive and greens in the misting section. No matter what
cut styles are offered, dedicate an entire section to the carrot line for increased sales.

Value-added:
Bags and over wrapped trays of different carrot cuts are popular by themselves, or with
vegetables such as cauliflower, broccoli and celery in small portions and in party-size
trays. Merchandising vegetable dips near the display can add to impulse buying. Also,
place baby carrots in front of salad mixes in a multi-deck salad case.
With its high vitamin A content, freshly made carrot juice is becoming more popular in
the produce department.

FOOD SERVICE:
Carrots can be cooked by boiling, blanching, steaming, braising, frying, sauting,
baking, deep-frying, microwaving and pressure-cooking. They are good in salads or as
a side dish.
Use carrot sticks as drink stirrers. Carrot curls make an attractive garnish.
If white spots appear on carrots, a quick bath of ice water will freshen them.

Equivalents:
Small (6 to 7 inches) = 12 to 13 counts
Small = about 13 cup grated
Small = 12 to 13 cup coined
Medium (7 to 8 inches) = about 6
Medium = about 1 cup grated
Medium = 23 to 12 cup coined
Medium-large (9 to 10 inches) = about 5
Medium-large = about 112 cup grated
Medium-large = slightly less than 1 cup
coined
Large (11 to 12 inches) = about 4
Large = about 113 cups grated
Large = 1 cup coined

CARROT AVAILABILITY: Available year round.





Carrots 04.07
Domestic: Year round production from California shifts seasonally beginning in the
southwest Desert growing region during winter production moving north as the season
progresses. Arizona, Texas, Florida and Georgia provide substantial winter time
production with Michigan adding ample volume to the mix during the late summer and
fall production period. Many other states will have local or regional supplies during this
time period.

Imports: Year round production from Mexico gains momentum during the winter with
peak volume in the spring. Canada also provides supplies year round with peak volume
during the late summer and fall.

Overview: Supplies remain fairly steady year round with the various growing regions
minus any severe weather. Hot temperatures during the spring and summer months can
stunt growth rates lessening overall volume, especially on jumbo sized carrots. These
intermittent harvest shortfalls along with strong processor demand during this time frame
can keep supplies on the lighter side during summer production.


CARROT AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
TX
FL
GA
MI
MEX
CAN

LIGHT
CARROT AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK


Common defects: Shape, Smoothness, Firmness, Cleanliness, Color, Trim, Cracks,
Insect injury, Wilt, Broken, Freeze injury, Mold, Rot


SHIPPING INFO:
Master cellos:
50-lb. table cartons
48 1-lb. poly bags
25-lb. table poly bags
24 2-lb. poly bags
12 2-lb. poly bags
5 10-lb. poly bags
16 3-lb. poly bags
10 5-lb. poly bags
RPC 6411, 6413, 6416, 6419, 6420, 6423, 6425, 6426, 6428



Carrots 04.07
Bunched:
26-lb. cartons

Baby-peeled:
24 1-lb. bags
20 1-lb. bags
12 2-lb. bags
10 2-lb. bags
8 5-lb. bags
4 5-lb. bags
20 2-lb. bags
40 1-lb. bags
50- and 25-lb. poly jumbo
30 12-oz. bags

Snack packs:
baby-peeled
150 2.25-oz bags
100 2.6-oz. bags
100 3-oz. bags
72 3-oz. bags
40 3-oz. bags
28 4/2.25-oz. bags
24 4/3-oz. bags
12 6/3-oz. bags
10 10/20-oz. bags
Baby-peeled and dip:
12 3/2.25-oz. packs
26 2.25-oz. packs
Consumer packs:
1-, 2-, 3-, 5- and 10-lb. bags


Value-added packs:
Many suppliers ship cartons of four 5-lb. bags of shredded carrots, carrot sticks and
match sticks (Julienne-cut). Other cuts available are crinkle-cut sticks, diced, sliced,
whole peeled or coined.
Carrots are offered in combination with other commodities including celery, broccoli
or cauliflower and come in cartons of 18 or 9 1-lb. bags. Shredded carrots also come
in fresh-cut coleslaw and salad mixes.

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. extra No. 1
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 1 jumbo
U.S. No. 2


COMMON PLUs:
4560 baby
4094 bunch
4561 French
4562 loose
4563 stick


RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 33 to 35 F, 0.6 to 1.7 C
Relative humidity: 98-100%
Mist: lightly
Typical shelf life: 28 to 180 days
Ethylene-sensitive. Do not store or transport with ethylene-producing products, which
can give carrots a bitter flavor.
Odor-sensitive. Carrots will absorb odors from apples and pears.
Odor producer. Carrots produce odors that will be absorbed by celery.
Fresh-cut typical shelf life:
Diced, sliced or shredded: 21 days
Julienne: 21 days


Carrots 04.07
Sticks: 21 days
Whole peeled: 30 days
Most product is sold without tops, which draw moisture from the roots, because they
store better.
Return unsold carrots to cold storage at the end of the day. This permits cleaning of the
display and helps ensure proper rotation.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for carrots: fat free, saturated fat free, low-sodium, cholesterol-free, a good
source of fiber and high in vitamin A.







Cauliflower 04.07
CAULIFLOWER

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Cauliflower sells on looks, and the ivory-white curds make
the heads eye-appealing targets for impulse buying.
Top icing of products creates a perception of freshness
and crispness. Film-wrapped heads can be placed in one
or more layers, top up.
Post signs informing consumers that green cauliflower is a
genetic cross that combines the physical features of cauliflower with the chlorophyll of
broccoli. It has a lime green head and a sweeter taste than conventional cauliflower.

Value-added:
Bags and over wrapped trays of florets by themselves, or with vegetables such as
broccoli, carrots and celery, are popular in small portions and in party-size trays.
Merchandise with vegetable dips.
Cauliflower often is packed with broccoli, bok choy, bean sprouts and snow peas in
prepared stir-fry mixes.

FOOD SERVICE:
Sprinkle cauliflower with breadcrumbs lightly browned in butter. Cheese or lemon is
good over cauliflower. Cook cauliflower in chicken or beef stock and garnish
generously with chopped fresh parsley.

CAULIFLOWER AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Year round production in California shifts seasonally beginning in the
Southwest Desert regions for winter production moving north as the season progresses.
Arizona, Texas and Florida provide additional winter and early spring volume
(December-March). Many states will have local or regional supplies during the summer
and fall.

Imports: Available from Mexico during the winter and early spring (December-May)
and Canada during the summer and fall (June-October).

Overview: Cauliflower supplies are fairly steady year round. Rains, freezing
temperatures and excessive heat can affect yields and production for the short term.
The transition periods in the fall (November) and spring (March-April) will typically
produce limited supplies as growers move between growing districts. This is due to
limited transitional acreage and difficult growing conditions.









Cauliflower 04.07
CAULIFLOWER AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
FL
TX
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
CAULIFLOWER AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Trimming, Cleanness, Color, Compactness, Discoloration,
Bruising, Spread, Rice, Fuzz, Mold, Freeze injury, Insect injury, Hollow core, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
60-lb. Long Island wire bound crates
50-lb. Catskill cartons
25 to 30-lb. cartons, 12 and 16 film-wrapped, trimmed heads

Value-added packs:
Two popular sizes of cut cauliflower are the small (1 inches) and the large (2 to 3
inches).
Several pack options for bulk or fresh-cut are available:
Cartons, 6-, 9-, 12- and 16-count
3 bags per 4-lb. split pack
4 or 2 3-lb. bags
6-lb. carton, 2 3-lb. modified-atmosphere bags
8-oz., 12-oz. or 1-lb. bags
Cauliflower also is available with broccoli and carrots in cartons containing five 5-lb.
bags and 18, nine or six 1-lb. bags.

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1




COMMON PLUs:
4079 small
4572 large
4573 baby
4566 florets
4567 green
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F, 0 C
Relative humidity: 90 to 98 percent
Mist: lightly (Do not mist wrapped product.)
Typical shelf life: 2 to 3 weeks
Ethylene-sensitive. Do not store or transport with items that produce ethylene.
There is no quality variance between large and small heads if they are equally mature.
A slightly granular appearance is acceptable if heads are not spreading.
Store with butts down to prevent moisture accumulation on curds.



Cauliflower 04.07

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for cauliflower: fat-free, saturated fat-free, very low sodium (must state that
cauliflower contains 35mg or less sodium per 85g cauliflower), cholesterol free, low in
calories, high in vitamin C and a good source of folate.




Celery 04.07

CELERY

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Display on a refrigerated rack. Packaging around the lower
half helps protect the celery and aids in customer
selection. When stocking, offer customers a choice of two
sizes, as well as celery hearts.
Tell consumers that the quickest and most efficient way to slice celery is to slice the
entire bunch as they would a loaf of bread instead of stalk by stalk.

Themes:
Set up a display featuring celery with items such as Chinese cabbage, snow peas, bok
choy, daikon, carrots, mushrooms, bean sprouts and other stir-fry vegetables.

Value-added:
Bags and over wrapped trays of celery sticks by themselves, or with vegetables such
as cauliflower, carrots and broccoli, are popular in small portions and in party-size
trays. Merchandising celery with vegetable dips can add to impulse buying.

FOOD SERVICE:
Use celery in stir-fry, appetizer trays, soups, salads, stuffing and salad dressings. For
breakfast, add chopped, sauted celery to scrambled eggs. Use celery curls as a
garnish for any dish.

Equivalents:
20-lb. diced = about 2/3 standard case
20-lb. sticks = about 1 standard case
1 1/3-lb. = 1-lb. prepared usable celery
1-lb. stalks = 4 cups chopped or sliced
4 cups raw = 3 cups cooked
1-lb. prepared = 4 servings
1 medium bunch = 4 to 6 servings
CELERY AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Year round production is derived mainly from California with Texas and
Arizona contributing good volumes during the winter months of December through
March. Florida and Texas provide additional volume during the winter and early spring
time frame of December through May, with Michigan production adding to summertime
volume during May through October.

Imports: Available from Mexico during the winter and spring and Canada during the
summer and fall.




Celery 04.07

Overview: Availability is fairly steady year round. Celery is very susceptible to heat
(seeders) and excessive heat can undermine summertime production. The Fall
transition period (November-December) will typically produce limited supplies due to
growing conditions and strong Holiday demand.

CELERY AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
MI
TX
FL
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
CELERY AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common defects: Size/shape, Trimming, Cleanness, Compactness, Mechanical
damage, Growth cracks, Bow, Seed stems (Seeder), Pith, Worm/insect injury, black
heart, Freeze injury, Wilt, Discoloration, Rot.

SHIPPING INFO:
50- to 60-lb. cartons

Hearts:
28-lb. cartons
18-lb. cartons

Foodservice packs:
Whole product continues to be packed according to size, ranging from 18- to 48-count.
Celery hearts come in 12-, 18- and 24-count. Celery is available diced, sliced an in
sticks in various packs.

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. extra No. 1
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2
Not all celery is graded. Un-graded
celery is called unclassified.


COMMON PLUs:
4071 bunch, small, East
4582 bunch, large, East
4070 bunch, small, West
4583 bunch, large, West
4575 hearts
4576 sticks







Celery 04.07
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 34 to 36 F, 0 to 1.7 C
Relative humidity: 85 to 90 percent
Mist: yes (Do not mist wrapped product.)
Typical shelf life: 14 to 28 days from harvest, 3 to 5 days in store
Odor-sensitive. Do not store or transport with commodities that produce odors, such as
apples, carrots, bulb onions or pears.
Odor-producer. Do not store or transport with odor-sensitive produce.

Fresh-cut:
Store fresh-cut celery at 34 F, 1.1 C, and keep bags closed until used.
Celery will dehydrate if left uncovered. Place product in an ice water bath to replace
moisture.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for celery: fat free, saturated fat free, low-sodium, cholesterol-free, low in
calories and a good source of vitamin C.



Cherries 04.07
CHERRIES

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
If trays are piled too high, problems could arise from
cold air not reaching all the cherries. Stacking too high
can cause physical damage as well. Use false-bottom boxes to avoid bruising fruit,
especially the delicate rainiers.
Be sure displays are not set up in open sun or under fans to avoid evaporation. Cases
should be refrigerated. If possible, refrigerate supplies overnight. As temperatures
warm, fruit becomes limp and stems quickly brown and shrivel.
Dont mist cherries they absorb water and will soften if sprinkled.
Advise consumers they can freeze cherries. To properly do this, rinse and drain, pack
into freezer-proof containers or plastic freezer bags; remove excess air and freeze.
The cherries will keep for up to one year in the freezer.

Promotion:
Cross-merchandise cherries with bakery items, whipped topping, freezer bags, cream
cheese (for dips or spreads), Mexican food (for cherry salsa), pancakes (for fruit
topping), yogurt, ice cream and with fruit-flavored chocolate dips. Be sure to use signs
to convey possible uses.
Incorporate recipes in the display for whipping cherries into fruit drinks or adding them
to fruit salads.

FOOD SERVICE:
Although cherries most often are used in cold dishes and in breads, they are very good
when used as a garnish for meat dishes. Cherries also make tasty sauces or chutneys
for pork, poultry, fish and beef.
Do not overcook cherries; add them during one of the last cooking steps.

Equivalents:
1-lb. = about 45 cherries with pits
1-lb. (80 cherries) = about 11/2 to 2 cups pitted and sliced
1-lb. = 11/2 cups of juice

CHERRY AVAILABILITY: Available from May through August and November into
January.

Domestic: Production is generated from the West Coast states of California, Oregon
and Washington with some additional acreage In Idaho. Spring weather patterns are
crucial to Western production and quality.

Imports: Available from Canada during the summer months of June through August.
Off shore production in Chile begins in November with supplies generally available into
January.




Cherries 04.07
Overview: Cherry supplies are very susceptible to weather events especially during
the bloom stage of development and near maturity. Spring rains, hail and winds along
with excessive heat can drastically impact volumes and quality of domestic supplies.
Imported volumes are similarly tied to the weather in these growing regions. Supplies
are typically snug during their short production period due to strong demand for the fruit.

CHERRY AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
OR
WA
ID
CAN
IMP

LIGHT
CHERRY AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Shape, Firmness, Color, Scars, Limb Rub, Hail Injury,
Pitting, Split, Discoloration, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
Dark-sweet cherries:
18-lb. cartons, loose (California)
20-lb. cartons, loose (Northwest)
24-lb. euro cartons, 12 2-lb. bags
16-lb. euro cartons, 8 2-lb. clamshells
16-lb. euro cartons, 4 4-lb. clamshells
16-lb. euro cartons, 16 1-lb. clamshells (Northwest)
18-lb. cartons, 8 2.25-lb. bags (Northwest)
18-lb. cartons, 12 1.5-lb. bags (Northwest)
16-lb. cartons, 8 2-lb. bags (California) RPC 3417, 6411, 6413

Rainier cherries:
18-lb. cartons, loose (Northwest)
16-lb. cartons, 16 1-lb. clamshells
16-lb. cartons, 8 2-lb. clamshells (Northwest)
15-lb. euro cartons, 12 1.25-lb. bags (Northwest)

Chilean cherries:
11-lb. cartons

Foodservice packs:
4-, 5- and 6-lb. boxes
12-, 18- and 20-lb. row-sized boxes





Cherries 04.07
U.S. GRADES:
U.S. grades
U.S. No. 1
U.S. Commercial

Washington grades:
Washington no. 1 (more stringent than U.S. grades)

COMMON PLUs:
4045 regular/red/black
4258 golden/rainier

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F, 0 C
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 10 to 21 days
Odor-sensitive. Sweet cherries may pick up off-flavors from shipping or storage with
commodities that have strong odors.
Poly liners should be slit when product is received to eliminate gas buildup and off-
flavors. Open the lids of cherry boxes stored in the cooler; good air circulation will slow
spoilage.
Dont break cherry stems. Cherries with stems have a greater shelf life than those
without.
It is normal for rainier cherries to have some skin discoloration, slight scuffing or brown
spotting and it often indicates high sugar content. Cherries that are mahogany or
reddish brown are considered to be the most flavorful.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for cherries: fat free, saturated fat free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free and a
good source of fiber.




Corn 04.07
CORN

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
For large bulk displays, set up trays on ice or ice down
several deli tubs, then fill with corn. Offer tray packs even
during peak season. Offering bulk and packaged product is
a good standard because it appeases consumers who
dont want to take time to pick their own corn, but keeps those who do smiling, too.
To discourage consumers from stripping back husks, keep a few peeled back with
kernels visible. Some consumers also perceive partially husked corn to be fresher.
Partially husked corn has the top third of the husk removed.
Offer yellow, white and bicolor corn to give consumers a broader selection.
Keep ears cold at all times and properly ventilated. In addition to being kept cool,
humidity must be maintained. Adequate air circulation also is necessary. Take care in
setting up displays or stacking to avoid overheating and improper cooling.

Placement:
Tray packs can be displayed with bulk corn or as part of a convenience-oriented or
microwave products area for quick pick-up.

Promotion:
Promote convenience by making consumers aware an ear of corn can be microwaved
in two minutes. Some prepackaged corn includes skewers and provides preparation
information. Signs above completely husked, tray-packed corn can provide preparation
tips and microwave instructions.
Trim ears and over wrap them in trays to create a ready-to-microwave product.

FOOD SERVICE:
Corn-on-the-cob is always popular with diners. Kernels may be scraped from the cob
and used scalloped, in succotash, custards or puddings, fritters, souffls, stuffed
peppers or made into soups and chowders. Immature kernels go well in mixed pickles.

CORN AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Year round production originates from many growing regions generally in
the east. Florida is the major supplier with harvests starting in the fall continuing into the
mid summer. Numerous states in the east add volume during the spring and summer
time frame. West coast supplies from California and Washington begin harvests in the
spring lasting through the summer months.

Imports: Production from Mexico remains generally light year round with heaviest
volume in the late fall and winter period. Canada provides additional volume during the
summer and early fall.




Corn 04.07
Overview: With numerous states and growing regions in production the spring and
summer time frame of March through September will generally provide the best supplies
and quality. The late fall and winter months of November through February will typically
produce limited volume and sporadic availability.

CORN AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
FL
GA
IL
MI
NY
TX
WA
MEX
CAN

LIGHT
CORN AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Development, Trim, Covering, Freshness, Maturity, Color,
Discoloration, Worm or insect injury, Fill, Rust, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
50-lb. cartons/crates
42-lb. cartons/crates/sacks
42-lb. wire bound crates
37-lb. sacks
12 x 4 packaged (tray pack)
12 x 3 packaged (tray pack)
4 dozen, cartons
RPC 6419, 6420, 6423, 6425, 6426

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. fancy
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2
These grades generally are referred to as applying to green corn.

COMMON PLUs:
4590 bicolor
4077 white
4078 yellow





Corn 04.07
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 34 to 38 F, 1.1 to 3.3 C
Relative humidity: 85-90%
Mist: yes
Typical shelf life: 4 to 6 days; super sweet varieties: up to 10 days
Odor sensitive. Do not store or transport with commodities that produce odors, such as
green onions.
Sugar content decreases rapidly even at room temperature.
Dried-out husks may signal poor quality, except in super sweet varieties. Peeling off
dried husks on super sweets will reveal healthy corn.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for corn: low fat, saturated fat-free, very low sodium, cholesterol free and a
good source of vitamin C.




Cucumbers 04.07
CUCUMBERS

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Because cucumbers are a basic salad ingredient, displays
that tie in with several salad vegetables, along with items
such as salad dressing and croutons, work well. Include
cucumber sticks in packaged relish tray assortments.
Cross-merchandise with pickling spices and vinegar.
Feature cucumbers in large displays because they are a
high-profit staple item. Sales often improve when lettuce is
plentiful, so expand displays at that time.
Use signs to advise shoppers that partially used cucumbers will stay fresher if tightly
wrapped in plastic wrap before being refrigerated.

FOOD SERVICE:
Baked cucumber boats can be filled with bread crumbs and Parmesan cheese, or with
tuna, chicken or ham salad.
Cucumbers also can be sliced, dipped in batter and fried. These are especially good
served with spicy mustard or cocktail sauce.
Fresh cucumber sauce is a good accompaniment to cold meat. Chilled cream of
cucumber soup makes for a light meal.

CUCUMBER AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Year round production from numerous states and growing regions provide
fairly steady supplies throughout the year. California (summer) and Florida (fall and
spring) provide the majority of the domestic volume. Numerous local/regional supplies
become available during the summer time frame.

Imports: Year round volume from Mexico peaks during the winter months of December
through March with light supplies available during the summer. Offshore production
from Central America adds to the mix during the late fall through early spring time
period. Hot house supplies from Canada provide another option with generally light
production most of the year.

Overview: Supplies remain fairly steady year round with growers using shade or hot
houses to help stabilize production. The fall and spring transition periods will typically
produce light domestic volume. Offshore volume is also susceptible to weather events
curtailing their production during these transition periods.










