3

Cuvânt înainte

Lucrarea de faţă este un material necesar studenţilor şi tututror celor
interesaţi de a studia limba engleză pentru domenii specifice şi este structurată
în capitole, fiecare dintre ele conţinând subcapitole privind vocabularul
specific, exerciţii, probleme de gramatică, texte în domeniu. Anexele (teste de
evaluare, vocabular englez-român şi lista verbelor neregulate) sunt materiale
care completează această lucrare de real folos studenţilor. Bibliografia
cuprinde titlurile esenţiale pentru un astfel de demers ştiinţific.
Lucrarea are drept scop reîmprospătarea cunoştinţelor de limbă
engleză dobândite anterior şi reprezintă un material de lucru util pentru
studenţii care se află la un nivel mediu sau avansat în însuşirea limbii engleze
prin studiu individual sau în cadru organizat, sub îndrumarea profesorului.
Autorii












4

Unit I
Accounting (1)

Whereas the French accounting was initially geared to administrative and
fiscal requirements, Anglo-Saxon accounting, especially in the U.S., aims
mainly at informing shareholders and investors about the economic situation
of the firm.

Another difference is that there does not exit in Britain or the U.S. a detailed
“accounting plan” similar to the French one. This, however, should not be
constructed as evidence that the Anglo-Saxon accounting is less precise and
strict than French accounting itself.

The prevailing norms and rules edicted by official bodies or the profession
(Institute of Chartered Accountants in Britain; American Institute of
certified Public Accountants in the U.S.) are quite as stringent, and the
practice of auditors quite as formal and reliable.
All accounts and financial statements should be presented in conformity with
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP), which are as follows.
• •• • Going concern (continuarea exploatării):
The basic assumption that the concern has no intention or obligation to
liquidate or curtail operations.
• •• • True and fair view, or air presentation (fidelitatea conturilor sau
corectitudinea conturilor; imagine fidelă):
The word “fair“ goes beyond the simple notion of accuracy, since accounts
may be accurate while concealing some facts or failing to disclose some
aspects of a firm’s economic and financial position.
• •• • Prudence (prudenţă):
Caution and circumspection, so that there should not be any extrapolation, or
over – or under – estimation of results.
In particular, only profits realized at the date of financial statements should be
included, and losses which have arisen, or are likely to arise in respect of the
financial year concerned, should be mentioned.
• •• • Consistency (principiul consecvenţei; principiul permanenţei
metodelor):
This implies that similar operations should be dealt with in the same manner
(consistency) from fiscal year to fiscal year.
• •• • Matching principle (principiul armonizării costurilor şi veniturilor din
aceeaşi perioadă):
5
Charges and revenues must be correctly matched with the accounting periods
to which they belong.
• •• • Historical cost (costul istoric): Recording assets in the books at their
initial cost, at the time of acquisition, as opposed to replacement cost.
• •• • Accruals basis (principiul de anualitate; contabilitatea bazată pe
angajamente):
This means taking into account income and expenses when earned and
incurred (commitments) regardless of cash is actually received or disbursed.
• •• • Materiality (importanţă relativă)
An item should be regarded as material if there is reason to believe that
knowledge of it would influence the decision of an informed investor.
In the event of any departure from the above principles, the reasons for it and
its effects on the accounts must be set out clearly in the notes to the financial
statement (there are often numerous notes to a balance sheet).

Today, given the multiplication of international operations, mergers, takeovers
and consolidations involving companies of different nationalities – and the
interlocking structure of multinationals- there is a strong movement towards
the homogenization of accounting practices, and the profession is active in
promoting this trend through its international norm- and standard – setting
institutes.
The European Union is also issuing directives for the harmonization of
Company Law.

Vocabulary Practice I
Accounts, accounting, accountancy (conturi, contabilitate) - The three
words may sometimes be synonymous (Accounts Department, Accounting
Department, Accountancy Department) but, of course, accounts corresponds
to the statements or book entries themselves, accounting to the methods and
procedures and accountancy to the profession itself.

Other accounting terms
Assets (activ, e) - Is used in the plural to denote the assets (activele), in a
balance sheet, in the singular to denote one specific item (un activ).
Bookkeeper (funcţionar contabil) - Clerk in charge recording business
transactions and entering them in the accounts books, but nor a chartered or
certified public accountant.
Bottom line (linia de rezultat net) - The last line of an income statement, that
indicates the net results (profit or loss) of the firm. In ordinary parlance, it has
come to mean the end result, the last word on something.
6
Break-even point (prag de rentabilitate) - The break-even point is the point
at which the margin from the sales is sufficient to cover a firm’s expenses
without either profit or loss.
Cashflow (flux de numerar) - This term used in capital budgeting represents
the cash coming in less cash going out during a given period.
- Pre-tax cashflow is the sum of pre-tax profits (profits before tax) and
depreciation allowances plus certain reserves.
- Net cashflow is the sum of after-profit and depreciation allowances plus
certain reserves.
Earnings report: income statement (declaraţie de venituri) - The British still
use the phrase Profit and Loss accounts (P&L).
Fixed cost/expenses … variable costs/expenses (costuri fixe ... costuri
variabile)
Gross profit (or Gross margin or margin) (profit brut, marjă brută)
Net profit or income (profit net)
Notes to the account (anexă la bilant)
Overhead expenses (or overhead) (cheltuieli generale )
Price – earning ratio (P.E.R.) (coeficient de capitalizare a rezultatelor)
It is calculated as follows:
market price____
earning per share
Profit and revenues
Profit and revenues (revenue = gains – venituri din schimb valutar; earnings:
beneficiu net; Income şi Profit sunt termeni generali). Profit represents the
income that a business has earned after certain deductions have been made
from revenues. Revenue is one component that permits the recognition of
profit.
Provisions (provizioane)
Turnover (cifră de afaceri)
Working capital / operating capital (fond de rulment)



Vocabulary Practice II

accounts
payable
(receivable)
conturi de
plăţi
(de încasat)
intangibles active
necorporale
accrued
dividends
dividente
acumulate
inventory a)stocuri;
b)inventar.
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accrued
interest
dobândă
intermediară
acumulată
irredeemable Nerambursa-
bil
act as
principal (to)
a acţiona pe
cont propriu
issue price preţ de
emisiune
advanced
payment
plată
anticipată
ledger registru
contabil
balance sheet bilanţ liabilities pasiv; datorii
bearer
security
titlu la
purtător
lien drept de
sechestru
break-even
point
prag de
rentabilitate
merge (to) a fuziona
call loan Împrumut
rambursabil
la cerere

nominee candidat
propus;
persoană
propusă
call price preţ de
răscumpărare
operating
capital
Fond de
rulment
capital gains
tax
impozit de
plus valoare
outflow scurgere de
capital
collection
charges
taxe;
recuperare;
încasare
overheads cheltuieli
generale
call loan împrumut
rambursabil
la cerere
prepaid plătit în
avans
common stock acţiune
ordinară
ready money bani lichizi
CPA(Certified
Public
Accountant)
(US)

expert
contabil

receivables

creanţe
current assets active
circulante;
active curente

redeemable

rambursabil
due date data
scadenţei
seed money capital iniţial
equity capital active reale;
resurse
proprii
statement declaraţie
fall due a fi scadent;
a ajunge la
scadenţă
venture întreprindere
societate

Groups of words expressing time:
Every two minutes - din două în două minute
(days, months etc.) ( zile, luni etc.)
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now and then - când si când
from now on - de acum înainte
in the same time - în acelaşi timp
within this week - în limita acestei săptămâni
(month, year etc) (lună, an, etc.)
all of a sudden - dintrodată
all the year round - tot anul
all day long - toată ziua
plenty of time - o mulţime de timp
spare time - timp liber (prin economisirea lui)
free time - timp liber (prin îngăduinţa cuiva)
in due time - la timpul fixat
for a while - pentru un răstimp
for a long time - timp îndelungat
short time after - puţin dupa aceea
in the course of time - în cursul timpului
all this time - în tot acest timp
after some time - după oarecare timp
from time to time - din când în când
for the time being - deocamdată
to spend one’s time - a-şi petrece timpul
years ago - cu ani în urmă
after some time - după oarecare timp
the right time - ora exactă
at the last moment - în ultima clipă
in no time, presently - imediat
today a wee- de azi într-o săptămână
without delay - fără întârziere
how many times? - de câte ori ?
in the course of time - în cursul timpului


Test
1. The generally accepted method of valuation of the… is cost of market.
a) repertory
b) inventory
c) joint-stock
d) warehouse
2. Mining and oil companies set up… reserves to compensate for the natural
wealth the company no longer owns.
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a) depression
b) repletion
c) depletion
d) completion
3. As it would not be reasonable to charge off the full expenditure in the
present year, the cost incurred will gradually… over the next few years.
a) written
b) written in
c) written away
d) written off
4. Bondholders have a claim or… before other creditors on such assets as may
be sold.
a) lien
b) link
c) proceed
d) slip
5. A stock is said to have high leverage if the company that issued it has a
large proportion of… outstanding in relation to the amount of common stock.
a) ordinary shares
b) bonds and preferred stock
c)fixed assets
d) blue chips
6. The decline in useful value of a fixed asset due to wear and tear from use
and passage of time is called…
a) dereliction
b) disparagement
c) redemption
d) depreciation
7. Common stock is a synonym for…
a) ordinary shares
b) government bonds
c) bearer shares
d) inventories on hand
8. The first item on the liability side of a balance sheet is usually…
a) immediate liabilities
b) current liabilities
c) current debts
d) direct liabilities
9. The point at which volume of sales or production enables an enterprise to
cover related costs and expenses without profit and without losses is the…
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a) breakdown point
b) dead-end
c) breakaway point
d) break-even point
10. The part of authorized capital already contributed by the company’s
shareholders constitutes the…
a) paid up capital
b) called up capital
c) issued capital
d) registered capital
11. This entry should have been transferred from the day book to the….
a) directory
b) wager
c) ledger
d) badger
12. Many firms draw up a … at the end of each month with a view to testing
the accuracy of their accounting.
a) control balance
b) controlling balance
c) trial balance
d) checking balance
13. C.P.C. stands for…
a) Certified Public Accountant (US)
b) Certified Public Accountant (GB)
c) Controller of Programs Achievements
d) Costs Programming and Accounting
14. Accrued interest means…
a) the interest is earned since last settlement date but not yet due or
payable
b) additional interest
c) increased interest
d) an additional interest yielded by external sources to be paid separately

Key to the test:
1.b; 2.c; 3.d; 4.a; 5.b; 6.d; 7.a; 8.b; 9.d; 10.a; 11.c; 12.c; 13a;14.a.

Key sentences . Read and translate:
1. We draw up each invoice in triplicate.
2. It would be worth your while to have your tax-return drawn-up by a tax
consultant (adviser).
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3. I am not sure I can translate such expressions as single or double entry
bookkeeping, straight line depreciation or on a reducing balance, fair wear
and tear, balance brought forward, etc.
4. Ask the chief accountant whether he has received their transfer of funds.
5. We have checked all the entries without discovering a single error.
6. He has a lot of experience on bookkeeping and currently attends a course
on corporate accounting.
7. What tax deductions are we entitled to?
8. The retiring (outgoing) auditors have been re-elected (reappointed).
9. The working capital is obtained by subtracting current liabilities from
current assets.
10. The Profit and Loss Account (Income Statement, Earning Report) shows a
net profit of $ 365,000.
11. Fixed assets (tied up capital) include(s) notably land, buildings, machinery
and vehicles (trucks).
12. The parent company owns more than 60% of the assts of the subsidiary
(of the subsidiary’s assets).
13. Net operating profit equals gross profit on sales minus total operating
expenses.
14. Please find enclosed the statement of your account as of May 5
th
, showing
a credit balance of $ 86.
15. The balance sheet is a detailed statement at a given date giving
information about the financial status and solvency of the firm.
16. I am familiar with both long-term and short-term financing operations.
17. There is not enough money coming in (revenue is insufficient) to cover
expenses falling due at the end of the quarter.
18. I wonder how long they will manage to stave off bankruptcy.
19. The error must have been made when the item was posted to the ledger.
20. These expenses will be written off over a period of several years.
21. How much working capital do they operate with?
22. How much do the loans from the parent company amount to?
23. Our junior accountant has erroneously entered this expense in the 2004
income statement.
24. The auditors had certified the accounts, although we know that they had
been falsified.
25. In an Anglo-Saxon balance sheet, assets are listed in a decreasing order of
liquidity/from the most liquid to the least liquid.



12
Accounting (2)

Regulating acts and bodies
Great Britain
* The Companies Acts of 1948 and 1985
* The Inland Revenue (fiscul)
* The Securities and Investments Board (S.I.B.)
* The profession: The Institute of Chartered Accountants (I.C.A.)
* The Financial Standards Board (F.S.B.) that issues statement of Standard
Accounting Practice (SSAP)

United States
* Federal and State Corporate Laws
* The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) (fiscul)
* The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
* The profession: The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants
(AICPA)
* The financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) that issues statements
of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS)
** An international committee representing the profession, the IASC
(International Accounting Standards Committee) issues recommendations
with a view to homogenizing international practices.

Focus on grammar

The Use of Articles in English
The Definite Article – the
It is always used before a noun;
It has the same form for the masculine or feminine, singular or plural;
Use: 1. to refer to nouns that have already been mentioned:
We visited a company in the UK. The company was based in Bath.
2. when it is obvious what particular thing is being referred to:
The suggestions she made in her report were highly relevant.
3. to refer to organizations:
The police; the army; the Fire Brigade.
4. to refer to unique organizations:
The European Union; The World Bank; The Stock Exchange; The
British Council.
5. with abbreviations that have to be pronounced as single letters: The
BBC; The EU.
13

The in geography:
- chain of mountains e.g. the Carpathians; the Alps ( but not peaks, e.g Mount
Everest);
- hills e.g. the Kentish Hills;
- gorges e.g. the Bicaz Gorges;
- canyons e.g. the Grand canyon;
- plains e.g. the Great Plains;
- valleys e.g. the Sun Valley;
- rivers (but not lakes) e.g.. the Danube; the Mississippi; Lake Michigan;
- seas and oceans e.g. the Black Sea; the Atlantic Ocean;
- channels ( canals for those created by man)
e.g. the English Channel; the Suez Canal; the Panama Canal;
- bays e.g. the Bay of Biscay (but not harbours; e.g. New York Harbour);
- islands (only in the plural) e.g. the Hebrides;
- deserts e.g. the Sahara;

** The is not used before:
- continents e.g. Europe, Australia;
- countries and states e.g. Romania, Canada, France;
- counties e.g. Transylvania, Moldavia;
- cities e.g. Bucharest, Rome, Paris;
Exceptions: the Argentina; the Congo; the Sudan; the United States; the
Hague

The in different other situations:
- before some proper nouns showing:
* a family: e.g. The are our new neighbours.
* a ship: e.g. The Queen Mary was an old ship.
* a newspaper: e.g. The Times was his favourite newspaper
* an important building e.g. the British Museum; the Intercontinental Hotel
- before a unique noun: the Earth, the Moon, the public
- before a noun showing an idea:
e.g. the good; the beautiful;

The indefinite article: A /An
Use :
1. before a singular noun which is countable;
Example: I need a visa.
2. when the noun is mentioned for the first time;
14
Example: He bought a computer.
3 . when the noun represents no particular person or thing;
Example: They work in an office.
4. when the noun is used as an example of a class of things;
Example: A car must be insured.
5. before a noun showing nationality (used only for the singular) ;
Example: Thomas is an American pilot.
Sylvie is a French singer.
Natalia is a Russian.
6. before a noun showing a profession (used only for the singular);
Example: I am a teacher.
Nick is a driver.
She is an accountant.

A / An is always placed after:
- such - atât de ; e.g. Such a pretty girl!
-what - ce ; e.g. What a good car!
- half - jumătate ; e.g. half an hour;
- quite - cât se poate de; e.g. quite a nice song;
- rather - destul de; e.g. rather an expensive lunch;
- without - fără; e.g. without a mistake;
- a noun accompanied by /an adjective preceded by
so – atât de , as – tot atât de; too – prea; how – cât de
e.g. So witty a writer. He has as clever a dog as you have.
e.g. It’s too poor a market
e.g. How beautiful a photo!

Groups of words including the indefinite article A / An :
a lot of - mult, mulţi;
a little more - puţin mai mult;
a great many friends - mulţi prieteni;
of a size - de aceeaşi măsură;
twice a day , a month etc. - de două ori pe zi , pe lună etc;
two hundred an hour - două sute pe oră;
seventy miles an hour - şaptezeci de mile pe oră;
to have a care - a se îngriji;
to take a fancy - a urma o fantezie, un chef de
ceva;
at a blow - dintr-o lovitură;
to keep an eye on - a supraveghea;
15
for a time - pentru un timp;
two at a time - doi în acelaşi timp;
all of a sudden - deodată;
it is a pity - e păcat;
in a hurry - în grabă;
at a loss - în încurcătură;
for a change - pentru schimbare;
for a while - pentru un răstimp;
at a speed of - la viteza de;
for a short / long time - pentru scurt / lung timp;
as a result - ca rezultat;
as a matter of fact - de fapt;
to have a good time - a petrece bine;
to take a rest - a se odihni;
to go for a walk - a se plimba.

Articles are not used in the following situations:
1. before plural countable nouns in general contexts;
e.g. Shareholders are invited to express their opinion.
2. before uncountable nouns;
e.g. There is sugar on the table.
3. before names of meals;
e.g. We have breakfast at nine.
We were all invited to dinner.
4. before nouns denoting seasons, months of the year, days of the week;
e.g. spring , March , Monday , etc.
5. before nouns denoting ideas , abstract nouns;
e.g. We struggle for happiness.
Life is wonderful.
6. before nouns denoting names of materials, substances ;
e.g. Chalk is white.
7. before names given to languages and studying objects ;
e.g. English is easy.
I am learning Geography with much pleasure.
This year they are studying German, too.
8. before nouns denoting colours;
e.g. Blue is my favourite colour.

Notice that all these nouns use the before them if they are determined and
if there is a certain specification mentioned:
16
e.g. Do you remember the Sunday we spent in the woods ?
The happiness we struggle for is not to be found easily.
The chalk I got is not hard enough.
The blue I prefer is the light blue of the sky.
The dinner he is looking forward to is going to be at 8 o’clock.
The English you know is quite good.

Groups of words without article:
at down - în zori;
by heart - pe de rost;
at noon - la prânz;
from morning till night - de dimineaţa pâna noaptea;
at sunset - la apusul soarelui;
from top to bottom - de sus şi până jos;
at night - la vreme de noapte;
in bed - în pat (cu v. to lie);
at home- acasă;
in debt - în situaţie de datornic;
at school - la şcoală;
in doubt - în stare de dubiu;
at table - la masă;
in love - îndrăgostit, -ă;
at liberty - în stare de libertate;
in memory (of) - în memoria;
by accident - din întâmplare (nefericită);
on business - cu scopul de a face ceva;
by chance - din întâmplare (fericită)
to attend a school l- a frecventa o şcoală;
by ear - după ureche;
without doubt - fără îndoială;
by good fortune - datorită norocului;
side by side - alături;
by mistake - din greşeală;
hand in hand - de mână;
by phone - prin telefon;
arm in arm - braţ la braţ;
by land - pe uscat;
day after day - zi dupa zi;
by air - prin aer;
week after week - săptămână după săptămână;
17
by sea - pe mare;
year after year - an după an;
by train - cu trenul;
by coach - cu diligenţa; cu autocarul;
by car - cu maşina;
by boat - cu barca;
by plane - cu avionul;
by post - prin poştă;
by name - pe nume;
by sight - din vedere.
but:
at the table = (aşezat) lângă masă;
to the school = (mergând) spre şcoală;
to the market = (mergând) spre piaţă;
on the bed = pe pat.

Exercise 1. Read and translate the following sentences paying attention to the
article used in the underlined phrases:
1. We were picnicking when all of a sudden big drops of rain began to fall
down. 2. The news of her marriage did create a stir. 3. He took a fancy to my
child; I’m afraid he’ll spoil her. 4. He takes a pride in his son’s success. 5.
Don’t be so depressed, I’ll put in a good word for you. 6. It’s a pity you
couldn’t attend the performance. 7. Their success was in a great measure/to a
great extent the result of perseverance. 8. “A drowning man catching at a
straw” is an expression meaning the same thing both in Romanian and in
English. 9. I couldn’t sleep a wink all night. 10. She won’t tell a soul about it.
11. We don’t give a damn on what he says. 12. She went to them for help, but
they refused to lift a finger.13. Why is she alone? Because she doesn’t know a
single person in this town. 14. She’s singing all the time. I think she doesn’t
have a care in the world.

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with the indefinite article:
1. This child was … great comfort to her in her misfortune. 2. Our leader has
… strong will. 3. A coward is known to have … weak will. 4. It is ….great
hardship to spend a night in the open.5. She seldom catches cold, but when she
catches it, it is … bad cold. 6. It was … unexpected stroke of good luck. 7. We
have never enjoyed such … spell of fine weather. 8. The man had … suspicion
that the servant was unfaithful. 9. That was … unbearable illness. 10. We
didn’t expect him to put in … appearance at the time. 11. It is … pretty sight
to see children playing.
18

Exercise 3. Fill in the article wherever necessary:
No one in New York had so accomplished … cook, such smoothly running
service, … dinner-table so softly yet brightly lit, or such skill in grouping
about it persons not only eminent in wealth or fashion, but likely to find
pleasure in each other’s society.
… intimate reunion, of … not-more-than-the-Muses kind, was not Pauline’s
affair. She was aware of this seldom made … attempt – though when she did,
she was never able to discover why it was not … success. But in … organizing
and … administering of … big dinner she was conscious of mastery. Not …
stupid dinners of old days when … “crowned heads” used to be treated like …
caste apart, and everlastingly invited to meet each other thorough … whole
monotonous season: Pauline was too modern for that. She excelled in …
judicious blending of Wall Street and Bohemia, and her particular art lay in
the selection of … latter element. Of course there were Bohemians and
Bohemians: as she had once remarked to Nona, people weren’t always
amusing just because they were clever, or dull just because they were rich –
though at … last clause Nona had screwed up her nose incredulously.
(Edith Wharton, Twilight Sleep)

Exercise 4. Fill in the necessary article where necessary:
They advanced into … hall, went from table to table, scooping each plate
clean, gathering up cold chips, tasty cod-shells of yellow batter, or crusts of
bread and butter. Neither spoke, and … whole operation went on in silence …
man digging into … pile of steaming fish and chips stared at Bert, who was
composed enough to take up … vinegar bottle and sprinkle it over what was in
his hand, giving … impression either that he worked in … place collecting
scraps like this, or that this was … form of supper-cheap meal served by …
café to… unobtrusive waifs and tramps. Bert cleared another table, glancing
now and again at … chatting waitresses nearby. … blonde-dyed heavily
painted woman passed Brian half … cup down, and … man who had seen him
drink … tea covered his meal protectively. Brian had never done this before,
might normally have been afraid to come into … café and play locust to its
cast-off food, but he was too surprised at finding such edible nutriment set out
plainly for … getting to worry about who was looking on.
(Allan Sillitoe, Key to the Door)

Exercise 5. Insert the definite article or the zero article:
1. He ran into … house and shut … door.
2. … milk is good for … children.
19
3. … food in … restaurant near me is very good.
4. Please, put … butter, … bread, and … eggs in … refrigerator.
5. … lions are … wild animals.
6. One of Mark Twain’s works is “Life on … Mississippi”.
7. In … Asia … elephants are used for carrying … goods.
8. … man on her right is … English.
9. We often go to … Manchester by … train.
10. How many rockets have been sent to … moon?
11. He came to his room late at … night and told … Uncle Theo how he
had spent … evening at … theatre.
12. We have … breakfast rather early.
13. Lizzie, … cook, left … Chapmans three weeks ago.
14. All the people in … village go to … church on … Sunday.
15. In some houses … dinner is … biggest meal of … day.

Exercise 6. Insert the indefinite article or the zero article:
1. He made … mistake in his addition.
2. Would you do me … favour?
3. The electric light was … important invention.
4. Where there’s … smoke, there’s … fire.
5. Meeting you has been … great pleasure.
6. He is studying … religion.
7. They asked him … difficult question.
8. She wants to become … nurse.
9. The lawyer gave his client … very good advice.
10. She likes to eat … good food.
11. … honesty and … loyalty are … rare virtues.
12. Eggs are 50 p. … dozen.
13. What … bad weather we are having today!
14. She bought … yellow dress and … pair of … shoes.
15. … Glasgow is … city in Scotland.

Exercise 7. Supply the required articles:
1. He speaks with … great authority on the subject. He is consulting with
… authority on urban development.
2. … water used in this beer comes from a special spring. In order to
survive, we must have … water.
3. … bread has been called the staff of life. … bread you baked is
delicious.
20
4. … silver in this ring is of inferior quality. … silver is used for money
and jewelry.
5. … genius is 10% inspiration and 90% perspiration. … genius of
Edison is universally recognized.
6. … fresh milk tastes good. … milk which I bought yesterday should
still be good.
7. Everyone was impressed by … sincerity with which he spoke. We all
admire … sincerity.
8. After several attempts, he lost … courage. He showed … courage that
surprised me.

Exercise 8. Fill in the blanks with the required articles:
Last year I stayed in … little town in … England called … Stratford-on-Avon.
I wanted to go to … theatre to see some of … plays of … Shakespeare. …
theatre is near … River Avon, … beautiful river in which you can bathe and
sail … boats. When I arrived in … Stratford, I was told to stay at … hotel
called “… Dirty Duck”, but I couldn’t find it. I asked many people where it
was, but no one knew it. I saw … policeman at … corner of … main street. I
spoke to him and asked him if he knew “... Dirty Duck”. He laughed and told
me that he knew it all right. It was just at … bottom of … street near … Plaza
cinema. I walked to … bottom of … street, saw … hotel and read … name
above … door. It was called “… Black Swan”!
Exercise 9. Fill in the blanks with the indefinite article a/an, before singular
countable nouns, or the indefinite pronoun some, before uncountable nouns or
plural nouns:
1. He needs … hammer and … nails to fix the table.
2. They have bought … furniture.
3. For breakfast I had only … bread and … cup of tea.
4. They are building … house in my street.
5. Could you give me … information about this school?
6. … people are fond of telling stories.
7. There was … snow on the high mountain.
8. That little town lies in … lovely valley.
9. I have … very severe headache.
10. … words are never used in the plural.
11. … passengers were in a hurry to catch … train.
12. I can give you … advice, but I can’t do the work for you.

Exercise 10. Translate into English using the following phrases: in the end, in
the open air, on the one hand … on the other hand, to take the trouble, to
21
take a walk, to have a good time, to take a seat, in time, to make friends, to
shake hands, to take part, to take place:
1. M-a poftit să intru şi să iau loc.
2. La terminarea partidei, adversarii şi-au dat mâna.
3. Aş vrea să fac o plimbare prin parc.
4. În cele din urmă a recunoscut că am dreptate.
5. Unde a avut loc accidentul?
6. Ai ajuns la timp la gară?
7. Ar trebui să-ţi laşi copiii să se joace mai des în aer liber.
8. Ne-am distrat cu toţii aseară la petrecere.
9. Henry n-a putut participa la întrunirea noastră de săptămâna trecută
din cauză că a fost bolnav.
10. Dacă ţi-ai fi dat osteaneala să citeşti anunţul, ai fi aflat că s-a amânat
conferinţa.
11. John este un băiat timid şi nu se împrieteneşte prea uşor.
12. Pe de o parte îmi vine greu să nu îţi spun adevărul, pe de altă parte n-
aş vrea să te jignesc.


Exercise 11. Fill in the gaps with some or any:
1. A: Would you like ... tomato sauce on your spaghetti?
B: Yes, please.
2. A: Are there … apricots in the fridge?
B: No, I’m afraid there aren’t ….
3. A: Can I have … cake, please?
B: Of course you can.
4. A: We don’t have … apple juice.
B: I’ll go to the supermarket and buy … .
5. A: Would you like … milk in your tea?
B: No, thank you.
6. A: There isn’t … ice cream in the freeze.
B: Are you sure? I thought we had … .
7. A: Can I have … bread?
B: Here you go.

