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cannot be solved analytically except in special cases. To obtain an approximate solution numerically, we have to use a discretization method, which approximates the differential equations by a system of algebraic equations, which can then be solved on a computer. The approximations are applied to small domains in space and/or time so the numerical solution provides results at discrete locations in space and time. Much as the accuracy of experimental data depends on the quality of the tools used, the accuracy of numerical solutions is dependent on the quality of discretisations used. 2. Possibilities and limitations of Numerical Methods. If we want to simulate the flow around a moving car in a wind tunnel, we need to fix the car model and blow air at it-but the floor has to move at the air speed, which is difficult to do. It is not difficult to do in a numerical simulation. If we solve the unsteady threedimensional Navier-Stokes equations accurately (as in direct simulation of turbulence), we obtain a complete data set from which any quantity of physical significance can be derived. The advantages of CFD are conditional on being able to solve the Navier-Stokes equations accurately, which is extremely difficult for most flows of engineering interest (in particular for high Reynolds number flows). If we are unable to obtain accurate solutions for all flows, we have to determine what we can produce and learn to analyse and judge the results. Numerical results are always approximate and the errors arise from each part of the process used to produce numerical solutions due to : (a) The differential equations may contain approximations or idealizations. (b) Approximations are made in the discretisation process. (c) In solving the discretised equations, iterative methods are used. Unless they are run for a very long time, the exact solution of the discretized equations is not produced. 3. When the governing equations are known accurately (e.g., the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible Newtonian fluids), solutions of any desired accuracy can be achieved in principle. However for may phenomena (e.g. turbulence, combustion, and multiphase flow) the exact equations are either not available or numerical solution is not feasible. This makes introduction of models a necessity. In order to validate the models, we have to rely on experimental data. Even when the exact treatment is possible, models are often needed to reduce the cost. Components of a Numerical Solution Method 4. Mathematical Model. The starting point of any numerical method is the mathematical model, i.e., the set of partial differential or integro-differential equations and boundary conditions. The model is chosen appropriate to the target application and may include simplifications of the exact conservation laws. A solution method is usually designed for a particular set of equations. 1.

5. Discretisation Method. After selecting the mathematical model, one has to choose a suitable discretisation method, i.e., a method of approximating the differential equations by a system of algebraic equations for the variables at some set of discrete locations in space and time. There are many approaches most important of which are: (a) Finite Difference (FD) (b) Finite Volume (FV) and (c) Finite Element (FE) Methods. Other methods, like spectral schemes, boundary element methods, and cellular automata are used in CFD but limited to special classes of problems. 6. Coordinate and Basis Vector Systems. The conservation equations can be written in many different forms, depending on the coordinate system and the basis vectors used. For example we can select Cartesian, cylindrical, spherical, curvilinear orthogonal or non-orthogonal coordinate systems, which may be fixed or moving. The choice depends on the target flow, and may influence the discretisation method and grid type to be used. One has to select the basis in which vectors and tensors will be defined (fixed or variable, covariant or contravariant, etc). Depending on this choice, the velocity vector and stress tensor can be expressed in terms of e.g., Cartesian, covariant or contravariant, physical or non-physical coordinate-oriented components. 7. Numerical Grid. The discrete locations at which the variables are to be calculated are defined by the numerical grid which is essentially a discrete representation of the geometric domain on which the problem is to be solved. It divides the solution domain into a finite number of subdomains (elements, control volumes etc.). Some of the options available are the following: (a) Structured (regular) Grid. Regular or structured grids consist of families of grid lines with the property that members of a single family do not cross each other and cross each member of the other families only once. This allows the lines of a given set to be numbered consecutively. The position of any grid point (or control volume) within the domain is uniquely identified by a set of two (in 2D) or three (3D) indices e.g., (i,j,k). (i) The disadvantage of structured grids is that they can be used only for geometrically simple solution domains. Another disadvantage is that it may be difficult to control the distributions of the grid points: concentration of points in one region for reasons of accuracy produces unnecessarily small spacing in other parts of the solution domain and a waste of resources. This problem is exaggerated in 3D problems. (ii) Structured grids may be of H-, O-, or C-type; the names are derived from the shapes of the grid lines. (b) Block-Structured Grid. In a block structured grid, there is a two (or more) level subdivision of solution domain. On the coarse level, there are blocks which are relatively large segments of the domain; their structure may be irregular and they may or may not overlap. On the fine level (within each block) a structured grid is defined. This kind of grid is more flexible than the previous