Cucumbers 04.07

CUCUMBER AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
TX
FL
GA
MI
NJ
NC
VA
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
CUCUMBER AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Cleanness, Shape, Color, Yellowing, Scars, Firmness, Freshness,
Soft or shriveled ends, Freeze injury, Sunken areas, Discoloration, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
55-lb. bushel and 1119-bushel cartons/crates
55-lb. 3.56 dekaliter cartons
30-lb. cartons, 48s
28-lb. 59-bushel cartons/crates
28-lb. cartons, 36 to 42s
24-lb. cartons, 36 to 42s (California)
2-lb. cartons, 24s
RPC 6419, 6420, 6423, 6425, 6426

Foodservice packs:
Whole cucumbers often are packed in cartons with six or seven pieces on top; smaller
product is shipped in 12-count cartons. A 24-count pack also is offered from most
growing regions. Like peppers, radishes and onions, cucumbers are offered sliced as a
ready-to-use salad vegetable.

U.S. GRADES:
(Field-grown cucumbers)
U.S. fancy
U.S. extra 1
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 1 small
U.S. No. 1 large
U.S. No. 2
Trading usually is done by the specification of the pack Super Select, Select, Small
Super, Small, Large and Plain. These are not USDA grades but a grading system the
industry uses.


Cucumbers 04.07

COMMON PLUs:
4593 English/hothouse/long seedless
4062 green
4594 Japanese/white
4596 pickling

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 45 to 50 F, 7.2. to 10 C
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 10 to 14 days
Ethylene-sensitive. Do not store or transport with commodities that produce ethylene.
Susceptible to chilling injury. Damage sometimes is not apparent until the produce is
returned to a warmer temperature. Chilling injury can cause water-soaked spots, pitting
or tissue collapse. Extensive decay will develop when cucumbers are removed from
low temperatures.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for cucumbers: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free and
low in calories.


Eggplant 04.07
EGGPLANT

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Eggplant is a good vegetable for stuffing. Place it next to
squash to emphasize that fact.
Create a color break by nestling eggplants next to tomatoes or bell peppers.
Because it is lightweight for its size, eggplant cannot withstand heavy weight or
pressure. Never stack more than one or two layers deep; individual cushioning in
wrappers is advisable. Bruising is a common problem when product is not handled
carefully.

FOOD SERVICE:
Eggplant is a good substitute for meat in many dishes.
Cut eggplant in half and stuff with meat, fish or vegetables.
Eggplant can be baked, broiled, scalloped, marinated or sauted wand topped with
cheese.
Other toppings include creamed mushrooms, sour cream, yogurt or tomatoes.
In the United States it is usually baked, sauted or cut into strips or cubes and fried.
In the Near and Far East, eggplant is stuffed with meat.
In Italy, eggplant often is cut into slices, sauted in olive oil and cooked with tomato
paste.

EGGPLANT AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Production is mainly from Florida. Production is fairly steady peaking in
November and December and again in April through June. Expect a lull in Florida
production from July thru October. Numerous regional supplies will add volume during
summer months of June through September as Florida volume drops off dramatically.
Production in California runs from May through December peaking in September and
October. New Jersey and Georgia will have substantial volume in the summer months
tapering off around October.

Imports: Mexico imports the bulk of the volume (over 60%) from November through
May with peak volume in January through March.

Overview: Availability fairly steady year round. The spring and early summer months of
April through June will have peak domestic volume from Florida with California
production peaking in the late summer months of September and October. These look
to be the heaviest volume months for domestic eggplant.









Eggplant 04.07



EGGPLANT AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
FL
CA
GA
NJ
MEX

LIGHT
EGGLANT AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common defects: Bruise, Scarring, Sun scald, Discoloration, Sunken areas, Color,
Hallow cavity, Spotting, Blotchy color, Yellowing, Freeze injury, Split skins, Decay

SHIPPING INFO:
33-lb. bushel or 1 1/19-bushel
cartons/crates/baskets
33-lb. 3.56 dekaliter cartons
26- to 28-lb. cartons/crates/lugs
25-lb. cartons
22-lb. L.A. lugs/cartons, 18 to 24 count
17-lb. - and 5/9-bushel lugs

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. fancy
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2

COMMON PLUs:
4081 regular
4599 baby
4601 Japanese
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 46 to 54 F, 7.8 to 12.2 C
Relative humidity: 90 to 95 percent
Mist: yes
Typical shelf life: 10 to 14 days
Ethylene-sensitive. Do not store or transport with
commodities that produce ethylene.
Susceptible to chilling injury. Eggplant is sensitive to
temperature extremes and requires a cool atmosphere to
cut moisture loss. If left at room temperature for several
days, product becomes soft and wrinkled.
Small scars on eggplant, commonly caused by wind, do
not affect quality.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the
following nutrient content descriptors for eggplant: fat-free,
saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free and low in
calories.

Endive 04.07
ENDIVE

RETAIL:
Endive is a popular salad ingredient because it adds texture and taste. It
goes well with French, garlic and cheese dressings.
Incorporate endive into a total salad display. Group various kinds of
lettuce, tomatoes and cucumbers; intersperse with salad dressings,
croutons and other fixings.
Endive should always be on a refrigerated display. Ice or mist to keep the
greens crisp and fresh.
Post signs telling consumers that endive can be used either as a boiled vegetable, in
soups or raw in salads. Let them know it can be refrigerated for 5-7 days without losing
its freshness.
Consumers commonly confuse endive, escarole and chicory. In some areas of the
country, the names are used interchangeably, adding to the confusion.
Endive grows in bunchy heads with narrow, ragged-edged leaves that curl at the ends.
The center is yellow-white. Taste is mildest at the center.

FOOD SERVICE:
Endive can be served in a salad, as a main dish or as a side dish. Endive can be
sauted, baked, stuffed or braised.
To prepare an endive, slice off one-eighth inch of the stem. With a paring knife, cut a
cone shape about one-half inch deep from the stem end.

ENDIVE AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: California provides the bulk of the supply peaking in the spring and summer
time frame. Arizona and Florida provide substantial volume for the winter time frame.
Numerous states will have local or regional supplies the summer and fall time frame.

Imports: Light volume is available from Mexico basically year round. This volume is
rarely a factor as domestic production will generally meet demand.

Overview: Supplies are generally readily available. Weather events can disrupt
production for the short term. Peak production is during the spring and summer time
periods.

ENDIVE AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
FL
Other

LIGHT
ENDIVE AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK


Endive 04.07
Common defects: Size, Color, Discoloration, Fringe Burn, Tip Burn, Wilt, Insect
Injury, Mold, Mildew, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
10- to 15-lb. cartons, 12 count
22- to 27-lb. cartons, 24 count
RPC 6419, 6423, 6425, 6426, 6428

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1

COMMON PLUs:
4604 endive

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F, 0 C
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: lightly
Typical shelf life: 14 to 21 days
Cracked ice in or around cases helps maintain freshness.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for endive: fat-free, saturated fat-free, very-low-sodium, cholesterol-free, low
in calories and high in folate.



Escarole 04.07
ESCAROLE
RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Keep displays attractive by making sure the escarole is fresh
and appealing. Maintain proper refrigeration at all times to
keep product at peak quality. Mist for added freshness.
Stack heads so maximum circulation is obtained. Do not stack more than two heads
deep. Stacking too high can cause excess weight on the lower heads.
Cross-merchandise escarole with grocery items, such as salad dressings. To increase
sales and consumer awareness, incorporate escarole into a total salad display with
items such as lettuce, tomatoes and cucumbers.

Promotion:
Many consumers dont know escarole can be used as a boiled vegetable. Post signs
telling consumers that using a lot of water during boiling tends to impart a milder flavor.

FOOD SERVICE:
Escarole has a slightly bitter flavor like other members of the chicory family, however
the interior heart is sweeter than the green portions. It can be a base for salads,
sauted with seafood or tossed with pasta. It often is served with game meat. Although
it is chiefly used in winter salads, escarole leaves also are good for wrapping meat and
fish.
Operators quickly can revive product by plunging escarole into ice water and draining
thoroughly.

ESCAROLE AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: California provides the bulk of the supply peaking in the spring and summer
time frame. Arizona and Florida provide substantial volume for the winter time frame.
Numerous states will have local or regional supplies during the summer and fall time
frame.

Imports: Light volume is available from Mexico basically year round. This volume is
rarely a factor as domestic production will generally meet demand.

Overview: Supplies are generally readily available. Weather events can disrupt
production for the short term. Peak production is during the spring and summer time
periods.











Escarole 04.07
ESCAROLE AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
FL
Other

LIGHT
ESCAROLE AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Size, Color, Discoloration, Fringe Burn, Tip Burn, Wilt, Insect
Injury, Mold, Mildew, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
10- to 15-lb. cartons, 12 count
22- to 27-lb. cartons, 24 count
RPC 6419, 6423, 6425, 6426, 6428

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1
Not all escarole is graded. Un-graded escarole is called unclassified.

COMMON PLUs:
3324 escarole, red
4605 escarole, green

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F, 0 C
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: lightly
Typical shelf life: 14 to 21 days
Cracked ice in or around case helps maintain freshness.
To prevent flabbiness or wilting, keep escarole at is proper temperature and away from
drafts. Avoid storing near cooler fans.

NUTRITION:
A 3.5-oz. serving of escarole contains 20 calories and 65% of the
U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance of vitamin A.





Garlic 04.07
GARLIC

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Offer bulk garlic mounded in orchard bins and packaged garlic.
With bulk displays, rotate garlic or the bottom layer will dry
out.
To push garlic sales, create a mass look by building a display
of potatoes, onions, sweet potatoes, regular garlic and
elephant garlic.
Provide recipes and health benefits of garlic to further promote sales.

Themes:
Offer garlic braids to help add a festive air to ethnic promotions. Cross-merchandise
garlic with tomatoes and basil as an idea for salsa ingredients. Also display next to
salad items because it is often used to add zest to salad dressings.
Promote garlic as a salt substitute it adds flavor and is a healthy addition to dishes.
Garlic contains compounds that help ward off cancer. It also reduces the likelihood of
heart disease and strokes by helping to lower blood pressure and prevent blood clots.
Set up demonstrations in which elephant garlic is roasted in a toaster oven and its pulp
is squeezed onto a cracker or French bread. Shoppers will be surprised by the mild
flavor.

FOOD SERVICE:
The longer garlic is cooked, the more delicate its flavor. To make garlic salt, use an
empty shaker with large holes. Slice three cloves of fresh garlic into the shaker and
add salt.
Elephant garlic is similar to regular garlic in appearance with a milder flavor.

Equivalents: 2 cloves = about 1 teaspoon chopped or crushed

GARLIC AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Year round production from California shifts seasonally from the southwest
desert region moving north as the season progresses. Peak supplies derived from
Central California during the summer and fall months of June through October.

Imports: Imports from Mexico are available during the spring and summer in moderate
volumes. Imports from China, Korea, Taiwan as well as Peru and Chile provide ample
supplies during the fall and winter time period.

Overview: Supplies are generally steady year round.







Garlic 04.07


GARLIC AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
GARLIC AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Compactness, Fill, Sunburn, Curing, Sprouts,
Discoloration, Trim, Shatter, Staining, Shattered cloves, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
5-, 10-, 15-, 22- and 30-lb. cartons
3- and 16-oz. bags
3-lb. bags
2-, 3- and 4-count cello bags and trays
RPC 6409, 6411

Peeled:
12 6-oz. jars
12 8-oz. jars
6 1-lb. jars
6 3-lb. jars
Garlic is packed in 30-lb. cartons, and whole, peeled garlic cloves are available in 5-lb.
jars, 3-lb. jars, 5-, 10- or 30-lb. bags and 30-lb. pails. Chopped product is available with
or without oil, salt or preservatives added.

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1

COMMON PLUs:
4608 regular
4609 elephant
3052 string

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 to 34 F, 0 to 1.1 C
Relative humidity: 65-75%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 90 to 120 days
Store in a well-ventilated place.
Always keep elephant and conventional garlic dry; moisture is damaging.



Garlic 04.07



NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
description for garlic: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free and cholesterol-free.

















Grapes 04.07
GRAPES
RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Grapes are an impulse item. To enhance consumer
appeal, strive for maximum visibility.
Display three colors, but use five to six varieties for large
displays. Group all three colors together to help customers find what they want. Separate
red and black grapes with a block of green grapes.
Keep displays shallow and wide. Do not overstock. Even three bunches high can
severely damage grapes on the bottom. Keep handling to a minimum. Locate the display
in a high-traffic area. Because the front of the display sells fast, place older grapes there
and restock in the back.
Keep grapes properly refrigerated to maintain optimal quality. Inspect displays frequently
and remove damaged or unattractive fruit. Make sure displays are well stocked in early
evening peak hours.
Pricing all colors of grapes at the same price will increase sales of all three colors,
according to the California Table Grape Commission.
Safety concerns have led most retailers to stock bagged or over wrapped grapes. Loose
grapes that fall to the floor can create slippery spots for shoppers. Bagged grapes are
one way to help control the cost of slip-and-fall claims.

Value-added:
Over wrap red and green grapes together for colorful, convenient packaging. Use loose
grapes to garnish fresh-cut melons or to fill quart baskets.

Promotion:
Promote the ease and portability of brown-bagging grapes.
To demonstrate taste variations among varieties, give samples of red, green and black
grapes. Point-of-purchase materials should indicate whether each variety is seeded or
seedless.
Educate consumers about amber grapes. The term is used to describe Thompson
seedless and other green grape varieties that look yellowish. Grapes with amber usually
have been exposed to direct sunlight on the vine. Amber grapes contain less acid, so
they taste sweeter.

FOOD SERVICE:
In summer, toss grapes into salads. Use grapes mixed into yogurt and cereals as part of
a breakfast bar.
Garnish a breakfast plate of waffles or pancakes with grapes dipped in cinnamon sugar.
Freeze grapes and serve as a dessert.
To peel grapes, start at the stem end and separate the skin from the pulp using a knife.
For easy skin removal, dip grapes in boiling water for 30 seconds, then place in cold
water.
For grape kabobs, skewer grapes, banana slices dipped in lemon, apple chunks and
pineapple cubes. Brush with a combination of melted butter, honey, lemon or lime juice
and round nutmeg. Broil until heated.
Store grapes unwashed, but spray produce with cool water and drain before serving.




Grapes 04.07
Equivalents:
21-lb. lugs = about 112 grape garnishes
1-lb. seedless grapes = about 3 cups

GRAPE AVAILABIILTY: Available year round

Domestic: Production is mainly from California, with light volume from Arizona beginning
in the spring. Harvests begin in the southwest desert region in May moving north as the
season progresses, finishing up in the San Joaquin Valley of Central California around
October. Shippers will then work off storage supplies until imported fruit becomes
available in January.

Imports: Off shore production mainly from Chile begins in January. Supplies are fairly
steady minus any weather disruptions during harvests. Supplies remain available through
May when supplies from Mexico become available. Mexico bridges the gap between off
shore and domestic volume with production beginning in the spring into the mid summer
depending on growing conditions.

Overview: Supplies are fairly steady year round. Adverse weather conditions during
winter and spring production can affect imported volume. The fall and spring transition
periods can include intervals of supply shortages.

GRAPE AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
GRAPE AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Color, Compactness of Bunches, Stem Condition,
Shattering, Split, Wet or Crushed Berries, Freeze Injury, Sunburn, Discoloration, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
21- to 20-lb. plain pack cartons/bags/lugs (California)
19-lb. cartons/bags/lugs (California)
18-lb. cartons/bags/lugs
16-lb. cartons/bags/lugs (California)

American slip-skin: (Concord type)
24- lb. crates, 8-2-quart baskets
20-lb. 12-quart baskets
18-lb. cartons, 12-1-quart baskets

Consumer packs:
Poly bags: 1 to 1 -lb., 1 to 2-lb., 2 to 2 -lb., 3-lb., 4-lb.
Bulk


Grapes 04.07

Foodservice packs:
5-lb. packs
150 pre-portioned bunches

U.S. GRADES:
Table grapes (European or Vinifera type)
U.S. extra fancy table
U.S. extra fancy export
U.S. fancy table
U.S. fancy export
U.S. No. 1 table
U.S. No. 1 institutional pack

COMMON PLUs:
4056 blue/black seedless
4270 blue/black seeded, ribier, exotic,
niabell
4638 blue/black seedless,
fantasy/marroo
4957 blue/black seeded, all others
4023 red seedless,
flame/ruby/emperatriz
4499 crimson/majestic
4635 red seedless, all others
4273 red seeded,
cardinal/emperor/queen/Christmas rose
4636 red globe
4637 red seeded, all others
4022 white/green seedless, perlette
seedless/thompson seedless
4497 sugraone/autumn seedless
4498 white/green seedless, all others
4272 concord
4274 green seeded


RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F, 0 C
Relative humidity: 85 percent
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 56 to 180 days
Odor producer. Grapes fumigated with sulfur dioxide will produce odors that may be
absorbed by other fruits and vegetables. Do not store or transport fumigated grapes
with other fruits and vegetables.
Odor sensitive. Grapes will absorb odors produced by leeks and green onions.
Moderately sensitive to freezing injury. Although frozen grapes are a good snack,
freezing is a poor method of storage.
White or green grapes will have a yellow cast or straw color with a touch of amber at
their taste peak. Red varieties are best when red coloring predominates all or most of
the berries.
Darker varieties should be free of a green tinge.
Minimize shatter by unfastening the lugs lid. Hold the lid on top while turning the lug
upside down. Carefully remove the lug. If lined, the grapes will stay in place. Remove
the liner and the grapes will fall free.







Grapes 04.07
NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for grapes: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, and cholesterol-free.





Grapefruit 04.07
GRAPEFRUIT

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Grapefruit works well in bulk displays because it can be
piled fairly high without damage to the fruit. When this is
done, take care that displays are not too high and subject to
collapse during consumer examination.
Grapefruit graphic bins are an excellent way to display bagged or bulk
fruit. When promoting bagged and bulk fruit, use multiple pricing to encourage
consumers to stock up.
Offer a choice not only of sizes, but also of bagged and bulk packaging and red and
white varieties. Be sure to mark seedless varieties.
Display a few halved grapefruits to attract consumers to the unusual reddish interior
color.

Themes:
Encourage customers through cross-merchandising to serve grapefruit with a variety of
toppings such as brown sugar, thin apple slices and strawberries. Also cross-
merchandise with avocados for a tangy twist to avocado salads. Encourage consumers
to add grapefruit to chicken salads.

Promotion:
When white and red fleshed varieties are offered, be sure that signs point out the
differences. Demonstrations are helpful in showing the difference between varieties.
Conduct sampling programs to increase sales.
Encourage consumers to use grapefruit slices instead of lemon in iced tea or water.

FOOD SERVICE:
Grapefruit is good in drinks, fruit salads and salad dressings. It also can be sauted,
made into jellies or marmalade, or added to chutney.
For breakfast, layer grapefruit sections, strawberry yogurt and granola.
Juice squeezed from a fresh grapefruit makes a tenderizing marinade for any meat.
Add shredded or grated grapefruit peel to sauces, salad dressings or fruit compotes,
drop into a glass of wine or champagne, or decorate a sandwich tray or cake.
For grapefruit shells, halve a grapefruit crosswise. With a curved grapefruit knife or
paring knife, carve away the fruit inside. Scrape the shell clean with a spoon. To
prevent the shell from tipping, cut a thin slice from the bottom. The shells are good for
salads, cold soups, beverages, dips or sauces and fruit compotes.

Equivalents:
1 medium grapefruit = about 23 cup juice
1 medium grapefruit = about 1 cup bite-size pieces
1 medium grapefruit = 10 to 12 sections
1 medium grapefruit = 3 to 4 tablespoons grated peel




Grapefruit 04.07

GRAPEFRUIT AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Light year round production is available from the Southwestern states of
California and Arizona peaking in the late spring and early summer months of May and
June. Supplies begin to tail off in the summer with very light production in the fall and
winter. The Southeastern states of Texas and Florida provide the bulk of supply during
the fall, winter and early spring time period. Peak production generally runs from
December through March.

Imports: Imports from the Bahamas are available during the late fall and winter months
with Israel adding light volume in the winter months.

Overview: Availability remains fairly light year round due to strong domestic demand.
The winter and spring months will generally provide best volume as a number of growing
regions are in production.