Exercise 12. Underline the correct word.
A: Have we got everything we need for the salad?
B: Let me see. Well, there are some/any tomatoes, but there isn’t any/many
cheese.
A: How many/much feta cheese do you need?
22
B: Just a little/a few. I need some/a little olives, too.
A: How much/many olives do you need?
B: Not any/many. Just a few/a little.
A: Are there any/much green peppers left?
B: No. We haven’t got a little/any onions, either.
A: Is there anything else you need?
B: I almost forgot! We need some/much bread and a few/a little olive oil.
A: Right! What’s salad without bread and olive oil?

Exercise 13. Tom is asking his friend about what food he needs to buy. Use
much or many to write his answers, as in the examples.
1. We’ve got some fish. How much have we
got?
2. We haven’t got many potatoes. How many do we
need?
3. We need some oranges. ……
4. We’ve got some cheese. ……
5. We need some mushrooms. ……
6. We haven’t got any sausages. ……
7. We’ve got some ketchup. ……
8. We need some milk. ……
9. We haven’t got much butter. ……
10. We haven’t got any eggs. ……
Exercise 14. Fill in the gaps below with much or many.
1. A: How … rice would you like?
B: Half a kilo, please.
2. A: Were there … people at the party?
B: Oh, about twenty.
3. A: There isn’t … cat food left.
B: Okay, I’ll pick some up on my way home.
4. A: Have you got any candles?
B: Not … I’m afraid. Just two.
5. A: How … does this dress cost, please?
B: £ 12.00.
6. A: Did you have … toys when you were young?
B: Oh, yes! Too …., actually.
7. A: How … eggs do you need for the cake
B: Not … . Just three.


23


UNIT II
Market economy and business cycle

A market economy is based on private ownership in contrast to planned
economy where state ownership prevails. In a free market economy efficiency
is the key word, while on the other hand command economy most likely leads
to inefficiency. In a free market economy inefficient businesses go bankrupt,
whereas in a command economy businesses are subsidized, thus allowing
them to survive in spite of their non-satisfactory economic performance. This
enables the latter type of economy to resort to overstaffing, that is employing
more personnel than actually required. Market economy leads to high quality
of goods and services, while on the other hand planned economy will not
focus on offering high quality of goods and services to customers. This is due
to the fact that in the latter type of economy there is actually no competition,
as there are state monopolies and therefore the options of customers are
severely restricted. On the other hand in market economy companies freely
compete for a larger market share, and are thus forced to be efficient and
employ staff according to real necessities and manage their resources with
utmost care.

A business cycle, also called a trade cycle is the fluctuating movement of a
country’s economy. So if at the moment production has reached a peak,
employment rates, wages and salaries are high, this stage of the cycle is called
a boom. Sooner or later, sales of goods will decline, and so will output, as well
as the rate of employment. This means a recession has set in. If the decline
becomes very severe, the demand for goods reaches a minimum,
unemployment rises dramatically, while output is falling, the cycle has
reached the moment of depression, also called a slump. This does not happen
very often, as economies do not always reach the minimum level before
starting up again. Depressions are usually accompanied by a general fall in the
level of prices, a phenomenon termed deflation.

When the increase in output and demand for commodities has started and
unemployment goes down, we say we have reached the point in the cycle
called recovery.
Vocabulary Practice

24
subsidy - a payment by a government to producers of certain goods to enable
them to sell their products at a low price;
overstaffing - employment of personnel in excess of the real necessities;
unemployment - inability to find a job;
supply - a component of the market forces which when it prevails makes
prices of goods fall;
demand - a component of the market which when it prevails makes prices of
goods rise;
ownership - rights over property;
bankruptcy - the state of a company which enable to pay its debts and has to
be wound up;
boom - the point in the business cycle when prices and employment reach a
peak;
slump - the point in the business cycle when prices and employment are at
lowest;
recovery - an intermediate stage in the trade cycle when the upward movement
has started but not reached its maximum;
recession - a slowdown in the growth rate during the trade cycle with falling
levels of investment and employment;
inflation - a persistent rise in the level of prices and wages in a national
economy.

Collocations :
1. a bear market = a period during which people are selling shares, etc rather
than buying, because they expect the prices to fall;
2. a bull market = in which a dealer is more likely to be a buyer than a seller;
3. a falling market = a market in which most investments are
decreasing in value;
4. a rising market = a market where prices are expected to rise;
5. a firm market = where prices do not drop and possibly are about to rise;
6. a depressed market = a market where there are few transactions and prices
go down;
7. a sluggish market = a market where there is a slow rate of activity.

Focus on grammar
Adjectives. Degrees of comparison
A. Short adjectives
The positive The comparative The superlative

long longer (than) the longest
25
large larger the largest
clean cleaner the cleanest
small smaller the smallest
etc.
big bigger (than) the biggest
fat fatter the fattest
thin thinner the thinnest
hot hotter the hottest

funny funnier (than) the funniest
happy happier the happiest
easy easier the easiest
etc.

good better (than) the best
bad worse the worst

B. Long adjectives
The positive The comparative The superlative

Beautiful more beautiful (than) the most beautiful
Important more important the most important
Interesting more interesting the most interesting
Comfortable morecomfortable the most comfortable
etc.

The comparative of equality: as…as
i.e. John is as tall as his brother.
She is as beautiful as her mother.
The comparative of inferiority: less…
e.g. John is less tall than his father.
The film is less interesting than the novel.

Antonyms:
Good / bad; clean / dirty
Tall / short; cheap / expensive;
Fat / thin; sweet / bitter;
Long / short; fast / slow;
Large / small/little; thick / thin;
26
Wide / narrow; merry / sad;
Cold / hot; eays / difficult;
Happy / unhappy; dark / bright;
Full / empty; heavy / light;
Beautiful / ugly; kind / unkind, rude;
Clever / stupid; hard / soft ;
High / low; etc.

Read and learn
at the expense of - pe cheltuiala (cuiva); pe seama;
in the nick of time - în ultima clipă;
to stand the chance - a avea şansa;
to take the bull by the horns - a lua taurul de coarne;
to beat around the bush - a bate câmpii; a nu vorbi la subiect;
on the other hand - pe de altă parte;
to feel the pulse - a simţi pulsul;
to be in the habit - a-i fi în obişnuinţă;
to become the fashion - a fi la modă;
under the circumstances - în aceste împrejurări;
on the whole - în întregime; în general vorbind; în linii mari;
to give a cold shoulder - a face o primire rece; a fi distant;
to cost the earth - a costa o avere;
to be chicken - a fi laş;
to be in the blues - a fi prost dispus;
to get the upper hand - a obţine un avantaj; a câştiga (o întrecere);
to give the creeps - a da fiori;
on the spur of the moment - sub impulsul momentului;
all to the good - odată pentru totdeauna;

Exercise 1. Change the nouns in the sentences below, into adjectives
according to the model:
It has no taste. (cake)
– It is tasteless.
– a tasteless cake
It has no life. (body)
It has no tree. (valley)
It has no use. (rag)
She has no job. (woman)
She has no mother. (child)
She has no hat. (girl)
27

Exercise 2. Change the underlined phrases into corresponding adjectives.
Model:
a. a matter of importance – an important matter
a program of length a thing of beauty
a problem of urgency a man of honour
a man of patience a feeling of comfort
Model:
b. the point of boiling
the boiling point
a text long of two paragraphs
a two-paragraph long text
the job of editing; a tree old of two centuries; a pill for sleeping; a child of
three years old; a place for parking; the rain of last week
Model:
c. behaviour like that of a lady
a lady-like behaviour
an animal like a cat
a pallor like that of death
speed like that of a rocket
an atmosphere like that of a home
a smell like that of a forest
a neck like that of a swan

Exercise 3. Make up sentences with the adjectives derived from nouns.
Model:
A dusty road is a road that has much dust.
A lucky man is a man who has good luck.
a hairy dog a stony road
a salty soup a windy day
a watery beer a foggy weather

Exercise 4. Attach the appropriate suffixes (b) to the following words to form
adjectives:

absorb cost doll ink night triumph
beard coward dust irk outrage yellow
beggar danger dwarf kitten power
book defense fool leaf price
bother defy grace lone talent
28
b. –ant, -ent, -ish, - ous, -ly, -some, -less, -y, -ed
Exercise 5. Underline the negative prefixes in the following list of derived
adjectives:

disagreeable unrestrictive impassive
dissimilar un-compulsory incorrigible
displeased unobtainable illegal
disproportionate unreal irregular

Exercise 6. Form sentences with the compound adjectives in the list below:
Model:
A short-skirted girl means a girl who wears short skirts.
A paper-backed book means a book that has soft paper covers.
An ill-tempered man is a man who gets angry easily.
a fair-haired girl a fishy-eyed man
a broad-shouldered man an empty-headed girl
a red-headed child a lion-hearted person
a bald-headed person a sharp-eyed person
a three-cornered house a wooden-headed chap
a many-coloured vase a quick-minded child
a cloth-covered table a dark-skinned person
a stony-headed master a straight-haired child
a narrow-minded partner an open-minded teacher
Exercise 7. Fill in the blanks with much and many according to meaning:
I haven’t got … luggage. 2. Two or three friends doesn’t mean … friends. 3.
He gave her … advice but little help. 4. This child hasn’t got … energy. 5.
Does she know … French? 6. Has she received … letters? 7. Is there … traffic
in your district? 8. Although a beginner, she hasn’t made … mistakes in her
work. 9. Are there … forms in your classroom? 10. Do you get … helpful
suggestion from your brother?

Exercise 8
I. Fill in the gaps with the correct form of the adjectives in brackets, as in the
example.
1.My house is bigger (big) than yours.
2.Peter is not as …(tall) as Sally.
3.Los Angeles is … (polluted) than Vancouver.
4.That was the …(bad) meal I’ve ever eaten.
5.Our house is less … (modern) than yours.
6.Celine Dion is very … (famous).
29
7.They are as … (rich) as the Browns.
8.The Danube is the … (Beautiful) river in Europe.
9.This sleeping bag is … (comfortable) than that one.
10.Mary’s dress is … (expensive) than Diana’s.
11.The red hat is much … (cheap) than the blue one.
12.Asia is the … (large) continent in the world.

II. Complete the following sentences using an opposite adjective in
comparative or superlative form, as in the example.
1. I live nearer the school than you.
No, you don’t. You live further. (far)
2. The Porsche is faster than the Ferrari.
No, it’s not. It’s …. (slow)
3. Malcolm is the tallest in the class.
No, he isn’t. he’s … (short)
4. My exercises were worse than yours.
No, they weren’t. They were … (good)
5. He bought the cheapest computer on the market.
No, he didn’t. He bought …(expensive)
6. The weather today is hotter than yesterday.
No, it isn’t. It’s …(cold)
7.Ann is the strongest girl I know.
No, she isn’t. She’s …(weak)

Exercise 9. Put the adjectives in brackets into the correct form. Fill in than or
the where necessary.
1. My brother is … my sister. (short)
2.These students are very … (clever)
3.That is … train I’ve ever been on. (fast)
4. A piano is much … a guitar. (heavy)
5. Jake’s is … restaurant in the city. (good)
6.Leslie has got … clothes … Casey. (many)
7. Picasso’s paintings are very … (expensive)
8. Living in a flat is … living in a house. (cheap)

Exercise 10. Supply the comparative or superlative form of the adjective in
brackets:
1. He is (lazy) student in the class.
2. She is looking for a (big) flat than the one she has now.
3. Jane is (good) cook I know.
30
4. He is much (familiar) with modern painting than with modern music.
5. What is (late) news of him?
6. He was able to get (far) information at the
7. “The Tempest” is Shakespeare’s (late) play.
8. Her (old) sister is five years (old) than you.
9. The (far) house from the sea is Dan’s.
10. He had a word with a (little) personage in the police force.
11. The weather in Florida is (hot) than the weather in Montana.
12. She earns much (little) money than her sister does.
13. My work is bad, but yours is (bad).
14. If you want to get to the market, take (near) turning to the right.
15. Although he is a famous man, he is (modest) than most people.
16. You can buy some stamps at (near) post-office.
17. She soon realized she was in the (out) danger.
18. The new lodger took one of the (up) rooms.
19. He preferred the (fore) alternative to the (late).

Exercise 11. Fill in the blanks with the intensifiers: much, far, a lot, a good
deal, a great deal, for the comparative, and by far, possible, imaginable, for
the superlative:
1. In the end he will pay a … higher price for it.
2. Traveling is … more interesting than watching TV.
3. This is … the most pressing problem facing families this winter.
4. You have found the best … solution to may troubles.
5. We had the greatest difficulty … getting here in time.
6. Richard is … the worst student in his group.
7. Our old secretary is … more experienced than the new one.
8. I think your interviews are … better than hers.

Exercise 12. Change the following into compound and derived adjectives:
Example: a girl with blue eyes - a blue-eyed girl
a carpet made by hand -a handmade carpet
a play having success - a successful play
1.a student who works hard
2.a man who looks good
3.a man with a simple mind
4.conditions which can be accepted
5.a story which breaks the heart
6.a person who is giving help
7.a driver who is not taking care
31
8.a woman with a kind heart
9.a day with much wind
10.a tree which is a hundred years old
11.a blouse with short sleeves
12.a man who has courage
13.a suit which is cut well
14.a man with a red face
15.a moon red like blood
32

Unit III
Types of companies and company structure

Businesses are organized in different ways. When there is only one owner, the
company is called a sole trader. If two or more people associate to form a
company they make up a partnership. In both sole trader organizations and
partnerships the owners supply the capital and as a rule they assume the
management of the organization. In partnerships only the active partners take
part in the management of the company, whereas the sleeping partners do not.
Both forms of the business organizations discussed above have no legal
obligation to make periodic statements of accounts available to the public. The
owners in both types of companies under consideration have unlimited
liability, that means they are liable to the full extent of their assets for the
debts of the company. It is the owners who are entitled to take possession of
all the profits the company makes and all losses are borne by them.

On the other hand there are limited liability companies. Such types of
companies are either private or public. The former type involves that the
public has not access to company, the shares are sold to a restricted number of
people. Shares are the parts into which the assets of a company are divided.
The owners of the company are shareholders and they hold shares in
proportion with the capital they invested in the company. Thus there are
minority shareholders and majority shareholders. Public, limited companies
(abbreviated plc) are accessible to the public, as they are as a rule quoted on
the stock exchange. The management of limited liability companies is
entrusted to a board of directors elected by the shareholders in the Annual
General Meeting (abbreviated AGM). The shareholders are entitled to the
profit made by the company and therefore receive dividends. As for losses,
they are borne by the shareholders, but only to the extent of the amount
invested in the business, as this is the meaning of limited liability. The
shareholders have the right to receive the annual financial statements of the
company, accompanied by an independently- audited report.

The capital of the company consists of shareholder’s capital (equity capital) as
well as of capital obtained from long- term loans, from banks or other
financial institutions. Companies having a high proportion of loan capital are
said to be highly geared. On the other hand, if loan capital represents a low
proportion in the capital of business, this is said to be lowly geared.
Companies are organized in a hierarchical or pyramidal structure. The
33
chairman holds the highest proportion in a board of directors. Sometimes he is
the chief executive officer (abbreviated CEO). The managing director is the
next in rank. Senior managers head the different departments of a company
such as: marketing, finance, public relations, human resources, research and
development, etc. According to some sources, however, works managers and
sales managers should be considered members of middle management. The
middle management consists of assistant managers who report to the senior
managers. If someone reports to somebody else, he is the subordinate of the
latter. Big companies have central offices or headquarters and branches in the
country or abroad. If decisions are taken at the headquarters they are said to
have a centralized management. If decisions are left to the competence of
branch managers they are said to have a decentralized management.

In presenting a company as a rule reference is made to the location of the
headquarters and branches or subsidiaries, the amount of business done, or
turnover, size of labour force, type of products or services offered.

Vocabulary practice

limited liability - this means that no shareholder of such a type of company
can be asked to pay more than the nominal value of his shares or the amount
of guarantee if the company goes bankrupt;
sleeping partner - a person who has capital in a partnership but takes no part
in its commercial and managerial activities;
board of directors - the effective management committee of a limited liability
company;
financial statement - any presentation of the accounts of a company;
chairman - the highest position on a company’s board of directors;
sole trader - a person who is the only owner of a business whose manager he
also is;
partnerships - they are associations of persons; the relation which subsists
between two or more people carrying on business in common with a view to
profit- the number of partners must not exceed 20;
Private Limited Company- SRL (Societate cu răspundere limitată);
Public Limited Company - SA ( Societate pe acţiuni);
The Articles of Association - (statutes, US: by-laws) one of the legal
documents that is created when a company is formed. It contains rules about
how the company must be managed, what rights shareholders have, what the
directors can do and what formal meetings can be held;
US Corporation - Companie/ Societate ( în SUA) ;
34
Company - Companie/ Societate (în UK);
a public corporation - is a corporation the shares of which are widely held and
publicly traded, usually on a stock exchange;
a private corporation - is one whose shares are not publicly traded, but may
be held by a number of persons;
a close corporation - has only a few shareholders and its stock is not
normally traded;
a domestic corporation- is one formed in that state;
a foreign corporation - is a corporation organized in another state or country;
winding-up - the winding-up of a company may be compulsory (or
involuntary): the company is wound up by court order, because it cannot meet
its liabilities, or if it ceases to carry on business for more than a year; the
winding-up may also be voluntary (or judicial): the company winds up
because it has reached, through age, the end of its life fixed by the articles of
association, or because a general meeting decides to appoint a liquidator who
sells the firm’s real and personal property; when all debts have been met, the
remaining assets are shared among the shareholders.

Job titles:
Job titles matter, nowhere more than at the top of a big company. Maybe that
is why such confusion, about what top managers call themselves. A short
guide through the maze:
Chairman. If he is, American and/ or of the executive variety, he/she is the
boss. Non-executive chairmen are rare in America, but popular almost
everywhere else. Their specialty is attending board meetings, and supervising
the real boss. Many big companies in continental Europe have two chairmen,
because they have two boards. One is the supervisory board, which includes
outsiders and workers, and oversees the management board, which actually
runs the company. In Japan chairmen are most renowned for their golf skills.

Vice-chairman or deputy chairman. A title which can mean almost anything
from heir to the throne to a former heir headed for retirement.

President. In Japan he is the boss, and sometimes the chairman’s son-in-low.
In America he is often number two, unless the chairman also wants to be
called president.
Sometimes the president is the chairman-elect. Sometimes he is being side-
stepped.
In Britain the title is virtually unknown.

35
Chief Executive Officer (CEO). In America always the boss. That is why the
chairman is often also the CEO. In theory, he is held in check by the board’s
non-executive directors. In practice, many of these are CEOs of other
companies and many also be friends of the chairman, so they are loathe (a
detesta, a nu fi dispus să…) to upset the applecart.

Chief Operating Officer (COO). This is also used mostly in America, where
the COO (often the president) runs the company on a “day to day” basis
reports to the CEO. COO is a person who is employed to manage the daily
affairs of a company, usually under the authority of a CEO.
Some big British Companies have recently begun adopting the title.

Managing director is the member of a company’s board of directors who is
responsible for running the business on a daily basis. In Japan there is either
the “managing director with usual responsibilities” (CEO).
Some Japanese firms have several managing directors.

Abbreviations
Bros. = brothers; often indicates a partnership;
Ltd = follows the name of the firm in case of a Private Limited Company
(UK)
P.L.C., plc = Public Limited Company (UK);
Inc. = incorporated. Follows the name of a US business corporation;
M.A = Memorandum of Association
A.A. = Articles of Association
A.G.M.= Annual General Meeting
C.E.O. = Chief Executive Officer
C.O.O. = Chief Operating Officer
C.L.O. = Chief legal Officer
C.F.O. = Chief Financial Officer

Key sentences (read and learn).
1. This matter will have to be put on the agenda of our next meeting.
2. The minutes the General Secretary has read to us do not mention that
incident.
3. The Articles of Association (US by-laws) list the internal regulations.
4. In Great Britain, two documents must be drawn up so that a joint stock
company may be set up: the Memorandum of Association and the Articles of
Association.
36
5. For their financing, Public Companies may appeal to the public which is
invited to apply for their shares and bonds.
6. In a Private company, on the contrary, the company’s securities can only be
exchanged with the consent of the directors.
7. In his address, the Chairman of the Board (Board Chairman) has
emphasized the outstanding results of the new subsidiary.
8. Indeed, few shareholders attended the annual meeting, but all had been sent
copies of the balance sheet.
9. Mr. Jones has just been appointed to the Board of Directors.
10. Let me introduce Mr. Dunn, our Chairman and Managing Director.
11. The holders of convertible bonds may have them converted into shares.
12. A merger with a Belgian group is being contemplated.
13. What are the registered office and the style of this company?
14. The Board of Directors contemplates an increase in (of) capital.
15. The meeting which was due to take place next Tuesday (scheduled for
next Tuesday) has been postponed until 14 May.
16. Numerous small and medium-sized firms are on the verge of bankruptcy.
17. What is the amount of Directors’ fees?
18. Have you read the minutes of the meeting (proceedings)?
19. We are assisted by a tax consultant (adviser) who draws up our tax returns.
20. Their turnover is 5% down on last year.
21. He started his enterprise with $ x in seed money.
22. We wish to inform you that owing Mr. Taylor’s resignation, the meeting
of the Board of Directors is put off to Monday 27
th
April.
23. A failing company cannot be wound up until all its assets have been
liquidated.
24. Mr. Smith resigned his Board chairmanship because the shareholders
challenged his policy.
25. In a general partnership, the partners are jointly and severally liable for the
debts of the firm.
26. The style of the company has been modified.
27. Members of the Board who cannot attend the extraordinary meeting on
June are requested to send proxies.
28. The results of the trading year/ financial year are disappointing.
29. He has been on the Board for two years and has just been re-elected at the
Annual General Meeting.
30. The creditors have asked the receiver to put the company back on its feet
as quickly as possible.


37
Vocabulary test
Find the correct word:
1. The use of the word… should be restricted to non-profit making
organizations.
a) partnership;
b) concern;
c) society;
d) corporation.
2. Stockholder is a synonym for…
a) shareholder;
b) stockbroker;
c) bondholder;
d) sleeping partner.
3. Corporate tax is levied on…
a) private persons;
b) companies;
c) personal property;
d) professional organizations.
4. The abbreviation “Inc.” , which follows the name of U.S…. corporations,
stands for…
a) included;
b) inclusive;
c) incorporated;
d) incapacitated.
5. Limited partners are liable….
a) only to the extent of the sum they have invested;
b) for the whole of the debts of the firm;
c) for the full extent of their real property;
d) only to the extent of the value of their bonds.
6. Most statutes require an annual meeting of shareholders to be…
a) laid out;
b) held;
c) calling;
d) pointed out.
7. A Private Company is not allowed to appeal…. the public for the
subscription of its shares.
a) for;
b) to;
c) towards;
d) into.
38
8. The Memorandum of Association states the amount of the firm’s…. capital.
a) regular;
b) authorized;
c) managing;
d) working.
9. The Annual General Meeting will be…. by the Chairman of the Board.
a) presided;
b) presided over;
c) directed;
d) managed.
10. The public is invited to apply… shares.
a) to;
b) for;
c) over;
d) at.
11. A company must be…, by court order if it stops trading for more than a
year.
a) sued;
b) wound up;
c) adjudicated bankrupt;
d)sold out.

Key to the vocabulary test: 1.c; 2.a; 3.b; 4.c; 5.a; 6.b; 7.b; 8.b; 9.b; 10.b;
11. b.

Focus on grammar

a) There is , there are constructions
Rule: these constructions are placed before the logical subject of the sentence
anticipating it; these constructions have the same number and gender as the
noun they anticipate.

Affirmative Interrogative Negative
There is Is there? There isn’t
There are Are there? There aren’t

Models: 1. There is a desk in the corner of the room. 2. There are many cars
in this parking area. 3. There is a dictionary on the table. 4. There are many
people in the corner shop.5. There are a lot of roses in this garden. 6. Is there
39
a pen on the desk? 7. Are there a lot of paintings on the wall? 8. Are there
many students in the classroom? 9. There aren’t many desks in this office.

b) Possessive adjectives and possessive pronouns:

(I) my mine
(you) your yours
(he) his his
(she) her hers
(it) its its
(we) our ours
(they) their theirs
Read the sentences below and pay attention to the use of the possessive
adjectives and pronouns:
1. This is my car. It is mine. 2. That purse is yours, Mrs. White, isn’t it? Yes, it
is. It is not hers.3. They have two children: a son and a daughter, haven’t they?
Yes, they have. Those are their balls. His is brown, and hers is red. 4. Our
office is large, theirs is small. 5. Her dress I new, mine is old. 6. This dog is
very nice. Its fur is like a brown velvet. 7. My neighbours are very rude, yours
are so kind! 8. Where is your watch? Mine is on my desk.

c) The plural of nouns:

- general rule: singular + -s = plural
e.g.
book - books
car - cars
doll - dolls
tree - trees
horse - horses
etc.
1) nouns ending in –tch, -sh, - ss, -s, -x, add –es for the plural

watch – watches
bush - bushes
dress - dresses
bus - buses
box - boxes
etc.
40
2) nouns ending in –o, add –es for the plural
potato – potatoes
tomato - tomatoes
hero - heroes
echo - echoes
etc. but: piano – pianos
photo – photos
3) nouns ending in – y preceded by a consonant change it into –i and add –
es
lady - ladies
country - countries
city - cities
cherry - cherries
berry - berries
etc.

but: boy - boys
toy - toys
key - keys
play - plays
etc.
4) 12 nouns ending in -f or -fe change it into – v and add – es
life – lives elf – elves
wife - wives half - halves
leaf - leaves thief - thieves
loaf - loaves calf - calves
shelf -shelves self - selves
wolf - wolves knife – knives
but: roof - roofs
staff - staffs
5) irregular plurals:
man - men (or: policeman – policemen)
woman – women
child - children
tooth - teeth
foot - feet (but: footprint – footprints)
goose - geese
mouse - mice
die - dice
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6) nouns having no plural forms:
deer - deer (căprioară- căprioare)
sheep - sheep (oaie – oi)
trout - trout ( păstrăv- păstrăvi)
series - series
species - species
but: fruit: a) fruit (only apples)
b) fruits (apples, pears, etc.)
fish: a) fish (only carps)
b) fishes (carps, salmons, trout, etc.)
7) nouns having a singular form, a plural meaning, requiring a singular
verb:
information
luggage
advice
knowledge + sing. Vb.
furniture
machinery
jewelry
(for the singular we use: a piece of…)
e.g. The information is good.
(Informaţiile sunt bune)
But: I need a piece of information, please.
(Am nevoie de o informaţie, te rog.)
8) nouns having a plural form, a singular meaning, requiring a singular
verb:
news
mumps (oreion)
measles (pojar)
mathematics
physics + sing. Vb.
economics
statistics
gymnastics
phonetics
etc.
e.g. Mathematics is a difficult subject.
What news is this?
Measles is a catching disease.
42
9) nouns having a plural form in English, a singular meaning in Romanian,
requiring a plural verb in English:
trousers alms (pomană)
pants pyjamas
scales spectacles
tongs glasses
scissors goggles (ochelari de scafandru)
surroundings outskirts (periferie)
under-wears bellows
etc.
10) nouns having two plural forms:
cloth - cloths genius - geniuses
- clothes - genii (duhuri)

die - dies (stampă, matriţă) penny - pennies
- dice - pence
11) nouns having two or several meanings in the plural:
custom – customs a) obiceiuri
b) vamă = pl. vb.

colour–colours a) culori
b) steaguri militare

ground – grounds a) terenuri
b) motive (pentru care)
c) zaţ (la cafea)

spirit – spirits a) spirite, duhuri
b) băuturi alcoolice

Exercise 1. Change the following sentences according to the model:
a. He paints houses.
b. He is a house painter.
1.He collects stamps. 5. He cleans streets.
2.He smokes cigarettes. 6. It plays records.
3.Hegoes to the theatre. 7. It lights cigarettes.
4.He makes trouble. 8. It cuts paper.