ones, as it allows use of finer grids in regions, where greater resolution is required. The non-matching interface can be treated in a fully conservative manner. The programming is more difficult. Solvers for structured grids can be applied block-wise. (c) Block-structured grids with overlapping blocks are sometimes called composite or Chimera grids. In the overlap region, boundary conditions for one block are obtained by interpolating the solution from the other (overlapped) block. The disadvantage of these grids is that conservation is not easily enforced at block boundaries. The advantages of this approach are that complex domains are dealt with more easily and it can be used to follow moving bodies: one block is attached to the body and moves with it , while a stagnant grid covers the surroundings. This type is not often used. (d) Unstructured Grids. For very complex geometries, the most flexible type of grid is one which can fit an arbitrary solution domain boundary. In principle, such grids could be used with any discretisation scheme, but they are best adapted to the finite volume and finite element approaches. The elements or control volumes may have any shape; nor is there a restriction on the number of neighbor elements or nodes. Computer codes for unstructured grids are more flexible. They need not be changed when the grid is locally refined, or when elements or control volumes of different shapes are used. However, grid generation and preprocessing are usually much more difficult. 8. Finite Approximations. Following the choice of grid type, one has to select the approximations to be used in the discretisation process. In a finite difference method, approximations for the derivatives at the grid points have to be selected. In a finite volume method, one has to select the methods of approximating surface and volume integrals. In a finite element method, one has to choose the shape functions (elements) and weighting functions. 9. Solution Method. Discretisation yields a large system of non-linear algebraic equations. The method of solution depends on the problem. For unsteady flows, methods based on those used for initial value problems for ordinary differential equations (marching in time) are used. At each time step an elliptic problem has to be solved. Steady flow problems are usually solved by pseudo-time marching or an equivalent iteration scheme. Since the equations are non-linear, an iteration scheme is used to solve them. These methods use successive linearisation of the equations and the resulting linear systems are almost always solved by iterative techniques. The choice of solver depends on the grid type and the number of nodes involved in each algebraic equation. 10. Convergence Criteria. Finally, one needs to set the convergence criteria for the iterative method. Usually, there are two levels of iterations: inner iterations, within which the linear equation are solved, and outer iterations, that del with the non linearity and coupling of the equations. Deciding when to stop the iterative process on each level is important, from both accuracy and efficiency points of view.

Properties of Numerical Solution Methods 11. The solution method should have certain properties. In most cases, it is not possible to analyse the complete solution method. One analyses the components of the method; if the components do not possess the desired properties, neither will the complete method but the reverse is not necessarily true. The most important properties are: (a) Consistency. The discretisation should become exact as the grid spacing tends to zero. The difference between the discretised equation and the exact one is called the truncation error. For a method to be consistent, the truncation error must become zero when the mesh spacing Δt →0 and/or Δxi →0. Truncation error is usually proportional to a power of the grid spacing Δxi and or the time step Δt. (b) Stability. A numerical solution method is said to be stable if it does not magnify the errors that appear in the course of numerical solution process. The most widely used approach to studying stability of numerical schemes is the von Neumann’s method. (c) Convergence. A numerical method is said to be convergent if the solution of the discretized equations tends to the exact solution of the differential equation as the grid spacing tends to zero. (d) Conservation. Since the equations to be solved are conservation laws, the numerical scheme should also-on both a local and a global basis-respect these laws. (e) Boundedness. Numerical solutions should lie within proper bounds. Physically non negative quantities like density, kinetic energy of turbulence must always be positive. (f) Realisability. Models of phenomena which are too complex to treat directly (for e.g., turbulence, combustion, or multiphase flow) should be designed to guarantee physically realistic solutions. (g) Accuracy. Numerical solutions of fluid flow and heat transfer problems are only approximate solutions. They may further include three kinds of systematic errors: (i) Modeling errors, which are defined as the difference between the actual flow and the exact solution of the mathematical model, (ii) Discretisation errors, defined as the difference between the exact solution of the conservation equations and the exact solution of the algebraic system of equations obtained by discretizing these equations, and (iii) Iteration errors or convergence errors, defined as the difference between the iterative and exact solutions of the algebraic equation systems.

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UsefulNot usefulA simplified elaboration of the book by fersiger peric

A simplified elaboration of the book by fersiger peric

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