GRAPEFRUIT AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
TX
FL
IMP

LIGHT
GRAPEFRUIT AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK


Common Defects: Maturity, Shape, Color, Texture, Discoloration, Scarring, Oil spots,
Firmness, Skin breakdown, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
50-lb. cartons, 10 5-lb. film bags
48-lb. cartons, 6 8-lb. film bags
40-lb. 45-bushel cartons/crates
40-lb. 710-bushel cartons (Texas)
34-lb. cartons (Arizona, California)
20-lb. 720 bushel cartons
17-lb. cartons (Arizona, California)
18-lb. bags
10-11-lb. cartons (single layer) (Arizona,
California)
5-lb. bags
8-5-lb. bags
5-8-lb. bags (Texas)
4-10-lb. bags (Texas)
RPC 6416, 6419, 6420, 6423, 6425,
6426







Grapefruit 04.07
U.S. GRADES:
Florida:
U.S. Fancy
U.S. No. 1 bright
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 1 golden
U.S. No. 1 bronze
U.S. No. 1 russet
U.S. No. 2 bright
U.S. No. 2
U.S. No. 2 russet
U.S. No. 3
California and Arizona:
U.S. Fancy
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2
U.S. Combination
U.S. No. 3






Texas and other states:
U.S. Fancy
Texas Fancy
U.S. No. 1 bright
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 1 bronze
U.S. Combination
Texas Choice
U.S. No. 2
U.S. No. 2 russet
U.S. No. 3

COMMON PLUs:
4027 small red/pink, East
4047 small red/pink, West
4280 small red/pink, Central
4281 large red/pink, East
4282 large red/pink, West
4283 large red/pink, Central
4491 extra large red/pink, East
4492 extra large red/pink, West
4493 extra large, red/pink, Central
4284 small deep red, East
4285 small deep red, West
4286 small deep red, Central
4287 large deep red, East
4288 large deep red, West
4289 large deep red, Central
4494 extra large deep red, East
4495 extra large deep red, West
4496 extra large deep red, Central
4290 small white, East
4291 small white, West
4292 small white, Central
4293 large white, East
4294 large white, West
4295 large white, Central
3157 extra large white, East
3159 extra large white, West
3158 extra large white, Central



Grapefruit 04.07
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: California and Arizona, 50 to 55 F (10 to 12.8 C); Florida and Texas, 50
to 60 F, (10 to 15.8 C)
Relative humidity: 85-90%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 28 to 42 days
Susceptible to chilling injury. Damage sometimes is not apparent until the produce is
returned to a warmer temperature.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for grapefruit: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, high
in fiber, a good source of vitamin A and high in vitamin C.



Green Beans 04.07
GREEN BEANS

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Display beans in bulk so consumers can choose quantity
and quality. Darker green beans offer visual appeal
because they dont show problems such as rust.
When stocking lima beans do not stack more than two packs high; heat will build up,
causing spoilage.

Promotion:
To promote lima bean sales, offer recipe suggestions. They are a good ingredient in
casseroles, salads and succotash. They are also good when creamed.
Advise consumers how to use beans to make an almandine sauce or toss with diced
potatoes, minced onion and bacon bits.
Let consumers know that washing beans before refrigeration will help retard
dehydration.

FOOD SERVICE:
Store beans as they arrive. Never allow snap beans to become warm.
Beans will keep several days when refrigerated in plastic containers, but are best when
used immediately. Time toughens and discolors product.
Do not wash or snap off ends before storage.

GREEN BEANS AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Production is derived mainly from Florida. This region will generally provide
steady supplies from October through June, peaking in March and April. Winter and
spring weather patterns (rains, freezing temperatures) can drastically reduce supplies
when these growing regions are impacted. Numerous other states contribute to volume
during the late spring, summer and early fall period of May through October with
California, Georgia, New Jersey and New York contributing substantial volume during
this period.

Imports: Production from Mexico is generally light year round with heaviest volume
from December through March with very light volume during the hot summer months.

Overview: Availability moderate but fairly steady all year with heaviest domestic
volume generally in the spring and early summer months, as many local and regional
growers add to the mix. The mid summer to early fall time frame will generally provide
lighter volume due to weather and transitioning acreage.








Green Beans 04.07
GREEN BEAN AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
FL
GA
CA
NJ
NY
MEX

LIGHT
GREEN BEAN AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK


Common Defects: Size/Shape, Maturity, Scars, Sun Scald, Freeze Injury, Insect
Injury, Russeting, Discoloration, Mold, Weak Tip, Soft Rot, Freshness/Crispness

SHIPPING INFO:
26- to 31-lb. bushel wire bound crates/bushel hampers
25- to 30-lb. cartons/crates, including semi-telescope types
20- to 22-lb. cartons
15-lb. cartons
12-oz. pre-snipped bags (retail)
10-lb. bag pre-snipped (foodservice)

Yellow wash beans:
30-lb. bushel hampers/crates
25 to 30-lb. cartons
15-lb. cartons

U.S. GRADES:
Snap beans:
U.S. fancy
U.S. No. 1
U.S. combination
U.S. No. 2

Shelled lima beans:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. Combination
U.S. No. 2
COMMON PLUs:
4527 Chinese long
4528 fava/broad
4066 green/french
4529 lima
4530 pole
4532 shell
4533 wax/yellow




Green Beans 04.07
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
With the wide range of color shades available, color alone is not an indication of freeze
damage. Look for russetting and other patterns of discoloration, especially on the tips.

Snap/Green beans:
Temperature: 40 to 45 F, 4.4. to 7.2 C
Relative humidity: 95 percent
Mist: lightly
Typical shelf life: 4 to 5 days
Ethylene-sensitive. Do not store or transport with commodities that produce ethylene
Highly sensitive to freezing injury
Susceptible to chilling injury. Damage sometimes is not apparent until the produce is
returned to a warmer temperature
Snap beans are subject to chill injury and russeting if held at temperatures below 40 F,
4.4 C
Damage may begin to show within three days. They also will become pitted and lose
moisture rapidly
Snap bean containers should be stacked to allow maximum air circulation.
To retain moisture content, wash beans before refrigeration

Lima beans:
Temperature: 37 to 41 F, 2.8 to 5 C
Relative humidity: 95 percent
Mist: lightly
Typical shelf life: 4 to 5 days
Susceptible to chilling injury. Damage sometimes is not apparent until the produce is
returned to a warmer temperature

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for the specified varieties:
Green beans: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, low in calories
and a good source of fiber.
Yellow snap beans: fat-free, saturated fat-free,
very low sodium, cholesterol-free, low-calorie and
high in vitamin C.
Lima beans: fat-free, saturated fat-free, very low
sodium, cholesterol-free, a good source of fiber, a
good source of potassium, a good source of iron,
high in folate, a good source of phosphorus, a
good source of copper and high in magnesium.



Greens 04.07

GREENS

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Long a popular item in the South, greens are slowly becoming better known in other
regions. To highlight greens, place near produce of contrasting colors, such as carrots
or red and yellow peppers.
Greens can replace or supplement staples such as iceberg lettuce, carrots, cabbage,
beets, beet greens and parsley.
Remind consumers to wash greens before serving to remove any sand or dirt that
might cling to the leaves. Make sure consumers know most greens cook down from
their raw volume.
Cross-merchandise collards and mustard greens with packages of salt pork. Post
recipes and place salad dressings nearby. Suggest the use of greens in quiche by
placing ready-made pie shells or crust mix nearby.

Promotion:
Be sure to display signs clearly identifying each type of green. Promote their nutritional
value. All greens provide vitamin A, and they serve as a nutritional supplement for
dieters.

FOOD SERVICE:
Place greens in a sink filled with lukewarm water to wash. Repeat washing until all the
grit disappears.
Mild-flavored greens can be steamed until tender, but stronger-flavored greens should
be cooked longer in a seasoned broth. Blanch the stronger-flavored greens before
adding to soups and stews to rid them of their bitter flavor.
Dont cook greens in aluminum pans because it will affect the appearance and taste.

Collards:
Collards traditionally are boiled with salt pork or hog jowls and accompanied by
cornbread wedges. Bacon or salt pork also is fried in a skillet and then washed and
shredded collard leaves added. Its served with lemon slices, vinegar or other dressings.

Dandelion greens:
Available year-round, supplies peak in April and May.
Bright green leaves have a slightly bitter, tangy flavor that adds interest to salads.

Kale:
Cooked kale is good with lemon juice, butter or crumbled bacon. Cooked kale is a little
bitter; raw kale as a salad green is sweet.
To prepare kale, cut off and discard root ends, stems and midribs.

Mustard greens:
Mustard greens can be used as salad either alone or mixed with other salad greens.
Mustard leaves also can provide flavor in soups and stews.



Greens 04.07

Swiss chard:
Swiss chard is like two vegetables in one. The leaves may be cooked as greens and the
white stems may be cooked like celery or asparagus. The flavor of chard is delicate,
much like asparagus. It should always be steamed, not boiled. Boiling removes the
flavor.

Turnip greens:
Actually the tops of the turnip root vegetable, turnip greens are known for their bite.


GREENS AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Available year round from California with Florida providing good volume
during the winter time frame. Numerous states will have local or regional supplies
during the late spring, summer and fall adding to overall supply.

Imports: Available from Mexico and Canada in light volumes generally year round.

Overview: Supplies are generally readily available minus any major weather events
which can disrupt supplies for the short term.


GREENS AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
FL
MEX
Other

LIGHT
GREENS AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Color, Size, Mechanical Damage, Fringe Burn, Discoloration, Wilt,
Insect Injury, Freeze Injury, Mold, Mildew, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
Collards and dandelion greens
30- to 35-lb. 112-bushel and 135-bushel cartons
20- to 25-lb. bushel baskets/crates/cartons
12 to 24 bunches crates/cartons
Dandelions can be shipped loose or in bunches.

Kale and mustard greens:
Kale is shipped in the same containers as other greens bushel baskets, crates and
cartons of varying weights. At retail, mustard greens sometimes are offered washed and
clipped in film bags of varying sizes.

RPC: 6416, 6419, 6420, 6425, 6426, 6428, 6432

Greens 04.07


U.S. GRADES:
Collards:
U.S. No. 1

Dandelion greens:
U.S. No. 1
The standard is applicable to either
plants or cut leaves, but not to mixtures
of plants and cut leaves.

Kale:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. Commercial

Mustard greens:
U.S. No. 1
The grade applies either to plants or cut
leaves but no mixtures of the two.

Swiss chard:
Swiss chard is not subject to grading.

Turnip greens:
U.S. No. 1

COMMON PLUs:
4586 green chard
4587 red chard
4614 collard
4615 dandelion
4616 mustard
4618 Texas mustard
4619 turnip
4627 kale, green
3095 kale, multicolor
4628 kohlrabi, green
3096 kohlrabi, all
other colors

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: collards and kale
Typical shelf life: 10 to 14 days
Ethylene-sensitive. Do not store or transport with commodities that produce ethylene.
Cracked ice around and in packages may help extend shelf life. Keep at proper
humidity levels to prevent wilting.
Collard greens should be handled like spinach.
Its normal for mustard greens to show a slight bronze tint.

NUTRITION:
Collards:
Serving size: 3 -oz.
Calories: 45
Vitamin A: 9,300 IUs


Dandelion greens:
Serving size: 3 -oz.
Calories: 45
Vitamin A: 14,000 IUs

Kale:
Serving size: 3 -oz.
Calories: 53
Contains about twice
the RDA of vitamins A
and C.

Mustard greens:
Serving size: 3 -oz
Calories: 31
Vitamin A: 7,000 IUs




Swiss chard:
Serving size: 3 -oz.
Calories: 25
Vitamin A: 130% of the
RDA
Contains some calcium
and phosphorus.

Turnip greens:
Serving size: 3 -oz.
Calories: 20
Contains some calcium
and vitamins A and C.



Kiwi 04.07
KIWI

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
To move kiwifruit quickly, position it with mainstream
seasonal items in a well-traveled area. Dont dump fruit on
displays.
Give consumers a choice by placing bags or multi-unit packages with bulk displays.
Cut and wrap a few pieces for added eye appeal.
Display both gold and green kiwifruit in the summer. Use signs to tell customers the
difference between the taste of the tangy-sweet green and tropical-sweet gold fruit. Cut
both varieties in half and over wrap to let customers see the difference in color. Offer
sampling to introduce the less well-known gold variety.
Extra care is required when handling gold kiwifruit as it is ripe when received. Do not
stack too high.
Kiwifruit quickly ripen when displayed next to bananas and apples. When placed next
to tree fruit, grapes and citrus, however, its shelf life is extended. Unripe fruit can be
ripened in about 24 hours if placed in a plastic bag with another fruit such as an apple
slice. The fruit also can be left at room temperature for a few days or stored in the
refrigerator for several weeks.
Once kiwifruit has ripened, slice it and move it to a salad bar or for use in prepackaged
salads.

Promotion:
Promote the convenience and versatility of kiwifruit by illustrating its many uses.
Promote it as a nutritious breakfast or snack item. Encourage consumers to make pies
and cakes with kiwifruit.
Post signs telling consumers how to prepare kiwifruit slice the fruit in two and scoop
out the flesh with a spoon. It also can be eaten whole (skin included) once the fuzz is
rubbed off.
Because many consumers have not tried kiwifruit, sampling is a good idea. Make sure
recipes are nearby.

FOOD SERVICE:
Serve the fruit as a fruit compote or sorbet. Traditionally, it has been used as a cake
and tart topping, garnish for seafood and meat entrees and as a salad bar ingredient.
Use kiwifruit as a filling for tarts or meringue shells. It can be baked into muffins or
used on top of waffles and pancakes.
Try kiwifruit as an ingredient in stir-fry dishes.
To maintain the bright emerald color when using kiwifruit in cooked dishes, add fruit at
the end of cooking and simply warm through.
When making kiwifruit puree, avoid prolonged processing because crushing the seeds
can cause a slightly bitter flavor. Seeds can be removed by passing the pulp through a
sieve. The puree can be stored for up to three days.
An enzyme in kiwifruit causes composition changes when kiwifruit is used with
milk. Kiwifruit also contains a tendering enzyme that will break down gelatin-based
recipes. Substitute gelatin with agar.



Kiwi 04.07
Equivalents:
An average-sized fruit = about cup of diced or sliced fruit

KIWI AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Seasonal production, available during the fall, winter and spring, from
California. Harvests begin in October increasing production through the winter, winding
down in March.

Imports: Available from Chile and New Zealand during the spring, summer and fall
with peak production in the spring and early summer months of April-August.

Overview: Moderate production remains fairly steady year round with seasonal
weather events occasionally impacting supplies for the short term.

KIWI AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
Chile
NZ

LIGHT
KIWI AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Shape, Firmness, Cleanness, Cracks, Scars, Scale,
Bruising, Freeze injury, Insect injury, Discoloration, Shriveling, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
22-lb. or 10-kg. cartons, loose
20-lb. cartons, 20-1-lb. film bags
13-lb. cartons
8-lb. flats, 1-layer (New Zealand)
7 12-lb.-flats, 1 layer (California)

Consumer packs:
1-lb. bags (New Zealand, California)
5-lb. bags (New Zealand, California)
125-lb. wood
RPC 6411, 6413
3-layer or count-fill

Foodservice packs:
Offered in the same packaging as retail. Foodservice operators usually ask for a tray
flat that holds 28 to 45 pieces.





Kiwi 04.07
U.S. GRADES:
U.S. Fancy
U.S. No. 1
The federal marketing order for domestic kiwifruit requires mandatory inspection. Size
45 is the smallest size allowed. A minimum maturity of 6.5 brix is required.

New Zealand kiwifruit is all export quality, comparable to U.S. fancy. Count 42 is the
smallest size shipped. Import fruit must meet minimum grade, size and maturity.

COMMONG PLUs:
4030 regular
3279 golden
3280 regular, jumbo size 22 and larger

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F, 0 C backroom storage
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: Green: up to 28 days, refrigerated: 3 to 7 days at room temperature.
Gold: up to 14 days, refrigerated: 3 to 4 days at room temperature.
Ethylene-sensitive (unripe)
Ethylene-producer (ripe)
Spots of dry mold can be wiped off, but discard fruit with wet spots.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for kiwifruit: low-fat, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, high in
fiber, high in vitamin C, a good source of vitamin E and a good source of potassium.



Leeks 04.07
LEEKS

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Like green onions and shallots, leeks provide green and white
color contrast. Displaying bunches of leeks parallel to one
another, with green ends pointing in the same direction, enables customers to select
with ease.
Tops may be trimmed. Remove the bulbs outer skin to display the vegetable in a clean
and fresh manner. Refrigerate and sprinkle to prevent drying when displayed in cold
racks.
Any type of presentation used to display green onions can be done for leeks. Leeks are
a member of the onion family with the mildest flavor. Except for the fibrous root, the
entire leek is suitable for eating.

Promotion:
Suggest that consumers include leeks in their Chinese cooking by displaying leeks with
other stir-fry vegetables such as snow peas, bok choy and broccoli.

FOOD SERVICE:
Leeks can be used in soups, stews and chowders, or substituted for onions in recipes.
However, it may be necessary to increase the amount.
Before using, leeks must be thoroughly cleaned because the compact leaves tend to
retain mud and grit. If very gritty, they should stand in cool water for 10 to 15 minutes to
release grit embedded in them.

Equivalents:
Two pounds of fresh leeks or one pound cleaned will serve four people.


LEEK AVAILABILITY:


LEEK AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
MI
Other
IMP

LIGHT
LEEK AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK





Leeks 04.07
SHIPPING INFO:
30-lb. cartons, 12 bunches
24- to 30-lb. cartons, 24 bunches
20-lb. 45-bushel cartons/crates, bunched
10-lb. cartons, 10-1-lb. film bags
Leeks are generally packed in layers of ice.
RPC 6419, 6428

U.S. GRADES:
Unclassified, no grade given.

COMMON PLUs:
4629 regular
4630 baby

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F, 0 C
Relative humidity: 95-100%
Mist: yes
Typical shelf life: 7 to 21 days
Odor producer (Do not store or transport odor-sensitive items with commodities that
produce odors. Leeks produce odors that will be absorbed by figs and grapes.)
Crates should be stacked so they will have sufficient air circulation and to keep
temperatures at the top and bottom as equal as possible.
Slight bruising of the tops is normal.

NUTRITION:
A 3.5-oz. serving of leeks contains 52 calories and 30% of the U.S. Recommended Daily
Allowance of vitamin C.



Lemons 04.07
LEMONS

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Display ribbons of lemons amid green vegetables for eye
appeal, suggesting use with salad and cooking vegetables.
Lemons also make a nice tie-in with melons.
Lemons can be positioned with citrus, green peppers and apples or next to avocados
and tomatoes, along with guacamole mixes.
Merchandise lemon-related gadgets near the display. Lemon faucets, juicers, peelers
and graters can spur sales.
Cross-merchandise lemons with the seafood department. A lemon boat can be
constructed to hold tartar sauce.
Acidic lemons are the only type grown for commercial purposes in the United States.
Adequate supplies are available year-round.

Placement:
Most lemons are displayed in bulk. They should be of comparable size to avoid over
handling by consumers in search of the largest fruit. However, offer consumers a
choice by complementing bulk displays with bagged lemons.
Displays of different-sized lemons in two areas of the department can increase sales
volume.

Promotion:
Beverages are a strong tie-in for summer and around the holidays. Create a lemonade
or tea stand display by including pitchers and bags of sugar.
Offer consumers information on the various uses for lemons. Include tips for serving
lemons with fish, salads or using in baking or cooking. Fresh grated lemon peel ads
aroma to baked goods, fruit compotes, dessert and savory sauces.
Highlight other lesser-known uses for lemons. For example, the juice can remove
odors from hands, pots and pans by rubbing with a cut lemon just before washing.
Another tip to pass along to shoppers is that lemons can keep garbage disposals
smelling good by periodically running used lemon shells through them.

FOOD SERVICE:
Wash lemons before use.
Vegetables such as potatoes, cauliflower and turnips stay white while cooking when
lemon juice is added. Substitute lemon juice for vinegar in seasonings.

Equivalents:
1 medium lemon = about 3 tablespoons juice
1 medium lemon = about 3 teaspoons grated peel
5 to 6 medium lemons = about 1 cup juice





Lemons 04.07
LEMON AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Year round production from California shifts seasonally from three
overlapping production districts throughout the year. Arizona provides the majority of
late fall and winter time supplies (November-February). Production then moves north
seasonally through Southern and Central California. Supplies remain fairly steady year
round.

Imports: Light to moderate production from Mexico, Chile, Spain, and a few other
offshore countries bring additional volume during the summer and early fall period.
These imported supplies are generally available year round and are primarily market
driven.

Overview: Supplies are generally steady year round. Weather patterns (heavy rains,
freezing temperatures, excessive heat, and strong winds) can be a major factor as to
domestic volume, especially during winter production and the spring and fall transition
period.
LEMON AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
IMP

LIGHT
LEMON AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Color, Shape, Firmness, Texture, Sunburn, Scars, Oil
Spots, Discoloration, Freeze Injury, Skin Breakdown, Dry Cell, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
42-lb. 4/5-bushel cartons
38-lb. cartons (Arizona, California)
36-lb. cartons/crates (Chile, Spain)

Foodservice packs:
Lemons are available in foodservice packs containing 2, 3 and 5-lb. cartons, as well as
mini-pack cartons which average up to 9 lbs.