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with the plural of the underlined nouns:
43
1. When we say that the trees are in full leaf, we mean that they are covered
with ……… . 2. This library is useful. I think all ……… are useful. 3. One
half is not enough; give him both …….. 4. “Will a tomato do, mother?” “No,
bring me more potatoes and more ……… 5. “ May I have a penknife, father?”
“All the boys have wonderful ……….” 6. His story is more credible than your
………

Exercise 3. Use the nouns in the brackets in the singular or in the plural
according to the meaning:
1. She longs for the bracing (air) of the mountain village. She is too
intelligent to put on (air). 2. What is the (good) of staying so late? The ordered
(good) have not been delivered yet. 3. So much (sand) makes driving difficult;
I suppose the wind has blown it from the (sand). 4. Look at this manuscript;
the (writing) shows an extremely delicate nature. Yes, and the author’s
(writing) show the same thing too. 5. The demonstration was a fine
(spectacle). “Where have you put my (spectacle)?” 6. “Shall I put the
(content) at the beginning or at the end of the book?” I appreciate the
substantial (content) of your paper.7. As soon as you get through the (custom)
you’ll find yourself in a country with the original and interesting (custom). 8.
She is full of (grace). She has never been in his (grace). 9. The (pain) in his
leg hindered his progress. She took great (pain) in doing this job.

Exercise 4. Give collective nouns to the following word-groups:
a multitude of soldiers; a collection of ships; a group of animals; the soldiers
and the officers on a ship; members who govern a country; political groups;
people listening to a concert; students always working together.

Exercise 5
Combine the words in capital letters with each word of the list below it,
putting it either before or after according to the meaning:
MAN SCHOOL HOUSE WORK
work grammar work needle
police boy old day
kind master wife shop
SHOP LAND PAPER DAY
book father bag birth
window mark news break
work lord money pay
MASTER HORSE TABLE HEAD
piece man time light
44
school shoe tennis line
head race cloth bridge

Exercise 6. Rewrite in the plural:
1. This is a box. 2. That’s a lorry. 3. Where’s the knife? 4. Is it your watch? 5.
This is a new house. 6. That’s an old chimney. 7. That isn’t my dress. 8.
That’s a shoe. 9. Who’s this man? 10. He’s a farmer and this is his wife. 11.
That’s a row of people. 12. Is it a new bridge? 13. There’s a match in the box.
14. There’s no child in their family. 15. Is there a dictionary on his desk? 16.
Is there a desk in that room? 17. The face of that woman is attractive. 18. The
house isn’t large but it’s comfortable. 19. Who’s that person? 20. Which book
is yours?

Exercise 7. Read the following sentences and pay attention to the quantitative
value of the nouns in italics and state whether the noun has the corresponding
singular or plural form:
1. Are these data correct? 2. The cattle were driven home. 3. The fruit isn’t
ripe yet. 4. Where are the scissors? 5. What is the news? 6. The surroundings
of our town are very beautiful. 7. How much money have you got? 8. The
radii of a circle are always equal. 9. He gave us some good advice. 10. Under
the great oaks a flock of sheep was feeding, and behind a steel fence there was
a herd of deer. 11. He will give you all the necessary information. 12.
Abraham Lincoln spoke of “government of the people, by the people, for the
people”.13. A series of English classics has recently been published. 14.
Acoustics is a branch of physics. 15. How many fish have you caught? 16. The
ellipses were carefully drawn. 17. He grows many kinds of fruits. 18. Such
phenomena are rarely to be seen. 19. How many species of animals exist in
Romania? 20. Do many Chinese live here? 21. The police are investigating the
case. 22. He hated the rich and loved the poor. 23. His trousers are short. 24.
Your spectacles are very dirty. 25. Where are your lodgings? 26. They live in
a barracks. 27. We visited the glass-works. 28. Does the end always justify the
means? 29. There are slums in the outskirts of the city. 30. Riches do not
always bring happiness.

Read the following pluralia tantum and summation plurals and pay
attention to their meaning:
colour = culoare; pl. colours;
colours (pl. tantum) = drapel;
compass = busola; pl. compasses;
compasses (pl. tantum) = compass;
45
custom = obicei; pl. customs;
customs (pl. tantum) = vamă;
damage = avarie; pl. damages;
damages (pl. tantum) = despăgubiri;
effect = effect; pl. effects
effects (pl. tantum) = efecte; haine;
glass = pahar; pl. glasses;
glasses (pl. tantum) = ochelari;
ground = motiv; cauză; pl. grounds;
grounds (pl. tantum) = zaţ de cafea, teren, parc în jurul unei clădiri;
letter = scrisoare; pl. letters;
letters (pl. tantum) = literatură, litere;
manner = mod; pl. manners;
manners (pl. tantum) = maniere, purtare;
minute = minut; pl. minutes;
minutes (pl. tantum) = process verbal;
premise = premise; pl. premises;
premises (pl. tantum) = local; imobil;
pain = durere; pl. pains;
pains (pl. tantum) = osteneală;
quarter = sfert, cartier; pl. quarters;
quarters (pl. tantum) = locuinţă; cantonament;
receipt = chitanţă; pl. receipts;
receipts (pl. tantum) = încasări;
scale = gamă muzicală; solz; pl. scales;
scales (pl.tantum) = cântar;
spectacle = spectacol; pl. spectacles; spectacles
(pl. tantum) = ochelari;
term = perioadă; termen; trimestru; pl. terms;
terms (pl. tantum) = termeni; condiţii; raporturi.

Exercise 8. Read the following sentences containing pluralia tantum in –s
and try to translate them:
1. The standard of living in the Middle Ages was very low. 2. She tried to
make amends for her former behaviour. 3. All Dacians rose in arms when the
Romans invaded Dacia. 4. The letter burnt to ashes. 5. He’s got good brains,
he’ll manage. 6. Clothes do not make the man. 7. Have a look at the table of
contents. 8. They couldn’t finish the project for lack of funds. 9. Goods are
usually transported in goods trains. 10. Where are you going to spend your
holidays? 11. He has good looks. 12. You are forgetting your manners, young
46
man! 13. He is a man of means, he can afford it. 14. You’ll find the
information you need in the minutes of the meeting. 15. We are all at pains to
please her. 16. The policeman is taking down the particulars of the witnesses.
17. There is a suspect on the premises. 18. Give her my best regards. 19. I’ve
put all my savings in the savings bank. 20. She is always in good spirits. 21. I
can’t drink spirits. 22. She is sitting on the stairs. 23. He earns high wages.

Exercise 9. Turn the italicized nouns into the plural and make all the other
necessary changes in the sentences:
1.The chicken was eaten by a fox. 2. Have you seen this interesting
phenomenon? 3. That knife should be wiped at once. 4. Last night a house was
robbed by a thief. 5. The child in that family has bad manners. 6. The farmer
has a hen, a goose, and a sheep. 7. My sister-in-law is a teacher. 8. My cat
never catches a mouse. 9. The businessman is considering the new tariff.
10. She has lost the key to that door. 11. The housewife and the middle-aged
woman are the principal consumers of this product. 12. The inspector will
speak to the witness who has seen the accident.

Exercise 10. Choose the right word from the brackets:
1.The scissors (was, were) here a few minutes ago. 2. His luggage (was, were)
lost yesterday. 3. A (little, few) knowledge (is, are) a dangerous thing. 4.
(much, many) people on the ship (was, were) getting seasick from the waves.
5. There (is, are) several means of accomplishing our purpose. 6. Billiards (is,
are) his favourite game. 7. The news printed in that paper (is, are) never
accurate. 8. We don’t need to buy so (much, many) furniture, there (is, are)
(much, many) chairs here. 9. How (much, many) information do you have
about that man? 10. You didn’t give me (much, many) ideas about the job,
and very (little, few) advice.












47


Unit IV
Parts of a Company

Ok, let’s start here, in research and development department, or R&D. This
department is responsible for thinking of ideas for new products and finding
ways to improve our existing products….

This department looks after our computer equipment. They deal with any
problems. This is information technology or IT….

Purchasing buys all the thing we need to make our products. They talk to our
suppliers and try to get the best price….

This is the main factory area, the production department. Here we make our
products. It’s the biggest part of the company….

Here in the finance department, they check how much the company is making
and decide how much to spend. They also pay employees’ salaries….
This department looks after the people who work here. Human resources is
responsible for recruiting new employees, organizing training and helping
with any problems….

Sales and marketing is very important. The marketing people think up the
ideas for selling our products. The sales people go out and sell our products to
our customers….

Customer services processes orders from customers. It organizes
transportation, checks that customers have received their orders and deals with
complaints….

Finally, distribution is responsible for transporting our products. They receive
orders from customer services, and plan how and when to transport the
products so the customers receive them at the right time….

Vocabulary Practice
Match the name of the departments (1-9) with the phrases (a-i) to make a short
description of each department.

48
1. Sales and marketing
2. Information technology
3. Customers services
4. Human resources
5. Purchasing
6. Production
7. R&D
8. Finance
9. Distribution
a. transports the products
b. pays the salaries
c. sells the products
d. makes the products
e. looks after the computers
f. thinks of ideas for new products
g. recruits new staff
h. processes orders from customers
i. buys parts from the suppliers

Focus on grammar
A. Present simple
We use the present simple to talk about actions we see as long term or
permanent.
Here, we are talking about regular actions or events.
• They drive to the office every day.
• She doesn’t come here very often.
• The news usually starts at 6.00 every evening.
• Do you usually have bacon and eggs for breakfast?
Here, we are talking about future facts, usually found in a timetable or a chart.
• Christmas Day falls on a Monday this year.
• The plane leaves at 5.00 tomorrow morning.
• Ramadam doesn’t start for another 3 weeks.
• Does the class begin at 10 or 11 this week.
Here we are talking about thoughts and feelings at the time of speaking.
Although these feelings can be short-term, we use the present simple and not
the present continuous.
• They don’t ever agree with us.
• I think you are right.
• She doesn’t want you to do it.
49
• Do you understand what I am trying to say.
Exercise 1. Complete the following sentences using the Present Tense Simple
of the verbs below. Express a general truth or a permanent situation.
point, hunt, make, freeze, move, fly, float, appear, sell, set, expand, take
care.
1. Gravity … things fall to the ground.
2. The sun … in the west.
3. Lions … smaller animals.
4. Pilots … aero planes.
5. The Earth … round the sun.
6. A greengrocer … vegetables.
7. The new moon … every month.
8. Wood … on water.
9. A compass …. North.
10.Water … at 0 Celsius degrees
11.Heat … gas.
12.A vet … of sick animals

Exercise 2. Read the following in the third person singular.
1. I think I am right. 2. Policemen often direct traffic. 3. They help their father.
4. Butchers sell meat 5. Secretaries often write letters. 6. We live in London 7.
They worry too much. 8. You drive too quickly. 9. I always carry an umbrella.
10. Why do dogs bark? 11. Buses go every ten minutes. 12. I always read The
Times. 13. Do you like hard-boiled eggs? 14. I go to church on Sundays. 15.
Elephants never forget. 16. Do you like snails? 17. Good children always obey
their parents. 18. His dogs always attack strangers. 19. They do exercises
every morning before breakfast. 20. These hotels don’t allow dogs.

Exercise 3. Read the following,
a) in the negative;
b) in the interrogative.
In Nos. 2 and 14, have is used as an ordinary verb and should be treated as
one.
1. You know the answer. 2. He has breakfast at 8.00. 3. Jack loves Jill. 4.
Some schoolgirls wear uniforms. 5. He trusts you. 6. It melts in the sun. 7. The
bell rings at 8.00. 8. The flowers look fresh. 9. He thinks too much. 10. He
lives besides the sea. 11. I remember the address. 12. She plays chess very
well. 13. They always forget to pay. 14. Most men shave every day here. 15.
Climbers often carry ropes. 16. They talk in their sleep. 17. She agrees with
50
you. 18.Some girls enjoy dances. 19. This car breaks down frequently. 20.
This star moves round the sun.

B. Present continuous tense
We use the present continuous to talk about present situations which we see
as short-term or temporary.
In the following examples, the action is taking place at the time of speaking.
• Oh, no. It’s raining.
• Who is Kate talking to on the phone?
• Look, somebody is trying to steal that man’s wallet.
• Slow down, you’re driving too fast.
In the next examples, the action is true at the present moment but we don’t
think it will true in the long term.
• We’re looking for a new house.
• She’s thinking about leaving the company.
• Are you doing enough revision for your exams?
• They’re considering making an appeal against the judgment.
In these examples, the action is at a definite time in the future and has already
been arranged.
• I’m seeing her at 6.30.
• He’s coming next week.
• We are having a special dinner at a top restaurant for all the
senior managers.
• They aren’t arriving until Wednesday.
• Isn’t she coming to the dinner?

Exercise 4. Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous tense.
1. She ... (not work), she … (swim) in the river.
2. He … (teach) his boy to ride.
3. Why …Ann … (not wear) her new dress?
4. The airplane … (fly) at 2,000 feet.
5. What ……Tom … (do) now?
He … (clean) his shoes.
6. This fire … (go) out. Somebody … (bring) more coal?
7. It ... (rain)? Yes, it … (rain) very hard. You can’t go out yet.
8. You … (not tell) the truth.
How do you know that I … (not tell) the truth?
9. Who … (make) that terrible noise?
It is your uncle. He … (practise) the violin.
51
10. Why you … (type) so fast? You … (make) a lot of mistakes.

Exercise 5. Put the verbs in brackets into the simple present or the present
continuous tense.
1. Cuckoos … (not build) nests. They … (use) the nests of other birds.
2. You can’t see Tom now; he … (have) a bath.
3. He usually … (drink) coffee, but today he … (drink) tea.
4. What she … (do) in the evenings?
She usually … (play ) cards or … (listen) to the wireless.
5. I won’t go out now as it … (rain) and I … (not have) an umbrella.
6. The last train … (leave) the station at 11.30.
7. He usually … (speak) so quickly that I … (not understand) him.
8. In Spain women usually … (not wear) hats.
9. I’m afraid I’ve broken one of your coffee cups.
Don’t worry. It … (not matter) a bit. I ... (not like) that set anyway.
10. I always … (buy) lottery tickets but I never … (win) anything.
11. Who … (make) that terrible noise ?
It is Mr. Pitt. He … (blow) his nose.
12. How much … you … (owe) him?
I ... (owe) him $5.
… you … (intend) to pay him?
13. What ... Tom ... (think) of the budget?
He … (think) it most unfair.
I … (agree) with him.

Exercise 6. Mix and match:

Who’s she talking to? I’m just brushing my
hair.
Shall we go for a walk? He’s smoking a
cigarette outside.
I’m looking for my bag. No, it’s still raining.
What is she wearing? Have you seen it?
Is anyone sitting here? I don’t know but it
doesn’t suit her!
Where is Tom? I think I’ll go to bed.
I’ll be ready in a few
minutes.
Oh, that’s her brother.
I’m getting tired. No, no. Sit down.
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Exercise 7.
Select the correct forms of the verbs, paying special attention to the agreement
between subject and predicate:
1. Mumps (is/are) contagious. 2. The outskirts of our town (has/have) been
completely rebuilt. 3. Alms (does/do) not solve the Poor's problem. 4. The
trousers (is/are) well-cut. 5. Phonetics (deals/deal) with the sounds of a
language. 6. The information (is/are) very important to us. 7. The furniture of
the room (was/were) very modern, indeed. 8. Customs (is/are) very expensive
for such products. 9. This piece of luggage (is/are) very heavy. 10. Your piece
of advice (is/are) very important to me. 11. What news (is/are) published
today? 12. Plastics (replaces /replace) more and more the traditional materials.





53

Unit V
The Manager’s Role

Managers have to identify and set the objectives for their company. They are
involved in long-term, strategic planning, as well as in the drawing up of short
term, tactical plans. Managers must organize the company, decide on
allocation and use of the company’s resources. They select and train the staff
that should be able to suitably carry out the tasks of the organization.

In the implementation of their programme they must command, delegate,
motivate and communicate effectively with all the levels of their company. It
has been pointed out that good relations at work, among workers and between
workers and management favorably influence output, the quality of work and
motivation. The feeling of belonging to a group has a positive impact on the
behaviour of employees. Successful managers always involve their staff in
performing important tasks, delegating them some activities, this leading to
improved results of the company.

The control activity means measuring the performance of their staff, setting
obtained results against objectives – the management by objectives technique
is but one example in this respect. Managers also have to establish and make
contacts with the outside world, they represent their organization in its relation
with customers and suppliers, government and other parties.

Vocabulary practice
1. communicate - to convey an idea or feeling to people
2. delegate - to give someone the duty to act on your behalf, make
decisions
3. motivate - give/offer a stimulus to do something
4. management by objectives - a method of checking the performance of an
employee by setting the results against the targets

Focus on grammar
A. The past simple
The past simple is used to talk about actions and states which we see as
completed in the past

We use it to talk about a specific point in time.
• I saw her in the street yesterday.
54
• He came back last Thursday.
• We didn’t agree to the deal.
We can also use it to talk about a period of time.
• We lived in Japan for five years.
• She was in London from Monday to Thursday last week.
• When he was living in New York, he went to all the bars and clubs
he could.
We will often find the past simple used with time expressions such as these:
• Yesterday
• three weeks ago
• last year
• in 002
• from March to June
• for a long time
• for 6 weeks
• in the 1980s
• in the past
Irregular verbs
All new verbs in English are regular.
• I photocopied the report.
• She faxed it to me.
• They emailed everybody about it.
• I googled my name and got more than 20 000 responses.

Their are approximately 180 irregular verbs. You don’t need to learn all of
them because some of these are very rare but many others are very useful and
you do need to know them.

What’s the easiest way to learn them? Some people think you should learn a
list “by heart”. Others think you should not learn them at all – you will just
gradually acquire them over time.

One useful method is to note down new irregular verbs as you meet them. It is
useful to write these verbs (or any vocabulary you want to learn) in sentences
and learn those rather than the individual words.

Which is easier to learn?
• Stick stuck stuck
• I stuck the photo into my album.
55

Another technique is to classify the irregular verbs into 4 categories.

1. All forms the same
• Cast cast cast
• Cost cost cost
• Let let let
2. Similar sound groups
• Beat beat beaten
• Eat ate eaten

• Blow blew blown
• Throw threw thrown

• Drink drank drunk
• Sing sang sung

• Speak spoke spoken
• Wake woke woken
3. The second and the third forms are the same.
• Bend bent bent
• Sleep slept slept
• Spend spent spent

• Bring brought brought
• Buy bought bought
• Teach taught taught

• Have had had
• Pay paid paid
• Say said said

4. The “unclassifiable”
• Come came came
• Do did done
• Go went gone
• Show showed shown
As you meet new irregular verbs, try to decide in which category they fall.
56

B. The present perfect
(Please note that British and American English have different rules for the use
of this tense. The explanation and exercises here refer to British English. In
American English, it is often acceptable to use the past simple in some of
these examples.)

We use the present perfect tense when we want to look back from the present
to the past.

We can use it to look back on the recent past.
• I have broken my watch so I don’t know what time it is.
• They have cancelled the meeting.
• She has taken my copy. I don’t have one.
• The sales team has doubled its turnover.
When we look back on the recent past, we often use the words “just”,
“already” or the word “yet” (in negatives and questions only).
• We have already talked about that.
• She hasn’t arrived yet.
• I have just finished the translation.
• They have already met him.
• They haven’t known it yet.
• Have you spoken to him yet?
• Have they finished the report yet?
It can also be used to look back on the more distant past.
• We have been to Singapore a lot over the last few years.
• She has done this type of project many times before.
• We have mentioned it to them on several occasions over the last
six months.
• They have often talked about it in the past.
When we look back on the more distant past, we often use the words “ever”
(in questions) and “never”.
• Have you ever been to Argentina?
• Has he ever talked to you about the problem?
C. The present perfect continuous
This tense is used to talk about an action or actions that started in the past and
continued until recently or that continue into the future.

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We can use it to refer to an action that has finished but you can still see
evidence.
• Oh, the kitchen is a mess. Who has been cooking?
• You look tired. Have you been sleeping properly?
• I have got a stiff neck. I’ve been working too long on the
computer.
It can refer to an action that has not finished.
• I’ve been learning Spanish for 20 years and still don’t know it
very much.
• I’ve been waiting for him for 30 minutes and he still hasn’t
arrived.
• He’s been telling me about it for days. I wish he would stop.
It can refer to a series of actions.
• She has been writing to her regularly for a couple of years.
• He has been phoning me all week for an answer.
• The university has been sending students here for over twenty
years to do work experience.
The present perfect continuous is often used with “since”, “for”, “all week”,
“for days”, “lately”, “recently”, “over the last few months”.
• I have been waiting to do that for ten years.
• You haven’t been getting good results over the last few months.
• They haven’t been working all week. They’re on strike.
• He hasn’t been working hard on it for ages.
• I’ve been looking at other options recently.
• He has been working here since 2001.

D. Present perfect simple or continuous
Often there is very little difference between the present perfect simple and the
present perfect continuous. In many cases, both are equally acceptable.
• They’ve been working here for a long time but Andy has worked
here for even longer.
• I’ve lived here for 10 years and she has been living here for 12
years.
To emphasize the action, we use the continuous form.
• We’ve been working really hard for a couple of months.
• She’s been having a hard time.
To emphasize the result of the action, we use the simple form.
• I’ve made fifteen phone calls this morning.
• He’s written a very good report.
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Look at the difference in these examples.
• I’ve been reading this book for two months but I’ve only read half
of it.
• She’s been trying to convince him for 20 minutes but she hasn’t
managed to yet.
• They’ve been talking about this for months and they still haven’t
found a solution.
When an action is finished and you can see the results, use the continuous
from.
• The phone bill is enormous. You’ve been calling your boyfriend in
Australia, haven’t you?
• You’re red in the face. Have you been running?
When you use the words “ever” or “never”, use the simple form.
• I don’t know them. I’ve never met them.
• Have you ever heard anything so strange in your life?

Exercise1. Transform the following sentences into interrogative sentences and
then negative sentences, paying attention to the forms of the irregular verbs.
Model:
I cut the bread. a. Did I cut the bread?
b. I did not cut the bread.
She made a cake. a. Did she make a cake?
b. She did not make a cake.
1.She sent the letter yesterday.
2.The boy took a bath every morning.
3.The doctor wore a dark blue suit with a grey tie.
4.I forgave her at once.
5.The man went to bed late at night.
6.Mr. and Mrs. Smith slept at a hotel.
7.Susan brought her daughter a blue dress.
8.The Bartons caught the boat-train to London
9.The little boy ate all the chocolates.
10.He hurt her feelings by saying that.
11.Mr. Brown gave George a small present.
12.Margaret chose a book for a friend in hospital.
13.The sun rose at 5:20.
14.Jack fell into the river.
15.The thief lay still in the dark.
16.He meant his son to succeed.
59
17.She beat the carpets yesterday.
18.The dog bit him in the leg.
19.My sun won the prize last year.
20.Mother laid the table in no time.

Exercise 2. Fill in the blanks with the past tense simple of the verbs in
brackets to make a description of a past demonstration.
1.Last year we … (visit) a modern factory where they make window glass.
2.We first … (see) workmen mixing sand and other materials in the right
amounts.
3.Then they … (add) some glass to the mixture.
4.Next they … (feed) the mixture into a big hot oven.
5.At the far end of the oven, a stream of liquid glass .… (come out).
6.Here some men … (lower) a metal frame into the liquid.
7.As the frame … (come up), it … (pull away) a hot sheet of glass.
8.Special rollers … (take hold) of the sheet at either side and … (carry) it
upwards.
9.At height of 30 feet the sheet of glass ... (become) cool and another machine
…(cut) it into big pieces which workmen … (store away) together.
10.The glass … (be) now ready for use.

Exercise3. Put the verbs in brackets into the past continuous tense.
1.The children were afraid because it … (get) dark.
2.It was a fine day and the roads were crowded because a lot of people …
(rush) to the seaside.
3.The plane in which the football team … (travel) crashed soon after taking
off.
4.Mr. Taylor usually wears sandals during the summer season but when I last
saw him he …
(wear) thick boots.
5.The office was in great disorder because he … (redecorate) it.
6.The car was empty but the engine … (run).
7.Are you going to Rome? I thought that you … (go) to Milan.
8.My partner and I … (talk) about this business the other day.
9.When I first met him he … (work) for a big company.
10.There was a strong smell and the sound of frying. Obviously Mrs. Jones …
(cook) fish.
11.Tom ate nothing for lunch because he (diet). He said that he … (try) to lose
10 lb.
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12.When I arrived at the meeting the first speaker had just finished speaking
and the audience … (clap).
13.Who … you … (talk) to on the telephone as I came in?
I … (talk) to Mr. Pitt.
14. Where … he … (live) when you saw him last?
15. There had been an accident and men … (carry)
the injured people to the ambulance.

Exercise 4. Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect tense, and fill the
spaces by repeating the auxiliary.
1. Where …you … (be)?
I (be) to the dentist.
2. … you … (have) breakfast?
Yes, I ……
3. … the post …. (come)?
No, it ……
4. … you (see) … my watch anywhere?
No, I’m afraid I……
5. … someone … (wind) the clock?
Yes, Tom …..
6. The phone … (stop) ringing.
7. … you … (hear) of her lately?
No, I …….
8. There aren’t any buses because the drivers … (go) on strike.
9. … you … (have) enough to eat?
Yes, I … (have) plenty, thank you.
10.…Charles … (pass) his exam?
Yes, he ……

Exercise 5. Read the questions below and answer them according to the
model. Use JUST with the present perfect simple to express an action
completed recently.

Model: Is Peter opening the window now?
No, he’s just opened the window.
Are the students listening to the tapes now?
No, they’ve just listened to the tapes.
1.Is Mr. Brown opening his office now?
2.Are the students practicing the tenses now?
3.Is Alice cleaning the blackboard now?
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4.Is the secretary typing the report now?
5.Is Barbara closing the door now?
6.Are the boys playing tennis now?
7.Are the new investors waiting in front of the building now?
8.Are the two men signing the agreements now?
9.Is Ted buying a new car for the company now?
10.Is the manager announcing the subject of the meeting now?

Exercise 6..Read the following situation and put in Diana’s answers. Use the
present perfect +ALREADY for an action completed at a time earlier than
expected.
Situation: Diana is having a party tonight. Her sister is worried as she thinks
there are still a lot of things to do. But Diana has already done everything.

Model:
Sister:
Now, Diana, you must clean your room.
Diana:
I’ve already cleaned it, mum.
Sister Diana
1. And you must dust the furniture. ……….
2. Don’t forget to make the beds. ……….
3. And the dishes – you must wash them. ………
4. And you must iron the tablecloth. ……….
5. Then you must lay the table. ………
6. Don’t forget to make the sandwiches. ……….
7. And the cake – you must bake it. ………
8. You must also get some coffee.
9. And you must buy some fruit, too, you know. ...
10. Don’t forget to put the flowers on the table. ...

Exercise 7. Answer the following questions in the negative. Use YET with the
negative form of the present perfect simple to express an action which is still
incomplete.
Situation: Judy Stevens is a secretary in a big office. She has been away for a
week as she has been ill. Now the manager is asking about her activity.
Model:
Manager: Well, has Judy typed the letters?
Office worker: No, I’m afraid she hasn’t typed them yet.
Manager Office worker
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1. Has Judy typed the interview? ………
2. Has Judy phoned Mr. Parker? ……… 3.Has Judy written
the report? ……….
4. Has Judy ordered the newspapers? ………
5. Has Judy sent the letters? ……….
6. Has Judy arranged the conference? ……….
7. Has Judy paid the telephone bill? ……….
8. Has Judy bought pens and pencils? ……….