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. export No. 1
U.S. combination
U.S. No. 2

COMMON PLUs:
4033 small
4958 medium
4053 large

Lemons 04.07
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 45 to 48 F, 7.2 to 8.9 C
Relative humidity: 85 to 90 percent
Mist: lightly
Typical shelf life: several weeks if properly refrigerated.
Odor producer (Do not store or transport odor-sensitive items with commodities that
produce odors).
Highly sensitive to freezing injury. (Likely to suffer injury by one light freezing).
Susceptible to chilling injury. (Damage sometimes is not apparent until produce is
returned to a warmer temperature).
Shoppers can keep lemons at room temperature for several days.
Lemons can also store for one to five months.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for lemons: fat-free, saturated fat-free, very low sodium, cholesterol-free, low
in calories, and high in vitamin C.


Lettuce, Iceberg 04.07
LETTUCE, ICEBERG

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Offer a variety of lettuces for consumers. Leaf lettuce appeals to consumers interested
in variety and color in salads. Most retailers offer a selection of lettuce types. When
doing so, make sure all are clearly labeled, especially if grouped side by side.
Lettuce is available year-round in fairly consistent supplies.

Promotion:
Lettuce can help promote other salad items because it rarely is served alone and is
easy to prepare. Feature salad tie-in items such as tomatoes, cucumbers, radishes,
celery and carrots or any combination thereof in ads with lettuce for a specific price.
Offer salad recipes, dressings and croutons as part of the lettuce display.
Promote lettuce leaves as deli sandwich toppers. Try a cross-merchandising promotion
for bacon, lettuce and tomato sandwiches.

FOOD SERVICE:
On a salad bar, vary the shape of the lettuce to add interest to the bar. Lettuce can be
cut into chunks, rafts, wedges and shreds.
Besides the obvious use in salads, shredded lettuce makes an attractive bed for
Mexican and Oriental dishes.
To crisp lettuce before using, plunge heads in ice cold water for a few minutes.

Equivalents:
One average head of lettuce will yield:
shredded = 2 1/2 quarts
rafts = 3 to 4 rafts
chunks = 2 1/3 to 3 quarts
wedges = 4 to 6 wedges
torn pieces = 2 1/2 quarts

LETTUCE AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Year round production from California shifts seasonally, beginning in the
southwest desert region for winter production moving to the North as the season
progresses. Arizona accounts for much/the majority of the winter production
(December-March). Production will briefly transition through the San Joaquin Valley
region of Central California in the spring (March) on the way to Californias coastal
growing regions. Production will once again transition through the San Joaquin Valley in
the fall (November) on the way to the Southwestern growing regions. Florida will
contribute light volume to winter production. Many states will have local or regional
lettuce supplies during the summer and fall.

Imports: Available from Mexico during the winter and early spring and Canada during
the summer and fall.


Lettuce, Iceberg 04.07
Overview: Iceberg lettuce is susceptible to freezes and weather related disruptions
during winter production. Winds, rain, freezing temperatures and excessive heat can all
affect yields and production. These events can disrupt supplies/availability for the short
term as fields recover. The transition periods in the Fall (November) and Spring
(March/April) will typically produce limited supplies as growers move to traditional
coastal growing regions. This is due to limited transitional acreage and difficult growing
conditions in these transitional areas.

ICEBERG AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
COL
FL
NM
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
ICEBERG AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common defects: Color, Solidity, Misshape, Mechanical Damage, Growth Crack,
Sunscald, Seeders, Bruising, Freeze Damage, Discoloration, Tip Burn, Mold, Mildew,
Insect Damage, Russet Spotting, Decay

SHIPPING INFO:
Iceberg:
50-lb. cartons, 18-, 24- and 30-count
30-lb. cartons
20-lb. cartons, 15- and 16-count

Processed iceberg:
20-lb. cartons (chopped)
30-lb. cartons (chopped or
cleaned/cored)
1,000-lb. bins, bulk
Fresh-cut foodservice packs:
20-lb. cartons, 4 5-lb. or 2 10-lb. poly bags

Cored-and-trimmed foodservice packs:
6 heads per bag, 4 bags per carton

Cleaned-and-trimmed foodservice packs:
6 heads per bag, 4 bags per carton

Cleaned-and-trimmed and cleaned-and-cored foodservice packs:
24 or 32 heads per case






Lettuce, Iceberg 04.07
U.S. GRADES:
U.S. fancy
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2
Greenhouse leaf lettuce is subject to the grades U.S. fancy and U.S. no. 1.

COMMON PLUs:
4631 bibb
4632 boston/butterhead
3098 red boston
4076 green leaf
4633 hydroponic
4634 iceberg, East
4061 iceberg, West
4075 red leaf

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 34 to 36 F, 1.1 to 2.2 C
Relative humidity: 90 to 100 percent
Mist: lightly (do not mist wrapped heads)
Typical shelf life: 14 to 21 days; fresh-cut, 14 days
Ethylene sensitive (Do not store or transport ethylene-sensitive items with commodities
that produce ethylene.)
Highly sensitive to freezing injury. (Likely to suffer injury by one light freezing.)
Perforated plastic film wrapped around the heads can help maintain humidity levels.
Dont place lettuce cartons directly in front of the coolers fans because that will result
in rapid dehydration.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration have approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for iceberg lettuce: fat-free, saturated fat-free, very low sodium, cholesterol-
free, and low in calories. The following have been approved for leaf lettuce: fat-free,
saturated fat-free, low in sodium, cholesterol-free, low in calories, high in vitamin A and a
good source of folate.


Lettuce, Leaf 04.07
LETTUCE, LEAF

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Offer a variety of lettuces for consumers. Leaf lettuce appeals to
consumers interested in variety and color in salads. Most retailers
offer a selection of lettuce types. When doing so, make sure all are clearly labeled,
especially if grouped side by side.
Lettuce is available year-round in fairly consistent supplies.

Promotion:
Lettuce can help promote other salad items because it rarely is served alone and is
easy to prepare. Feature salad tie-in items such as tomatoes, cucumbers, radishes,
celery and carrots or any combination thereof in ads with lettuce for a specific price.
Offer salad recipes, dressings and croutons as part of the lettuce display.
Promote lettuce leaves as deli sandwich toppers. Try a cross-merchandising promotion
for bacon, lettuce and tomato sandwiches.

FOOD SERVICE:
On a salad bar, vary the shape of the lettuce to add interest to the bar. Lettuce can be
cut into chunks, rafts, wedges and shreds.
Besides the obvious use in salads, shredded lettuce makes an attractive bed for
Mexican and Oriental dishes.
To crisp lettuce before using, plunge heads in ice cold water for a few minutes.


LEAF LETTUCE AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Year round production from California shifts seasonally, beginning in the
southwest desert region for winter production moving to the North as the season
progresses. Arizona accounts for much of majority of the winter production (December-
March). Production will briefly transition through the San Joaquin Valley region of
Central California in the spring (March) on the way to Californias coastal growing
regions. Production will once again transition through the San Joaquin Valley in the fall
(November) on the way to the Southwestern growing regions. Florida will contribute light
volume to winter production. Many states will have local or regional lettuce supplies
during the summer and fall.

Imports: Available from Mexico during the winter and early spring and from Canada
during the summer and fall.

Overview: Leaf lettuces are susceptible to freezes and weather related disruptions
during winter production. Winds, rain, freezing temperatures and excessive heat can all
affect yields and production. These events can disrupt supplies/availability for the short
term as fields recover. The transition periods in the Fall (November) and Spring
(March/April) will typically produce limited supplies as growers move to traditional
coastal growing regions. This is due to limited transitional acreage and difficult growing
conditions in these transitional areas.

Lettuce, Leaf 04.07

LEAF LETTUCE AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
COL
FL
NM
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
LEAF LETTUCE AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common defects: Size, Color, Solidity (girth), Misshape, Mechanical damage,
Seeders, Freeze injury, Discoloration, Fringe burn, Tip burn, Mold, Mildew, Insect injury,
Russet spotting, Decay

SHIPPING INFO:
Boston:
22-lb. 1 1/9-bushel crates
20-lb. cartons/crates, 24-count
10-lb. flat cartons/crates
5-lb. baskets/cartons, 12-quart
Bibb:
10-lb. flat cartons/crates
5-lb. baskets/cartons, 12 quart
5-lb. baskets, greenhouse

Loose Leaf: (red leaf and green leaf):
25-lb. cartons/crates
20-lb. 4/5-bushel crates
14-lb. 1 1/9-bushel crates
10-lb. baskets/cartons, 24 quart
3-lb. cartons





2-lb. cartons

Leaf lettuces, such as butterhead:
6-, 12- and 24-count cartons, naked or polyliner, and 4 by 6 leaf pack. Chopped product
is about 1 1/2 by 1 1/2 inches. Shredded includes 1/8-wide by 2 to 3 inches long, and
1/4-, 3/8- or 1/2-inch wide by 1 1/2 to 2 1/4 inches long.

Operators can also order lettuce prepared in a salad mix with other vegetables, including
carrots, red cabbage and romaine lettuce.

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. fancy
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2
Greenhouse leaf lettuce is subject to the grades U.S. fancy and U.S. no. 1.



Lettuce, Leaf 04.07
COMMON PLUs:
4631 bibb
4632 boston/butterhead
3098 red boston
4076 green leaf
4633 hydroponic
4634 iceberg, East
4061 iceberg, West
4075 red leaf

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 34 to 36 F, 1.1 to 2.2 C
Relative humidity: 90 to 100 percent
Mist: lightly (do not mist wrapped heads).
Typical shelf life: 14 to 21 days; fresh-cut, 14 days
Ethylene sensitive (Do not store or transport ethylene-sensitive items with commodities
that produce ethylene).
Highly sensitive to freezing injury (Likely to suffer injury by one light freezing).
Perforated plastic film wrapped around the heads can help maintain humidity levels.
Dont place lettuce cartons directly in front of the coolers fans because that will result
in rapid dehydration.


NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for iceberg lettuce: fat-free, saturated fat-free, very low sodium, cholesterol-
free, and low in calories. The following have been approved for leaf lettuce: fat-free,
saturated fat-free, low in sodium, cholesterol-free, low in calories, high in vitamin A and a
good source of folate.



Lettuce, Romaine 04.07

LETTUCE, ROMAINE

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
This lettuce is a popular addition to a salad because of its tender, sweet taste and
should be stocked plentifully on salad bars.
Educate consumers that theres more than one variety of romaine such as, self-closing
and loose closing. Self-closing romaine leaves curve inward at the tips to form well-
blanched closed heads. Loose closing includes varieties that do not form closed heads,
with leaves that appear coarse but are actually tender, sweet and less bitter than other
varieties
Romaine hearts are also available, where the outer leaves are discarded so that only
the inner, tender leaves remain.
Supplies are available year-round in fairly consistent qualities.

Placement:
Keep displays cool and rotate frequently to maintain the best conditions, removing
unattractive aged product from the shelves. Use this time as an opportunity to check
for damaged product.

Promotion:
Romaine can be offered as part of a multiple-price setup, where shoppers are offered a
choice of roughly three salad ingredients for one price. This also works to cross-
merchandise romaine with other varieties of lettuce.
Romaine can also be cross-merchandised with other salad ingredients such as
cucumbers, tomatoes, iceberg lettuce, carrots, green onions, croutons and salad
dressings.

FOOD SERVICE:
Use individual leaves of romaine to line salads or on deli sandwiches. To crisp
romaine, plunge the leaves in ice water for a few minutes just before serving.

LEAF LETTUCE AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Year round production from California shifts seasonally, beginning in the
southwest desert region for winter production moving to the North as the season
progresses. Arizona accounts for a majority of the winter production (December-March).
Production will briefly transition through the San Joaquin Valley region of Central
California in the spring (March) on the way to Californias coastal growing regions.
Production will once again transition through the San Joaquin Valley in the fall
(November) on the way to the Southwestern growing regions. Florida will contribute light
volume to winter production. Many states will have local or regional romaine lettuce
supplies during the summer and fall.

Imports: Available from Mexico during the winter and early spring and Canada during
the summer and fall.

Lettuce, Romaine 04.07

Overview: Romaine lettuces are susceptible to freezes and weather related disruptions
during winter production. Winds, rain, freezing temperatures and excessive heat can all
affect yields and production. These events can disrupt supplies/availability for the short
term as fields recover. The transition periods in the Fall (November) and Spring
(March/April) will typically produce limited supplies as growers move to traditional
coastal growing regions. This is due to limited transitional acreage and difficult growing
conditions in these transitional areas.

ROMAINE AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
COL
FL
NM
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
ROMAINE AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common defects: Size, Color, Solidity (girth), Misshape, Mechanical Damage,
Seeders, Freeze Injury, Discoloration, Fringe Burn, Tip Burn, Mold, Mildew, Insect
Injury, Russet Spotting, Decay.

SHIPPING INFO:
40-lb. 23 cartons/crate, 24-count (West)
40-lb. cartons
28-lb. 1 3-bushel cartons
22-lb. 119-bushel cartons/crates
22-lb. cartons, 24-count (East)
18-lb. cartons, 12-count
RPC -- 6425, 6426, 6428, 64

Foodservice packs:
48-count jumbo hearts
48-count petite hearts

Chopped:
Cartons, 4-5-lb. bags
Cartons, 4-3-lb. bags
2- and 4-dozen loose:
4-dozen loose

Consumer packs:
Romaine hearts
18-bag carton, 2 heads per bag
12-bag carton, 3 heads per bag, 48-count

Lettuce, Romaine 04.07
8-bag carton, 6 heads per bag (club stores)
4 dozen, loose

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2

COMMON PLUs:
4640 regular/cos
3097 red romaine

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F (0 C) (Romaine will freeze if placed directly on ice or subjected to
temperatures below this. If using ice in a display, place it on the sides and not on the
product.)
Relative humidity: 95%
Mist: lightly
Typical shelf life: 14 to 21 days
Romaine does not maintain top quality when stored for extended periods.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration have approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for romaine: low-fat, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, low in
calories, high in vitamin A and a good source of folate.




Limes 04.07
LIMES

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Use of limes in drinks is common but to stimulate sales,
post signs suggesting other uses, such as lime pie or
flavoring for flans.
Limes, much like lemons, are hardy enough to permit mass displays in bulk, film bags,
tubes or over-wrapped trays. Offering limes of similar size helps prevent fruit being
picked over.

Placement:
Limes can be positioned with citrus or next to avocados and tomatoes along with
guacamole mixes. Displaying limes with lemons, avocados, tomatoes or green
peppers helps show them off.
Display limes in the liquor/beverage department where they are viewed in a buying
area that traditionally rings up large sales. Try cross-merchandising limes with fish in
the seafood department.

Promotion:
Price limes in multiples to move them faster. Selling limes at a four for x-amount-price
will increase sales over per-pound pricing.

FOOD SERVICE:
Limes add flavor to marinades, salad dressings and drinks. Limes are also an attractive
garnish. Lime boats can be used to serve dressing, sauces or jelly.
To get the most juice from limes, keep at room temperature for one hour before
squeezing.
Substitute limes for salt and butter in health-conscious recipes.

Equivalents:
1 medium lime = about 1/4 cup juice

LIME AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Light domestic production is available from California and Florida. These
supplies generally remain in local markets due to light volume and the competitive import
market.

Imports: Year round production from southeastern Mexico provides the majority of
supplies. Off shore volume from Venezuela, Bahamas, and Central America provide
light additional volume throughout the year.

Overview: Mexico is the primary source for limes in the United States. Supplies
remain fairly steady year round. Tropical weather patterns (Hurricanes) can cause
seasonal disruptions in supply if the impact zone is near the major growing regions.



Limes 04.07
LIME AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
FL
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
LIME AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Shape, Color, Scarring, Sunburn, Firmness,
Discoloration, Scale, Scab, Skin Breakdown, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
40-lb. cartons (California, Mexico)
38-lb. cartons, bruce box (Florida)
10-lb. cartons, pony box
2-lb. mesh bag
True count box (Mexico)
RPC 6416, 6419, 6420, 6423

Foodservice packs:
10- and 38-lb. cartons
5- and 20-lb. packs
3-lb. bags

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. Combination
U.S. No. 2

COMMON PLUs:
4048 regular
4305 key
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 55 F (12.8 C)
Relative humidity: 85-90%
Mist: yes
Typical shelf life: 14 to 28 days
Odor producer (Do not store or transport odor-sensitive items with commodities that
produce odors. Limes produce odors that will be absorbed by meat, eggs and dairy
products).
Highly sensitive to freezing injury. (Likely to suffer injury by one light freezing).
Susceptible to chilling injury (Damage sometimes is not apparent until produce is
returned to a warmer temperature.
Extended storage at temperatures below 50 F causes brown pitting.
Keep product out of sunlight, which causes limes to turn yellow and deteriorate.
However, subjecting limes to strong sunlight often will cause the juice content to rise.
Keep cartons off the floor to prevent dampening.
Store in a well-ventilated area.
If it is necessary to hold limes overnight or over weekends, keep them refrigerated.
Avoid putting limes in contact with ice, which can cause over chilling.



Limes 04.07
NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration have approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for limes: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, low-
calorie, a good source of fiber and high in vitamin C.


Mangoes 04.07
MANGOES

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Studies show consumer sales increase when fruit is presented with full color. Mangoes
have traditionally been used at several stages of growth development.
Display signs showing consumers different ways to cut mangoes. Cut along each side
of the pit, leaving a center rim of skin around the pits length, and providing two
cutaway sections. It then is possible to remove the fruit from the skin using either a
knife or a spoon. The center strip of flesh and skin can be cut away from the seed with
a knife.
Mangoes are generally available year-round.

Placement:
Fruit can be displayed with other tropical fruits such as pineapple, papayas, bananas
and kiwifruit, or with specialties or stone fruit.
Display with other fruits popular with Hispanic patrons.

Promotion:
Cross-merchandise mangoes with other fruit for a fruit salad. Mangoes can also be
frozen, cooked or made into jelly or jam. Eastern and Asian cultures use the green
immature fruit in chutney, relishes and pickles.

FOOD SERVICE:
Use mangoes in mixed fruit salads, ice cream and as exotic additions to meat dishes,
stir-fry and omelets. Mango slices mix well with oranges, grapefruit and papaya. Make
mango muffins or mousse.
Mature mangoes have a flavor similar to a mixture of peaches and pineapples with a
light citrus undertone. Ripe mangoes may be substituted for peaches in recipes.

Equivalents:
1-lb. mango = 3/4 cup sliced fruit

MANGO AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Domestic production derives primarily from Florida during the spring and
summer months.

Imports: Light production available from Mexico as well as Central and South America,
basically year round. Regional weather events (Hurricanes, torrential rains, etc.)
impacting the growing regions can significantly reduce supplies for the short term.

Overview: Light year round production remains fairly steady. Tropical weather patterns
can cause seasonal disruptions in supplies, however with numerous growing regions
adding to the supply chain these disruptions are typically short in duration.



Mangoes 04.07
MANGO AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
FL
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
MANGO AVAILABILITY MOD

Common Defects: Size, Shape, Color, Maturity, Bruise, Discoloration, Scarring,
Sunburn, Mildew, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
35-lb. cartons, bruce box (Florida)
14-lb. flats/cartons, 1-layer
10-lb. cartons/lugs (imports)
RPC 6409, 6411

U.S. GRADES:
Unclassified, no grade given.

COMMION PLUs:
4311 green (keitt and kent)
4051 red (tommy atkins and haden), small
4959 red, large
4312 yellow
3364 R2E2

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 55 F (12.8 C)
Relative humidity: 85-90%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 7 to 14 days
Ethylene producer (Do not store or transport ethylene-sensitive items with commodities
that produce ethylene.)
Susceptible to chilling injury (Damage sometimes is not apparent until produce is
returned to a warmer temperature.)
Pinhead-size black spotting is not a defect but is a characteristic of some varieties such
as the haden.



Melons 04.07
MELONS

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Avoid piling displays too high. Pressure on lower layers can bruise or crack product.
Try grouping cantaloupe with other types of melons such as honeydew, casaba,
crenshaw, santa claus and juan canary. Alternate colors to attract attention.
Sampling melons with fruit dips can add profits to melon sales.
Cantaloupe differs from other muskmelons in shape and size. Some have flesh of a
different color, including those with net less rinds, such as casabas and honeydew.
Protect cantaloupe from drying, which can cause lumpiness.
Cross-merchandise with bagged salads and vinaigrette or poppy-seed dressing.

Value-added:
Take advantage of its orange flesh by placing over wrapped jagged melon halves
toward the front of a display.
To make melon halves even more appealing, scrape out seeds and nestle some
strawberries, grapes, kiwifruit and other fruits in the center before over wrapping.

FOOD SERVICE:
Because cantaloupe is easy to cut, it can be used as an appetizer, in salads, as a
breakfast plate garnish and in compotes and desserts.

MELON AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Production is derived mainly from Arizona, California and Texas beginning
in the early spring. Arizona production begins in March followed closely by supplies from
Texas and the southwest desert regions of Southern California for spring production.
Harvests then move to the Westside growing region of Central California for summer
and fall production. Numerous other states will have local or regional supplies during the
summer and fall period.