Exercise 8. Give true answers to the following questions to practise the use of
EVER, NEVER, OFTEN, which are frequently associated with the present
perfect.(These adverbs of frequency can be associated with other tenses as
well, depending on the context and the temporal relations.)

Model: Have you ever played tennis?
Yes, I have. I’ve often played tennis. / No, I haven’t. I’ve never played
tennis.
1. Have you ever read in a library?
2. Have you ever missed the train?
3. Have you ever cooked?
4. Have you ever traveled by cable car?
5. Have you ever eaten caviar?
6. Have you ever acted in a play?
7. Have you ever visited Paris?
8. Have you ever met a famous person?
9. Have you ever ridden a horse?
10. Have you ever lost your wallet?

Exercise 9.The Present Perfect and the Simple Past
Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect or the simple past tense. (In
some sentences the present perfect continuous is also possible.)
1. This is my house. How long … you … (live) here?
I … (live) here since 1989.
2. He … (live) in London for two years and then … (go) to Edinburgh.
3. … you … (wear) your hair long when you were at school?
Yes, my mother … (insist) on it.
4. But when I … (leave) school I … (cut) my hair and … (wear) it short ever
since.
5. Shakespeare … (write) several plays.
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6. My brother … (write) several plays. He …just … (finish) his second
tragedy.
7. I … (fly) over Loch Ness last week.
… you … (see) the Loch Ness monster?
8. I … (not see) him for three years. I wonder where he is.
9. He … (not smoke) for two weeks. He is trying to give it up.
10. Chopin … (compose) some of his music in Majorca.
11. I can’t go out because I … (not finish) my work.
12. You … (see) the moon last night?
13. We … (miss) the bus. Now we’ll have to walk.
14. He … (break) his leg in a skiing accident last year.

Exercise 10.Answer the following questions:
1. How long have you been living in this town?
2. How long have you known Michael?
3. How long have you had this hat?
4. How long have you been a student?
5. How long have you had a driving license?
6. How long have you had this car?
7. How long have you been studying English?
8. How long have you been doing this exercise?

Exercise11.The Present Perfect Simple and the Present Perfect Continuous
Put the verbs in brackets into the present perfect simple or the present perfect
continuous tense. (In some cases either could be used.)
1. We … (walk) ten miles.
2. We … (walk) for three hours.
3. You … (walk) too fast. That’s why you are tired.
4. He … (not stop) eating since he arrived.
5. The driver … (drink). I think someone else ought to drive.
6. He … (sleep) since ten o’clock. It’s time he woke up.
7. What a lovely smell! Mary … (make) jam,
8. I … (work) for him for ten years and he never once … (say) “Good
morning” to me.
9. He … (teach) in this school for five years.
10. I … (teach) hundreds of students but I … never … (meet) such a hopeless
class as this.
11. I … (try) to finish this letter for the half-hour. I wish you’d go away or
stop talking.
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12. It … (rain) for two hours and the ground is too wet to play on, so the
match … (be) postponed.
Exercise 9. Put the verbs in brackets into the present continuous tense.
1.I … (make) cakes. That is why my hands are all covered with flour.
2.Her phone … (ring) for ten minutes. I wonder why she doesn’t answer it.
3.He … (overwork). That is why he looks pale.
4.How long … you … (wear) glasses?
5.He … (speak) for an hour now. I expect he’ll soon be finished.
6.I … (shop) all day and I’m completely exhausted.
7.How long … you … (wait) for me? I (wait) about half an hour.
8.Have seen my briefcase anywhere? I … (look) for it for ages.
9.I’m sorry for keeping you waiting. I … (be) on a meeting.
10.He … (speak) for an hour now. I expect he’ll soon be finished.
11.We … (argue) about this for two hours now. Don’t you think we should
stop?
12.We … (live) here since 1982.
13.I’m on a diet. I … (eat) nothing but bananas for the last month.
14.This pipe … (leak) for ages. We must get it mended.
15.The trial … (go) on for a long time. I wonder what the verdict will be.

Exercise 12.”For” and “Since”
Fill the spaces in the following sentences by using for and since.
1. We’ve been fishing … two hours.
2. I’ve been working in this office …a month.
3. They’ve been living in France … 1995.
4. I’ve known that … a long time.
5. The man has been standing there … six o’clock.
6. Things have changed …I was a little boy.
7. I’ve been using this machine … twelve years.
8. We’ve been waiting …….. half an hour.
9. Mr. Pitt has been in hospital … his accident.
10. He hasn’t spoken to me … the last committee meeting.
11. He has been under water … half an hour.
12. That tree has been there … 2,000 years.
13. He hasn’t eaten anything … twenty-four hours.
14. He has been Minister of Education … 2002.

Exercise13. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: present perfect or
simple past.
65
1. I … (buy) a new house last year, but I … (not sell) my old house yet, so at
the moment I have two houses.
2. When Ann … (be) on her way to the station it … (begin) to rain. Ann …
(run) back to her flat for her umbrella, but this … (make) her late for her train.
3. She … (catch) the next train but it … (not get) in till 9.00, so she … (arrive)
at her office ten minutes late.
4. Her boss … (look) up as she … (come) in. ‘You … (be) late every morning
this week’, he … (growl).
5. At 7 a.m. Charles … (ring) Peter and … (say), ‘I’m going fishing, Peter.
Would you like to come?’
6. ‘But it’s so early,’ … (say) Peter. ‘I … (not have) breakfast yet. Why …
you … (not tell) me last night?’
7. Ann … (go) to Canada six months ago. She … (work) in Canada for a
while and then … (go) to the United States.
8. Cindy … (be) in Japan for two years. She is working there and she likes it
very much.
9. How long … you … (be) in your present job?
I … (be) there for six months.
And what … you … (do) before that?
Before that I … (work) for Jones and Company.
10. When I … (be) seventeen I…(start) my university course.
When … you … (get) your degree?
Oh, I … (not get) my degree yet; I’m still at the university. I only … (be)
there for three years.
11. … you … (ever, be) to France?
Yes, I … (spend) last July and August in Grenoble. I … (go) to improve my
French but everyone I … (meet) … (want) to improve his English so I … (not
get) much practice
12. In the evenings I often play chess with my next door neighbour. I … (play)
chess with him ever since I … (come) to live here ten years ago.
13. I hope you’re enjoying your visit to England. … you … (meet) any
Englishmen yet?
Yes, I … (meet) a man called Smith at a party last night.
What … you … (talk) about?
We … (talk) about the weather.

Exercise 14. Express the idea of repeated action using the present perfect
continuous tense instead of the present perfect simple + the specified number
of times the action is repeated.
Model: I’ve asked him to be quiet hundreds of
66
times.
I’ve been asking him to be quiet.
1. I’ve phoned Cindy four times.
2. The new investors have asked the manager the same question twice.
3. They’ve visited this museum three times.
4. Mr. Taylor has driven this car hundreds of times.
5. She has done crossword puzzles many times.
6. I’ve seen this film many times.
7. Christine has worn this dress twice.

Exercise 15.Use the verbs in brackets in the present perfect simple or
continuous. (Some of the verbs cannot be used in the continuous aspect).
Model: Mary went to library at 8 o’clock in the morning.
She is still there, reading. (be, read)
Mary has been in the library since 8 o’clock.
She has been reading since 8 o’clock.
1. Paul and Ann are waiting for the train. They walked onto the station
platform half an hour ago. (wait, be)
2. My cousin bought a car in 2001. In the same year he learnt to drive. He still
has the car. (have, drive)
3. I first met John five years ago. He was living in London at that time and he
is still living there. (know, live)
4. My parents bought a house ten years ago. They are still living in it. (own,
live)
5. The Taylors began making plans for their holiday two hours ago. Now they
know where they are going to spend it. (talk, decide)
6. Cindy caught a bad cold three days ago. She immediately













67

Unit VI
Motivation

In order to insure that employees work efficiently a manager must motivate
his staff. The factors influencing motivation have been presented as a
hierarchy of needs by Maslow. The first group are physiological needs such as
food, water, air and sleep. Before these needs have been satisfied people will
not think of other needs.

The second place is held by security needs such as being safe, being free from
danger, pain, unemployment and having a shelter where to stay. When these
needs are satisfied people will have social needs which include the feeling of
belonging to a group as well as being accepted and liked by the others.

The next type of need is called esteem need, that is self-respect, the esteem of
others, the desire to have power and status. The highest level in the hierarchy
of needs is held by self-actualization needs i.e. the desire to develop, to
maximize one’s potential, to achieve one’s goals. Another theory of
motivation is that worked out by Herzberg. He has a two-factor theory
motivators, i.e. factors bringing satisfaction, include challenging work, career
prospects, responsibility and recognition, promotion. The second group of
factors, hygiene factors, refer to conditions of work such as salary and fringe
benefits, relationship with colleagues, job security, status. The second group
does not give increased satisfaction. However, the absence of such factors is
likely to lead to dissatisfaction.

Vocabulary practice

1. hierarchy - the position of somebody in society / how important others
think you are
2. status - a system where ideas are arranged in a formal structure
3. self-actualization – self-development
4. security - protection from danger / harm

Read and learn:

Read what three people say about their jobs. Complete the chart with notes on
the good and bad things about Anna’s, Tony’s, and Erika’s jobs.

68
Anna, 18
“I work in a factory. My working hours are 8.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m., Monday to
Friday. I have a one hour lunch break at 12.30. The routine is the same every
day. My job is very boring but the pay is quite good. My colleagues and I
don’t really talk to each other, but I have a lot of friends outside work. My job
is just a way to earn money.”

Tony, 23
“I’m a computer programmer. I work a 40 – hour week. We have flexible
hours so I can start and finish when I want. If we are busy then I work
overtime – I get paid extra for this. There are always problems to solve. This
can be difficult, but it can also be quite creative. I earn a good salary, but my
job doesn’t rule my life. I like to do different things in my free time.”

Erika, 25
“ I’m a doctor in a large hospital. I work very long hours – 60 or 70 hours a
week – often in the evenings and at weekends. The work is really interesting
but it can also be quite stressful. I love my job and my colleagues are also my
friends. I don’t have time for a social life. When I get home, I’m too tired to do
anything except have dinner and watch TV.”

Good things Bad things
Anna


Tony


Erika



Vocabulary practice
A. Match the underlined words in the quotes with the definitions (1 – 8).
1. the people you work with __________
2. the number of hours in the week you spend doing your
job____________
3. the money you receive every month for the work you have
done___________
4. the things you do, usually with other people, outside
work___________
5. the time you have for eating in the middle of the working
day____________
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6. the time you spend at work after your normal working
hours___________
7. a system where you can choose when to start and finish
work________
8. the usual order and the way that you regularly do
things____________

B. Complete the sentences (1-6) with an adjective from the box.

boring; busy; difficult; creative; interesting; stressful

1. If we have too much work and not enough time, it can be quite
……….
2. In my job, I use my imagination and ideas a lot, so the work is ………
.
3. I do the same thing every day – my job is ………… .
4. There is so much to do at work that I’m always ………… .
5. Sometimes my job is …………., but I would get bored if it was too
easy.
6. My job is very …………. because I’m always learning new things.



C. Reading
Read about the quotes from two people talking about their jobs. Which one is
motivated by:
1. helping other people
…………………………….
2. earning a lot of money
…………………………….

Cindy, accountant
“I work in the finance department of a large company. There are a lot of
benefits. For example, if the company makes a profit, all the employees get a
bonus. There’s also a profit share, but that’s only for managers. I have a
company car and I also travel abroad quite a lot – always business class and on
expenses, of course. We also get a pension and private health insurance. The
company pays for its staff to go on training courses to develop their
professional skills. And we get free membership of the local gym. There are
70
also rewards: it’s hard work, but I get a lot of satisfaction from it. People
recognize it if you do a good job, so there are good prospects for promotion.”


Benjamin, physiotherapist
“I work for the health service. There are a lot of rewards: the main one is the
job satisfaction. I get a real sense of achievement when someone says ‘thank
you’. You know you’re doing a worthwhile job. If you work hard, there are
opportunities for promotion. I like the responsibility of making the difference
to people’s lives. There are some benefits. We don’t get bonuses or anything
like that, but there’s a very good pension. The health service pays for us to go
on training courses, and people with children get help with paying for
childcare. If I visit patients at home, I get a travel allowance, but it’s not very
much.”

3. Look at this list of things that motivate people and tick the things Cindy and
Benjamin mention.
Cindy Benjamin
pension _____ _____
training _____ _____
profit share _____ _____
expenses _____ _____
company car _____ _____
business class travel _____ _____
private health insurance_____ _____
bonus _____ _____
travel allowance _____ _____
subsidized childcare _____ _____
promotion _____ _____
gym membership _____ _____
doing something
worthwhile _____ _____








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Unit VII
The management of time

A manager should use his time in an efficient way. He should cut out all
activities that do not contribute to the carrying out of his managerial tasks. In
order to be aware of how he spends his time, he could resort to recording his
activity all over the day, which is called logging time. Based on time logging,
he can realize what can be left out. A manager should have a clear idea of
priorities. A list of tasks in the order of their importance could be a useful
device. He should concentrate on the most important tasks first, and avoid
time-consuming and unproductive ways of doing things. A good manager will
delegate the tasks he cannot afford the time to handle himself and in this way
he will be able to meet deadlines even if this means others have been involved
in settling matters. Among the things he can give up is writing long memos.
He can handle matters faster by making phone calls. He can also turn down
requests to join committees, give interviews, contribute articles to magazines
and so on. In this way he could make an efficient use of his time.
Vocabulary practice
1. to log – to record facts/events in writing;
2. to afford – to have enough of something for a purpose;
3. to delegate – give someone a duty to act on your behalf, taking decisions;
4. to turn down – reject / refuse;
5. deadline - time / date before which a specified job must be finished;
Exercise 1. Fill in the missing words:
Telephoning
When …(1) a telephone call abroad you must make sure you know, besides
the called party’s number, the country and area…(2). If you want to reach
someone who works with the company, you might …(3) through to her/him
using either a direct line or the switchboard. If the latter is the case, the
operator will identify the company’s name and ask you what she/he can… (4)
for you. You will mention either the department and the name of the person
you’d like to speak to or the …(5) number. If that extension is … (6), she/he
cannot … (7) you through at once. So you will be asked to … (8) the line or
… (9) up and call again later. When you have finally been put through there is
a chance that the person you are looking for is not … (10). She/he may be …
(11) for a while, or may be in … (12), or even on a … (13) of absence. The
secretary, who … (14) the call, will offer to … (15) a message if you wish to
… (16) one. She/he will … (17) you that the message will be … (18) on her
boss and she/he will call you back as soon as possible. If you have the chance
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to find your man from the first attempt, you will … (19) down to business and
maybe … (20) an appointment or any other arrangements that are required.

One word may be used more than once

Available , busy , code , conference , do ,extension, get, (2 times) , hang , hold
, leave (2 times) , make, making , out, passed , put , reassure , take , takes.

Key to exercise 1: 1 .making; 2. code; 3. get; 4. do; 5. extension; 6. busy; 7.
put; 8. hold; 9. hang; 10. available; 11. out; 12. conference; 13. leave; 14.
takes; 15. take; 16. leave; 17. reassure; 18. passed; 19. get; 20.make.



The use of the preposition in trade vocabulary

1. to abide by = a respecta (o lege)
We must abide by the law.
2. to accommodate somebody with = a furniza ceva cuiva
The firm accommodated the entire demand
(Firma a onorat întreaga comandă)
3. to account for = a justifica
They had to account for all the spent money.
(Au fost siliţi să justifice toţi banii cheltuiţi)
4. to acquaint smb.with smth.= a familiariza pe cineva cu ceva
We must acquaint with all the details of the transaction.
5. to come into= a moşteni
He has come into a big sum of money lately.
6. to come to = a se ridica la (o sumă)
The bill comes to 1000 pounds.
7. to deal in = a face comerţ cu
Their firm deals in steel.
8. to deal with = a avea de-a face cu
I have dealt with the firm for many years.
(Am tratat cu firma lor mulţi ani)
9. to get off smth.= a se eschiva de la ceva
No one should get off one’s duty.
10. to inform against= a denunţa
We have to inform authorities against their misdeeds.
11. to meet with = a întâmpina; a se izbi de
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They meet with a lot of opposition every day.
12. to stand for = a reprezenta
These initials stand for…
13. to succeed to smb = a succeda cuiva
He succeed his father in the firm.
14. to manufacture from = a fabrica din
The furniture should be manufactured from oak only.

Offers. Negotiations. Trade.
Read and learn:
1. In reply to your inquiry of … (date), we are happy to inform you/let you
know, that we are able to supply you the goods you solicited.
2. The price will be…, packing included. Delivery on the…Payment can be
made by Documentary Letter of Credit opened in our favour within…days of
the delivery, and valid for…days.
3. The advance payment of…% of the total value of the contract should be
made by: simple invoice/, irrevocable Letter of Credit.
4. The present offer is firm until…days of the mailing date.
5. Top quality products at competitive prices (samples enclosed), will,
hopefully, arise your interest.
6. Subject to the delivery terms you require, we reserve the right to change the
price within acceptable boundaries.
7. New prices will be applied due to increase in raw materials prices. The
increase will represent…%.

Greetings, phrases used in conversation
Read and learn:
1. Good morning / afternoon,…
2. May I introduce myself?
3. I am from…/ represent the…enterprise.
4. May I introduce you to Mr./Mrs.…., our assistant.
5. Glad to meet you/Nice to meet you/How do you do.
6. You have met Mr./Mrs… haven’t you?
7. No. I’m afraid we haven’t met before.
8. We met last year/years ago.
9. Welcome to…
10. We’ve been expecting you.
11. How was your journey/trip/flight?
12. Are you for the first time in…?
13. We hope you’ll have a pleasant stay in…
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14. I’m afraid I have to go/leave. I think it’s time to leave.
15. I’m sorry you’re leaving so soon.
16. I wish I could stay longer.
17. I wish we could meet again.
18. We hope you’ll have a pleasant journey back.
19. Thank you for your hospitality and we’re looking forward to your visit to
our country.
20. The meeting was/has been rewarding (useful, interesting).
21. I was delighted to make your acquaintance.

Focus on grammar
A. The past continuous tense
The past continuous tense is used to talk about past events which took place
for a period of time.
It is used to emphasize the continuing process of an activity or the period of
that activity. (If we want to talk about a past event as a simple fact, we use the
past simple).
• While I was driving home, Richard was truing desperately to
phone me.
• Sorry , were you sleeping?
• I was just making some tea. Would you like some?
• I was thinking about her last night.
• In the 1990s, very few people were using mobile phones.
We often use it to describe a “background action” when something else
happened.
• They were still waiting for the plane when I spoke to them.
• He was talking to me on the phone and it suddenly went dead.
• She was walking in the street when suddenly fell over.
• The company was growing rapidly before he became chairman.
• We were just talking about it before you arrived.
• I was having a cup of coffee when I remembered I was supposed
to be in a meeting!

Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the past continuous tense.
1. The children were afraid because it … (get) dark.
2. It was a fine day and the roads were crowded because a lot of people …
(rush) to the seaside.
3. The plane in which the football team … (travel) crashed soon after taking
off.
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4. Mr. Taylor usually wears sandals during the summer season but when I last
saw him he … (wear) thick boots.
5. The office was in great disorder because he … (redecorate) it.
6. The car was empty but the engine … (run).
7. Are you going to Rome? I thought that you … (go) to Milan.
8. My partner and I … (talk) about this business the other day.
9. When I first met him he … (work) for a big company.
10.There was a strong smell and the sound of frying. Obviously Mrs. Jones …
(cook) fish.
11.Tom ate nothing for lunch because he (diet). He said that he … (try) to lose
10 lb.
12.When I arrived at the meeting the first speaker had just finished speaking
and the audience … (clap).
13. Who … you … (talk) to on the telephone as I came in?
I … (talk) to Mr. Pitt.
14. Where … he … (live) when you saw him last?
15. There had been an accident and men … (carry) the injured people to the
ambulance.

Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: simple past or past
continuous.
1. I (walk) along Piccadilly when I (realize) that a man with a ginger beard,
whom I had seen three times already that afternoon, (follow) me. 2. To make
quite sure, I (walk) on quickly, (turn) right, then left and (stop) suddenly at a
shop window. 3. In a few minutes the man with the beard (appear) and (stop)
at another shop window. 4. I (go) on. 5. Whenever I (stop) he (stop), and
whenever I (look) round he (be) still there. 6. He (look) a very respectable type
and (wear) very conventional clothes and I (wonder) if he was a policeman or
a private detective. 7. I (decide) to try and shake him off. 8. A 74 bus (stand)
at the bus stop just beside me. 9. Then the conductor (come) downstairs and
(ring) the bell; just as the bus (move) off, I (jump) on it. 10. The man with the
beard (miss) the bus but (get) into another 74, which (follow) the first. 11.
Both buses (crawl) very slowly along Knightsbridge. 12. Every time the buses
(pull) up at a stop, the man (look) out anxiously to see if I (get) off. 13.
Finally, at some traffic lights, he (change) buses and (get) into mine. 14. At
Gloucester Road underground, I (leave) the bus and (buy) a ticket at a ticket
machine. 15. As I (stand) on the platform waiting for a Circle Line train, my
pursuer (come) down the stairs. 16. He (carry) a newspaper and when we (get)
into the same compartment, he (sit) in one corner reading it, and I (read) the
advertisements. 17. He (look) over the top of the newspaper at every station to
76
see if I (get) out. 18. I (become) rather tired of being shadowed like this, so
finally I (go) and (sit) beside the man and (ask) him why he (follow) me. 19.
At first he (say) he (not follow) me at all but when I (threaten) to knock him
down, he (admit) that he was. 20. Then he (tell) me he (be) a writer of
detective stories and (try) to see if it was difficult to follow someone unseen.
21. I (tell) him he hadn’t been unseen because I had noticed him in Piccadilly
and I (advise) him to shave off his ginger beard if he (not want) his victim to
know he (be) followed.

B. The past simple or continuous
The past simple and the past continuous both refer to completed actions in the
past.
When we are talking about such actions, most of the time, we use the past
simple. This is by far the most common way of talking about the past.
• They lived in Florida for 6 years.
• I only found out a few minutes ago.
• The company took on more than 100 people last year.
• He asked her but she didn’t know anything.
The past continuous tense is used only when you want to emphasize the
continuity of the action.
• Jack was talking about it all evening.
• There were really trying hard but couldn’t do it.
• Were you expecting him to get the job?
• I was thinking about you the other day.
The past continuous to talk about the “background action” and the past simple
to talk about the shorter completed action.
• It was snowing hard when we left home.
• I was reading the report when you rang.
• She was going out to an appointment when I saw her.
• Everybody was taking a break when I arrived.
• The company was doing well when I last visited it.

C. The past perfect tense
The past perfect simple is used to talk about what happened before a point in
the past. It looks back from a point in the past to a time further in the past.
• She had already spoken to him before I had time to give him my
version.
• I checked with our customers but they still hadn’t received the
delivery.
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• I hadn’t known the bad news when I saw him.
• The company had started the year very well but was hit badly by
the strikes.
It is often used when we report what people had said/thought/believed.
• He phoned me to say that they had already paid the bell.
• She said she thought John had moved to Italy.
• I thought we had already decided on somewhere for our holidays.


D. The past perfect continuous
We use the past perfect continuous to look back at a situation in progress.
• It was a good time to invest. Inflation had been falling for several
months.
• Before I changed jobs, I had been working on a plan to reduce
production costs.
• We had been thinking about buying a new house but then we
decided to stay here.
We use it to say what had been happening before something else happened.
• It had been snowing for a while before we left.
• We had been palying tennis for only a few minutes when it started
raining.
• He was out of breath when he arrived because he had been
running.
We use it when reporting things said in the past.
• “I’ve been trying to call you all day.”- She said she had been
trying to call me all day.
• “We’ve been shopping.” – They said they had been shopping.
• “I was looking for some new clothes.”- I told you I had been
looking for some new clothes.

Exercise 1. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: simple past or past
continuous.
1. He … (sit) on the bank fishing when he … (see) a man’s hat floating down
the river. It … (seem) strangely familiar.
2. This used to be a station and all the London trains … (stop) here. But two
years ago they … (close) the station and … (give) us a bus service instead.
3. I … (pick) up the receiver and … (dial) a number. To my surprise I …
(find) myself listening to an extraordinary conversation. Two men … (plan) to
kidnap the Minister of Justice.
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4. I … (meet) Paul at the university. We … (be) both in the same year. He …
(study) law, but he … (not be) very interested in it and … (spend) most of his
time practicing the flute.
5. They … (build) that bridge when I … (be) here last year. They haven’t
finished it yet.
6. The dentist’s waiting room was full of people. Some … (read) magazines,
others just … (turn) over the pages. A woman … (knit); a child … (play) with
a toy car. Suddenly the door … (open) and the nurse … (say), ‘Next, please.’
7. My dog … (attack) the postman as he … (put) the letters into the letterbox.
The man … (thrust) a large envelope into the dog’s mouth and of course he …
(tear) it. Unfortunately, the letter … (contain) my diploma. I … (patch) the
diploma up with sellotape but it still looks a bit odd.
8. We … (not get) much sleep last night because the people next door …
(have ) a noisy party. I … (ring) up the landlord and … (say) that his tenants
… (make) too much noise. He … (point out) that it … (be) Saturday and that
people often … (have) parties on Saturday nights. I … (say) that the people in
his house always … (have) parties.
9. The curtain just … (rise) when somebody at the back of the theatre …
(shout) ‘Fire!’ The audience … (look) round nervously.
10. As it … (rain) the children … (play) in the sitting room. Tom was there,
too. He … (try) to write a letter but he … (not get on) very well because the
children … (keep) asking him questions.

Exercise 2. Read the following sentences paying attention to the use of
Hardly/No sooner + past perfect tense.

Hardly/No sooner + had + S + V (past participle)… when …

1. Hardly had she arrived home when the phone rang.
2. No sooner had I gone to bed when someone knocked at the front door.
3. Hardly had they got out of the house when it started raining very hard.
4. Hardly had the secretary entered the office when the manager asked for
her.
5. Hardly had they got to the station when the train arrived.
6. No sooner had Alice sung a song when she began another.
7. Hardly had Jim posted the letter when he remembered he hadn’t stamped
it.
8. No sooner had Mr. Taylor taken the medicine when he felt better.
9. No sooner had Mr. Faulkner smoked a cigarette when he lit another.
10. No sooner had Sally drunk a cup of coffee when she asked for another.
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Exercise 3. Read the sentences below paying attention to the use of the past
perfect tense.
1. The secretary had just got into the office when the telephone rang.
2. Doris turned the radio on as soon as she had entered the office.
3. Mr. White had worked for this company for thirty years when he retired.
4. Tom had already had breakfast when his wife got up.
5. Until the manager had explained the business again, the investors did not
understand.
6. By the time the guests arrived, the maid had prepared all the rooms.
7. After the plane had touched the ground, the engines stopped.
8. After she had watched the serial for twenty minutes, Cindy fell asleep.
9. The passengers had fastened their seat belts before the plane landed.
10. When the concert began, Michael hadn’t bought his ticket.

Exercise 4. Re-express the following sentences to indicate what activity had
already been completed when / by the time / before the event took place, and
what activity had been continuing to that time.

Model: a) I finished studying the lesson. By the time you rang me up …
By the time you rang me up I had finished studying the lesson.
b) Tom waited for half an hour. When the train arrived …
When the train arrived, Tom had been waiting for half an hour.

1. They looked for the child for an hour. When they found the child …
2. I finished reading the letter. By the time you came …
3. The farmers harvested their crops. Before the first snow came …
4. The Spaniards explored California. By the time the English colonists came

5. I traveled for two hours. When I arrived at Pitesti …
6. All the pupils in this class studied English for several years. When they
came to this class …
7. Many of the people guest left. Before the conference began …
8. It rained a lot in the mountains. When we went on holiday in the mountains


Exercise 5. Put the verbs in brackets in the past tense simple, past perfect
simple or continuous, as appropriate.

80
1. By the time Helen … (reach) the store, she … (forget) what she wanted to
buy.
2. The ground … (be) wet because it … (rain) for five days.
3. First the weather … (be) fine. Later it … (start) to rain. Then we … (decide)
to go back home.
4. Michael … (feel) rather unwell for a few days so he … (go) to see his
doctor.
5. By the end of the last year they … (study) Accounting for three years.
6. When the investors … (phone) us, we … (not finish) our Annual General
Meeting yet.
7. Sally was still practicing the piano at noon yesterday. She … (sing) all
morning.
8. The engineer … (design) the new wing of the plant last week. He … (never,
design) such an interesting project before.
9. I … (meet) my boss yesterday afternoon. He … (tell) me he … (just, come)
back from his holiday.
10.The telephone … (ring) again a few minutes ago. It … (ring) several times
during the day.
11.By the time I … (get) to the office, the meeting … (already, begin).
12.The brass band … (play) ever since the first people … (get) into the park.
13.We … (wait) for more than half an hour but there was still no sign of out
new partners.
14.The party was a great success. Tom … (feel) happier than he … (ever,
feel) before.

Exercise 6. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form of the past perfect.
1. When we returned, we found that somebody …..(broke into) our flat.
2. I …… (not/finish) cooking dinner when my parents came to visit.
3. Jim went out for coffee after he …… (write) a letter to his grandmother.
4. They left the cinema after the film …… (end).
5. She was excited because she …… (not/see) a play before.
6. Did you like the cake …… (she/bake)?
7. He …… (hear) the song on the radio before he bought the CD.
8. They were tired because they …… (play) football.
9. She was sad because she …… (lose) the game.
10.The match …… (already/start) when they arrived at the stadium.

Exercise 7. Join the sentences using the words in brackets and putting the
verbs into the correct tense, as in the example:
e.g.
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They watched TV. They finished their homework. (after)
They watched TV after they had finished their homework.
1. Jeff was 12 years old. He learned to speak English. (by the time)
2. Tim lived in London. He moved to Paris. (before)
3. Mum cooked dinner. I came home from school. (by the time)
4. She went to work. She had breakfast. (as soon as)
5. Susan tried on many dresses. She decided to buy the green one. (after)
6. Jason failed his driving test three times. He finally got his license. (before)
7. Wendy finished the washing-up. She played chess. (after)

Exercise 8. Complete the sentences using a verb from the list below: bake,
snow, win, walk, rain, watch, forget, not sleep, not clean, borrow
1. The kitchen smelt delicious.
Mum had just baked a cake.
2. The streets were wet.
It …… that morning.
3. Karen was locked out of her house.
She …… to take her keys.
4. My sister was angry with me.
I …… her dress without asking.
5. Gary’s shoes were dirty.
He …… through mud.
6. The house was a mess.
He …… it for over a month.
7. The streets were covered with snow.
It …… heavily the night before.
8. Tom was exhausted.
He …… well.
9. Helen was very frightened.
She …… a horror film.
10.Alan bought a large house and an expensive car.
He …… the lottery.

Focus on grammar
Past tense review 1
We can use the past simple tense to talk about actions and states which we see
as completed in the past.
• I left school when I was sixteen.
• I was very happy then.
• He told me all about his childhood.
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We can use the past continuous to talk about events which went on for a
period of time.
• While I was driving home, Peter was trying desperately to contact
me.
• I was thinking about him last night.
• I was walking in the street when I suddenly fell over.
We can use the present perfect when we want to look back from the present
to the past.
• I've broken my watch so I don't know what time it is.
• She hasn't arrived yet.
• We've been to Singapore a lot over the last few years.
• Have you ever been to Argentina?
The Present Perfect Continuous can be used to talk about an action or
actions that started in the past and continued until recently or that continue
into the future.
• You look tired. Have you been sleeping properly?
• I've been waiting for 30 minutes aaand he still hasn't arrived.
• He's been phoning me all week for an answer.
We can use the Past perfect continuous to look back at a situation in
progress.
• We had been thinking about buying a new house but then we
decided to stay here.
• It had been snowing for a while before we left.
• She said she had been trying to call me all day.

Exercise 1. Mix and match
1. It was a meter deep...
2.She didn't have any money left...
3. She was sacked because ...
4. I had been trying to get ...
5. He'd only been seeing her one week when ...
6. She hadn't been working there very long ...
7. He told me he had only been …
8. I thought he had been attending classes regularly …
9. I was very angry when I found out she…
a) she'd been smoking in there.
b) but he hadn't.
c) she got promoted.
d) he asked her to marry him.
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e) waiting a few minutes.
f) before I finally spoke to him
g) she'd been on a spending spree.
h) it had been snowing all night.
i) had been stealing money.

Exercise 2. Complete the sentences:
1. I thought ............ you about it.
2. He said he ............. very ill.
3. I ............ never ............ a right-hand drive car before.
4. The road was very wet because it ............... just before we
left.
5. I ............ very many different foods until I went to France.
6. She said she ............ $50 for it.
7. He told her he ............. to me about it.
8. He ........... the news so I told him.
9. .............. he .......... Larry before?
10. I said I ............ the book but I ................. .

hadn't heard, driven, had paid, had read, had rained, hadn't tried, had told,
hadn't, had, had, had been, had spoken, met.

Exercise 3. Mix and match:
1. I was just thinking about him when ...
2. They were still sitting in the departure lounge when ...
3. Frankie was waiting for over an hour before ...
4. He was driving very fast when …
5. I'm sure that they were talking about me when ...
6. She was waiting in reception when ...
7. She was waiting in reception when ...
8. They were having a lot of problems when ...
9. We were sitting in the traffic jam when we heard …
10. I was sleeping when ...
a) they sent me a text.
b) the new manager took over.
c) I walked into the room.
d) the fire alarm woke me up.
e) the doctor could see him.
f) that the road had been closed.
g) he called me.
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h) she got a message canceling the
meeting.
i) he skidded off the road.




















85
Unit VIII
Types of banks and their structure

1. Central banks (bănci centrale)
Main functions: to implement the country‘s monetary policy. Ex: The Bank of
England, the Banque de France (în Romania, Banca Naţională a României).
Central Banks are the only banks to be allowed to issue banknotes.
A central Banks is the Government’s banker: when short of money,
the government may borrow from the Bank.
A Central Banks is in charge of the keeping of the country’s gold
reserves.
A Central Banks is a “Bankers’ bank”, and all other banks have large
sums deposited there. They use these to settle accounts among
themselves.
A Central bank regulates the flow of capital into and out of the
country.
A Central Bank regulates the amount of credit available in the
country; one of the instruments used is the Bank Rate, which is the
rate of interest the Central Bank will apply to depositors and
borrowers. This will obviously influence the lending rate used by all
the other financial and commercial institutions and organizations.
In the United States, the Federal Reserve System plays much the same part as
a Central Bank.

2. Commercial banks or Retail banks (bănci comerciale)
Commercial banks fill the short-term needs of companies and individuals.
They provide small businesses with loans, consumer and installment credit,
mortgage loans, and other more personalized kinds of services.

3. Investment banks (US) or Merchant banks (GB) (bănci de investiţii)
These banks are concerned with sophisticated, often innovative transactions
that most often involve large corporate customers. They participate in large
pools of capital (resources) and financial syndications and they often work
together to provide their clients with large-scale (extensive) financing, which
may include international credit facilities. They provide corporate finance
services to companies: mergers and acquisitions, take over bids, floatation on
the Stock Exchange, medium-term loans, export, leasing.
In recent years, these types of banks have greatly reduced the services they
once provided to small companies and to individuals. Investment banks
specialize in complicated, one-time transactions often involving hundreds of
86
millions of dollars or more. They strive to develop banking relationships that
grow and change with the needs of their clients.

4. Savings banks (bănci/case de economii)
They receive savings accounts and pay interest to the depositors. Generally,
the rates of interest vary in relation to the length of the notice of withdrawal.
Term-deposits for which the notice of withdrawal required is longer, have
higher rates of interest.

5. Building Societies (UK) (societăţi de credit imobiliar)
Obtain funds from private investors by issuing shares and taking deposits, and
lend money for house purchase (or the purchase of commercial premises).The
loan is secured by mortgage. They are a relatively minor factor in long-term
industrial finance, but have provided many small businesses with capital.

6. Savings and Loan Associations (US) (cooperative de credit) are
cooperative associations formed under federal or state law in the U.S., that
solicit savings in the form of shares, invest their funds in mortgages and
permit deposits in and withdrawals from shareholders accounts similar to
those allowed for savings accounts in banks.

7. Hybrid Financial Institutions (instituţii financiare mixte)
Finance companies or credit corporations are often created as subsidiaries of
large companies which manufacture and sell heavy machinery, farm
equipment and automobiles. A customer that wishes to purchase goods from
such a manufacturer may arrange financing directly with the finance company
or credit corp. instead of with a bank. It is often easier (but more expensive) to
borrow in this way, thus facilitating (making, easier, simplifying) business
transactions between buyer and seller. Finance companies may operate both
nationally and internationally (export business) and with companies and
individuals.
Hybrid Financial institutions provide certain financial services but they are not
banks.

8. Credit Unions (uniuni de credit)
These are associations formed by trade groups which manage and invest large
pools of capital contributed by its members. People belonging to a credit union
may also save there for their retirement and take out loans at competitive
interest rates
9. Financial Services Companies (firme care oferă servicii fianciare)
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Financial services companies exist in various forms and offer a wide range of
services that may include insurance programs, investment and brokerage
services, mutual funds, tax-shelters and IRA’s (Individual Retirement
Accounts cont de pensii individual).

10. The GIRO (U.K)
It operates along the same lines as the “Chèques Postaux” (cecuri poştale) in
France.


Vocabulary practice
account = cont;
account holder = titular de cont;
automatic teller machine (ATM) = distribuitor automat de bancnote;
bank rate = rată bancară;
balance = sold;
clearing = compensare;
collateral = garanţie (suplimentară la bancă);
credit line = linie de credit;
credit status = solvabilitate;
credit worthiness = solvabilitate;
current account = cont current;
debtor = debitor;
deed = act notarial;
deposit (to) = a depune (bani la bancă);
deposit = depunere, deposit;
depositor = depunător, deponent;
documentary credit = acreditiv;
draw a bill (to) = a trage o cambie;
draw money (to) = a retrage bani;
fall due (to) = a fi scadent;
forge (to) = a falsifica;
fund (to) = a finanţa;
fund = fond;
funding = finantare;
GIRO (GB) = serviciu de cecuri poştale;
give notice (to) = a da un preaviz;
grant an overdraft (to) = a acorda o facilitate de cont descoperit;
interest = dobândă ;
I.O.U. = recunoaşterea unei datorii ;
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issue = emisiune ;
issue (to) = a emite;
legal tender = mijloace legale de plată;
lend (to) = a da cu împrumut;
lender = creditor, persoana care dă cu împrumut;
lien = drept de sechestru ;
loan = împrumut ;
loan agreement = contract de împrumut;
mortgage = ipotecă;
mortgage deed = acte ipotecare;
mortgage loan = împrumut ipotecar;
N.S.F. (Non-sufficient funds) = cont descoperit;
outstanding = restant;
overdraft = sumă cu care s-a depăşit contul;
overdue = restant, neachitat;
paying-in-slip = foaie de vărsământ;
pawn (to) = a gaja, a amaneta;
promissory note = bilet la ordin;
rate of exchange = rată de schimb;
savings deposits = depozit de economii;
savings banks = bănci de economii;
security = garanţie, acoperire;
teller (US) = casier;
transfer = vărsământ, transfer, virament;
withdraw (to) = a retrage;
withdrawal = retragere.

Business expressions 1
Choose the correct answer:
1. I've got to learn English fast. I need a real __________to get me up to speed
quickly.
a) crash course
b) closing a deal
c) coining it in
d) chew this over

2. The genuine results for the year were pretty bad but thanks to
___________we made them look OK!
a) copped out
b) cog in the machine
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c) keep a cool head
d) creative accounting

3. You did it too fast. You always make mistakes when you try
to____________.
a) cut corners
b)closing a deal
c)coining it in
d) chew this over

4. I'm sure a lot of our future income is going to come from the Internet and
other __________ activities.
a) copped out
b) cyberspace
c) keep a cool head
d) chew this over

5. I'm not an important person in this company. I'm just a lowly__________.
a) keep a cool head
b) closing a deal
c) coining it in
d) cog in the machine

6. Their products are really selling well. They must be__________.
a) copped out
b) closing a deal
c) coining it in
d) chew this over
7. Stop getting so angry. You really need to ___________and control your
temper.
a) closing a deal
b) chew this over
c)copped out
d) keep a cool head

8. I cannot decide straight away. I’ll need to _________with my colleagues.
a) cog in the machine
b)chew this over
c)copped out
d) closing a deal
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9. He isn’t a very good salesman. He has a lot of problem when it comes
to_________.
a) cog in the machine
b) copped out
c) cyberspace
d) closing a deal

10. She didn’t even try to raise the matter at the meeting. She just ________
completely.
a) crash course
b) copped out
c) cut corners
d )creative accounting

Key to the test:
1.a; 2.d; 3.a; 4.b; 5.d; 6.c; 7.d; 8.b; 9.d; 10.b.

Business expressions 2
Choose the correct answer:
1. I imagine their company jet was very expensive indeed. It probably
_________.
a) cost the earth
b) clear the decks
c) cut it fine
d) cut-throat
2. Our Silicone Valley site is right at the __________of the new technology.
a) cut our losses
b) cutting edge
c) cut it fine
d) cut-throat

3. There's lots of unfair competition in our sector from __________outfits
which don't respect the law.
a) crocodile tears
b) crashed
c)cowboy
d) cough up

4. We did badly in the Japanese market so eventually we decided to
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_________and stop.
a) cut our losses
b) cough up
c) clear the decks
d) cut-throat

5. We had to threaten them with legal action before they agreed
to___________ the money they owed us.
a) crocodile tears
b) cough up
c) cut our losses
d) clear the decks

6. We'll have to drop everything else. We'll have to___________ concentrate
on this.
a) clear the decks
b )crashed
c) cut it fine
d) cut-throat
7. Competition is really fierce. In fact, it's ______________.
a) crocodile tears
b) crashed
c) cut it fine
d) cut-throat

8. Bids had to be in by 6.00 and we put ours in ten minutes before the
deadline. We really ____________.
a) crocodile tears
b) cut it fine
c) cut out losses
d) crashed

9. We can't access the computer files. The system ________this morning and
we cannot fix it.
a) crocodile tears
b) cutting edge
c) cut our losses
d) crashed

10. He said he was sorry about letting me go but I'm sure they were only
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_________he was shedding.
a) crocodile tears
b) cutting edge
c) cut our losses
d) cost the earth
Key to the test:
1.a; 2.b; 3.c; 4.a; 5.b; 6.a; 7.d; 8.b; 9.d; 10.a.

Business Expressions 3
Choose the correct answer:

1. I reckon we owe you about the same as you owe us. Why don't we just
___________?
a. call his bluff
b. called it a day
c. calls the shots
d. chicken
e. call it quits

2. We've been working on this for fourteen hours now. Isn't it
time___________?
a. called it a day
b. call it quits
c. calls the shots
d. chicken
e. call his bluff

3. Let's face it, he decides. He's the boss so he's the one that______________.
a. called it a day
b. calls the shots
c. call it quits
d. chicken
e. call his bluff

4. He says he will go elsewhere if we don't lower our price but I don't think he
will. I think we should_____________.
a. call his bluff
b. call it quits
c. called it a day
d. calls the shots
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e. chicken

5. I'm sure that there is a lot of corruption in that country. If we order an
internal audit we may be opening____________.
a. carry the can
b. chicken
c. can't win
d. chicken and egg
e. a can of worms

6. Someone is going to have to take responsibility for this disaster. Who is
going to______________.
a. can't win
b. carry the can
c. chicken
d. a can of worms
e. chicken and egg

7. Whatever we do, we are going to come out badly. It's a __________
situation.
a. a can of worms
b. carry the can
c. chicken
d. can't win
e. chicken and egg

8. She always like to think things through very carefully. She likes
to__________.
a. chicken and egg
b. chicken
c. chew things over
d. call his bluff
e. call it quits
9. We need a loan to start the company and we need a company to get the
loan. It’s a ____________situation.
a. calls the shots
b. chew things over
c. chicken
d. call his bluff
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e. chicken and egg

10. We wanted to expand into Asia but we were a bit frightened. We were
soon sorry for being so ________________.
a. chicken and egg
b. chicken
c. calls the shots
d. chew things over
e. call it quits
Key to the test:
1.e; 2.a; 3.b; 4.a; 5.e; 6.b; 7.d; 8.c; 9.e; 10.b.

Abbreviations

Choose the correct answer

1. R.S.V.P.
A. as soon as possible
B. please reply
C. per week
D. value added tax paid
E. paid

2. qty
A. as soon as possible
B. please reply
C. please
D. quantity
E. paid

3. thx
A. thanks
B. please reply
C. please
D. quantity
E. with reference to

4. E.T.A.
95
A. thanks
B. for the attention of
C. estimated time of arrival
D. quantity
E. with reference to

5. pls. cfm.
A. thanks
B. for the attention of
C. estimated time of arrival
D. number
6. @
A. at
B. for the attention of
C. estimated time of arrival
D. number
E. please confirm

7. a/c
A. at
B. account
C. estimated time of arrival
D. number
E. please confirm

8. A.G.M.
A. at
B. account
C. annual general meeting
D. number
E. please confirm

9. A.O.B.
A. at
B. account
C. annual general meeting
D. any other business
E. please confirm

10. attn
96
A. thanks
B. for the attention of
C. please
D. quantity
E. with reference to

11.I.P.O.
A. copies to
B. Chief Executive Officer
C. initial public offer
D. any other business
E. approximately

12. ASAP
A. as soon as possible
B. please turn over
C. per week
D. value added tax
E. paid

13. re
A. as soon as possible
B. please reply
C. please
D. quantity
E. with reference to

14. C.O.D.
A. copies to
B. Chief Executive Officer
C. initial purchase offer
D .cash on delivery
E .approximately

15. approx
A. at
B. account
C. annual general meeting
D. any other business
E. approximately
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16. E.G.M.
A. copies to
B. Chief Executive Officer
C. initial purchase offer
D. cash an delivery
E. extraordinary general meeting

17. G.D.P.
A. gross domestic product
B. Chief Executive Officer
C. initial purchase offer
D. cash an delivery
E. extraordinary general meeting

18 G.N.P.
A. gross domestic product
B. gross national product
C. initial purchase offer
D. cash an delivery
E. extraordinary general meeting

19. pls.
A. as soon as possible
B. please reply
C. please
D. value added tax
E. paid

20. no.
A. thanks
B. for the attention of
C. estimated time of arrival
D. number
E. with reference to
21. lb
A. public limited company
B. gross national product
C. pound (weight)
D. incorporated
98
E. limited company

22. C.E.O.
A. copies to
B. Chief Executive Officer
C. annual general meeting
D. any other business
E. approximately
23. I.O.U.
A. public limited company
B. I owe you
C. pound (weight)
D. incorporated
E. limited company

24. Jr.
A. public limited company
B.I owe you
C. pound (weight)
D. Junior
E. limited company
25. mo.
A. public limited company
B. I owe you
C. pound (weight)
D. junior
E. month

26. mth
A. public limited company
B.I owe you
C. pound (weight)
D. junior
E. month

27. Inc.
A. gross domestic product
B. gross national product
C. hire purchase
D incorporated
99
E. extraordinary general meeting

28. H.P.
A. gross domestic product
B. gross national product
C. hire purchase
D. cash on delivery
E. extraordinary general meeting

29.VAT
A. public relations
B. please turn over
C. per week
D. value added tax
E. paid

30. N/A
A. not applicable
B. I owe you
C. pound (weight)
D. junior
E. month

31. p.w.
A .public relations
B. please turn over
C. per week
D. per annum
E. paid
32.Nb
A. not applicable
B. pay attention to this
C. pound (weight)
D. junior
E. month

33. plc
A. public limited company
B. gross national product
C. hire purchase
100
D. incorporated
E. limited company

34. PA
A. not applicable
B .pay attention to this
C .personal assistant
D. junior
E. month

35. p.a.
A. not applicable
B. pay attention to this
C. personal assistant
D. per annum
E. month

36. Ltd.
A. gross domestic product
B. gross national product
C. hire purchase
D. incorporated
E. limited company

37. pd.
A. not applicable
B. pay attention to this
C. personal assistant
D. per annum
E. paid

38.PR
A. public relations
B. pay attention to this
C. personal assistant
D. per annum
E. paid

39. cc
A. copies to
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B. account
C. annual general meeting
D. any other business
E. approximately

40. PTO

A. public relations
B. please turn over
C. personal assistant
D. per annum
E. paid

Key to the answers:
1. B; 2. D; 3.A; 4. C; 5. E; 6. A; 7. B; 8. C; 9. D; 10. B; 11. C; 12. A; 13. E;
14. D; 15. E; 16. E; 17. A; 18. B; 19. C; 20. D; 21. C; 22. B; 23. B; 24. D; 25.
E; 26. E; 27. D; 28. C; 29. D; 30. A; 31. C; 32. B; 33. A; 34. C; 35. D; 36. E;
37. E; 38. A; 39. A; 40. B.

Focus on grammar
WILL – future
Some people have been taught that “will” is the future in English. This is not
correct. Sometimes when we talk about the future we cannot use “will”.
Sometimes when we use “will” we are not talking about the future.
We can use “will” to talk about future events we believe to be certain.
• The sun will rise over there tomorrow morning.
• Next year, I’ll be 50.
• That plane will be late. It always is.
• There won’t be any snow. I’m certain. It’s too warm.
Often we add “perhaps”, “maybe”, “probably”, “possibly” to make the belief
less certain.
• I’ll probably come back later.
• He’ll possibly find out when he sees Jenny.
• Maybe it will be ok.
• Perhaps we’ll meet again some day.
We often use “will” with “I think” or “I hope”.
• I think I’ll go to bed now.
• I think she’ll do well in the job.
• I hope you’ll enjoy your stay.
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• I hope you won’t make too much noise.
We use “will” at the moment we make a new decision or plan. The thought
has just come into our head.
• Bye. I’ll phone you when I get there.
• I’ll answer that.
• I’ll go.
• I won’t tell him. I promise.
Exercise 1
Mix and match:
1. The weather forecast isn’t very good ...
2. He’s coming to the party ...
3. I’ll put it in today’s post but ...
4. He’s the best player ...
5. I asked him to do it but ...
6. There’s lots of people at the check in ...
7. I told him ten o’clock but ...
8. That’s far too much ...
9. Hurry up or ...
10. We’re having a party on Friday ...
a) you won’t get it until Thursday.
b) you’ll see him then.
c) I’m sure he’ll be late.
d) you won’t be ready when they arrive
e) It’ll rain later.
f) John will be forty.
g) I’m sure he’ll forget.
h) they won’t pay that price
i) the plane will be full.
j) I'm sure he'll win the competition.

Exercise 2
Mix and match:
1. I think I … now. I’m tired.
2. We think we … agree to it. We have no choice.
3. I hope I … enough money to pay for it. I didn’t bring my credit card.
4. We don’t think we … it. It is much too expensive.
5. I think I … the red dress. It’s perfect for a summer’s evening.
6. They think they … move in next week. The others are moving out on
Friday.
7. I think I … him a call and ask him what he thinks.
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8. She thinks she … time to finish it before the weekend.
9. I don’t think he … that very much. he prefers things that are simple.
10. We don’t think they … here until eight. It’s a long drive.

‘ll able to, ‘ll give, ‘ll have, ‘ll buy, ‘ll be, ‘ll like, ‘ll have, ‘ll wear, ‘ll stop, ‘ll
have to

Exercise 3
Mix and match:
1. I’ll give you a call when …
2. Let’s have a break.
3. This dress is perfect.
4. I’ll think about it and ….
5. Bye. Have a nice evening and I’ll …
6. OK, see you this evening.
7. Let me help you with your bags. I’ll …
8. I’m going into town.
9. I’m going out. I’ll be ….
10. Thanks for the invitation.
a) see you tomorrow.
b) I have some news.
c) take the big one.
d) let you know next week.
e) I'll see you on Friday.
f) I’ll be there about eight.
g) I’ll take it. How much is it?
h) I’ll give you a lift.
i) back in half an hour.
j) I’ll make some coffee.

GOING TO OR WILL

When we want to talk about future facts or things we believe to be true about
the future, we use “will”.
• The President will serve for four years.
• The boss won't be very happy.
• I'm sure you'll like her.
• I'm certain he'll do a good job.
If we are not so certain about the future, we use “will” with expressions such
as “probably”, “possibly”, “I think”, “I hope”.
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• I hope you'll visit me in my home one day.
• She'll probably be a great success.
• I'll possibly come but I may not get back in time.
• I think we'll get on well.
If you are making a future prediction based on evidence in the present
situation, use “going to”.
• Not a cloud in the sky. It's going to be another warm day.
• Look at the queue. We're not going to get in for hours.
• The traffic is terrible. We're going to miss our flight.
• Be careful! You're going to spill your coffee.
At the moment of making a decision, use “will”. Once you have made the
decision, talk about it using “going to”.
• I'll call Jenny to let her know. Sarah, I need Jenny's number. I'm
going to call her about the meeting.
• I'll come and have a drink with you but I must let Harry know.
Harry, I'm going to have a drink with Simon.

PRESENT FORMS FOR THE FUTURE

We use the present continuous to talk about things that we have already
arranged to do in the future.
• I've got my ticket. I'm leaving on Thursday.
• I'm seeing Julie at 5 and then I'm having dinner with Simon.
• He's picking me up at the airport.
• The company is giving everyone a bonus for Christmas.
In many situations when we talk about future plans we can use either the
present continuous or the “going to” future. However, when we use the
present continuous, there is more of a suggestion that an arrangement has
already been made.
• I'm going to see him./I'm seeing him.
• I'm going to do it./I'm doing it.
We use the present simple to talk about events in the future which are
“timetabled”. We can also use the present continuous to talk about these.
• My plane leaves at 6 in the morning.
• The shop opens at 9.30.
• The sun rises a minute earlier tomorrow.
• My plane is leaving at 8.30.
• The shop is closing at 7.00.
105
• The sun is rising at 6.32 tomorrow.

Exercise 1
Fill in the blanks with the simple future forms of the verbs in brackets.
1. (go) We … to the Danube Delta next summer.
2. (wear) Cindy … her new dress at the party.
3.(send)The secretary … the documents tomorrow.
4.(hold)They … the meeting the day after tomorrow.
5. (come) The new investors … next Monday.
6. (study) Sally … Economics next year.
7. (leave)The sportsmen … the town tomorrow morning.
8. (buy)My friends … themselves a house next year.
9. (decorate) My parents … the house next summer.
10. (give) The Bartons … a party next Saturday.
11. (visit) We … Paris next summer.
12. (type) The secretary … the invitations next morning.

Exercise 2
Ten students are talking about their intentions for the future.
Finish their statements in different ways, using after, when, while, until or as
soon as.
1. I’m going to write a novel about my life experience …
2. I’m going to work hard at learning English …
3. I’m going to enjoy myself …
4. I’m going to do research …
5. I’m going to get married …
6. I’m going to get my doctorate …
7. I’m going to buy myself a car …
8. I’m going to travel abroad …
9. I’m going to find myself a well-paid job …
10. I’m going to leave my native town …

Exercise 3
Put the verbs in brackets into the going to form.
1. You … (miss) the train.
2. The pressure cooker … (explode).
3. When the gardener … (cut) the grass?
4. She … (dye) her hair black.
5. We … (make) this whisky bottle into a lamp.
6. What you … (do) with this room?
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7. It … (rain). Look at those clouds.
8. The men in the helicopter … (try) to rescue the man in the water.
9. I … (not sleep) in this room. It is haunted.
10. I … (plant) an oak tree here.
11. We … (make) a lot of money out of this.
12. I’ve read the novel. Now I … (see) the film.
13. The Lord Mayor is standing up. He … (make) a speech.
14. I’ve lent you my car once. I … (not do) it again.