Imports: Available from Mexico during the late fall, winter and early spring. Off shore
production from Honduras, Panama, Costa Rica, Guatemala, and the Dominican
Republic provide added volume during this same period (November-April).

Overview: Supplies remain fairly steady year round. Seasonal fluctuations during
transition periods between domestic and imported production (October-November,
February-March) will typically produce light supplies. Off shore production can be
influenced by weather events (heavy rains) in these growing regions as well as port
disruptions due to terror threats, inspections and other events. Excessive heat, untimely
rains and strong winds can also affect supplies from California during summer
production. The summer months of June through September will generally provide best
volume and quality.




Melons 04.07
MELON AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
TX
Other
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
MELON AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Netting (Cants), Shape, Internal Quality, Slip, Scars,
Sunburn, Sunken Areas, Mold, Bruise, Color, Firmness, Ground Spot, Loose Cavity, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
1,000-lb. bins
80-lb. jumbo crates
60-lb. 1 -bushel cartons/crates
54-lb. 23 cartons/crates
45- to 50-lb. one-half wirebound crates
40-lb. one-half cartons/crates
40-lb. 119-bushel cartons/crates
40-lb. bushel baskets

Foodservice packs:
18 to 21 lb. single-layer packs

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. fancy
U.S. No. 1
U.S. commercial
U.S. No. 2

COMMONG PLUs:
4318 small cantaloupe/muskmelon, East
4049 small cantaloupe, West
4319 large cantaloupe/muskmelon, East
4050 large cantaloupe, West
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 36 to 41 F, 2.2 to 5 C
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 10 to 14 days
Ethylene producer. Do not store or transport with ethylene-sensitive produce.
Susceptible to chilling injury. Damage sometimes is not apparent until the produce is
returned to a warmer temperature.
If stem end is rough with portions of the stem remaining, the melon was harvested
prematurely.
Because cantaloupe is shipped in a firm state to avoid damage, it usually needs a few
days at room temperature to soften and become juicier.


Melons 04.07
Fresh-cut:
To prevent bacteria on the melon netting from passing through to the flesh when
cutting, follow these U.S. Food and Drug Administration rules:
o Wash melons with potable water.
o Clean and sanitize the cutting area and utensil.
o Hold cut product at 45 F, 7.2 C, or lower.
o If product cannot be held at that temperature, throw it away after four
hours. Use a marking system so employees can follow the four-hour
shelf-life system.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for cantaloupe: fat-free, saturated fat-free, very low-sodium, cholesterol-free,
high in vitamin A, high in vitamin C and a good source of folate.











Mushrooms 04.07
MUSHROOMS

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
To meet most consumer needs, offer bulk and packaged mushrooms, as well as
prepackaged whole or sliced product. Provide small paper bags for shoppers to use to
store mushrooms at home.
Carry varying sizes. Small mushrooms are 34 to 114 inches, medium mushrooms are
114 to 134 inches, large mushrooms are 134 to 234 inches and jumbo are 3 inches
and larger.
Large mushrooms are excellent for stuffing, while smaller ones are good in salads and
other dishes. Mushrooms also are a popular item used in stir-fries and vegetable
tempura. Rotate stock on a first-in, first-out basis.
Place bulk product away from items frequently misted. Do not stack other produce
items on top of mushrooms as they bruise easily.
Research shows that the quality of mushrooms on display influences whether
consumers will buy mushrooms. Good quality increases sales.
Pre-cleaned, ready-to-use mushrooms are available nationwide. They offer consumers
a time-saving option and greater convenience.

Placement:
Research indicates that sales can increase as much as 15-40% by grouping all
varieties together, providing at least four feet of linear display space and positioning
them next to salad items and cooking vegetables.

Promotion:
Create an Italian-themed display with mushrooms, prepared pasta sauces, pasta, olive
oil, bell peppers and sun-dried tomatoes. Cross-merchandise pizza crusts near a
display with mushrooms, tomatoes, onions and other potential pizza toppings.
Cross-merchandise mushrooms with lettuce, carrots, celery, radishes, salad dressings,
croutons and other potential salad toppers for a summer salad display. Also, offer
recipe cards showing consumers how to turn mushrooms into flavorful hors douevres
and suggest mushrooms as an alternative to meat for creating vegetable dishes.
Promote the gourmet touch that mushrooms can bring to the simplest fare. Offer
samplings of stuffed, baked or stir-fry mushrooms. Let consumers know that because
of supply and demand limitations, specialty mushrooms cost more than mainstream
mushrooms such as agaricus bisporus, commonly known as white or button
mushrooms.
Promote mushrooms during Lent as a meat alternative by using a secondary display in
the meat department.
Offer demonstrations. Because a few mushroom varieties have to be cooked before
theyre eaten, demonstrations should focus on quick, easy cooking methods.

FOOD SERVICE:
There is no waste to mushrooms because both caps and stems are edible. Remove
only the amount to be used from the cooler. Prepare only as much as you will use in
one day.


Mushrooms 04.07
Mushrooms with open veils have richer flavor and are good sauteed and in sauces.
Select mushrooms with smooth, firm caps to use in salads. Small and medium
mushrooms are usually included in salads and sauted dishes. Larger mushrooms
can be served stuffed, broiled or in soups and stews. White mushrooms are good
served raw on a vegetable tray or sauted and used to top meat and poultry.

Equivalents:
1-lb. whole = about 6 cups sliced
1-lb. whole = about 3 3/4 cups chopped
1-lb. sliced/cooked = about 2 3/4 cups
1-lb. chopped/cooked = about 2 cups

MUSHROOM AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Production fairly stable year round.

Imports: Available from Canada year round.

Overview: Grown in controlled atmosphere (indoors) supplies remain fairly stable year
round. Disruptions in the power grid (power outages, rolling blackouts, etc.) can cause
temporary supply fluctuations in these rare occurrences.

MUSHROOM AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
FL
PA
CAN

LIGHT
MUSHROOM AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK
Common Defects: Maturity, Shape, Trim, Cleanness, Color, Freshness, Open
Veils/Gills, Discoloration, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
12-lb. cartons, 12-1-lb. trays
10-lb. cartons
8-lb. cartons, 16-8-oz. or 8-1-lb. trays
6-lb. cartons, 12-8-oz. trays
5-lb. cartons
3-lb. 4-quart baskets
RPC 6411, 6413, 6416, 6419, 6420

Consumer packs: whole:
4-, 7-, 8-, 10- and 12-oz. packages
1-, 2- and 2.5-lb. packages
(The 8-oz. package is generally the
most popular.)
Consumer packs: sliced:
4-, 6-, 8-, 9-, 12- and 20-oz. packages
1- and 1.5-, 5- and 10-lb. package

Mushrooms 04.07

Value-added packs:
The industry has developed flash-blanched mushrooms. Unlike canned mushrooms,
these are quickly cooked and cooled to help retain texture and taste.

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2









COMMON PLUs:
4645 small
4085 large
4646 black forest
4647 chanterelle
4648 crimini/brown
3103 enoki
3102 morel
4649 oyster
4650 portabella
4651 shiitake
4652 wood ear
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: most varieties, 34 (1.1 C); shiitake, enoki 34 to 36 F (1.1 to 2.8 C); oyster
36 to 38 F (2.8 to 3.3 C); fresh-cut 34 to 36 F (1.1 to 2.8 C).
Relative humidity: 85-90%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: most varieties 5 to 7 days; shiitake/enoki, up to 14 days; portabella,
10 to 14 days; fresh-cut 4 to 6 days
Odor-sensitive (Do not store or transport odor-sensitive items with commodities that
produce odors. Mushrooms will absorb odors produced by green onions).
Because of a high respiration rate, agaricus bisporus requires plenty of air. Mushrooms
are sensitive to water. If wet, they will develop wrinkles or brown spots or deteriorate
prematurely.
Store in original containers. Do not store in non-porous plastic bags as they will
accelerate mushroom deterioration.
Do not store mushrooms on wet storeroom floors, but rather on a pallet or shelf.
Open veils are not a sign of poor quality, but the shelf life will be shorter.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the
following nutrient content descriptors for mushrooms: fat-
free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, low
in calories, high in riboflavin, a good source of niacin, a
good source of copper and a good source of
pantothenate.









Nectarines 04.07
NECTARINES

RETAIL:
Most nectarines on display will be firm and take two to three
days to ripen, so use signs to tell consumers to ripen fruit in
a paper bag. Another way to use signs in selling nectarines
is to place them above the ripe displays to inform customers about the nectarines
origin and expected taste. A ripe fruits aroma is an important selling tool and helps
prepare consumers for the season.
Encourage shoppers to buy ripe nectarines for immediate consumption and unripened
ones for later use. Put ripe, ready-to-eat fruit at the front of the produce department.
Also display un-ripened peaches, plums and nectarines deeper in the department,
surrounded by ripening bags. This promotes two sales to one customer, with fruit for
both today and tomorrow.

Placement:
Display no more than two layers deep. Bulk displays are best, especially during peak
season.

Promotion:
Provide consumers with recipes and usage information. Most nectarines can be
cooked. Stewing or poaching are the simplest methods, but baking and grilling are
also used. Also advise consumers that nectarines will have a better flavor if theyre not
ice cold. Fruit should be removed from the refrigerator 10 to 15 minutes before
serving.

FOOD SERVICE:
Nectarines can be added to pastry and bread recipes, main-course meat, poultry and
fish dishes, grain dishes, salads and desserts. They can also be used in blended
drinks. Top waffles with nectarine slices covered in a strawberry glaze.

NECTARINE AVAILABILITY: Available seasonally with domestic production from
April-October and imports available December-February.

Domestic: Production from California begins in April with supplies typically into
October. Washington State adds light volume during the summer months. Domestic
supplies are susceptible to spring weather patterns in these growing regions.
Regional/local supplies are also available during the summer months in very limited
volume.

Imports: Light offshore volume derived mainly from Chile becomes available in late
December with supplies generally available into March.

Overview: Domestic harvests peak production period is in the summer months which
usually provide ample supplies during this time frame.





Nectarines 04.07

NECTARINE AVAILAIBILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
WA
IMP

LIGHT
NECTARINE AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Shape, Color, Blush, Firmness, Cracks, Limb rub,
Bruise, Insect injury, Discoloration, Hail injury, Russeting, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
5-lb. cartons, loose
25-lb. cartons or 12-bushel cartons, loose
22-lb. cartons/lugs, 2-layer tray pack
18-lb. cartons/lugs, 2-layer tray-pack (Chile)
9-lb. cartons, 1 layer
RPC 6416

Consumer packs:
Small-sized nectarines packed in bags, commonly 2 lbs. net weight, offer a good
opportunity to display two sizes in-store. Principal sizes range from the larger 50 size
to the smaller 84 size.

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. Fancy
U.S. Extra No. 1
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2



COMMON PLUs:
4035 small
4036 large
4377 tree-ripened, small
4378 tree-ripened, large
4188 white-flesh, small
3035 white-flesh, large
3369 red-flesh
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 31 to 32 F (-0.6 to 0 C)
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 14 to 21 days
Holding nectarines at room temperature for two to three days will usually be enough to
complete the ripening process. Ripening at 65 F (18.3 C) is optimum, but a range of
51 to 77 F (10.5 to 25 C) is safe.
Nectarines are susceptible to dehydration and should always be stored and displayed
away from drafts.
Russeting or staining of the skin may affect appearance but not detract from the
internal quality.



Nectarines 04.07


NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for nectarines: low-fat, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, and a
good source of vitamin C.














Onions, Bulb 04.07
ONIONS, BULB

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Incorporate signs into displays advising consumers of
flavor characteristics and uses of each variety as well as
nutrition information and selection tips.
Graphic boxes for shipping and displaying help merchandisers with overflow displays.
U.S. supplies are available year-round, with specialized varieties available on a
seasonal basis. Market volume generally falls into two categories, spring/early-summer
fresh and late summer/fall storage.
Spring/early-summer fresh onions are yellow, white and red with varied shapes, such
as flat, top-shaped, and round, and are often used raw.
Late summer/fall storage onions are available in yellow, white and red and are round,
with flavor ranging from moderate to strong and noted for storing and exporting.
Additionally, sweet onion varieties have increased in popularity in recent years
because of their milder flavor and higher sugar content.

Placement:
Keep displays together rather than scattered throughout the department, allowing
consumers to select more than one variety and size. Size does not determine quality.

Promotion:
Selection is based on intended use. Larger onions are easier to slice while smaller
ones are convenient for pickling. Inform consumers that mild-flavored onions are best
in salads and on hamburgers, and red onions are popular in salads. For the most part,
many consumers are unaware of which varieties are mild or strong.

FOOD SERVICE:
Onions add flavor to almost any entre. Onions can be braised, boiled, steamed,
baked, scalloped, fried, grilled, stuffed, roasted, sauted, used in stir-fry or eaten raw.
Deep-fried onion blooms or flowers are popular at many restaurants.
Prepare onions as close to cooking time as possible since their flavor deteriorates and
aroma intensifies over time.
To prevent tearing, refrigerate onions for 30 minutes before preparations, or when
cutting, trim off the top and peel the outer layers while leaving the root end whole, as
the root end contains the majority of sulfuric compounds that cause eyes to tear.
To make the skin easier to remove, peel the onion under warm running water.
To bring out a sweeter flavor for raw eating, place an onion in the refrigerator and chill
for one hour before serving, or peel and cut into slices and place in a bowl of ice water
for 30 minutes and then drain.







Onions, Bulb 04.07
ONION AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Supplies remain generally stable year round. Fall and winter storage
onions are grown primarily in Oregon, Washington and Idaho. Onions are harvested in
September and October and held in CA storage for over-winter production. Spring and
summer fresh onions are derived from numerous growing regions. Production begins in
the southwest (Mexico/Texas) in early March shifting seasonally toward the northwest
through New Mexico and California finishing up in August.

Imports: Available year round in light supply from Mexico and Canada. Off shore
production from Peru, Chile and Spain account for the majority of imported volume.

Overview: Supplies derive from seven major growing regions shifting seasonally
beginning in the southwest finishing in the northwest. The storage season typically runs
form September through March. The weather is extremely important to onion sizing and
growth. Even short term periods of rain and cold temperatures can disrupt the growth
process, thus limiting availability of larger sized onions. Moreover, not all growing
regions have growing conditions favorable to the development of larger sized onions.

BULB ONION AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
ID
OR
WA
CA
TX
NM
AZ
CO
UT
NY
GA
CAN
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
BULB ONION AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Shape, Cleanness, Color, Cracks, Sunburn, Bruising,
Discoloration, Double center, Mold, Rot, Decay








Onions, Bulb 04.07
SHIPPING INFO:
50-lb. cartons/sacks/crates
50-lb. master containers, 10-5-lb. bags
48-lb. master containers,16-3-lb.
bags/sacks or 24-2-lb. sacks
32-lb. master containers, 16-2-lb. sacks
25-lb. sacks (red, boilers)
25-lb. cartons/bags
24-lb. master containers, 12-2-lb. sacks
10-lb. sacks/cartons/bags
5-lb. bags/cartons
RPC 6411, 6416
45-lb. master containers, 15-3-lb.
bags/sacks
40-lb. master containers, 20-2-lb.
bags/sacks
40-lb. cartons
36-lb. master containers, 12-3-lb.
bags/sacks


Foodservice packs:
Master containers, from 134 to 10 lb. bags.

U.S. GRADES:
Bermuda-Granex-Grano types
U.S. No. 1
U.S. Combination
U.S. No. 2

Other onions (besides Bermuda-Granex-Grano and Creole types):
U.S. No. 1
U.S. Export No. 1
U.S. Commercial
U.S. No. 1 boilers
U.S. No. 1 picklers
U.S. No. 2

COMMON PLUs:
4659 bulb
4082 red
4663 white
4665 small yellow/brown (234 size and smaller)
4093 large yellow/brown (3 size and larger)
4159 Vidalia
4161 Texas 1015s
4163 Walla Walla
4164 Maui
4165 California sweet
4166 other sweet









Onions, Bulb 04.07
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 40 to 60 F (4.4 to 15.6 C)
Relative humidity: 65-70%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 30 to 180 days
Odor producer (Do not store or transport odor-sensitive items with commodities that
produce odors. Onions produce odors that will be absorbed by apples, celery and
pears).
Odor-sensitive (Onions will absorb odors produced by apples and pears).
Moderately sensitive to freezing injury (able to recover from one or two light freezings).
For the short time onions are held at retail, they are usually not refrigerated. They need
a dry atmosphere and too much humidity induces decay. Onions draw moisture from
vegetables they are stored with, which may also cause decay.
Stack onions to provide good air circulation. If in bags, stack in a crisscross manner
leaving air space across the middle. Cartons should be stacked.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for bulb onions: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free (must state that bulb
onions contain less than 5 mg sodium per 85 g bulb onion), cholesterol-free, low in
calories, and a good source of vitamin C.


Onions, Green 04.07
ONIONS, GREEN
RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Green onions, also called scallions, are a popular addition to
salads. Supplies are available year-round, with domestic
supplies peaking somewhat in May through July, with slightly
smaller amounts in January and February.
Educate consumers about the different types of green onions. For commercial
purposes, white varieties are used, including short-day types such as Crystal Wax and
Eclipse and long-day types, such as White Sweet Spanish, Southport, White Globe
and White Portugal.

Placement:
Green onions should be sprinkled frequently to prevent the green tops from curling.

Promotion:
Green onions can easily be incorporated into a display featuring all types of salad
ingredients.

FOOD SERVICE:
Raw green onions match well with meats, cheese or fish. They can also be chopped
and mixed with cottage cheese or boiled and served like asparagus. Green onions are
extremely popular in Chinese dishes.

GREEN ONION AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Available year round from California, peak production occurs in the spring
and summer with light volume available during the late fall and winter. Numerous other
states provide regional or seasonal volume from late spring to early fall.

Imports: Available from Mexico year round peak production occurs during the fall and
winter time frame with moderate volume available the rest of the year.

Overview: Production is fairly steady year round with Mexico providing the bulk of
supplies. Seasonal weather disruptions (heat, rains, freezes etc) can impact supplies.

GREEN ONION AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
Other
MEX

LIGHT
GREEN ONION AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK


Onions, Green 04.07
Common Defects: Size, Shape, Cleanness, Slips, Yellowing, Discolored greens,
Insect injury (thrips), Give (softness), Mold, Rot, Decay


SHIPPING INFO:
30-lb. cartons, loose
28-lb. cartons, bunches bulb-type
20-lb. cartons/crates, bunched 24-count,
bulb-type
13-lb. cartons, bunched 48-count
11-lb. cartons, bunched 36-count


4-2-lb. bags, iceless
15-1-lb. bags, iceless
8-1-lb. bags, iceless
16-3-bunch bags, iceless
4-12-bunch bags, iceless
2-24 bunch bags, iceless
RPC -- 6411, 6413, 6416, 6419, 642
Foodservice packs, whole or sliced:
6-, 12- and 48-count boxes
4-1-dozen bags
4-2-lb. bags, cleaned and trimmed (Trimmed product without bulb or ice is also
available).

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2

COMMON PLUs:
4068 green (scallions)

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F, 0 C
Relative humidity: 95-100%
Mist: lightly
Typical shelf life: 7 to 10 days
Odor-producer (Do not store or transport odor-sensitive items with commodities that
produce odors. Green onions produce odors that will be absorbed by corn, figs,
grapes, mushrooms and rhubarb.)
Green onions are highly perishable.
Necks should be medium-sized and well-blanched for 2 to 3 inches above the root.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved
the following nutrient content descriptors for green
onions: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free,
cholesterol-free, low in calories and high in vitamin C.



Oranges 04.07
ORANGES

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Oranges may be hand-stacked in similar sizes or
gently dumped into bins for fairly massive displays.
Displays that incorporate a variety of in-season citrus
items are workable and eye appealing. Use bulk and
bagged product to increase impulse sales.
Orange supplies peak December through May with some product available year-round.
Florida and Texas peak November through May with a lull from August through
September. California and Arizona peak December through May.
The Valencia variety has a few seeds, and navel oranges do not have seeds. Both
varieties are available year-round. Hamlin oranges are nearly seedless and available
from October to June and pineapple oranges are seeded and available from
December to March.
Fresh-cut orange products can bring higher ring-ups. Freshly peeled citrus has a shelf
life of up to 16 days from peeling date if maintained at 34 to 36 F (1.1 to 2.2 C). Note
that navel oranges tend to become bitter when cut and exposed to air for any length of
time.
Fresh-squeezed orange juice is also a refreshing treat for shoppers. If refrigerated, it
will stay fresh-tasting for at least 24 hours, although it will need to be discarded after
36 hours and juice older than 48 hours should never be used. Always cover stored
juice to prevent it from picking up flavors from other items in the refrigerator.
Use signs to explain the ripening process to customers. Oranges ripen on the tree and
are not picked until fully ripe, regardless of color. Before they are fully ripe, Valencias
turn golden. As they continue to ripen on the tree, they begin to turn green again. The
warm temperatures cause chlorophyll to return to the peel. Re-greened summer
Valencia oranges are fully ripe and flavor, juiciness and maturity are not affected. Cut
one in half to display the interior to consumers.