Exercise 4
Planned future actions can be expressed by the present continuous tense with a
time expression or by the going to form with or without a time expression. The
present continuous is mainly used for definite arrangements in the near future.
The going to form can be used more widely.
Use the present continuous where possible in the following sentences and put
the remaining verbs into the going to form.

1. I … (play) bridge tonight with Tom and Ann.
2. He … (have) an operation next week.
3. It’s very cold. I … (light) a fire.
4. We … (have) some friends to lunch tomorrow.
5. I’ve bought a piano; it … (be) delivered this afternoon.
Where … you … (put) it?
I … (put) it in the dining room.
6. I’ve reminded you once; I … (not do) it again.
7. The Queen … (open) the Parliament next month.
8. This shop … (close) down next week.
9. We … (take) the children at the seaside this summer.
10. She … (see) a specialist next month.
11. She … (sing) in her first big concert next month.
12. They … (launch) a ship this afternoon. …you … (come) to see it?

Exercise 5
Put the verbs in brackets into the future tense.
1. I … (know) the result in a week.
2. You … (be) in Rome tonight.
3. … you … (have) time to help me tomorrow?
4. Unless he runs he … (not catch) the train.
5. If these men go on strike we … (not have) any petrol.
6. I wonder how many of us … (survive) the next war.
107
7. I’m sure that you … (like) our new house.
8. You … (need) a visa if you are going to Spain.
9. I wonder if he …. (succeed).
10. Papers … (not be) delivered on the Bank Holiday.
11. He … (be) offended if you don’t invite him.
12. If you think it over you … (see) that I am right.
13. Newspaper announcement: The President … (drive) along the High Street
in open carriage.
14. … he …. (mind) if I bring my dog?

Exercise 6
Use the future continuous tense (S + shall/will + Be + V-ing) in the following
sentences. This tense can be used:
a) With a point in time to indicate that the action will begin before this time
and continue after it.
b) With or without a time to express a future without intention. In this way it
is very like the present continuous, but it is not, like the present continuous,
restricted in time and is a more detached and casual way of expressing the
future. It often implies that action will occur in the ordinary course of events
or as a matter of routine.
(Except when used as in a) above), this tense can usually be replaced by one of
the other future forms, though the exact shade of meaning may then be lost.)

1. This time next month I … (sit) on a beach.
2. When you arrive I … probably …. (pick) fruit.
3. When we reach England it … probably … (rain).
4. When I get home my dog… (sit) at the door waiting for me.
5. You’d better go back now, your boss … (wonder) where you are.
6. In a hundred year’s time people … (go) to Mars for their holidays.
7. I’ll give Jack your message. I can do it easily because I … (see) him
tomorrow. We go to work on the same train.
8. It’s a serious injury but he … (walk) again in six weeks.
9. He’s just remembered that he left the bathroom taps on. He expects the
water … (flow) down the stairs by now.
10. That football club has lost some of its best players. They … (look out) for
new men.
11. Don’t ring her up now, she … (put) the children to bed. Ring later.
12. We are making a house-to-house collection for the refugees. We … (come)
to your house next week.

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Exercise 7
Time clauses. The future tense is not used in time clauses, the present tense
being used instead.
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (present or future).
1. When he … (return) I’ll give him the letter.
2. Cindy will be ready as soon as you … (be).
3. The lift … (not stop) until you press that button.
4. When it … (get) cold we’ll light the fire.
5. They won’t come to London till the bus strike … (be) over.
6. The manager will be astonished when he … (see) how slowly he works.
7. I’ll pay you when I … (get) my cheque.
8. Sally will be delighted when she … (hear) this.
9. As soon as Tom … (attend) university he’ll get a better job.
10. As soon as Michael … (arrive) at the office I’ll tell him the news.
11. The new investors … (ring) us up when they arrive in town.
12. As soon as the holidays begin this beach … (become) very crowded.

Exercise 8
Put the verbs in brackets into the future perfect tense (S + shall/will + Have +
V-3rd form).

1. In a fortnight's time we … (take) our exam.
2. I … (finish) this book by tomorrow evening.
3. By this time tomorrow we … (have) our first seminar.
4. In 2008 he … (be) twenty-five years old.
5. I'll still be here next summer but Tom … (leave).
6. I … (finish) this job in twenty minutes.
7. By next winter they … (build) four houses in that field.
8. By the time we get to the party everything … (be) eaten.
9. By the end of my university years I …(attend) 120 lectures.
10. By the end of the term I … (read) all the twelve volumes.
11. If you don't hurry the sun … (rise) before we reach the top.
12. On 25 October they … (be) married for twenty years.
13. When you come back I … (finish) all the housework.
14. When we reach Valparaiso … we (sail) all around the world.
15. By the end of the year all our debts … (be paid) off.

WILL - OTHER USES

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A lot of students have been confused by older textbooks which refer to “will”
as “the future tense”.
A key factor to remember about “will” is that when we talk about the future
we cannot always use “will” and that when we use “will” we are not always
talking about the future.
In these examples “will” is clearly referring to the future.
• I'll probably visit Sue when I go to Oxford.
• If I see her, I'll tell her about it.
• Next year she'll be 42. Or so she says.

However, in these examples “will” is referring to events happening at the
present.
• My car won't start.
• I'll answer that.
• Will you have another cup of tea?
When we use “will” referring to the present, the idea being expressed is
usually one of “showing willingness” or “will power”.
• My baby won't stop crying. I've tried everything and I'm really
exhausted.
• I am the boss. You will do as I say.
• I need quiet to write this but he will keep on talking to me. I wish
he would leave me alone.
Use “will” for requests, orders, invitations and offers.
• Will you help me?
• Will you please sit down?
• Will you have some cake?
• I'll help you.
Use “will” for promises and threats.
• I'll do it at once. I'll phone him immediately.
• I'll remember this. I'll get my own back some day.
• Use “will” for habit.
• A cat will always find a warm place to sleep.
• My car won't go any faster than this.
Use “will” for deduction.
• The phone's ringing. That will be Mark.
• I expect he'll want us to start without him.
Look again at all of these examples of “will”. They are all to do with the
present or are “timeless”.

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Exercise 1
Mix and match:
1. Will you send me a copy …
2. Will you have some more …
3. You cooked so we’ll …
4. Will you call me as soon as you …
5. If you wait a minute I’ll …
6. It’s hot in here, will you …
7. My plane arrives late. Will you …
8. Thanks for the cash, I’ll pay …
9. The car needs a service. Will you …
10 That bag looks heavy, …
a) I’ll take it.
b) drop it off at the garage.
c) have some news?
d) coffee?
e) soon as possible, please.
f) you back tomorrow.
g) open the window?
h) wash up.
i) give you a hand.
j) pick me up at the airport.

Exercise 2
Mix and match:
1. There’s someone at the door.
2. A dog will always find his way …
3. She will spend everything I give her.
4. He will call me from the airport when …
5. She won’t argue with him.
6. They will walk home everyday to …
7. He’ll always wait until the last minute …
8. That’ll be for me.
9. That colour will look good on you.
10. The ice cream will melt if …
a) That’ll be Carol.
b) She always does.
c) Jack said he was going to phone.
d) He’s her direct manager
e) home
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f) save their bus money.
g) Blue goes with your eyes.
h) you don’t put it back in the fridge.
i) to hand in his reports.
j) he can turn his phone on.

SHALL
We don't use “Shall” very frequently in modern English, particularly in
American English.
It is used to make offers and suggestions and to ask for advice.
• What time shall we meet?
• Shall we vote on it now?
• What dress shall I wear?
• Shall I open the window?
You only really need to know that about “shall” in modern English. Read the
rest of this only if you want to know more about how some older speakers still
use “shall”.
In older grammar, “shall” was used as an alternative to “will” with “I” and
“we”. Today, 'will' is normally used. When we do use 'shall', it has an idea of a
more personal, subjective future.
• I shall go to see the boss and I shall ask him to explain this
decision.
Notice that the negative of 'shall' can be 'shall not' or 'shan't' – though the
second one is now very rare in American English.
• I don't like these people and I shall not go to their party.
• I shan't object if you go without me.

Exercise 1
Mix and match:
1. Shall we have lunch together?
2. Shall I finish it?
3. Shall we meet in front of the cinema?
4. Shall I take your coat?
5. Shall I accept his offer?
6. Shall I give him it back?
7. Shall a take the bus or call a taxi?
8. Shall we get another bottle of wine?
9. Shall we have another drink?
10. Shall I tell him?
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a) OK, but I’ll get them.
b) Yes. At what time?
c) Yes, where shall we go/
d) Oh, thank you.
e) Take a taxi. It’s quicker.
f) No, someone else should tell him.
g) Yes, please. I won’t have time.
h) Yes, I think you should accept.
i) Yes, that’s a good idea.
j) Yes, you must give it back.

Exercise 2
Match the questions and answers:
1. Shall I pick you up from airport?
2. Who shall we ask to lead the ream?
3. Shall we go away for the weekend?
4. Shall I get you a ticket?
5. What shall we eat?
6. Shall I call the doctor?
7. Shall we go now?
8. Shall I open the window?
9. What time shall I come?
a) Please. My plane gets in at ten thirty.
b) Yes, I’m tired.
c) Please, then I’ll pay you back.
d) Lovely idea. Let’s go to Paris.
e) Yes, he’s really not very well.
f) About seven thirty.
g) Yes, it’s very hot in here.
h) I think Larry would be a good choice.
i) What about a salad?


Exercise 3
Complete the questions:
1. Shall I … you up from airport?
2. Who shall we … to lead the team?
3. Shall we … away for the weekend?
4. Shall I … the doctor?
5. Shall we … now?
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6. Shall I … the window?
7. What time shall I … ?
8. Shall I … you a ticket?
9. Shall we … for lunch?

come, ask, pick, open, go, have, get, call, go














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Unit IX
The globalization of trade
Major trading blocs today

One should first distinguish between Free Trade Areas (FTA’s) and Customs
Unions: partners in an FTA agree to scrap tariffs on trade among themselves
whereas in a customs union, members decide on a common tariff policy
towards non-member countries.

Customs unions (Uniuni vamale)
The European Union (Uniunea Europeană) formerly known as the European
Economic Community (Uniunea economică europeană) is the world’s largest
trading bloc today. Officially set up by the Treaty of Rome in 1958, it
originally comprised Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxemburg and
the Netherlands. The United Kingdom, the Irish Republic and Denmark joined
the Community in 1973, Greece in 1981, Spain and Portugal in 1986.
Sweden, Finland and Austria have been the latest countries to join (January 1,
1995).

The ratification of the Single European Act (Actul unic european) in 1987 and
its final implementation on December 31, 1992, have firmly established the
Community as a single domestic market; the aims at enhancing the financial
and political integration of the Union.

The European Union has closed preferential trade deals with North African
Countries, with Turkey (implementation of a customs union as of January 1,
1996) and has signed agreements (the Europe agreements) with several central
and Eastern European States.

Mercosur (Mercosur) is a customs union that was formerly set up on January
1, 1995, between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.
The Andean Pact (Pactul andin) was established in 1969 and includes Bolivia,
Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela; this association, by gradually
abolishing internal trade barriers, is close to becoming a common Andean
Market.

Free-trade areas (zone de liber-schimb)
The European Free-Trade Association (EFTA), Asociaţia europeană a
liberului schimb (AELS) was set up in 1960 in response to the initial Common
market between the countries that had signed the Treaty of Rome. It now
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includes the Western European countries that do not belong to the European
Union, such as Norway, Switzerland or Iceland; those having joined the
European economic Area (EEA) (Spatiul economic european) fall within the
jurisdiction of the European Single Act. The North American Free-Trade
Agreement (NAFTA), Asociaţia nord-americană de liber-schimb, is a free-trade
area including the United States, Canada and Mexico which was officially set
up in 1993. The ultimate objective seems to be the creation of a Pan-American
free-trade area that would stretch from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego; in this
respect, Chile is most likely to become the fourth NAFTA member since
negotiations are well underway.
Two FTA s are currently in the making in the Pacific zone:
The ten members of the Association of South-East Asian Nations
(ASEAN), (Asociaţia naţiunilor Asiei de Sud-Est), created in 1967,
have agreed to set up an FTA by the year 2003.
This association originally composed of Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the
Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, now includes, as of July 1997, Cambodia,
Laos, Myanmar (formerly Burma) and Vietnam.
The Asian-Pacific Economic Co-operation (APEC) forum has pledged
itself to internal free trade by 2020, with the richer countries reaching
this objective by 2010. Today it comprises 18 countries with Pacific
shorelines, among which the United States, Canada, Australia, New
Zealand, China, Japan, Malaysia, Indonesia.
APEC is not a formal FTA yet but its plans look ambitious. It remain to be
seen whether the organization will overcome the difficulties inherent to its
cultural and economic make up (diversity of culture and economic
development levels), its geographical specificity (based on three continents)
and the leadership battles looming ahead, with such giants as China, Japan and
the United States.

Other free-trade areas are being established through the world:
The Central European Free-Trade Area (CEFTA) was formally set up in 1995
between the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia. This
FTA, whose primary goal is to increase trade among its member-states, may
also be viewed as a step towards a future EU enlargement.

FTA.s are also in the making in the Caribbean and in the Middle East.

Vocabulary Practice
1. to scrap – a da la rebut, a arunca la gunoi;
2. implementation – punere în aplicare;
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3. to enhance- a spori, a mări, a îmbunătăţi;
4. to be likely – a fi susceptibil de;
5. to pledge – a se angaja;
6. shorelines – coastă, litoral, zonă de coastă;
7. to overcome – a învinge, a depăşi;
8. make up – alcătuire, structură, construcţie;
9. to loom – a ameninţa, a se contura, a se întrevedea.




Focus on grammar: MODAL VERBS

Modal verbs are divided into two large classes: PURE or SYNTATIC modals
and MODAL PARAPHRASES. See the table below:
PURE / SYNTACTIC MODAL
VERBS
MODAL PARAPHRASES
Can, could
May, might
Will, would
Shall, should
Ought to
Must
Dare
Need
Be able to
Be allowed / permitted to
Be to
Have to
Used to

Characteristic features of PURE MODAL VERBS:
CHARACTERISTICS EXAMPLES
1. They are defective verbs, e.g. some
of their forms are missing (the
infinitive, the participle)
2.They are uninflected, e.g. all the
persons have the same form:
3.They are anomalous verbs, i.e. the
NEGATIVE is formed by putting NOT
after the modal and the
INTERROGATIVE by inverting
subject and modal verb:
4. They are followed by the
INFINITIVE in any of its forms:



I can swim. My brother can swim,
too.
Cars must not be parked in front of
the entrance.
May I have the salt, please?


You shouldn’t laugh at his
mistakes.
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We must have taken a wrong
turning.

Can/could
Meanings:
1. Ability (can - be able to):
Present Simple
I can sing.
I am able to sing.
Present perfect
I have been able to sing
since I was five.
Present participle
Being able to sing at five
is not extraordinary.
Past Simple
I could sing when I was
five.
I was able to sing when
I was five.
Past Perfect
I had been able to sing
before I could read.
Future
I'll be able to sing before
your birthday.
2. Permission:
Can I come in?
Could I have your pen for a minute, please?
3. Possibility: He can/could be right.
4. Impossibility (can't/couldn't):
He can't/couldn't be right.
5. With verbs of perception it loses its meaning:
Can you hear me? Do you hear me?
I can see a car in the street. = I see a car in the street.

May/ Might
Meanings:
1.Permission (may = to be allowed to/to be permitted to):

Present Simple
I may come with you.
I am allowed /permitted
to come with you.
Present perfect

I have been allowed /
permitted to come
Present Participle

Being allowed/
permitted to come.
Past Simple
I was allowed/
permitted to come.
Past Perfect
I had been allowed
/permitted to come.
Future
I'll be allowed/
permitted to come.

Might is not the past form of may when the modal verb expresses
permission, but a more reduced possibility.
Might is a more polite way of asking for permission.
Might is used instead of may.
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2. Possibility: He may/might come tomorrow.
Need Not
Meaning:
1. Lack of obligation: You needn't pay cash.

Needn't have (done) compared to
Didn't have/didn't need (to do)
Meanings:
1. Useless but performed action:
You needn't have taken your umbrella. It's such a sunny day!
2. Useless, but not performed action;
You didn't need/have to translate it for he understands English.
Must Not
Meaning:
1. Negative obligation:
You mustn't smoke in this restaurant.
Ought to/ Should
Meanings:
1. Duty: You ought to/ should pay your taxes.
2. Correct, rational action: You ought to/should practices more if you want to
succeed.
3. Advice: You ought to/should read this book. It's very good.
Must
Meanings:
1. Strong obligation: I must go now.
2. Probability/logical deduction: He must be good at math if he solved this
problem.
Not Have to
Meanings:
1. The absence of obligation: I don't have to go to school on Sunday.
Shall
Meanings:
1. Asking for advice: Shall (should) I buy this book?
2. Offers: Shall I help you?
3. Suggestions: Shall we meet at the station?
Will
Meanings:
1. Habits/repeated actions: Children will always destroy their toys.
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2. Will, obstinacy, persistence: An Englishman will usually show you the
way in the street.
He will do what he wants, no matter what you say.
3. Polite request: Will you sign here, please?
Would
Meanings:
1. Repeated habits/events in the past: He would always come to school late
when he was a child.
2. Will, obstinacy, persistence in the past:
He would always object to my ideas.
3. Polite request (more conventional than will):
Would you sign here, please?
Used to
Meanings:
1. Repeated actions in the past Would + infinitive expresses the same idea.
When I was a baby I used to cry all day long.


Exercise 1.Put the sentences into the singular.
1. They must come again.
He must come again.
2. They have to cross the street here.
He has to cross the street here.
3. They can come tomorrow.
4. The older students were able to finish their work.
5. They ought to listen more carefully.
6. Soldiers must obey orders without question.
7. People have to go to work five days a week.
8. The big boys might jump over this stream.
9. If they started at eight, they should be here by three.
10. They are always to knock before they enter his room.

Exercise 2.Make these statements interrogative.
1. They can leave now.
Can they leave now?
2. He comes here every day.
Does he come here every day?
3. They can wait here.
4. You shouldn’t give the baby scissors to play with.
5. They play football.
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6. He believes you.
7. She could understand everything.
8. Mr. Barton works in this office.
9. They will have another meeting tomorrow.
10. Mrs. Carlton, the secretary, can send the invitations.

Exercise 3. Give short answers to the following questions.
1. Ann: Should you go to the conference?
Bob: Yes, I should.
2. Can you come earlier tomorrow?
3. Could you buy me some flowers?
4. Must I return the invitation next Sunday?
5. Will Mr. Jones answer this question?
6. Should Bob report to the manager immediately?
7. Can Susan invite some more guests?
8. May I use this phone?
9. Could Alice have already phoned?
10. May I have some more coffee, please?

Exercise 4. Read the following sentences paying attention to the meaning of
meaning of the modal verbs.
1. You may not go now. (I do not permit you to go)
2. He can’t swim under water. (He is not able to swim under water)
3. You don’t have to stay any longer. (You are not obliged to stay any
longer)
4. I needn’t always be my fault. (It is not necessary for it to be always my
fault.

Exercise 5.Read the following sentences paying attention to the use of the
modal verbs.
1. Tom can ski now but he couldn’t last year.
2. She is able to speak English, French, Italian and Spanish but she can’t
speak German.
3. “Mum, may I go to a disco tonight?”
“I’m afraid you may not. You’ll have a busy day tomorrow and you must
go to bed early tonight.”
4. The patient must stay in hospital for several days.
5. You are not allowed to smoke in this room.
6. You must do your duty.
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7. They will have to leave tomorrow morning if they want to be in Paris on
Friday afternoon.
8. “Where is Tom?”
“I don’t know. He may be at the university.”
9. “May I borrow your pen for a minute?”
“Yes, you may.”
10. “Can you play tennis?”
“Yes, I can.”

Exercise 6. Fill in the blanks with one of the corresponding forms of the
modal verbs below:
be, have, can/could, may/might, must, shall/should, will/would, need,
ought to, used to, dare.
1. You … have this book if you want it.
2. … you give me a helping hand?
3. … he play the piano when he was five?
4. … you see I'm busy?
5. … you go home so soon?
6. He … arrive on the next train.
7. They … to tell him the truth.
8. The examination … to take place tomorrow.
9. … you accuse him of such a thing?
10. Last summer the old man … to go fishing every morning.
11. Nothing … be done: he … to go.
12. He doesn’t want to help? I tell you he …
13. … you sit down?
14. “Well”, mother said, “you … go and play in the garden.”
15. Tomorrow I haven’t much work to do, so you (not) … come to help me.
16. Tomorrow I have much work to do, so you … come to help me.
17. … you kindly pass the salt?
18. I tried in vain; the door … (not) open.
19. He … be at home by now if he started at three.
20. … I ring him up to tell him to come?
No, you (not) … He knows he … come.
Yes, you … He doesn’t know he … come.
21. Where … he be now?
22. You … not come into the house with dirty shoes.



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Unit X
The Globalization of financial markets

International financial flow have been multiplied and accelerated by the
globalization of trade, the increased speed of round-the-clock communication,
the computerization of stock and currency markets which now operate round
the clock.

Multinational companies, which continually transfer funds from one
subsidiary to the other in different regions of the globe have also played an
important part in bringing about the interconnection of capital markets. So
have nation and business firms in general, as they compete for foreign capital.
States, for instance, will cut interest rates or provide tax holiday to attract
investors from all over the planet.

Capital flows, the necessary lifeblood of economic activity, make it possible to
transfer funds when they are more needed, more productive or more
profitable. Profitability of course involves speculation, as business firms and
privates persons tend to take advantage of the highest returns, and more funds
around with a view to short-term profits.

Finance executive are more often prompted by the need to spread their and to
hedge their transactions in the face of currency fluctuations than by a taste for
gambling or speculation, their operation may nevertheless tip the scales in
favour of short-term financial gain or against long-term industrial investment.

Securization, the development of numerous new financial instruments, such as
derivatives, have made the market more and more complex, and operators
have to be more and more sophisticated. If the free circulation of money is in
itself a positive factor for global economic growth and international
development, the multiplication of offshore funds and tax havens is more
ambiguous as the purpose served may be flexibility or tax evasion.

More disturbing is the laundering of money from drug trafficking, or criminal
activities, and its subsequent penetration of financial networks. Individual
states are more and more hard put to it to control this influx which can only be
restricted through international cooperation.

The degree of control of governments over their own economic and budgetary
policy is further weakened by the “tyranny of the market” which passes
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judgments on their decisions and prompts investors to move in or out
accordingly. But economists will point out that this tends to make
governments more realistic and responsible.

Vocabulary Practice
1. flow – flux;
2. round-the-clock – 24 ore din 24, non-stop;
3. subsidiary – filială;
4. tax holidays – avantaj fiscal;
5. lifeblood – element vital;
6. return – randament;
7. prompt (to) – a îndemna, a determina;
8. hedge (to) – a pune la adăpost;
9. gamble (to) – a) (aici) a-şi asuma riscul;
b) a practica jocuri de noroc;
10. tip the scales (to) - a face să se încline balanţa;
11. securization – înlocuirea unui împrumut cu titluri negociabile;
12. derivatives- instrumente derivate;
13. offshore funds – fonduri extrateritoriale;
14. tax havens – paradis fiscal;
15. laundering – spălare (a banilor);
16. to be hard put – a fi pus la grea încercare;
17. accordingly – în consecinţă;

Focus on grammar

Sequence of tenses in the past:

MAIN CLAUSE SUBORDINATE CLAUSE



Past tense





1.ANTERIORITY:
Past perfect tense

2.SIMULTANEITY:
Past continuous tense or
Simple past tense

3.POSTERIORITY:
Future in the past

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Exercise 1. Read the following sentences paying attention to the use of tenses
1. They said they would build the bridge next year.
2. Our new buyers admitted that they would send the order next week.
3. Michael promised that he would help me next Monday.
4. Sally told us that she had visited London last summer.
5. The secretary told me that she was typing some letters and she couldn't
leave the office.
6. I remembered that I had forgotten to lock the front door.
7. Yesterday evening I heard that someone was playing the piano next door.
8. They admitted that they had seen the accident yesterday afternoon.
9. I told my boss that the invitation had arrived the day before.
10. They promised that they would visit us next Sunday.

Exercise 2. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (the past indefinite,
the past continuous, the past perfect, the future in the past):
1. When I … (come in) the boy … (sleep).
2. What … (do) you yesterday?
3. Mr. Brown … (talk) to his son while they … (have) breakfast.
4. John … (say) he … (come) tomorrow.
5. He … (tell) us what he … (do) the day before.
6. They … (say) I … (can) go out when I … (finish) my homework.
7. They … (arrive) at the airport after the plane … (leave).
8. By the time the doctor … (arrive) the sick man … (feel) better.
9. Why you … (not tell) him yesterday you … (can) lend him the money.
10. When I last … (talk) with her she … (go) to the country.
11. Mrs. Jones … (say) she (not want) to see that play, as she … (hear) it …
(be) not as good as you (tell) her.
12. The man thought he … (wish) he … (be able) to speak to the manager
before he … (leave).

Exercise 3. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense (the past indefinite,
the past continuous, the past perfect, the past perfect continuous, the future in
the past):
Lily … (jump out) of the bed and the next moment she … (open) the front
door. The sound of the door bell … (wake) her, and her heart … (begin) to
beat so fast. It … (be) the postman. She … (be) sure. Nobody … (ring) the bell
the way he … (do). He used to press his forefinger on the bell and keep it
there till he (hear) somebody moving in the flat. And Lily … (be) sure of
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something else: the postman … (come) to bring her the letter. The letter she …
(look forward to) since Monday. It … (be) on Monday that John … (leave) so
that he … (can write) the same day. But when he … (leave) he … (promise)
he … (write) to her as soon as he … (can) and the young girl … (think) of
nothing else. Well, here it … (be), in the hand of the old postman. Her eyes …
(shine), her cheeks … (be) flushed. She … (stretch) out her arm shyly and …
(grasp) it, while the man … (smile) at her.

Exercise 4. Transform the following sentences using passive constructions.
MODEL:
a. They saw the boy leaving the building.
b. The boy was seen leaving the building.
a. Sally gave John an apple pie.
b. John was given an apple pie.
c. An apple pie was given to John.
1. They must finish the work by seven o'clock.
2. People will soon forgive him.
3. The police arrested the thief a week ago.
4. Fred has written a letter to Dick.
5. Miss Ashley asked Peter a difficult question.
6. Columbus discovered America in 1492.
7. Dickens wrote "Hard Times" in the 19th century.
8. We had to send for the doctor.
9. One must not laugh at children.
10. We must build more blocks-of-flats next year.
11. They could have discovered his secret sooner.
12. You should ask the secretary's advice.
13. Do you know that somebody is waiting for you?
14. We haven't heard anything about him since he left.
15. You should handle this parcel with care.

Exercise 5. Transform the following active constructions from "Tortilla Flat”
by John Steinbeck into passive constructions:
1. He heard the bell ringing sweetly off China Point.
2. Some people had seen the Pirate early in the morning on Alvado Street.
3. Some had seen him cutting pitch wood.
4. Pylon knew everybody and everything about everybody.
5. Something had distracted his attention.
6. His words upset Danny.
7. We gave our lives for our country.
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8. Some day an automobile will run over you.
9. And I will tell him the two gallons cost five dollars.
10. They took him to their house.
11. They rented the use of their house to Jesus for fifteen dollars a month.
12. And then I bought a pint of whisky for Arabella.
13. I have brought you a present to take to the lady.
14. The guests paid no attention to him.