Placement:
Most orange purchases are traditionally impulse sales. Thus, displays should catch the
eye of the consumer. Keep displays neat, clean and attractive, and make sure all
product is top-quality. Check displays to ensure no damaged or poor-quality product is
present.
Display oranges on end aisles or in a waterfall cascade to increase sales.

Promotion:
Because some consumers think peeling an orange takes too much time, demonstrate
how easy it is to cut an orange for snacking. Halve an orange and cut three or four
wedges from each half. Display fruit-cutting tools like graters, peelers and zesters
nearby.
Display oranges halved with the butt end up and the other down so shoppers can see
the interior. A tinge of green is normal for ripe oranges during the warm weather. A cut
orange will reassure consumers the fruit is ripe.
Fresh fruit baskets are good gift suggestions for any holiday.



Oranges 04.07

FOOD SERVICE:
Oranges are a natural ingredient for fruit salads and in drinks, but they are used in
everything from appetizers to desserts.
When brushed on meat, fish or poultry, orange juice enhances the flavor.
Orange shells and baskets make attractive garnishes and are good containers for dips
and dressings.

Equivalents:
One medium = about 14 cup juice
One medium = about 45 cup bite-size pieces
One medium = about 10 to 11 sections
One medium = 4 teaspoons grated peel

ORANGE AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Year round domestic production is derived mainly from California, with
Arizona and Texas providing moderate seasonal volume. Production from Florida
supplies the juice market, with approximately 10% of these harvests going to fresh
market.

Imports: Light volume from Mexico is available during the winter and spring time frame
however market conditions and quality generally keep these supplies in the Mexican
market. Off shore production from Australia provide added volume during the summer
months when domestic supplies are at a low point. Imports from the South Africa,
Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Israel are also available seasonally.

Overview: Domestic supplies remain fairly steady year round peaking during the
spring and early summer months. Adverse growing conditions (excessive heat, freezes,
rains and winds) during the critical bloom stage can negatively affect yields during
harvests. The numerous growing regions help combat regional weather disruptions
minimizing their effect.
ORANGE AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
FL
TX
AZ
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
ORANGE AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Shape, Color, Texture, Creasing, Discoloration, Scarring,
Oil Spots, Firmness, Skin Breakdown, Mold, Rot.



Oranges 04.07

SHIPPING INFO:
50-lb. cartons, 5 10-lb. film bags
48-lb. cartons, 6 8-lb. film bags
48-lb. 115-bushel crates (Israel)
43-lb. 145 bushel cartons/crates
40-lb. 710-bushel cartons (Texas)


40-lb. cartons, 8-5-lb. film bags
38-lb. cartons (Arizona, California)
4-10-lb. bags
5-8-lb. bags
10-4-lb. bags
RPC - 6419, 6420, 6423, 6425, 6426
Consumer packs:
4-, 5-, 8-, 10- and 18-lb. bags
12-lb. 13 cartons
20-lb. 12 cartons

Fresh-cut:
Some shippers offer peeled oranges for foodservice and retail.

Foodservice packs:
Oranges count high among fruits most used by foodservice. Operators can order
California citrus in sizes 48-163s or 64-125s for Florida citrus.

U.S. GRADES:
Florida:
U.S. Fancy
U.S. No. 1 Bright
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 1 Golden
U.S. No. 1 Bronze
U.S. No. 1 Russet
U.S. No. 2 Bright
U.S. No. 2 Russet
U.S. No. 3
Florida also imposes some state regulations for short time periods.

California and Arizona:
U.S. Fancy
U.S. No. 1
U.S. Combination
U.S. No. 2






Texas and other states:
U.S. Fancy
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 1 Bright
U.S. No. 1 Bronze
U.S. Combination
U.S. No. 2 & 3
U.S. No. 2 Russet
Texas Choice
COMMON PLUs:
4384 small navel, East/Central (125 size and smaller)
4013 small navel, West (113 size and smaller)
4385 large navel, East/Central (100 size and larger)
3107 medium navel, West (72 to 88 size)
4012 large navel, West (56 size and larger)
4014 small valencia (100 size and smaller, Florida; 113 size and smaller, West)
3108 medium valencia, West (72 to 88 size)
4388 large valencia (80 size and larger, Florida; 56 size and larger, West)



Oranges 04.07

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: Florida 32 to 34 F (0 to 1.1 C); California, 45 to 48 F (7.2 to 8.9
C);.Arizona, Texas, 32 to 48 F (0 to 8.9 C).
Relative humidity: 85-90%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: Arizona, California, 21 to 56 days; Florida, Texas, 56 to 84 days
(when properly refrigerated).
Odor producer (Do not store or transport odor-sensitive items with commodities that
produce odors. Oranges produce odors that will be absorbed by meat, eggs and dairy
products).
Moderately sensitive to freezing injury. (Able to recover from one to two light freezings).
Susceptible to chilling injury (Damage sometimes is not apparent until produce is
returned to a warmer temperature).
Early Florida oranges are not stored, except as relates to shipping. Valencias can be
stored to some extent. Navels are kept only as needed to allow orderly marketing.
Florida and Texas oranges are subject to russeting, however quality is not affected.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for oranges: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, high in
fiber and high in vitamin C.



Papayas 04.07
PAPAYAS

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Also called papaws, papayas are a natural in tropical fruit
displays with items such as mangoes, bananas,
pineapples and coconuts.
Offer fruit at various stages of ripeness so shoppers can choose one to use right away
and one to use later.
Identify ripeness levels so shoppers will know what to look for. Papayas that are one-
quarter to one-half ripe should be kept on display for one week.
If the papaya is firm, it can be ripened in a dark area at room temperature. Placing the
papaya in a paper bag with a banana can accelerate the process.
Educate consumers about different types of papaya. Hawaiian kapoho, sunrise and
waimanalo are three common varieties of papayas. The yellow-orange-fleshed sunrise
is the most exported papaya variety in the world. The waimanalo has yellow-orange
flesh.

Placement:
When building papaya displays, refrigerate only ripe fruit. A layer of protection between
the rack and fruit is advisable.

Promotion:
Conduct in-store demonstrations showing consumers how to halve, seed and fill a
papaya with different ingredients. Tell shoppers the thin skin is easily removed with a
vegetable peeler.

FOOD SERVICE:
Sliced into a variety of shapes, the papaya can be cut and prepared ahead of serving
time. It doesnt darken or discolor when exposed to air.
Papayas can be served fresh, baked, stewed, sauted, barbecued or used as a
garnish. Cook papaya chunks in meat, seafood and poultry dishes. Papayas contain
the enzyme papain, which is used as a meat tenderizer. Sprinkle the juice on meat
before cooking with the leaves.
Once hollowed out, papayas can be stuffed with chicken or shrimp salad, cottage
cheese, yogurt, ice cream or other fruits. Peel, seed and blend a papaya with milk,
yogurt or orange juice for exotic tropical drinks. Papaya boats are the perfect container
for a fruit salad.

Equivalents:
One medium papaya = 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 cups peeled, sliced, seeded fruit

PAPAYA AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Light to moderate year round production is derived from Hawaii.



Papayas 04.07
Imports: Available from Mexico basically year round with peak production during the
spring and early summer months of February through July. Off shore production from
South America (Brazil) will also add to the mix with light volume most of the year.

Overview: Light year round production remains generally steady year round. Tropical
weather patterns can cause seasonal supply disruptions, usually for the short term.

PAPAYA AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
FL
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
PAPAYA AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Size, Shape, Color, Maturity, Bruise, Discoloration, Spotting, Chill
injury, Pitting, Sunburn, Insect injury, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
22-lb. cartons
10-lb. cartons
RPC NA
Counts range from 6 to 14

U.S. GRADES:
All papayas shipped from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland are given a Hawaii No. 1 grade.
Unclassified, no grade given.

COMMON PLUs:
4052 small
4394 large
3111 red-fleshed (solo sunrise)
3112 meridol

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 50 to 55 F, 10 to 12.8 C
Relative humidity: more than 80%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 3 to 5 days
Ethylene producer (Do not store or transport ethylene-sensitive items with commodities
that produce ethylene).
Susceptible to chilling injury (Damage sometimes is not apparent until produce is
returned to a warmer temperature).
Papayas ripen in two to three days when held at temperatures between 55 to 65 F,
12.8 to 18.48 C. Never store a papaya that is less than half ripe below 45 F, 7.2 C.
Cooler temperatures stop the ripening process.
When ripe, the fruit can be refrigerated.



Papayas 04.07
NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration have approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for papayas: fat-free, saturated fat-free, very low-sodium, cholesterol-free, a
good source of fiber, high in vitamin C and a good source of folate.




Peaches 04.07
PEACHES

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Shoppers, according to many retailers, seem to prefer
high-color varieties and those that are ready-to-eat, as
opposed to those that require ripening.
Rotation is key to keeping peach displays attractive and
profitable. When a delivery arrives, retailers should inspect fruit promptly and put the
ripest peaches on display immediately, code-date the less-mature fruit and design
displays that allow for easy rotation.
When in peak volume, peaches can be merchandised in larger-sized units, such as 3
to 5 pounds, as well as in regular-sized containers. It is essential to ensure that
displays include only top-quality product.
Educate consumers about different types of peaches. The early season is dominated
by semi-freestone types, shifting to freestone types in June. Clingstone types, in which
flesh is firmly attached to the stone, mature early and are primarily directed to
processing arenas. Both types are available in white- and yellow-fleshed varieties.
The U.S. provides about half of the worlds total supply of fresh peaches, with
California leading production. Import channels make the peach nearly a year-round
product. Chilean supplies are available November through April. New Zealand and
Mexico are also producers.

Placement:
Bulk displays, as with most produce items, are a good way to attract sales. Never stack
product more than two layers deep and keep displays readily accessible to minimize
handling.

Promotion:
Some stores have found it profitable to merchandise peaches in quantity containers,
such as bushel baskets or cartons, during times of peak availability to capture canning
or peach preserve sales.

FOOD SERVICE:
Peaches do not gain flavor with cooking.
Peaches are a good addition to breakfasts and salad bars. Peaches can also be used
in pasta salads, or blended into frozen daiquiris, smoothies or shakes. Theyre also
ideal for a variety of dessert dishes.

Equivalents:
1-lb. = about 2 large or 3 medium-sized peaches
1-lb. = about 2 cups peeled/sliced
1-lb. = about 1 1/2 cups peeled/pureed

PEACH AVAILABILITY: Available seasonally with domestic production April-
October and imports available December-February.



Peaches 04.07
Domestic: Production in California begins in April with supplies typically into October.
Georgia provides ample volume during the same basic time frame, typically wrapping up
production in September. Washington State out West along with New Jersey and the
Carolinas in the East add summer time volume from June-September.

Imports: Light offshore volume derived mainly from Chile becomes available in late
November with supplies generally available into March.

Overview: Domestic harvests peak production period is in the summer months which
usually provide ample supplies during this time frame.

PEACH AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
WA
GA
NJ
SC
IMP

LIGHT
PEACH AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Shape, Color, Blush, Firmness, Cracks, Limb rub, Insect
Injury, Bruise, Discoloration, Hail injury, Russeting, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
38-lb. 34-bushel cartons/crates
35-lb. cartons
26-lb. cartons, loose
25-lb. 12-bushel cartons/crates
22-lb. cartons, 2-layer tray pack
18-lb. cartons/lugs, 2-layer (Chile)
18-lb. Western peach boxes
11-lb. crates/flats, 1-layer tray pack
10-lb. cartons
9-lb. cartons, 1-layer
RPC - 6416
U.S. GRADES:
United States
U.S. Fancy
U.S. Extra No. 1
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2

Washington:
Washington Extra Fancy
Washington Fancy
Washington No. 2

COMMON PLUs:
4399 Indian
4043 yellow, tree-ripened, small
3116 yellow, tree-ripened, small, east
4044 yellow, tree-ripened, large
3117 yellow, tree-ripened, large, east
4400 white, small
4401 white, large

3313 white, tree-ripened, small
3314 white, tree-ripened, large
4402 yellow, small, East
4037 yellow, small, West
4403 yellow, large, East
4038 yellow, large, West
3113 donut/flat Chinese


Peaches 04.07
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: shipping point and in transit, 32 to 34 F (0 to 1.1 C); receiving, 51 to 77 F
(10.6 to 25 C)
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 14 to 21 days
Ethylene producer (Do not store or transport ethylene-sensitive items with commodities
that produce ethylene).
Highly sensitive to freezing injury. (Likely to suffer injury by one light freezing).
The popular red blush may be present on peaches in varying degrees depending upon
the variety, but it is not a true sign of maturity.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for peaches: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, high in
vitamin A and a good source of vitamin C.



Pears 04.07
PEARS

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Retailers who display bartletts as they turn from green to yellow
(breaking color condition) report sales eight to 10 times greater
than when displayed green.
When ordering conditioned or pre-ripened pears, orders normally must be placed at least a
week in advance and the product must move quickly through the warehouse and back
room.
Pears should not be stacked more than one or two layers deep.
Because bartlett season and winter pear season overlap, its advantageous to offer as
many varieties of pears as possible.
Include a combination of small, medium, and large pears for consumers to choose from.
Point out the uses of each, like smaller fruits for lunches and larger fruits to slice up.
Educate consumers about the different types of pears:
o Anjou are spicy, sweet and juicy and available from October to June,
medium or larger in size.
o Bartletts are sweet and delicately spicy and available from July to
December, medium or larger in size.
o Bosc are buttery and nutty and available from August to May, medium to
large in size.
o Comice are sweet and available from August to March, and come in a variety
of sizes.
o Seckel are sweet and available from August to January, small in size.
California, Oregon and Washington account for 98% of U.S. pear production. Supplies are
available year-round, with winter pears available from August through June. Other
varieties available include winter nelis, forelle, red anjou, red comice, red bartlett, cascade
and stark crimson.
Pears are more uniformly ripe after being exposed to ethylene gas. Green pears also can
be put through a ripening process at warehouse level. Banana ripening rooms can
condition pears.
Shippers do not ripen bartletts, but it should be done at retail. Shippers, however, can do
conditioning of winter pears.

Placement:
Try creating a separate section for pre-ripened fruit with signs or labels that say ready-to-
eat. Include preconditioned peaches, pears, nectarines and plums.
Retailers are encouraged to display pears in a fruit bowl theme with peaches, nectarines
and plums to increase sales of all four fruits.

Promotion:
Many retailers have found it pays to use stickers to indicate a pears stage of ripeness.
Stickers saying ready-to-eat or that denotes how much time the fruit should ripen, along
with information on proper ripening procedures, can add to consumer satisfaction and
spur repeat sales.
If pears are not ripe, inform consumers about how to ripen them.
For sampling, cube pears or use a pear slicer and offer slices.


Pears 04.07


FOOD SERVICE:
Pears are a good ingredient for stuffing, and work as a nice addition to many meats, as
well as in fruit salads. They are also a lovely garnish.
There is no need to pare a pear, for the skin is naturally thin and tender.
Bosc: pears are particularly good for cooking because of their ability to remain firm and
retain their shape when cooked.
Anjou pears: are good for poaching, and the taste also complements that of a cheese
plate.
Comice: pears also work well with cheeses.
Bartlett: pears are good baked or poached, and good for use in salads, jams and canning.
Seckel: pears work best served fresh and in salads or used in jams and preserves. While
they are tasty when baked, due to their small size, other pears might work better.

Equivalents:
1-lb. = two large or three medium-sized pears
1-lb. = 2 1/2 cups sliced
1-lb. = 2 1/3 cups diced
1-lb. = 1 3/4 cups pureed

PEAR AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Production from California, Oregon and Washington provide light to moderate
year round availability. Peak domestic production is from the late summer through the fall
time frame of July-November.

Imports: Chile and Argentina provide the bulk of the imported supply. Light volume is
generally available from January-April.

Overview: Peak domestic production is derived from the West coast during the late
summer and fall time frame of July-December. Domestic CA (Controlled Atmosphere)
storage supplies are available from Oregon and Washington during the winter, providing
year round supplies. Additional light offshore volume is also available from January-April.

PEAR AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
OR
WA
IMP

LIGHT
PEAR AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Color, Blush, Firmness, Scars, Scabs, Hail injury, Insect
injury, Bruise, Freeze injury, Sunburn, Discoloration, Mold, Rot



Pears 04.07
SHIPPING INFO:
44-lb. 45-bushel boxes/cartons
(Northwest, Chile)
40-lb. boxes/cartons
36-lb. cartons
28-lb. cartons
23-lb. 12 cartons/lugs (California,
Northwest)
14-lb. cartons
RPC - 6416, 6419, 6420, 6423, 6425,
6426

Foodservice packs:
4-, 5- and 6-lb. boxes
24-lb. half box
45-lb. bushel box







COMMON PLUs:
4024bartlett, small
4409bartlett, large
4410bartlett, red
4411bosc, small, East
4026bosc, large, West
4412bosc, large, East
4413bosc, large, West
4414comice
4415comice, red

U.S. GRADES:
Summer, fall and winter pears

U.S. No. 1
U.S. Combination
U.S. No. 2

Washington and Oregon:
Extra Fancy
4421 - packham
4422 - seckel
4423 - tree-ripened
4417 - anjou, red
4416 - anjou, large
4025 - anjou, small

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F (0 C); to ripen, 60 to 70 F (15.6 to 21.1 C )(When ripening, avoid
too much heat; temperatures above 80 F (26.7 C) can cause damage to flavor and
appearance).
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 60 to 90 days
Ethylene producer (Do not store or transport ethylene-sensitive items with commodities
that produce ethylene).
Odor-sensitive (Do not store or transport odor-sensitive items with commodities that
produce odors).
Odor-producer (Pears produce odors that will be absorbed by cabbage, carrots, celery,
onions and potatoes).
Moderately sensitive to freezing injury. (Likely to suffer injury by one light freezing).


Pears 04.07
The best flavor and texture develop when pears are ripened off the tree. They are
picked unripe, but mature. Fruit allowed to ripen on the tree develops a coarse, woody
or gritty texture.
Russeting is a common characteristic among some of the best-flavored pears. Scars or
other minor skin blemishes usually do not affect eating quality.
Bartletts will turn yellow and give off an aroma when ripe. Winter pears do not change
color, and ripeness can be tested with a thumb. Retailers can set up pallet ripening
programs in their back rooms. Cover pallets of green pears with canvas, which holds
in heat and gas without causing the produce to sweat and deteriorate.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration have approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for pears: low-fat, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free, a good
source of fiber and a good source of vitamin C.


Peas 04.07
PEAS (SNOW, SUGAR SNAP)

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
While snow peas, green peas and sugar snap peas are available year-round, snap
peas are generally available from February until September.

Placement:
Display snow peas and snap peas near other stir fry vegetables such as carrots,
celery, mushrooms, onions and sprouts.

Promotion:
Inform consumers that snow and snap peas are excellent both raw and cooked, as well
as a good addition to salads and relish trays.

FOOD SERVICE:
Snap peas must be de-stringed before cooking, as well as shelled and washed.
To retain a hint of crispness, lightly steam or quickly stir-fry peas in oil. Note that
overcooking will make pods come apart.

PEAS (SNOW, SUGAR SNAP) AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Production derives mainly from California. Production is light early in the
year from January through April, gaining momentum in the spring and peaking in the
summer months of June through September. Florida provides light volume in the winter
and early spring months of November thru March.

Imports: Volume from Mexico is basically year round. Production is very light in the
summer months of May through September, and increases in the fall with peak volume
December through April. Off shore production mainly from Guatemala is year round with
peak production January thru May.

Overview: Availability is fairly steady year round with heaviest domestic supplies in the
summer and fall months of June through October. Imported volume peaks in the winter
months of January through March.

SUGAR SNAP PEA AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
FL
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
SUGAR SNAP PEA AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK


Peas 04.07
SNOW PEA AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
FL
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
SNOW PEA AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Size/Shape, Maturity, Cleanliness, Freshness, Discoloration,
Freeze injury, Insect injury, Spotting, Scarring, Mold, Soft rot, Calyx Condition, Decay

SHIPPING INFO:
Green:
30-lb. bushel baskets/crates/
hampers and 1 1/9-bushel crates

Edible pod:
As marked

Snow and sugar snap:
10-lb. cartons


Southern:
25-lb. bushel hamp
U.S. GRADES:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. fancy
There are no federal grade standards
for snow or snap peas.

COMMON PLUs:
4673 black-eyed
4092 Chinese snow/pea pod
4674 green
4675 sugar snap
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: green 32 F, 0 C; snap, 32 to 34 F, 0 to 1.1 C, snow 33 to 35 F, 0.6 to 1.7 C
Relative humidity: green, 85 to 90 percent; snap, 95 percent; snow, 50 percent
Mist: snow and snap, no; green, lightly
Typical shelf life: 7 to 10 days
Ethylene-sensitive (Do not store or transport ethylene-
sensitive items with commodities that produce ethylene).
Moderately sensitive to freezing injury. (Able to recover
from one to two light freezings).
The best-quality snow peas are 3 to 3 1/2 inches long
and 3/4 inches wide. Snap peas should be 2 1/2 to 3
inches long.

NUTRITION:
A 3.5 oz. serving of cooked green peas has 70 calories
and 30 percent of the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowance
of vitamin C. The same size serving of snow peas has 42
calories and 100 percent of the RDA of vitamin C.



Pineapple 04.07
PINEAPPLE

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Shoppers love fresh-cut pineapple. Coring and shelling
devices can offer a variety of fresh-cut pineapple options,
including slices, cubes, crushed and halves filled with a
fresh-fruit mixture. Premium prices per pound are usually
associated with the cut-and-cored product. Cored-and-peeled pineapple offers
shoppers the opportunity to see and know the product is ripe, plus saves time in
preparation.
Educate consumers about the different types of pineapples. The most widely planted
variety is the smooth cayenne. It ranges in size from 3 to 5 inches and has both a
high acid and sugar content. Other varieties are red Spanish, queen, pernambuco,
sugarloaf and cabaiani. Additionally, Latin American pineapple tends to have a
greener shell color, even when ripe.
Gold varieties feature an extra-sweet flavor, a golden color and higher vitamin C
content. They also are plumper and heavier than traditional pineapples.
Pineapple is available year-round, peaking March through June. Hawaii traditionally
was the main source, but supplies also come from Costa Rica, Dominican Republic,
Honduras, Mexico, and Central and South America.

Placement:
Bags of fresh-cut pineapple can tie in with the meat department near hams.

Promotion:
A tropical display placing pineapple with items such as papayas, coconuts and
bananas is a way to draw attention to the fruit.
Fresh-cut pineapple can be displayed on ice in a section with cut melons, grapefruit
and mangoes. Another place to promote fresh-cut pineapple is near salad ingredients,
because it is often used with or on salads. However, make sure that the pineapple is
properly iced.

FOOD SERVICES:
Pineapple is a dish in and of itself but also mixes well with other fresh fruits, works in
salads or in a salad bar, and is a good ingredient in Polynesian and Asian dishes. Of
course, pineapples are also a natural ingredient in cakes, cookies, pies, and sundaes,
plus the fruit can be blended with yogurt for a wholesome smoothie.

PINEAPPLE AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Light production from Hawaii available year round peaking in the spring.

Imports: Available year round from Mexico, Honduras, Costa Rica, and the Dominican
Republic. Peak imported production is generally during the winter and spring time frame
of December-March.



Pineapple 04.07
Overview: Supplies are fairly steady year round minus any weather disruptions.
Rains, Tropical Storms and Hurricanes impacting the Central American growing regions
can cause seasonal supply shortages.

PINEAPPLE AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
HI
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
PINEAPPLE AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Color, Firmness, Shape, Trim, Crown slips, Bruise,
Freeze injury, Internal breakdown, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
40-lb cartons/flats, 2-layer
20-lb. cartons/flats, 1-layer
RPC - 6413, 6416, 6419, 6420

Consumer packs:
12-, 16-, 40- and 80-oz. bags of fresh-cut chunks, wedges and spears

Fresh-cut cylinders:
20-oz. packs

Fresh cored pineapple:
32-oz. bags

Foodservice packs:
5-pound plastic airtight pouches of wedges, cylinders, spears and tidbits

U.S. GRADES:
United States:
U.S. fancy
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2
Hawaii:
Hawaii fancy
Hawaii No. 1
Hawaii cocktail
COMMON PLUs:
4029 small
4430 large
4431 jet fresh, small
4432 jet fresh, large
3379 mini
3380 perola
3037 queen




Pineapple 04.07
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: mature green, 50 to 55 F (10 to 12.8 C); ripe, 45 F (7.2 C), 32 to 35 F (0
to 1.7 C)
Relative humidity: 85-90%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 14 to 36 days
Odor-sensitive (Do not store or transport odor-sensitive items with commodities that
produce odors. Pineapples will absorb odors produced by avocados and green
peppers).
Susceptible to chilling injury (Damage sometimes is not apparent until produce is
returned to a warmer temperature).
Fruit with a deep yellow shell color has a higher sugar content because it is picked later
in the growing process.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for pineapples: fat-free, saturated fat-free, very low-sodium, cholesterol-free,
and high in vitamin C.



Plums 04.07
PLUMS

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Bulk displays work well if product is not stacked too high. Some
stores prefer prepackaging to cut down on consumer handling and
reduce damage.
Stacking too high bruises product and consumers tend to dig through the pile looking
for attractive fruit. Because plums are delicate, order on the basis of complete turnover
within a few days.
By definition, a prune is a dried plum. The high sugar content of prune plum varieties
allow them to be dried without fermentation occurring around the pit.
Because the many varieties have different flavors, shapes and colors, its a good idea
to use descriptive signs to help shoppers make selections.
Pluot, a complex hybrid of plums and apricots, is a registered trademark. Pluots have
smooth skin like plums, but are sweeter. They vary in color and variety and are
generally available from August through September. Signs describing these
differences will help consumers identify the differences between Pluots and plums.

Placement:
Research shows that when more varieties are displayed, customers tend to make more
trial purchases, according to the California Tree Fruit Agreement.

Promotion:
Plums lend themselves to special promotions based on their limited period of
availability, which is from about early May until mid-October.
Note that fruit might be mature but not quite ripe. Any brown paper bag can be used to
speed the ripening process, and paper bags can be offered along with information on
ripening to consumers via point-of-sale materials.

FOOD SERVICE:
Plums and prunes have many traditional uses, such as ingredients in pies, puddings,
preserves, jellies and jams. They can also be stewed, scalloped, poached or sliced
into salads, served with ice cream, slaw, sher-bet, cake, or as a condiment for meats
and poultry.
Plums are also used in a variety of sauces and glazes.
Prune paste can be used as a replacement for shortening in baked goods to reduce fat
content.

Equivalents:
1-lb. plums = about 6 medium-sized plums
1-lb. plums = about 2 1/2 cups sliced
1-lb. plums = about 2 cups diced
1-lb. plums = about 1 3/4 cups pureed




Plums 04.07
PLUM AVAILABILITY: Available seasonally with domestic production from May-
October and imports available December-March.

Domestic: Production from California begins in May with supplies typically into
October. Washington and Idaho add light summer time volume. Plum production is
highly susceptible to spring weather patterns in the growing regions.

Imports: Light offshore volume derived mainly from Chile becomes available in
December with supplies generally available into March.

Overview: Domestic harvests peak production period is in the mid-summer months.
Supplies are highly susceptible to weather trends (heat, rains) which can affect volume.

PLUM AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
WA
ID
IMP

LIGHT
PLUM AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Shape, Color, Firmness, Cracks, Limb rub, Bruise,
Scars, Insect injury, Shriveling, Discoloration, Russeting, Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
Plums:
28-lb. 1/2 bushel cartons
22-lb. cartons/lugs, 2-layer
18-lb. cartons/lugs, 2-layer tray pack
(Chile)
RPC - 6411, 6413, 6416

Pluots:
Standard plum packs
1-layer metric cartons

Prunes:
30-lb. 1/2-bushel cartons

U.S. GRADES:
U.S. fancy
U.S. No. 1
U.S. combination
U.S. No. 2








Plums 04.07
COMMON PLUs:
4039 black, small
4040 black, large
4436 Italian prune
4434 green, small
4435 green, large
3278 inter-specific
4437 purple, small
4438 purple, large
4041 red, small
4042 red, large
4439 tree-ripened, small
4440 tree-ripened, large
4441 yellow, small
4442 yellow, large

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: shipping point and in-transit, 32 to 34 F (0 to 1.1 C); receivers, 51 to 77 F
(10.5 to 25 C), pulp temperature
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 14 to 28 days.
Ethylene producer.
Highly sensitive to freezing injury. (Likely to suffer injury by one light freezing).
Plums with high soluble-solids content often keep better than those with low solids.
A slight shrivel around the stem end is normal.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for plums: low-fat, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free and high
in vitamin C; these have been approved for prunes: fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-
free, saturated fat-free, good source of vitamin A and a good source of fiber.



Potatoes 04.07
POTATOES

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Offer shoppers a wide selection of potatoes, including russets,
reds, whites and yellow-flesh. Even purple potatoes are
available. Also offer bagged and bulk product, plus an array of packages including tray
packs, 5-, 8- and 10-pound bags, poly mesh and paper. Clearly separate each type
and each bag or bulk display section. Use potato and bag colors effectively to create
color breaks.
Potato greening on the retail rack should be avoided or reduced by limiting exposure to
light.
Supplies are available year-round.

Placement:
Large, well-stocked displays in high-traffic areas of the produce department work best.
Rotate stock daily, and add new supply.

Promotion:
Tie in products from the grocery side, such as butter, sour cream, cheese and bacon
bits. Fresh herbs such as chives are also good tie-in possibilities.
Self-service baked potato bars are common at foodservice and retail. Incorporating
Mexican- and Chinese-themed toppings is popular as are fresh vegetables, such as
broccoli, cauliflower and beans.

FOOD SERVICE:
To prepare potatoes, gently scrub them with a vegetable brush or cellulose sponge to
clean them.
When peeling potatoes, use a vegetable parer to keep peelings thin because some of
the nutrients are close to the skin.
Use russet burbank potatoes for french fries. Leaving the skin on creates the
impression of homemade french fries. For soups and stews, use red potatoes
because they retain their shape during cooking. Red potatoes can also be used for
mashed potatoes, or by baking and pan-frying them with skins on for American fries.

Equivalents
1-lb. = 3 medium potatoes
1-lb. = 3 cups peeled/sliced
1-lb. = 2 1/4 cups peeled/diced
1-lb. = 2 cups mashed
1-lb. = 2 cups french fries

POTATO AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Potato production is derived from many states with supplies generally
stable year round. The majority of domestic volume comes out of storage supplies
mainly from Idaho and Washington during the late fall and winter time frame, with

Potatoes 04.07
supplies generally available until new crop harvests begin in the late summer.
Numerous other states add to the mix throughout the year.

Imports: Available most of the year from Canada with peak volume during the fall and
spring months.

Overview: Supplies derive from numerous growing regions shifting seasonally
beginning in the south and moving north. Storage season begins in November with
supplies typically lasting until new crop harvests begin again. The weather is very
important to potato growth and size structure. Extreme winter freezes in the Northwest
(Idaho) region can halt production for the short term as it is too cold to transfer product to
the processing facility.

POTATO AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
ID
OR
WA
CA
CO
NM
WI
NV
ME
NE
MI
MN
ND
CAN

LIGHT
POTATO AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Shape, Cleanness, Cuts, Cracks, Bruise, Scab,
Secondary growth, Freeze injury, Hollow heart, Blackheart, Enlarged lenticels, Rot,
Decay

SHIPPING INFO:
100-lb. sacks
50-lb. cartons/sacks
50-lb. baled, 5-10-lb. or 10-5-lb.
Common retail sizes are 60-, 70-, 80-, 90- and 100-count cartons
Consumer packs:
For convenience, shippers offer 5-, 8-, 10-, 15- and 20-pound mesh or polypropylene
plastic or paper consumer bags in master containers or loose bulk bins.
RPC- 6419, 6420, 6423, 6425, 6426
Foodservice packs:
Suppliers now offer a variety of sizes.


Potatoes 04.07
U.S. GRADE:
U.S. extra No. 1
U.S. No. 1 (Several states, such as Washington, Idaho, Oregon and Colorado, have
marketing orders that require stringent grade qualifications in excess of U.S. No. 1
regulations).
U.S. commercial
U.S. No. 2

COMMONG PLUs:
4723 creamer, red
4724 creamer, white
4073 red
4725 russet, East
4072 russet, West

4726 long, white
4083 white
4727 yellow
3128 purple
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 45 to 50 F (7.2 to 10 C).
Relative humidity: 90%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 30 days
Odor sensitive/odor producer (Do not store or transport odor-sensitive items with
commodities that produce odors. Potatoes produce odors that will be absorbed by
apples and pears. Potatoes will absorb odors produced by pears).
Highly sensitive to freezing injury. (Likely to suffer injury by one light freezing).
Susceptible to chilling injury (Damage sometimes is not apparent until produce is
returned to a warmer temperature).
Avoid prolonged exposure to light because even a small amount of exposure can
cause potatoes to green.
Early- and summer-harvested potatoes usually are not held in long-term storage.
However, about 75% of the fall potato crop is usually stored in farm or commercial
warehouses.
Table stock in storage requires a temperature of 45 F (7.2 C), when a sprout inhibitor is
used.
Temperatures maintained for an extended period of time below 40 F (4.4 C), can cause
product to adopt a sweet flavor.
Warmer temperatures encourage sprouting and shriveling.
Sprouted potatoes can still be used once the sprout is broken off
and the potato is peeled.
Selecting potatoes without irregular shapes will result in less
waste when peeling.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the
following nutrient content descriptors for potatoes: fat-free,
saturated fat-free, sodium-free (must state that potatoes contain
less than 5 mg sodium per 85 g potato), cholesterol-free, high in
vitamin C and a good source of potassium (add 720 mg
potassium; 21 percent daily value to label).



Radishes 04.07

RADISHES
RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Keep displays refrigerated and supplies rotated
to maintain high-quality product. However, only bunched
radishes should be misted, and using ice in the display
can help maintain proper humidity levels.
Topped radishes are radishes that have clipped tops with
a length no more than 3/8 inches, according to federal specifications.
Bunched radishes are radishes with full-length tops tied in bunches.

Placement:
Radishes work well when placed in a display alongside other salad ingredients.

Promotion:
Try displaying radishes next to green onions or cucumbers for an eye-catching color
effect.

FOOD SERVICES:
After trimming the leaves off a radish, they can be used as a salad or cooked and used
as greens.
For hors doeuvres, hollow out radishes and stuff them. Radishes can also be
substituted for turnips in any recipe.

RADISH AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Year round production from California is fairly steady peaking in the late
summer and fall. Arizona and Florida provide added volume along with numerous other
states having local and regional supplies.

Imports: Available from Mexico year round peaking in the spring. Supplies are also
available from Canada during the summer and fall time frame.

Overview: Availability fairly steady year round. Seasonal weather patterns can lessen
supplies for the short term during these weather events.

RADISH AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
FL
OH
MEX
CAN

LIGHT
RADISH PRODUCTION MOD
PEAK


Radishes 04.07

Common defects: Cleanness, Shape, Cracks, Cuts, Pith, Insect injury, Discoloration,
Freeze damage, Mildew, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:

Topped:
40-lb. sacks/bags, loose
25-lb. bags
14-1-lb. bags
14-1-lb. resealable bags
12-lb. baskets/cartons
30-6-oz. or 24 8-oz. bags
4-5-lb. bags

Bunched:
35-lb. carton/crates, 48-count
30-lb. 4/5-bushel cartons/lugs
25-lb. cartons, 24-count
20-lb. cartons/crates, 2 dozen
15-lb. cartons/crates, 24-count
RPC - 6411, 6413, 6416, 6419, 6420,
6423, 6425

Foodservice packs:
6-, 24- and 42-count
bags, bunched
25-pound bags, loose










U.S. GRADES
Topped and bunched
U.S. No. 1
U.S. commercial

COMMON PLUs:
4739 black
4089 bunched, red
4740 bunched, white
4741 Italian red
4742 red
4743 white


RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F (0 C)
Relative humidity: 95-100%
Mist: bunched, yes; do not mist wrapped product.
Typical shelf life: bunched, 10 to 14 days; topped 14 to 21 days; larger winter radishes,
two to four months.
Moderately sensitive to freezing injury (Able to recover from one or two light freezings).
If tops of the radishes are attached, they should also be fresh.







Radishes 04.07
NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for radishes: fat-free, saturated fat-free, very low sodium, cholesterol-free,
low in calories, and high in vitamin C.



Spinach 04.07

SPINACH

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Spinach is a delicate item for display. If displaying in bulk, be
sure leaves are clean and fresh. Stack bags of spinach only
one bag high, as cold airflow needs to hit each bag.

Placement:
Cello-packed spinach can be placed next to bunched spinach. That offers consumers a
choice of bulk or prepared product, as well as making sure that bagged spinach is not
overlooked.
Additionally, some stores display all value-added items together.

Promotion:
Spinach can be effectively cross-merchandised with Caesar salad ingredients such as
Caesar dressing and croutons.

FOOD SERVICE:
Cooked spinach can be served as a side dish, or used as an ingredient in omelets,
quiches, lasagna and soups. However, the most nutritious way foodservice operators
can prepare spinach is to serve it raw with other mixed lettuce or by itself.

Equivalents: Allow 1/4 to 1/2 pound per person for cooked spinach and about 1/4 per
pound per person raw.

SPINACH AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Available from California year round with peak production during the late
spring and summer time frame. Arizona and Texas contribute decent volume during the
winter production. Numerous states will provide regional supplies during the summer
and fall time frame adding to overall supply.

Imports: Available from Mexico during the late fall and winter time frame.

Overview: These tender leaf commodities are susceptible to weather patterns
especially during the transition between major growing regions. Cold temperatures,
rains, strong winds or excessive heat can all affect yields and production. Supplies are
generally steady minus any major weather events which can disrupt supplies for the
short term.









Spinach 04.07
SPINACH AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
TX
Other
MEX

LIGHT
SPINACH AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Size, Color, Mechanical damage, Fringe burn, Insect injury, Frost
Injury, Bruise, Spotting, Mold, Mildew, Wilt, Rot


Shipping Info:
32-lb. 125-bushel cartons/crates
25-lb. bushel containers
22-lb. cartons, 24-count (bunched)
20-lb. cartons, 24-count (bunched)
20-lb. cartons, 12-count (bunched)
10-lb. 24-quart baskets
8-lb. cartons, 12-10-oz. bags
2-12-lb. bags, 8- and 4- count
4 or 6-212-lb. bags

RPC -- 6425, 6426, 6428, 6432

Consumer Packs:
Some product is packaged at shipping point. After harvesting, the spinach is washed
three times, dried and long stems are removed. The spinach is then packaged in 6- and
10-oz. bags, which are packed either 18 bags or 12 bags per carton.

Foodservice Packs:
4 2-lb. bags
6 2-lb. cello

U.S. GRADES:
Spinach plants
U.S. No. 1
U.S. commercial

Spinach leaves:
U.S. extra No. 1
U.S. No. 1
U.S. commercial


Common PLUs:
4090 regular/bunched
3332 baby










Spinach 04.07
RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F (0 C)
Relative humidity: 95-100%
Mist: lightly
Typical shelf life: 10 to 14 days
Ethylene-sensitive (Do not store or transport ethylene-sensitive items with commodities
that produce ethylene).
Moderately sensitive to freezing injury (Able to recover from one or two light freezes).


NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for spinach: fat-free, saturated fat-free, cholesterol-free, low in calories, a
good source of fiber, high in vitamin A, high in vitamin C, high in iron, high in folate and a
good source of magnesium.





Squash 04.07

SQUASH
RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Squash should not be stacked more than four layers
deep and should be arranged so squash does not fall off
the rack.
If grouping different types of squash together, clearly label each variety. Inform
consumers about which squash is good for what purpose, and promote squashs many
uses.
Merchandise cut, over wrapped portions of squash to draw consumer interest,
especially hubbards and bananas, which usually are too big to be purchased for one or
two people.
Keep soft-shelled squash displays refrigerated, but do not place directly on ice
because it will cause chilling injury.

Placement:
Several types of squash can be grouped in orchard bins or on large tables and end
caps or grouped with other cooking vegetables according to a particular squashs use
in the home.

Promotion:
An autumn display can be created by using bushel baskets filled with different colored
squash. Add touches of bittersweet and Indian corn to increase color impact.
Squash cut into spears is popular on veggie and party trays.

FOOD SERVICE:
Summer squash is extremely watery and can make a soggy mess of a recipe. Remove
as much water as possible before cooking by blanching whole squash or salting
shredded, sliced or julienne squash.
Summer squash can be substituted for eggplant, as well as carrots, in recipes.
Larger squash can be stuffed, and smaller squash can be hollowed out for use as a
serving dish.