Exercise 6. Put the following into the passive voice. The agent should not be
mentioned except in numbers 11 and 28.
1. You should open the wine about three hours before you use it.
2. Previous climbers had cut steps in the ice and fixed a rope.
3. Somebody had cleaned my shoes and brushed my suit.
4. We heat the room by electricity.
5. You must not hammer nails into the walls without permission.
6. In some districts farmers use pigs to find truffles.
7. Someone switched on a light and opened the door.
8. Somebody had slashed the picture with a knife.
9. They are pulling down the old theatre.
10. Why didn’t they mend the roof before it fell in?
11. The local boys have broken all the windows in the new library.
12. The librarian said that they were starting a new system because people
were not returning books.
13. The police asked each of us about his movements on the night of the
crime.
14. Someone will serve refreshments.
15. People must not leave bicycles in the hall.
16. Members may keep books for three weeks. After that they must return
them.
17. The burglars had cut an enormous hole in the steel door.
18. I’ve bought a harp. They are delivering it this afternoon. (Do not
change the first sentence)
19. Someone has already told him to report for duty at six.
20. People threw rotten eggs and bags of soot.
21. No one can do anything unless someone gives us more information.
22. People are spending far more money on food now than they spent ten
years ago.
23. The organizers will exhibit the paintings till the end of the month.
24. They will say nothing more about the matter if someone returns the
stolen gun.
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25. It is high time someone told him to stop behaving like a child.
26. A thief stole my dog and brought him back only when I offered £ 20
reward for him.
27. The judge gave him two weeks in which to pay the fine.
28. Moles make these little hills.

Exercise 7. Put the sentences below into the passive voice:
1. The secretary has been typing the letters for two hours.
2. Commercial banks offer their clients competitive repayment facilities.
3. Building societies issue shares and raise up capital.
4. The subsidiary of a US group producing widely distributed consumer
goods needs a high calibre person to set up and run a Market
Development Team.
5. They present the repayment schedule in section three of the loan
agreement.
6. The money changer will give you the currency exchange rate for your
currency.
7. They have just opened a current account for us.
8. You must pay collection charges for international cheques.
9. To insure proper crediting, always indicate your account number.
10. The bank will require you to provide security as cover for the loan.
11. They asked John Smith to stand surety.
12. A central bank regulates the amount of credit available in the country.
13. The government may borrow money from the bank.
14. Commercial banks fill the short term needs of companies and
individuals.
15. Savings banks receive savings accounts and pay interest to depositors.
16. You must pay all the purchases in cash.
17. You will have to produce the receipt.
18. They have just opened branches in this region.
19. We will send the order by parcel post next Monday.
20. Retailers must study the market.








128

Unit XI
Business firms going global

As world competition heats up, and as customs barriers are lowered or
dismantled, large firms which used to be dominant on their home market have
to face onslaught of foreign companies. To maintain their position and status,
they have to grow and reach a size comparable to their competitors, so as to
allow economies of scale. This can only be effected by making inroads into
foreign markets. In other words, for such firms, going global is a necessary
strategy.

Some companies will concentrate on their core business and try to expand it at
home and develop it abroad, by setting up foreign operations.

But economic circumstances do not always make this easy. Growth may also
be achieved through diversification and through combinations and alliances,
acquisitions, takeovers, joint-ventures, mergers or through franchising. This
implies one does not run afoul of anti-trust laws, as enforced by regional or
international watchdogs (regulatory agencies).

One thing is certain: to remain or become a key player in today’s business
world implies operating abroad and dealing with foreign partners.

Many small and medium-sized firms also have to face world competitions and
adjust to it if they want to stay afloat. They may have to relocate a production
unit abroad to take advantage of lower labour costs, or they may resort to
outsourcing and order components from foreign manufacturers rather than
make them or have them made on the domestic market.

In any case, business firms, as they try to improve their competitiveness or to
stave off bankruptcy, have to achieve productivity gains through robotization,
restructuring, reengineering or downsizing, so as to becoming more
aggressive, leaner and meaner.

Such moves will of course result in local jobs being shed, and the assumption
that this will eventually be compensated for by job creations as the company
grows and its market widens is cold comfort to the workers who have been
laid off. The more so as large concerns are often accused of optimizing quick
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financial and speculative gains as against long term investments and stable
employment.

Business managers will argue that they have no choice and that this is the
price to pay to save the remaining jobs and be in a position to grow again
when the economy brightens up.

Globalization is here to stay and firms large and small must gear their strategy
to a changing world market, or fall by the wayside.

Vocabulary Practice

1. to heat up – a se încinge;
2. to expand – a se dezvolta, a se extinde;
3. to achieve – a obţine, a realize;
4. to run a foul – a intra în conflict;
5. to enforce – a aplica (o lege), a pune în practică;
6. to operate – a lucra, a opera;
7. to stay afloat – a se menţine la suprafaţă (pe linia de plutire);
8. to resort – a recurge;
9. to stave off bankruptcy – a evita falimentul;
10.assumption – presupunere, supoziţie;
11.eventually – până la urmă;
12.to widen – a (se) lărgi, a (se) mări;
13. comfort – consolare;
14.to lay off – a disponibiliza; a concedia;
15.concern – concern (întreprindere);
16.to gear – a adapta;
17.to fall by the wayside – a fi marginalizat;

Focus on grammar

THE CONDITIONAL CLAUSE

TYPE MAIN
CLAUSE
"IF"
CLAUSE
TYPE I
(open/probable
condition)
Future
I'll go on a trip
Present
if I have
money.
TYPE II Present Past tense
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(improbable/
hypothetical/
unreal
condition)
Conditional
I would go on
a trip
I would accept
the invitation
if I had
money.

if I were
you.
TYPE III
(impossible
condition)
Past
conditional
I would have
gone on a trip
Past
Perfect
if I had had
money.

A conditional clause may be also introduced by : unless (dacă nu), in
case, on condition that, so long as, provided/providing (that),
suppose/supposing (that).

Exercise 1. Change the verbs in the following sentences into the present
conditional and then into the past conditional.
MODEL:
I went to a party.
I should go to a party.
I should have gone to a party.

1. He liked very much to see the girl.
2. I'll come to see you.
3. Were you happy to meet him?
4. They're going to the seaside on Monday.
5. Dick won't stop.
6. Wasn't the boy eating the cake?
7. He'll come to see his friend.
8. She helped him with his homework.
9. Are you not calling him?
10. Lily isn't going to finish the paper today.
11. Did you ask him?
12. They have managed it all right.

Exercise 2. Use the verb to wish and change the following sentences into
affirmative ones, according to the model:
a. I don't think I'm free this afternoon.
b. I wish I were free this afternoon.
a. Susan did not know that you were coming.
b. Susan wished she had known that you were coming.
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1. We don't live near the lake.
2. I'm not going to spend my holidays in England.
3. I didn't drive very carefully.
4. Sissy has not enough money to buy that red dress.
5. The teacher did not think the exercise was difficult.
6. I can't get the book you told me about.
7. I don't think your brother could speak Italian.
Continue the exercise using negative sentences after to wish.
MODEL:
He supposed the girl spoke English.
He wished the girl did not speak English.
1. Mrs. Smith noticed that the man was impolite.
2. I understand that your boss is busy in the meeting room.
3. They went to Paris instead of London.
4. I heard that Nick failed in his examination.
5. They think Michael has a bad cold.
6. He remembered the woman's name when she saw her.
7. This man drinks a little bit too much.

Exercise 3. Conditional sentences, Type I; put the verbs in brackets into the
correct tenses.
1. If I see him I … (give) him a lift.
2. If he goes into that field the bull … (chase) him.
3. If you eat all that you … (be) ill.
4. If I find your passport I … (telephone) you at once.
5. If you read in bad light you … (ruin) your eyes.
6. I … (lend) you my car if you promise to take care of it.
7. If you come late they … (not let) you in.
8. If he … (work) hard today can he have a holiday tomorrow?
9. If you like the house you … (buy) it?
10. Unless you pay him regularly he … (not work) for you at all.
11. Should you require anything else please … (ring) the bell for the attendant.
12. Unless you work very hard you … (not be) successful.
13. If he … (be) late we'll go without him.
14. Unless you are more careful you … (have) an accident.
15. If you … (not believe) what I say, ask Michael.
16. If you … (not like) this house I'll show you another.
17 If you put on the kettle I … (make) the tea.
18. If you … (meet) him tell him to ring me up.
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Exercise 4. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form.
1. I'll look for your notebook and if I … (find) it I … (give) you a ring.
2. If you … (see) Tom, ask him to ring me.
3. If you … (feel) too hot during the night, turn down the central heating.
4. I shan't wake if the alarm clock … (not go) off.
5. I shan't wake unless I … (hear) the alarm.
6. If you … (not feel) well tomorrow you'd better take the day off.
7. If you … (care) to see some of his drawings I … (send) them round to
your office.
8. If Tom helps us the job only … (take) half an hour.
9. If you … (wait) a moment I'll come with you.
10. Unless Mr. Jones … (park) his car correctly he … (have) to pay a fine.
11. Tom: "I hate my job".
Peter: "If you … (hate) it, why … you … (not change) it?
12. If Michael … (refuse) to help we'll have to manage without him.
13. If your phone … (not work) you can use mine.
14. If you … (not know) the meaning of a word you may use a dictionary.
15. I expect it will freeze tonight.
If it … (freeze) tonight the roads (be) very slippery tomorrow.



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Unit XII
New economic sectors

All economic sectors have been influenced by the death of distance. But
special mention has to be made of several areas that have benefited most.
One of the greatest beneficiaries, in terms of revenue, power and job-creation,
is the field of “infotainment” (information and entertainment).

The information explosion and its consequences on the printed press, radio,
TV and telecommunications has resulted in the creation of vast commercial
empires. Articles can be read simultaneously in various countries, films can be
seen and music heard by millions of people, sports events can be followed as
and when they occur by a large part of the world population. The economic
and financial interests involved are such that cultural wars actually became
commercial or trade wars.

The multi-media industry, which thrives on such developments, constitutes at
the same time the underlying technology and the resulting field of activity,
with huge revenues in terms of hardware and software. No field of human
endeavour, form advanced research and intellectual pursuits to entertainment
and leisure, form data bases and CD ROMs to video games is beyond its
reach.

One of most spectacular booms is that in sports, which have now become big
business.

Thanks to extensive media-coverage, they generate huge advertising potential;
thanks to sponsoring, they are a favourite ground for corporate image building.

A significant part of the advertising expenditure of automobile and sportswear
firms goes into billboards on tracks and stadiums, and into TV ads related to
sports events.
Brands which have nothing to do with sports are also attracted by the exposure
granted to advertisements during matches and races that are beamed to
audiences of several million people.
In such a context, it is of course difficult to maintain the Olympic ideal of
amateur sports…

However spots like jogging, hang-gliding, windsurfing, biking and games like
tennis or soccer are being practiced just for fun, as hobbies or spare time
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activities, by countless kids and adults. They provide a huge market for the
manufacturers and distributors of sportswear and sporting equipment…not to
mention the contractors who are awarded construction contracts for marinas,
ski-lifts etc.

Tourism and travel have also enjoyed tremendous growth since World War II.
Tour operators, travel agencies and hotel chains offer a wide range of services
from luxury cruise and five-star hotels to low-prices charters and cheap
accommodations for more adventurous youths. In air travel, there is cut-throat
competition: airlines try to attract young travelers with no-frills economy
flights, and business people by offering frequent-flyer schemes which award
regular clients additional mileage.
Also to be mentioned is the sector of health maintenance and pharmaceuticals,
with the advances in medicine and surgery, the rise in life expectancy and the
prevailing concern with health care and fitness, together with the extensive
medical coverage provided by states and private firms in developed countries,
even though “cradle to grave” or “womb to tomb” welfare systems are being
criticized for their ever-increasing costs. This field has grown tremendously,
and appeals strongly to investors and private operators.

No wonder that pharmaceutical firms wage fierce battles to file new patents
whose worldwide exploitation may spell fortune for this or that research lab.

Vocabulary Practice
1. to thrive – a prospera
2. endeavour – stradanie, effort
3. expenditure – cheltuiala
4. bilboard – panou publicitar
5. exposure- prezentare
6. to beam – a difuza
7. hang-gliding – deltaplan
8. contractor – antreprenor
9. to award – a acorda/a decerna un premiu (aici, cu sens ironic)
10. cut-throat competition – concurenta pe viata si pe moarte
11. no-frills – redus la esential
12. scheme – plan, sistem
13. mileage – kilometraj

Focus on grammar

135
Exercise 1. Conditional sentences Type II; put the verbs in brackets in the
correct tenses.
1. If I had a car I … (travel) there all by myself.
2. If I … (know) his address I … (give) it to you.
3. More tourists … (come) to this town if it had a better climate.
4. If I had more money I … (buy) shares in that company.
5. If everyone … (say) exactly what he thought, conversation would become
impossible.
6. If he knew that it was dangerous he … (not come).
7. If you see somebody drowning, what you … (do)?
8. If I … (win) a big prize in a lottery I'd give up my job.
9. If I bought her everything she asked for I … (be) ruined.
10. If you … (have) a degree you could get a job easily.
11. We'd ask him to dinner more often if he … (be) more amusing.
12. If I thought that I'd be any use I … (offer) to help.
13. I … (not go) there if I were you.
14. If you remove that screw the whole machine … (fall) to pieces.

Exercise 2. Conditional sentences Type III; put the verbs in brackets into the
correct tenses.
1. If I had known that you were in hospital I … (visit) you.
2. I shouldn't have come if they … (not invite) me.
3. If he had asked you, … you … (accept)?
4. If you had shut the door the dog … (not get) into the house.
5. If you had obeyed my instructions, this …. (not happen).
6. If she had listened to my directions she … (not turn) down the wrong
street.
7. If you … (speak) more slowly he might have understood you.
8. If he had known the whole story he … (not be) so angry.
9. If he had tried again I think that he … (succeed).
10. If I realized that the traffic lights were red I … (stop).
11. If you … (be) here last week you would have seen my garden at its best.
12. If you had arrived ten minutes earlier you … (get) a seat.
13. If ha had known that the river was dangerous he … (not try) to swim
across it.
14. He would have been invited to the meeting if they … (know) his address.
15. If I had realized that it was such a long way I … (take) a taxi.
16. If they all had agreed, the Conference … (take) place in Paris.

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Exercise 3. Conditional sentences, mixed types; put the verbs in brackets into
the correct tenses.
1. If you … (find) a skeleton in the cellar don't mention it to anyone.
2. If you pass the examination we … (have) a celebration.
3. If I press this button what … (happen)?
4. I should have voted for him if I … (have) a vote then.
5. If you go to Paris where … you … (stay)?
6. If someone offered to buy you one of these rings, which … you …
(choose)?
7. If the fog … (get) thick the flight may be cancelled.
8. If I hear the burglar alarm what … I … (do)?
9. If you … (read) the instructions carefully you wouldn't have answered the
wrong questions.
10. I could make the report myself if I … (have) all the necessary information.
11. Unless they leave a lamp beside that hole in the road somebody … (fall)
into it.
12. If he were in, he … (answer) the phone.
13. Unless she finish university she … (not find) a better-paid job.
14. The meeting would have been successful if all the members of the Board
of Directors … (be) present.

Exercise 4. Finish these sentences, taking care to use the correct tenses.
1. If he had taken my advice ......
2. If the weather is fine tomorrow .....
3. He would have given him the news .....
4. I should have ordered the goods if .....
5. If the storm becomes worse ....
6. I would have bought myself a new car if .....
7. They would have got there in time if ....
8. If the volcano starts erupting ....
9. If he cut the grass more often ....
10. If you don't put enough stamps on this letter, the person who gets it ....
11. If you leave the gate open ....
12. He wouldn't have been angry if ....
13. She would buy that dress if ....
14. They would catch the 8 o'clock train if ....
15. If the phone rings when I'm out, my secretary ....



137
Unit XIII
New trends in retailing

Among recent developments, let us mention:
Increased emphasis on customer loyalty
In order to generate customer loyalty, stores offer frequent-shopper
programmes which may take the form of discounts, couponing, loyalty cards
entitling to rebates, charge accounts allowing refunds
Hard discounting
Discount retailers (store discounters) undercut competition with low-priced
items (generic or no-name, no-brand, own-label, own-name, own-brand
products, distributor’s brand).

Hard discounters (maxi-discounters) practice hard-discounting and maintain
low overheads thanks to their no-frills service.
Some specialized chains (category killers) have managed to almost eliminate
competitors thanks to the know-how of their salespeople, and the economies
of scale they can achieve while offering a wide range of products at
competitive prices.

Many stores have to attract customers advertising the day’s bargain selecting
each day an article to be sold at bargain prices, or “everyday low prices”.

The appeal of low prices accounts for the success of factory outlets, where
buyers can benefit from discounts of up to 50%, and warehouse clubs in which
members (card-holders) can buy goods at approximately wholesale prices.
Direct marketing
It consists in targeting specific individuals identified as potential buyers
because of their age, income bracket or social status.

The use of this technique is made easier in the U.S. by the relative lack of
restrictions or the constitution of data-bases and customer files, complete with
the addresses and phone-numbers of those belonging to the selected target
group.

Vocabulary Practice
1. loyalty – fidelitate, loialitate (a clientelei);
2. couponing – promovare (a unui produs) prin cupoane de reducere;
3. to entitle – a da dreptul;
4. charge account (US) – cont al unui client într-un magazin;
138
5. overheads – cheltuieli generale;
6. category killer – firme specializate care elimină concurenţa în domeniu;
7. bargain – afacere bună, chilipir;
8. income bracket – categoria de salariu;
9. target group – grup ţintă.

Focus on grammar

THE SUBJONCTIVE: it expresses a possible action, or unreality,
improbability.

A .The Synthetical Subjunctive
- The Present Subjunctive
It is used:
1. to express wishes or set expressions:
God save the queen!
Damn you!
God bless you!
Long live peace!
Suffice it to say that ...
2. in subordinate "that" clauses:
It is advisable that you come back soon.
- The Past Subjunctive
It is used:
1. in conditional clauses:
If I were you, I wouldn't borrow money from the bank.
2. after wish, it's (high) time, as if/though, even if/though, would
rather/sooner/better.
I wish I were back home.
It's (high) time you finish writing.
He is looking at me as if he knew me.
He would rather go to the mountains than stay at home.
He would rather I stayed home.
-The Past Perfect Subjunctive
It is used:
1. in conditional clauses to express a Past Conditional:
I would have sold the car if I had found a client.
2. after wish or even if/though:
I wish you hadn't done this.
Mike was speaking Spanish as if/though he had been a Spaniard.
139
Even if/though I had seen him, I wouldn't have informed you.


B. The Analytical Subjunctive

Shall + Infinitive
Shall I compare you with a champion?
Should + Infinitive
Why shouldn't you come earlier?
It is necessary that you should arrive in time.
If he should come, just tell me.
(= happened to come)
We ran away lest he should catch us up.
May all your dreams come true!
No matter how difficult the task might be he still wants to do it.
They wish she would pass the exam.
She practiced a lot so that she could win the contest.

Exercise 1.Unreal past and subjunctives; put the verbs in brackets into the
correct forms.
1. It's just strike midnight. It's high time we … (leave).
2. You … (have) better take off your wet clothes.
3. If I … (not have) rubber gloves on I would have been electrocuted.
4. He looks as though he never … (get) a square meal, but in fact his wife
feeds him very well.
5. When an English person says something to me, I translate it into my native
language, and then I think of a reply in Romanian, and then translate it into
English and say it.
It's high time you … (stop) doing all this translation and … (start) thinking
in English.
6. It's high time the police … (do) something to stop road accidents.
7. I hate driving. I would much rather you … (drive).
8. Wife: "I'd like to get a job."
Husband: "I'd much rather you … (stay) at home and … (look) after the
house."
9. It looks like rain; you … (have) better take a coat.
10. You talk as though it … (be) a small thing to leave your country for ever.
11. I'll pay by cheque monthly.
I'd rather you … (pay) me cash weekly.
12. You … (have) better take off your wet clothes.
140
13. I wish I … (know) what is wrong with my car.
14. He talks as if he … (do) all the work himself, but in fact Tom and I did
most of it.

Exercise 2. The Present Subjunctive is identical in form with the Past Tense
indicative. Replace the verbs in brackets by the appropriate form of the
Present Subjunctive (simple /continuous, active/passive).

1. It's time you (get down) to business.
It's time you got down to business.
2. It's about time we (be leaving).
It's about time we were leaving.
3. It is high time the team … (start) training for the competition.
4. It's high time he … (express) his own point of view.
5. It's about time we … (put) an end to this pointless talk.
6. It's time you … (read) books in the original.
7. It's time you … (be reading) books in the original.
8. Isn't it time he … (be given) his medicine?
9. It's time you … (realize) the importance of the matter.
10. It's time we … (close) some unproductive sectors.

Exercise 3. The Present Subjunctive form of the verb BE is WERE for all
persons. Give advice in the following situations. Use If I were you, I'd ....
1. Alice: I want to lose weight.
Helen: If I were you, I'd eat fewer sweets.
Alice: Helen:
2. I think it's going to rain. ............
3. I think I've got a temperature. ............
4. I find it difficult to get up in the morning. ............
5. I've got the hiccoughs. ............
6. I've lost my purse. ...........
7. I've been working too hard. ............
8. I can't see properly. It's too dark in here. ............

Exercise 4. The Past Subjunctive is identical in form with the Past Perfect
indicative. Put the verbs in brackets into the Past Subjunctive form.
1. I wish it (happen) to anyone but you.
I wish it had happened to anyone but you.
2. She almost wished she … (not invite) them to the party.
3. I wish you … (bring) the dictionary with you.
141
4. Henry would have missed his train if he … (not hurry).
5. I wouldn't have phoned her if I … (know) she was so busy.
6. I wish you … (see) the play.
7. My friend wishes I … (not buy) this expensive car.
8. They wish their boss … (be) more understanding.
9. Michael would have never go there alone if he … (think) of the dangerous.
10. Suppose they … (do) what you asked! What would have become of them?

Exercise 5. Unreality can also be expressed by a variety of modal auxiliaries +
infinitives (Analytical or Periphrastic Subjunctive). Read the following
sentences paying attention to the use of the subjunctive.
Shall/should + infinitive
The committee have decided that no one shall be admitted without a ticket.
It is not necessary that every one should be first-rate - either actresses or
singers.
May/might + infinitive
May you be happy in the life you have chosen!
We put the files into the drawers, for fear someone might get them.
Would + infinitive
I wish they would forget this unhappy story.

Exercise 6. Read the following sentences paying attention to the subjunctive
constructions. Translate the sentences into Romanian.
1. Our intention is that the new wing of the plant will be built by the end of
the year.
2. Try as you will, you won't manage it.
3. I wish they wouldn't hold the meeting while I'm trying to finish the final
reports.
4. May you have a long and happy life!
5. Should you need help, please let me know at once.
6. The manager decided that the goods be sent immediately.
7. My partner began to wish he had not come to the party.
8. I would not think another moment if I were to choose.
9. I feared lest I should be deceived.
10. I locked all the doors for fear a burglar might enter the office.
The old form of the present subjunctive is used in imperative sentences when
the subject is expressed:
1. Oh! You leave that to me. Don't you, any of you , worry yourselves about
that.
2. Somebody come with me, and then I'll show you the new project.
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3. You take my advice: invite them to dinner before you start talking
business!
4. The manager said, "Now the first thing to settle is what to close. Now you
get a sheet of paper and write down, George, and you get the plan of the plant,
Michael".

Exercise 7. Read the following sentences paying attention to the use of the
Present Subjunctive indicating present unreality (action contrary to present
fact).

1. It's about time the new investor arrived.
2. It's about time the meeting started.
3. He wishes he had a brother. If only he were his brother.
4. If I had a plan of the city, I could show you the way to the Town Hall.
5. Even though he were present, they would not change their minds.
6. He hates secrets and he doesn't like to be treated as if he were a child.

Exercise 8. Make a choice. Use Would rather.
This evening you can:
1. stay at home or go out
I think I'd rather stay at home than go out this evening
2. eat at home or eat down town
3. read your favorite magazine or watch a talk show on TV
4. go dancing in a club or go swimming
5. date your girl-friend or meet your friends
6. do more homework or read a book
7. go for a walk or listen to some music
8. play chess or play tennis
9. go to the theatre or to a concert hall
10. give a party or go to a party

Exercise 9. Put the verbs in brackets in the right form.
MODEL: If Garret (look) in the drawer, he (find) the file.
If Garret looked in the drawer, he would find the file.
1. This report would be better if it … (have) more information in it.
2. Do you think he … (lend) me his car if I ask him nicely?
3. The secretary would hear you better if you ...(speak) louder.
4. If he were not so impatient he … (be) better understood.
5. He would play tennis if he … (have) time.
6. He … (visit) Spain if he had more money.
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Exercise 10. Put the verbs in brackets into the right form. Use the Past
Subjunctive after Even if to express action contrary to past fact.
MODEL: Even if he (work) twice difficult I (not refuse) to do it.
Even if the work had been twice as difficult I wouldn't have refuse it.
1. Even if you … (send) him a special invitation, he … (not come) to the
meeting.
2. Even though the Browns … (have) much money, they … (not buy) this
extremely expensive car.
3. Even if I … (write) to Dave, he … (not get) the letter.
4. You hardly … (believe) it even though you … (see) it with your own Eyes.
5. We … (come) back by all means even if it … (be) late as midnight.
6. Even though the way … (be) twice short we … (miss) the train all the
same, for I got the schedule mixed up.

Exercise 11. Replace the verbs in brackets by the correct form: present or past
subjunctive.
1. Mrs. Brown wishes her husband … (come) back earlier from his office.
He's always late for dinner.
2. It's high time the meeting … (be) over.
3. Supposing he never … (come). What would happen then?
4. He'd rather they … (not mention) it to them just yet.
5. We all wished we … (not close) these two sectors.
6. It's high time you … (open) a current account to a bank.
7. I would have sent you a postcard from London if I … (know) your
address.
8. They … (help) you if you had asked them to.
9. She behaved as if she … (be) the richest woman in the world.
10. I'd rather you … (leave) the party immediately.

Exercise 12. Read the following sentences paying attention to the use of the
Analytical Subjunctive after:
a) it is/was necessary, advisable, essential, better, vital, important, right, fair,
natural, etc.;
b) it is/was strange, odd, surprising, amazing, annoying, ridiculous, absurd,
etc.;
c) suggest, propose, insist, recommend, command, demand, etc. d) intention,
idea, wish, desire, suggestion, proposal, demand, request, arrangement,
agreement, etc.;
e) lest, in case - in expressions of fear;
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f) in conditional sentences instead of the present tense (when the action in the
"if" clause is unlikely to occur);
e) in (negative) purpose clauses as an alternative to would/could.

1. It is important they should be present at the meeting.
2. It is essential that he should know the truth.
3. It is only fair that you should accompany the manager.
4. It is amazing that the Leaning Tower of Pisa should have stood for so long.
5. The president proposed that we should postpone our departure.
6. My desire was that he should leave off his office and go on a holiday.
7. Her desire is that her friend should accompany her during the trip.
8. The road was icy and the driver was terrified lest the car should slip and
have an accident.
9. If the phone should ring, please say that I'll be back at noon.
10. Should he come back, tell him I am out.
11. He wore a mask so that nobody should recognize him.










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Unit XIV
International trade
The growth of international trade

Protectionism and free trade
The majority of economists believe in the comparative cost principle, which
proposes that all nations will raise their living standards and real income if
they specialize in the production of those goods and services in which they
have the highest relative productivity. Nations may have an absolute or a
comparative advantage in producing goods and services because of factors of
production (notably raw materials), climate, division of labour, economies of
scale, and so forth.

This theory explains why there is international trade between North and South,
e.g. semiconductors going from the USA to Brazil, and coffee going in the
opposite direction. But it does not explain the fact that over 75% of the exports
of the advanced industrial countries go to the similar advanced nations, with
similar resources, wage rates and levels of technology, education, and capital.
It is more a historical accident than a result of natural resources that the US
leads in building aircrafts, semiconductors, computers and software, while
Germany makes luxury automobiles, machine tools and cameras.