Equivalents:
13-12 lb. winter squash = about 1 serving
2-lb. peeled, trimmed squash = about 4 cups cooked or 4 servings
1-lb. summer squash = about 4 cups grated
1-lb. summer squash = about 2 cups salted and squeezed
1-lb. summer squash = about 312 cups sliced or chunked
1-lb. summer squash = about 114 cups mashed
1-lb. summer squash = about 3 to 4 servings

SQUASH AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Moderate year round production from California peaks during the spring
and fall with light volume available the rest of the year. Florida provides substantial fall


Squash 04.07
and winter volume. Many states along the eastern shore provide additional seasonal
(summer) supplies.
Imports: Year round production from Mexico peaks during the winter time frame with
light volume available the rest of the year. Imports from Central America add to the mix
throughout the year.
Overview: Available year round with peak domestic production coming from multiple
locations during the summer and fall.
SQUASH AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
FL
NC
SC
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
SQUASH PRODUCTION MOD
PEAK


Common Defects: Cleanness, Shape, Maturity, Firmness, Scaring, Shriveling,
Discoloration, Freeze injury, Give, Rot
SHIPPING INFO:
Summer Squash:
42-lb. bushel and 119-bushel containers
35-lb. cartons/crates
30-lb. 34-bushel cartons/crates
26-lb. cartons/lugs (California, Mexico)
21-lb. 12- or 59- containers
10-lb. 8-quart baskets/cartons

Winter Squash:
50-lb. 119-bushel cartons/crates
40-lb. cartons/crates
35-lb. cartons/crates
RPC - 6411, 6413, 6416, 6419, 6420

U.S. GRADES:
Summer Squash:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2

Fall and Winter Squash:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2



Squash 04.07



COMMON PLUs:
4750 acorn/table queen
4751 acorn, golden
4752 acorn, swan white table queen
3143 acorn, baby
4757 banana
4758 buttercup
4759 butternut
3142 carnival
3140 cucuzza
4764 dumpling (sweet)
4767 golden nugget
4768 hubbard
4769 kabacha
4773 patty pan/summer
4774 red kuri
4775 scallopini
4776 spaghetti
4777 sunburst (yellow)
4780 turban
4782 yellow, straightneck
4784 yellow, crookneck
4086 yellow zucchini/gold bar
4067 zucchini
3418 zucchini, round

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: soft, 41 to 50 F (5 to 10 C); hard, 50 to 55 F (10 to 18 C)
Relative humidity: soft, 95%; hard, 70-75%.
Mist: summer, lightly; winter, no.
Typical shelf life: soft, 7 to 14 days; hard, 30 to 180 days
Ethylene-sensitive (Do not store or transport ethylene-sensitive items with commodities
that produce ethylene).
Soft squash is highly sensitive to freezing injury (Likely to suffer injury by one light
freezing).
Hard squash is moderately susceptible to freezing injury (Able to recover from one or
two light freezings).
Susceptible to chilling injury (Damage sometimes is not apparent until the produce is
returned to a warmer temperature).
Summer squash can be held at 32 to 40 F (0 to 4.4 C) for periods of less than four
days. Use immediately after removing from refrigeration.
Table queen and delicata will keep up to one month at 50 to 55 F (10 to 12.8 C).
Scallopini squash is more perishable. Refrigerate and use promptly.
Do not can or freeze raw hard-shelled squash. However, cooked squash freezes well.
Summer squash that has been frozen will turn to mush due to high water content.
Refrigeration will change the flavor and texture of hard-shelled squash and very warm
temperatures will cause deterioration.



Squash 04.07




NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for summer squash: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free,
low in calories, and high in vitamin C. Descriptors approved for spaghetti squash are:
low-fat, saturated fat-free, very low sodium, cholesterol free and low in sodium.
Descriptors approved for crookneck squash are: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free,
cholesterol-free and low in calories.




Sweet Peppers 04.07
SWEET PEPPERS

RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Consider incorporating cauliflower and broccoli into bell pepper
displays to increase options for consumers and add color breaks.

Placement:
Bell peppers are usually displayed with salad items such as lettuce, cucumbers,
tomatoes, carrots and celery.

Promotion:
In addition to salad potential, bell peppers are a great addition to relish trays.

FOOD SERVICE:
Take advantage of smaller-sized bell peppers. Stuff them for less-filling entrees or
appetizers. Create decorative rings on platter salads by using sliced bell peppers with
sliced red onions, cucumbers and tomatoes.
Blocky and elongated peppers can be sliced for dips, crosscut for rings and diced for
taco fillings.

PEPPERS, BELL AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Production fairly steady year round with supplies available from both east
and west coast shippers.

Imports: Available from Mexico, Canada and off shore producers (Holland and
Netherlands) adding to year round supplies.

Overview: With numerous overlapping production areas supplies remain generally
steady year round.
SWEET PEPPER AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
FL
GA
NJ
NC
MEX
CAN
IMP

LIGHT
SWEET PEPPER AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK



Sweet Peppers 04.07
Common Defects: Maturity, Shape, Color, Cleanness, Scars, Insect injury, Sunburn,
Firmness, Bruise, Shriveling, Discoloration, Turning, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
Green:
35-lb. 1 -bushel cartons
30-lb. cartons/crates (Mexico)
28-lb. bushel, 119-bushel cartons/crates
28-lb. 3.56 dekaliter cartons
25-lb. cartons
11-lb. flat cartons (Netherlands)
RPC - 6411, 6413, 6416, 6419, 6420, 6423, 6425

Colored:
15-lb. cartons
25-lb. cartons
U.S. GRADES:
U.S. fancy
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2

COMMON PLUs:
4679 brown
4680 yellow
4681 green, small (medium size and smaller)
4065 green, large (large size and larger)
4682 orange
4088 red
3119 greenhouse, green, small
3120 greenhouse, green, large
4688 greenhouse, red
4689 greenhouse, yellow
3121 greenhouse, orange

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 45 to 50 F, 7.2 to 10 C
Relative humidity: 85-90%
Mist: lightly
Typical shelf life: 8 to 10 days
Ethylene-sensitive (Do not store or transport ethylene-sensitive items with commodities
that produce ethylene).
Odor producer (Do not store or transport odor-sensitive items with commodities that
produce odors. Green peppers produce odors that will be absorbed by pineapples).
Highly sensitive to freezing injury (Likely to suffer injury by one light freezing).
Susceptible to chilling injury (Damage sometimes is not apparent until produce is
returned to a warmer temperature).





Sweet Peppers 04.07


NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for bell peppers: fat-free, saturated fat-free, sodium-free, cholesterol-free,
low-calorie and high in vitamin C.





Tomatoes 04.07
TOMATOES
RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Display tomatoes no more than one layer deep and place
stem-end up to avoid bruising. Bruising can also be avoided
by displaying tomatoes on a grass or rubber mat. Avoid
dumping tomatoes on the display, as consumers buy
tomatoes based on appearance and firmness. Flavor and shelf life determine repeat
sales.
Packing tomatoes in over wrapped trays can save time weighing them at the checkout
line. Also display tomatoes in bulk.
Sold by types rather than varieties, tomatoes are field, stake or pole grown and are
described as mature-green, vine-ripe, plum or Roma, cherry, grape, greenhouse and
hydroponics. Tomatoes are available year-round with peak supplies from May to July.
Although most states grow tomatoes to some extent, Florida and California provide
the bulk of supplies.

Placement:
Displays can be either on an island or a rack.
It is important to store and display tomatoes at room temperature. Refrigeration below
55 F, 12.8 C, will damage tomatoes. Positioning tomatoes next to avocados works
well because both can be displayed un-refrigerated on a dry table.

Promotion:
Use signs to advise consumers not to refrigerate tomatoes because that will stop the
ripening process and not allow the full flavor to come through. Post signs to tell
consumers that tomatoes can be ripened at home by placing them on a counter, in a
fruit bowl or inside a brown paper bag for a few days until they are slightly soft and rich
red in color. Tomatoes should be ripened stem side up to avoid bruising. Red ripe
tomatoes will hold at room temperature for two to three days.

FOOD SERVICE:
To peel tomatoes, boil for about 30 seconds and let cool. The peels can then be easily
removed with a sharp knife. Another option is to plunge hot tomatoes into cold water
for easy peeling.
To seed tomatoes, cut in half crosswise and squeeze gently in the palm of your hand.
Do not refrigerate tomatoes until sliced. Freeze only cooked product.
Stuff tomatoes with meat or seafood salad for lunch, or serve cherry tomatoes with dip
as an appetizer or garnish.

Equivalents:
1-lb. = about 3 to 4 medium tomatoes
1-lb. = about 1 to 1 1/2 cups pulp






Tomatoes 04.07
TOMATO AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Year round production from numerous states and growing regions provide
fairly steady supplies throughout the year. California (summer/fall) and Florida
(fall/winter/spring) provide the majority of the domestic volume. Local/regional supplies
are available from numerous states during the summer and fall time frame.

Imports: Year round production from Mexico peaks during the winter months
(December-March) with light to moderate volume throughout the year. Hot house
supplies from Canada provide another option with light volume year round peaking
during the summer time frame. Light offshore supplies also add to the mix given certain
market conditions.

Overview: Supplies remain fairly steady year round with growers using shade or hot
houses to help stabilize production. The fall and spring transition periods will typically
produce lighter domestic volume. These supplies are very susceptible to weather
events (rains, winds, freezes) during growth cycles and production. All growing regions
are susceptible to these weather events and they can periodically drastically influence
supplies.
TOMATO AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
FL
VA
SC
MI
MEX
CAN
IMP

LIGHT
TOMATO AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Cleanness, Shape, Smoothness, Color, Cracks, Cat
face, scars, Sunburn, Discoloration, Sunken areas, Insect injury, Chill/freeze injury,
Mold, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
25-lb. cartons, loose 20-lb. flats/cartons
3-layer lugs 2-layer lugs

Cherry and grape:
12 1-pint baskets

Green:
10-, 20-, and 25-lb. cartons, loose
7-kilo flats, 1-layer
Plum or roma:
25-lb. cartons loose

Greenhouse:
15-lb. flats, 1-layer
7-kilo flats, 1-layer


Tomatoes 04.07

RPC - 6409, 6411, 6413, 6416, 6419, 6420, 6423, 6425, 6426



U.S. GRADES:
Fresh tomatoes:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. combination
U.S. No. 2U.S. No. 3
Greenhouse:
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2


COMMON PLUs:
3061 beefsteak
4063 small, 6x6 size and smaller
4064 large, 5x6 size and larger
4796 cherry, red
4797 cherry, yellow
3146 cherry, on the vine
3147 cherry, yellow, on the vine
3150 cocktail/intermediate, red
3335 cocktail/intermediate, red, on the
vine
3336 cocktail/intermediate,
plum/Italian/saladette/roma, on the vine
4798 greenhouse/hydroponic, small
4799 greenhouse/hyrdoponic, large
4087 plum/Italian/saladette/roma, red
3145 plum/Italian/saladette/roma,
yellow
3282 plum/Italian/saladette/roma, on
the vine
4805 vineripe, small (6x6 and smaller)
3151 vine-ripe, large (5x6 and larger)
4778 yellow
3148 yellow, on the vine
4664 on the vine
4803 teardrop/pear
4804 teardrop/pear, yellow

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: mature-green or pink, 62 to 68 F, 16.7 to 20.16 C.
Relative humidity: 85-88%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: mature-green 21 to 28 days; pink, 7 to 14 days.
Do not refrigerate.
Highly sensitive to freezing injury. (Likely to suffer injury by one light freezing).
Susceptible to chilling injury (Damage sometimes is not apparent until produce is
returned to a warmer temperature. At temperatures below 55 F, 12.8 C, tomatoes are
subject to chill injury and lose flavor quickly).
Never stack more than two layers high, and keep product stem up to protect tomato
shoulders.
Because most tomatoes are picked mature but not totally ripe, they will continue ripening
in transit. Tomatoes produce ethylene, a hormone that stimulates ripening. If tomatoes
have not reached the appropriate color by the time they reach the local distribution
center, their ripening process will speed up.
Ethylene treatment applied at shipping point starts the ripening process and assures
more uniformly ripe fruit upon arrival at the destination point and shortens the period
between harvest and display, therefore maintaining a higher degree of vitamin C.




Tomatoes 04.07



NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for tomatoes: low-fat, saturated fat-free, sodium-free (must state that
tomatoes contain less than 5 mg sodium per 85 g tomato), cholesterol-free, low in
calories, a good source of vitamin A and high in vitamin C.



Turnips 04.07
TURNIPS


RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Turnips are usually displayed topped and in bulk.

Placement:
Turnips should be refrigerated.

Promotion:
Because turnips are a good ingredient in stews and soups, they tie in well with cooking
vegetables such as carrots and tomatoes.

FOOD SERVICE:
Once cubed, sliced, or in stick form, turnips can add appeal to salads, salad bars, and
veggie trays.

TURNIP AVAILABILITY: Available year round.

Domestic: Year round production from California shifts seasonally beginning in the
southwest Desert growing region during winter production moving north as the season
progresses. New Jersey adds ample volume to the mix during the late summer and fall
production period. Many other states will have local or regional supplies during this time
period.

Imports: Canada provides supplies year round with peak volume during the late
summer and fall.

Overview: Supplies remain fairly steady year round with the various growing regions
minus any severe weather. Hot temperatures during the spring and summer months can
stunt growth rates lessening overall volume, especially on larger sized turnips.

TURNIP AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
NJ
Other
IMP

LIGHT
TURNIP AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK


Common Defects: Shape, Smoothness, Firmness, Cleanliness, Color, Trim, Cracks,
Insect injury, Wilt, Broken, Freeze injury, Mold, Rot



Turnips 04.07
SHIPPING INFO:
50-lb. bushel baskets/sacks
40-lb. cartons, bunched
25-lb. 12-bushel baskets/cartons/crates, film/mesh bags
20-lb. cartons, bunched 12-count
RPC - 6416, 6419, 6420, 6423, 6425, 6426

Consumer Packs:
1- to 3-lb. film bags

U.S. GRADES:
Bunched, topped and short-trimmed
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2

COMMON PLUs:
4809 baby
4810 bunch/banded
4811 purple top
4812 white
4095 yellow

RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 32 F, 0 C
Relative humidity: 90-95%
Mist: yes
Typical shelf life: about four months.
Somewhat sensitive to freezing injury (Can be lightly frozen several times without
sustaining serious damage).
Turnips need good air circulation while in storage.

NUTRITION:
A 3.5 oz. serving has 23 calories and contains 35% of the U.S. Recommended Daily
Allowance of vitamin C.


Watermelon 04.07

WATERMELON


RETAIL:
Merchandising:
Watermelons red color is caused by lycopene, a
carotenoid pigment that researchers believe is a powerful
antioxidant that helps fight cancer and other diseases.
Make customers aware of this health benefit.
Fresh-cut watermelon sold by the piece can be displayed on ice for an eye-catcher, as
can overwrapping watermelon boats containing a variety of other fruits, too. Packaging
fresh-cut watermelon with a fork will appeal to lunch crowds. So will fruit kabobs
including watermelon.
Offering seedless and yellow-flesh watermelons in chunks makes it easier for shoppers
to identify types, as do stickers denoting seedless varieties. Sampling sessions also
promote familiarity with the product.
When displaying the whole watermelon, be sure to brace the bottom layer thoroughly
to avoid a melon avalanche. Rotate regularly and label each melon by weight when
selling by the pound.
According to the National Watermelon Promotion Board, stores using high graphic bins
report an average increase in sales of 68%.

Placement:
Bin displays of watermelon usually occupy the departments center in peak times.
Watermelon bins can also be positioned outside the stores front entrance. Studies
show that placing watermelon bins next to fresh-cut displays increases sales of both
whole and cut watermelon.

Promotion:
Tent or truckload sales during summertime holiday weekends are a magnet to
shoppers.
Build a display around a picnic theme and promote watermelon as a snack item as well
as a convenient picnic item.
Inform consumers that leftover watermelon can be refrigerated in an airtight container
for more than a week.

FOOD SERVICE:
Always serve chilled because cooking watermelon will reduce the sweetness. Frozen
watermelon cubes or chunks can be used like ice cubes in beverages, but dont freeze
watermelon if planning to serve it thawed.
Watermelon will disintegrate if chopped too finely.
Watermelon can be carved into a boat or basket for decoration or as a serving dish.

Equivalents:
20-lb. melon = about 138 -inch sliced wedges
20-lb. melon = about 90 -inch sliced wedges
30-lb. melon = about 19 -inch sliced wedges


Watermelon 04.07

WATERMELON AVAILABILITY: Available year round

Domestic: Domestic production from the Southwest Desert growing regions of
California and Arizona begins in the spring transitioning to Central California for summer
and early fall supplies. Production from Texas parallels California with peak production
during the summer months. Florida provides substantial volume during the spring and
early summer time frame. Production resumes with light volume during the fall and
winter. Numerous other states will have local or regional supplies during the summer.

Imports: Production from Mexico runs from October into June with peak supplies
during the spring months of March, April and May. Imports from Central America are
available during the winter and spring.

Overview: Supplies are generally available year round. Seasonal fluctuations during
the numerous transitions as well as between domestic and imported production
(October-December, February-March) will typically produce light supplies. Production
can be influenced by weather events in the various growing regions. Excessive heat,
untimely rains and strong winds can all influence supplies and production. The summer
months of June through September will generally provide best volume and quality.


WATERMELON AVAILABILITY
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
CA
AZ
TX
FL
Other
MEX
IMP

LIGHT
WATERMELON AVAILABILITY MOD
PEAK

Common Defects: Maturity, Shape, Firmness, Internal quality, Scarring, Sunburn,
Sunken areas, Discoloration, Bruise, Ground spot, Pitting, Chill injury, Rot

SHIPPING INFO:
45,000-lb. bulk
1,050-lb. bins
85-lb. cartons, various counts
65-lb. cartons (seedless)
35-lb. cartons (mickey lee)
24-, 30-, and 36-inch bins

RPC not available




Watermelon 04.07

U.S. GRADES:
United States
U.S. fancy
U.S. No. 1
U.S. No. 2

COMMON PLUs:
4031 regular
4032 regular, seedless
4340 yellow
4341 yellow, seedless
3308 orange
3281 orange, seedless
3421 mini seedless (3-7 lbs.)


RECEIVING AND HANDLING:
Temperature: 50 to 60 F, 10 to15.6 C. At 50 F, 10 C or lower, watermelons lose color.
At 60 F,
15.6 C or higher they decay.
Relative humidity: 90%
Mist: no
Typical shelf life: 14 to 21 days
Ethylene-sensitive (Do not store or transport with ethylene-producing commodities.)
Susceptible to chilling injury (Damage sometimes is not apparent until produce is
returned to a warmer temperature. At temperatures of 32-50 F, 0-10 C, watermelons
are subject to chill injury.) After one week at 32 F, 0 C, they will develop an off-flavor
and become pitted.
For about a week, holding watermelons at room temperature can improve flavor and
coloring, and can be held for up to three weeks at 50 to 60 F, 10 to 15.6 C, but it is
best to sell quickly. When stored at warmer temperatures, color will deepen.
Once picked, watermelon sugar content does not increase.

NUTRITION:
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the following nutrient content
descriptors for watermelons: fat-free, saturated fat-free, very low sodium, cholesterol-
free, a good source of vitamin A and high in vitamin C.


Glossary 04.07
GLOSSARY



DRY CELL: A cell in which the electrolyte exists in the form of a paste, is
absorbed in a porous medium, or is otherwise restrained
from flowing.

FREESTONE: A fruit, especially a peach, that has a stone that does not
adhere to the pulp.

GROWTH CRACK: Horizontal separation (crack) of mid rip on head affecting not
more than two cap leaves. Caused by a rapid growth spurt
i.e. warm temperatures, heat, fertilizer, water.

LENTICEL: One of the small, corky pores or narrow lines on the surface
of the stems of woody plants that allow the interchange of
gases between the interior tissue and the surrounding air.

PANTOTHENATE: A salt or ester of pantothenic acid.

PIQUANT: Having a flavor, taste, or smell that is spicy or salty, often
with a slightly tart or bitter edge to it.

PITH: The important or essential part of something, essence, core,
heart.

RIBBON BURN: Brown discoloration along internal leaf edges in various
stages of breakdown. Allows entrance for bacteria and
pathogens, which can cause decay.

RICE: Curd appears uneven and fuzzy (ricey) as floral parts rapidly
grow up through head. Brought on by warm temps during
curd development.

ROBUST: Uncompromising and forceful, not subtle; sturdy or resilient;
strong and healthy.

RUSSETING: A brownish, roughened area on a fruit, resulting from
diseases, insects, or spraying.

SPREAD: Spread or separation of the curd or crown.




Glossary 04.07

SUN DISCOLORATION: Discoloration of curd or cap due to direct sun
exposure.

TIP BURN: Edges of internal leaves are brown and discolored.
Provides an entry site for rot-producing organisms.
Many contributing factors include moisture, heat,
nutrient deficiency, and sudden water stress.

WEAK TIP: Beginning of, or very light stages of tip burn

WIND BURN: Discoloring of leaf edges. Leaves appear tattered
and torn.

YELLOW FRINGE: Yellowing of leaf edges/tips usually associated with
fertilizer burn (too much fertilizer) or soil compaction
associated with heavy rains.