However the economists who recommend free trade do not face elections
every four or five years. Democratic governments do, which often encourages
them to impose tariffs and quotas in order to protect what they see as tragic
industries - notably agriculture - without which the country would be in
danger if there was a war, as well as other jobs. Abandoning all sectors in
which a country does not have a comparative advantage is likely to lead to
structural unemployment in the short (and sometimes medium and long) term.

Other reasons for imposing tariffs include the following:
to make imports more expensive than home - produced substitutes,
and thereby reduce a balance of payments deficit;
as a protection against dumping (the selling of goods abroad at below
cost price in order to destroy or weaken competitors or to earn foreign
currency to pay for necessary imports);
to relate against restrictions imposed by other countries;
to protect 'infant industry' until they are large enough to achieve
economies of scale and strong enough to compete internationally.

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With tariffs, it is impossible to know the quantity that will be imported,
because prices might be elastic. With quotas, governments can set a limit to
imports. Yet unlike some countries use include so-called safety norms, and the
deliberate creation of customs difficulties and delays.

The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), an international
organization set up in 1947, had the objectives of encouraging international
trade, of making tariffs the only form of protectionism, and of reducing these
as much as possible. The most favoured nation clause of the GATT agreement
specified that countries could not have favoured trading partners, but had to
grant equally favourable conditions to all trading partners. The final GATT
agreement - including services, copyright, and investment, as well as trade in
goods - was signed in Marrakech in 1994, and the organization was
superseded by the World Trade Organization.

It took nearly 50 years to arrive at the final GATT agreement because until the
1980's, most developing countries opposed free trade. They wanted to
industrialize in order to counteract what they rightly saw as an inevitable fall
in commodity prices. They practiced import substitution (producing and
protecting goods that cost more than those made abroad), and imposed high
tariff barriers to protect their infant industries.

Nowadays, however, many developing countries have huge debts with
Western commercial banks on which they are unable to pay the interest, let
alone repay the principal. Thus they need to rollover (or renew) the loans, to
reschedule (or postpone) repayments, or to borrow further money from the
International Monetary Fund, often just to pay the interest on existing loans.
Under these circumstances, IMF opposes severe conditions, usually including
the obligation to export as much as possible.
Quite apart from IMF pressure, Third World governments are aware of the
export successes of the East Asian 'Tiger' economies (Hong Kong, Singapore,
South Korea and Taiwan), and of the collapse of the Soviet economic model.
They were afraid of being excluded from the world trading system by the
development of trading blocks such as the European Union, finalized by the
Maastricht Treaty, and the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA),
both signed in the early 1990's. So they tended to liberalize their economies,
lowering trade barriers and opening up the international trade.



147
Vocabulary practice
autarky - the (impossible) situation in which a country is completely self-
sufficient and has no foreign trade;
balance of payments - the difference between the amount of money coming
into a country from the goods and services it exports, and the amount of
money going out for the goods and services it imports;
balance of trade - the difference in value between the visible exports (goods
and services) and visible imports of a country;
barter or counter-trade - direct exchange of goods, without the use of money;
deficit - the amount by which expenditure is greater than income over a
particular period;
dumping - selling goods abroad at (or below) cost price;
invisible exports - services such as banking, insurance and tourism that are
sent from one country to another;
invisible imports - services such as banking, insurance and tourism that are
brought from other countries;
protectionism - imposing trade barriers in order to restrict imports;
quotas - quantitative limits on the import of particular products or
commodities;
surplus - an amount that is more than is needed;
tariffs - taxes charged on imports;
visible trade(GB) or merchandise trade (US) - trade in goods.

Reading
Read the text and answer the following questions.
1. Why do most economists oppose protectionism?
2. Why do most governments impose import tariffs and/or quotas?
3. Why were many developing countries for a long time opposed to GATT?
4. Why have many developing countries recently reduced protectionism and
increased their international trade?

Focus on grammar

THE INFINITIVE
I. Forms:

Form
Active Voice
Simple
Aspect/Continuous
Aspect

Passive Voice
The Present Infinitive to offer/to be offering to be offered
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The Perfect Infinitive to have offered /to have
been offering
to have been offered

Negative: not to offer
be offered
be offering
have offered
have been offering
have been offered
II. Uses:
1. after certain verbs:
to agree to manage
to appear to offer
to attempt to promise
to decide to refuse
to expect to seem
to help to learn
e.g. I refuse to see him
2. after certain verbs followed by direct objects:
to advise somebody to
to invite somebody to
e.g. The teacher invited him to read more.
3. after certain adjectives:
e.g. It is difficult to state this.
4. after the verbs make and let we use short infinitive:
e.g. Let me go home.
You make me laugh.
5. to show the purpose:
e.g. I come to see my friend.
I need a lot of money to buy that house.
6. after certain verbs followed by interrogative words: what, where, who.
Such verbs are: to ask, to wonder, to find, to understand.
e.g. I didn't know what to say.

ACCUSATIVE + INFINITIVE
1. It is used without to
a) after verbs of perception: to see, to hear, to feel, to notice etc.
e.g. I saw him come.
He heard her sing.
b) after verbs expressing determination, obligation to make:
149
He made me laugh.
2. It is used with to
a) after verbs expressing mental activities: to think, to suppose, to imagine,
to consider, to expect, to know, to understand:
e.g. I expect him to ring me up.
b) after verbs expressing desire: to want, to like, to hate:
e.g. I want him to work better.


NOMINATIVE + INFINITIVE
It is used:
1. with the following verbs at the passive voice: to know, to say, to consider,
to believe, to think, to suppose, to expect, to hear.
e.g. Coleridge is considered to be a great poet.
2. with the following verbs at the Active Voice: to seem, to appear, to happen,
to prove, to turn out:
e.g. He proved to be a coward.
He seems to know her.
3. with the verb to be + one of the adjectives: sure, certain, likely, unlikely:
e.g. They are sure to come in time.
She is likely to be late.

THE GERUND
Uses:
1. after verbs which describe the stages of the action: to begin, to start, to
continue, to keep, to cease, to stop:
e.g. He kept laughing.
Stop talking!
2. after verbs which express mental activities: to forget, to remember, to fancy,
to imagine:
e.g. I remember posting the letter.
She forgot sending the invitations.
3. after verbs of attitude: to like, to dislike, to enjoy, to prefer, to hate:
e.g. I enjoyed meeting you.
4. after the verb mind, especially at the interrogative or negative form:
e.g. Would you mind opening the window?
I wouldn't mind walking.
The verb mind can be followed by a noun/pronoun/possessive adjective +
gerund:
e.g. Do you mind my smoking here?
150
I didn't mind Jim leaving home.
5. after transitive verbs: to admit, to deny, to avoid, to postpone, to delay, to
suggest, to prevent, to involve:
e.g. He admitted being wrong.
I suggested telling the truth.
6. after personal expressions: I can't help (nu pot să nu/nu mă pot abţine), I
can't hear/stand (nu pot suporta)
e.g. I can't stand visiting the museum all day long.
7. after impersonal expressions:
it's no good = nu are rost să ...
it's no use = nu are rost să ...
it's useless = nu merita să ...
it's worth = merita să ...
e.g. It's no use wasting money on trifles.
The book is worth reading.
8. after the verb need/want when the subject is a thing (not a person):
e.g. The windows are dirty. They need/want cleaning.

Exercise 1. Read the following sentences and pay attention to the use of the
infinitive.
1. She's going to go to a party tonight.
2. They intend to send the order tomorrow morning.
3. He wants to become an economist.
4. I asked to speak to the manager.
5. This man likes to read history books.
6. The manager agreed to listen to me.

Exercise 2. After defective modal verbs and after some modal phrases we use
the infinitive without TO (the short infinitive).
1. They can speak German.
2. We would like a cup of coffee.
3. You should go now.
4. You may leave now.
5. He must work hard.
6. He would rather go fishing.
7. You had better tell him to get down to work.
8. I dare not interfere.
9. You needn't say anything. I understand.
Exercise 3. Put the verbs in brackets into the right form: the infinitive with TO
or without TO.
151
MODEL: Would you (like) (win) the first prize?
Would you like to win the first prize?
1. They would … (like) (visit) London on the journey back home.
2. I am … (meet) my friends there.
3. They would … (laugh) … (see) you with that funny hat on.
4. I would rather…(wait) a few days; they might…(phone) us.
5. Will you … (have) enough money … (buy) the album?
6. Do you really think he used … (live) here?
7. Need you … (leave) your papers lying all over the floor?
8. This must … (be) the hotel they were talking about.
9. They are … (arrive) at eight o'clock, but I ought … (get) there earlier.
10. She made us … (work) all morning. Then she let us …(go).
11. Were you able … (finish) your work?
12. I mean … (have) another try if I can … (participate) in the competition.

Exercise 4. Put the verbs in brackets into the active or passive infinitive as
appropriate.
MODEL: I expect (see) him soon.
I expect to see him soon.
He ought (punish) for what he did.
He ought to be punished for what he did.

1. They are preparing … (go) on holiday.
2. We expect … (receive) his letter in a few days.
3. The final examination has … (take) by all students.
4. The statistics in the report ought … (check) very carefully.
5. The letters which need … (answer) immediately are usually put in a
special folder.
6. The money has … (return) to the bank.
7. The flower died because she neglected … (water) it.

Exercise 5. Give the perfect forms of the following infinitives (active voice).

1. to see 5. to sleep 9. to sing 13. to believe
2. to eat 6. to be 10. to stay 14. to know
3. to stop 7. to cry 11. to get 15. to say
4. to offer 8. to have 12. to grow

Exercise 6. What is the continuous form of these infinitives (indefinite,
perfect, active voice)?
152

1. to travel 4. to run 7. to write
2. to listen 5. to study 8. to play
3. to dance 6. to swim 9. to rain

Exercise 7. Give the passive forms of the following infinitives (indefinite and
perfect):

1. to give 4. to write 7. to appoint
2. to introduce 5. to choose 8. to prove
3. to forget 6. to elect 9. to notice

Exercise 8. Use the appropriate form of the infinitive, in the active or passive
voice.
1. I hate … (bother) you, but the man is still waiting … (get) a definite
answer.
2. The man seemed … (study) me, and I felt uneasy in his presence.
3. The strength of the metal proved … (overestimate) by the designer.
4. The engineer claimed … (warn) us against its use as he had always been
sure it was likely … (deform).
5. She would never miss a chance … (show) her efficiency; she was so
anxious … (like) and … (praise).
6. We seem … (fly) over the sea for quite a time and there is yet no land …
(see).
7. The file was believed … (lose) until the secretary happened … (find) it
during the inventory. It turned out … (misplace).
8. The only sound … (hear) was the ticking of old clock in the hall.

Exercise 9.Look at the main function of the infinitive:

Function Example
Subject
Direct object

(Prepositional) object of a verb,
adjective
Predicative
Attribute
Adverbial
To be a student is a difficult job.
I have always liked to study
accountancy.
Would you care to go for a walk?
I'm afraid to leave her alone.
My goal is to get good marks.
The thing to do is to work hard.
To be honest, I hate cold weather.
We came here to work.
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The pudding is delicious to eat.

Verbs of LIKING and DISLIKING, besides taking an infinitive alone as an
object, may also take the ACCUSATIVE with the INFINITIVE as a DIRECT
OBJECT:
choose hate love prefer
desire intend mean want
expect like need wish

Add the noun or the pronoun in the Accusative to each sentence below so that
it becomes the subject of the infinitive clause.
MODEL: The Phonetics teacher expects to work hard. (his students)
The Phonetics teacher expects his students to work hard.

1. Last week, he expected to visit the Science Museum. (them)
2. He wants to describe the visit now. (all of them)
3. We'd have liked to speak first. (Tom)
4. I expect to be in hospital for a week. (my friend)
5. I prefer to have an older doctor. (her)
6. I don't wish to know this. (anyone)

Exercise 10. Use the prompts to make sentences on the pattern VERB +
ACCUSATIVE + INFINITIVE.
MODEL: teacher/choose/a composition
I can't go out tonight. My teacher has chosen me to write a composition for
tomorrow.
1. my partner/expect/to a meeting
2. my friend/ask/his car
3. my manager/would like/letters
4. my boss/give/a list of guests
5. my colleague/intend/his reports

Exercise 11. Read the following ACCUSATIVE + INFINITIVE construction
in the following sentences.

1. We believe him to be the best expert of all.
2. Do you suppose this subject to be too easy for them?
3. They reckoned Albert to be the most capable economist among them.
4. We know him to be a man of sense.
5. We understand her to be a woman of about fifty.
154
6. The experts declared the business to be out of danger.

Exercise 12.A gerund may have all the syntactic properties of a noun or of a
verb; it may also take a subject of its own; it may be used in the perfect form
and in the passive voice. Read the sentences below paying attention to the use
of the gerund.

1. His handling of the situation was masterly.
2. He was suspected of having lent large sums of money.
3. What's the use of his going there?
4. The investors coming tomorrow will make all the difference.
5. The young woman educated herself by reading widely.
6. He detests all this arguing about points of no importance.
7. We object to being treated like children.
8. There's no accounting for tastes.

Exercise 13. Combine the words below into a sentence containing a short or a
long infinitive, or a gerund.
MODEL:
Mr. Brown enjoys the garden work.
Mr. Brown enjoys working in the garden.
The children hoped to their cousins’ visit
The children hoped to visit their cousins.
I made him the papers sign.
I made him sign the papers.

1. They have started chess play
2. They kept on about the weather talk
3. He aimed at his brother heart
4. It has started rain
5. I don't like him rudely answer
6. The Taylors agreed on Saturday come
7. We expect them there be
8. The secretary forgot the letter post
9. She will need accountancy study
10. We wanted the next day leave
Exercise 14
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct form (long infinitive, short infinitive
or gerund):
1. They can't help … (wonder) where he's gone.
155
2. I didn't remember … (see) this man before.
3. Mrs. Brown saw the young woman … (leave) the house early in the
morning.
4. Dick helped me … (put) Jane's luggage in the car.
5. Nothing can make us … (accept) his proposal.
6. They watched him … (leave) the room quickly.
7. He did not intend … (go) there by air.
8. Have you heard him … (open) the door?
9. Do you mind … (open) the window, please?
10. What do you like better, … (ski) or … (skate).
11. I'm sorry I didn't remember … (post) the letter.
12. The manager recommended them … (visit) us again next month.








156
EVALUATION TESTS

TEST 1
I. Translate into English:
1. Cenzorii au verificat documentele contabile şi au redactat procesul verbal al
controlului financiar.
2. Serviciul contabilitate lucrează la un raport privind cheltuielile curente ale
companiei.
3. Dacă costurile serviciilor ar fi fost determinate corect, afacerea ar fi fost
reuşită.
4. Profitul a fost nesatisfăcător anul trecut.
5. De obicei, trebuie să decidem foarte atent cum ne cheltuim veniturile.
6. Supraproducţia poate duce la un excedent de piaţă.
7. Dacă utilajele ar fi de calitate bună şi nu foarte scumpe le-am putea
cumpăra pentru noua secţie de producţie.
8. Dacă ar fi vrut să evite falimentul ar fi trebuit să închidă câteva sectoare
neproductive.
9. Experţii contabili au participat la un curs de pregătire recent.
10. Directorul de vânzări şi câţiva potenţiali cumpărători efectuează o
tranzacţie chiar acum.

II. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense:
1. He … (just be fired) because of being late for work.
2. This month the price of this material … (increase) 50 %.
3. They … (work) on a method of calculating costs, but they … (not come) to
a satisfactory result yet.
4. The marketer … (work) on a market research, when the manager invited
him in his office.
5. They … (send) the letters before the German investors came.
6. If I had known you were in trouble I … (help) you.
7. Production … (increase) in the last few months and this … (lead) to salary
rises.
8. … you … (ever travel) to foreign countries? No, I … (never travel)
abroad.
9. I would have sent you the invitation if I … (know) your new address.
10. The auditors … (check) the documents for two days and they … (not
finish) yet.



157
III. Translate into Romanian:
Economists talk about the Law of Supply, in which a rise in prices tends to
increase supply, while a fall in prices tends to reduce it. If prices rise for a
particular commodity, the rise will encourage producers to make more. On the
other hand, if prices fall either locally or throughout the world, producers will
reduce production.
This can result in serious difficulties for many producers, and may cause them
to go out of business completely. Over-production of any commodity can also
create difficulties, because it can lead to a glut on the market, which may
cause prices to fall sharply.

IV. Fill in the gaps with suitable words at the end of the list:
A manager should use his time in an efficient way. He should ................... all
activities that do not contribute to the ........................... of his managerial
tasks. In order to be aware of how he spends his time, he could .....................
to recording his activity all over the day, which is called .......................time.
Based on time logging, he can realize what can be ........................ A manager
should have a clear idea of priorities. A list of tasks in the order of their
............. could be a useful device. He should concentrate on the most
important tasks first, and avoid time-......................... and unproductive ways
of doing things. A good manager will ......................... the tasks he cannot
............................ the time to handle himself and in this way he will be able
to....................... deadlines even if this means others have been involved in
..................... matters. Among the things he can give up is writing long
memos. He can handle matters faster by making phone calls. He can also
............................ requests to .............. committees, give interviews,
............................. articles to magazines and so on. In this way he could make
an efficient use of his time.

Afford, carrying out, consuming, contribute, join, turn down,
cut out, delegate, importance, left out, meet ,logging, resort, setting




TEST 2
I. Translate into English:
1 . Aceste produse sunt depozitate de mai bine de trei saptamani şi trebuie
vândute rapid pentru că sunt perisabile.
2. Firma noastra tocmai a câştigat o importantă sumă de bani din vânzarea
158
unor utilaje.
3. Dacă costurile serviciilor ar fi fost determinate corect, afacerea ar fi fost
reuşită.
4. Cenzorii au verificat documentele contabile şi au redactat procesul
verbal al controlului financiar.
5. Documentele au fost expediate fără acordul angajatorului.
6. Comisia ar trebui să analizeze politica de stabilizare.
7. Solicitanţii au venit la interviu fără să ştie ceva despre cerinţele slujbei
pe care o solicitau.
8. Puteţi retrage până la $ 1,500 pe săptămâna cu condiţia ca soldul dvs.
să rămână creditor.
9. Caut dosarul cu balanţe de zece minute.
10. Fiind valoroase, documentele fuseseră păstrate într- un seif înainte de a
fi expediate.



II. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense:
1. He … (just be fired) because of being late for work.
2. This month the price of this material … (increase ) 50 %.
3. If I had known you were in trouble I … (help) you.
4. The auditors … (check) the documents for two days and they … (not
finish) yet.
5. The bridge … (be built) next year. They … (not manage) to build it this
year.
6. The marketer … (work) on a market research, when the manager invited
him in his office.
7. They … (not admit) that the responsibility was entirely theirs.
8. I would have sent you the invitation if I … (know) your address.
9. They … (work) on a method of calculating costs, but they … (not come)
to a satisfactory result yet.
10. They … (send) the letters before the German investors came.


III. Translate into Romanian:
Economists talk about the Law of Supply, in which a rise in prices tends to
increase supply, while a fall in prices tends to reduce it. If prices rise for a
particular commodity, the rise will encourage producers to make more. On the
other hand, if prices fall either locally or throughout the world, producers will
reduce production.
159
This can result in serious difficulties for many producers, and may cause them
to go out of business completely. Over- production of any commodity can also
create difficulties, because it can lead to a glut on the market, which may
cause prices to fall sharply.

IV. Fill in the gaps with words from the list at the end of the text.
A market economy is based on private.........................in contrast to planned
economy where .........................ownership prevails. In a free market economy
efficiency is the key word, while on the other hand command economy likely
leads to ...............................In a free market economy inefficient businesses go
....................., whereas in a command economy businesses are
..............................., thus allowing them to survive in spite of their non-
satisfactory economic performance. This enables the latter type of economy to
resort to .........................., that is employing more personnel than actually
required. Market economy leads to high .......................of goods and services,
while on the hand planned economy will not focus on offering high quality
goods and services to ...................... This is due to the fact that in the latter
type of economy there is actually no ........................., as there are
state.......................... and therefore the options of customers are severely
restricted. On the other hand in a market economy companies
freely..................... for a larger market ......................, and are thus forced to be
efficient and employ.................according to real necessities and
.............................their resources with utmost care.

bankrupt; inefficiency; ownership; compete;
manage; quality;
competition; monopolies; share;
customers; overstaffing; staff;
state; subsidized.


V. Turn the following sentences into passive ones and make the necessary
changes:
1. The manager had announced the subject of the meeting when I arrived.
2. Individuals own and operate the private sector.
3. The sales manager and some potential buyers are making a transaction
right now.
4. The auditors checked the files and wrote the minutes of the audit.
5. The accounting department was working on a report concerning the
current expenditures of the firm.
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TEST 3
A. Put each verb in brackets into a suitable past tense. Only use the past
perfect where this is absolutely necessary.
This time last year I (1)…….. (cycle) in the rain along a country road in
France with a friend of mine. We (2)…… (decide) to go on a cycling holiday
in Normandy. Neither of us (3)…….. (go) to France before, but we
(4)………(know) some French from our time at school and we (5)…….
(manage) to brush up on the basics. Now we (6)…….. (wonder) if we
(7)………(make) the right decision. We (8)…….(plan) our route carefully in
advance, but we (9)…….( forget) one important thing, the weather. It
(10)…… (rain) solidly since our arrival and that night we (11)…..(end up)
sleeping in the waiting room at a railway station. Then the next morning as we
(12)…… (ride) down a steep hill my bike (13)…..(skid) on the wet road and I
(14)……(fall off). I (15)……(realize) immediately that I (16)…….(break) my
arm, and after a visit to the local hospital I (17)…….(catch) the next train to
Calais for the ferry home. Unfortunately my parents (18)…….(not expect) me
home for a fortnight, and (19)……..(go) away on holiday. So I (20)…….
(spend) a miserable couple of weeks alone, reading Teach Yourself French .

B. Give an end to each sentence:
1. If they had had more money,……
2. If you find a skeleton in the cellar,……
3. If Cindy Knew your address,……..
4. If grandma had had some apples,……
5. If Michael had been there,…….
6. If Sandra had taken her umbrella,…..
7. If anyone believed the story,………
8. If I were you,…..
9. If we had more spare time,……..
10. If I had heard the weather forecast,…….

C. Match the sentences a) to j) with the functional descriptions 1) to 10).
a) Would you like a cup of tea?
b) Excuse me, do you know what time the museum opens?
c) Actually, I think I’d rather have a Chinese meal.
d) I know, we could walk along the river. How about that?
e) Sorry, but I won’t do it.
f) That looks difficult. Shall I help you?
g) Excuse me, but do you think you could turn your music down a bit?
161
h) Well, to be honest, I think you should go to the police.
i) Is it all right if I pop out to the shops for a moment?
j) I’ll definitely be there at 6.00. I won’t be late!

1. Asking for information.
2. Making an offer.
3. Offering something.
4. Asking permission.
5. Refusing to do something.
6. Expressing preference.
7. Making a promise
8. Making a request.
9. Making a suggestion.
10. Giving advice

D. Translate into English:
1. Aceste articole de modă sunt cerute în timpul sezonului turistic.
2. Am aprecia dacă ne-aţi trimite câte o mostră din fiecare dintre articolele
înscrise mai sus.
3. Pentru a vă familiariza cu produsele noastre, vă trimitem astăzi catalogul
nostru cu modele.
4. Livrarea nu s-a ridicat la nivelul aşteptărilor lor acum o săptămână.
5. Condiţiile de muncă sunt mai bune acum şi înca se mai îmbunătăţesc.
6. Baza noastră de date este reactulizată în permanenţă.
7. Ţările în curs de aderare devin competitive chiar şi în domeniul
tehnologiei de vârf.
8. Şedinţa Consiliului de Administraţie va avea loc la sfârşitul lunii.
9. Acţiunile sale sunt acum cotate la bursă.
10. Multe societăţi mici, afectate de criză, au dat faliment.

E. Translate into Romanian:
The World Wide Web is steadily swelling with interactive, advertiser-
sponsored billboards. The Internet is a global network that enables computer
users equipped with a modem and a telephone line to exchange messages. The
World Wide Web carried the multimedia portion of Internet, allowing
centralized server computers to post text, images and music onto the network.
Individual computer users then click onto various elements of a Web site to
explore whatever mix of information or entertainment strikes their fancy. Each
click is known as a hit.
162
Thanks to the e-mail, sending a document to the other end of the world only
costs the price of a local call between the subscriber and his/her Internet
service supplier. The price for the remaining distance is included in the
subscription fee.

TEST 4
A . Translate into English :
1. Pentru a vă familiariza cu bunurile noastre vă timitem astăzi catalogul cu
modele.
2. Numele dumneavoastră ne-a fost dat de Camera Română de Comerţ din
Bucureşti.
3. Am aprecia dacă ne-aţi trimite câte o mostră din fiecare dintre articolele
înscrise mai sus.
4. Cu ce bancă lucraţi ?
5. Sunt necesare bune calificări pentru a obţine această slujbă
6. Vânzarile implică în general multă muncă în ture.
7. Raportul statisticienilor nu se bazează pe cifre reale, aşa că noi nu avem o
imagine clară a situaţiei.
8. Facturile fuseseră timise fără acordul angajatorului.
9. Acest om este membru al Consiliului de Administraţie de trei ani.
10. Doriţi să deschideţi un cont curent la banca noatră ? Atunci vă rugăm să
completaţi această cerere tip.

B. Translate into Romanian:
The Bank of England is a Central Bank. One of the main functions of such
banks is the implementation of the monetary policy. This includes setting of
interest rates, ceilings and floors, in other words establishing maximum and
minimum lending rates. It controls the credit system and money supply and
thereby exerts an influence on decisions to spend, as well on such variables as
demand and output, because if money is tight people buy less and
consequently factories diminish their productive activities. This influences the
level of employment, because when production falls the number of staff
decreases, too.
The money supply is also influenced by the Bank of England by setting
reserve requirements to commercial banks, that is the latter have the obligation
of keeping a certain percent of their liquidity with the Central Bank at zero
interest. If the percentage required to be deposited with the Central Bank
increases money becomes scarce on the capital market.
The supervision of the commercial banks by the central bank signifies that the
latter checks that the former have enough liquidity at any time to meet their
163
clients’ demands for withdrawals and in this way panic among depositors and
bank runs can be avoided.

C. Rephrase:
1. Wages were very law because of the unsatisfactory output.
If …….
2. The costs of the services were not determined correctly so the business
proved to be unsuccessful.
If …….
3. You won’t get the sack unless you do something foolish.
If ……
4. After working all day, I found it rather difficult to go out for a walk.
I could hardly ….
5. Good qualifications are necessary to get this job.
You have to ….

D. Make up sentences with the compound adjectives in the list below:
- a narrow-minded partner ; a sharp-eyed person ; a quick- minded child ; a
long-legged young man ; an ill-tempered man.

TEST 5
A. Translate into English:
1. Dacă ţi-ai deschide un cont curent la o bancă ai primi un carnet de cecuri.
2. Aceste articole de modă se cer în timpul sezonului turistic.
3. Am văzut produsele dumneavoastră expuse la Târgul Internaţional de la
Paris acum două luni.
4. Vă rugăm să ne trimiteţi câte o mostră din fiecare articol pe care l-aţi
produs anul acesta.
5. Sunteţi amabil să ne trimiteţi catalogul şi lista de preţuri pentru articolele
înscrise mai jos.
6. Cererea pentru acest tip de maşină nu este mare, dar vânzările anul acesta
vor depăşi 70%.
7. Ambasada Română din Londra ne-a sfătuit să luăm legătura cu
dumneavoastră.
8 .Vă mulţumim pentru afacerea pe care intenţionati să o derulaţi cu noi şi vă
trimitem o listă cu noile preţuri.
9. Pentru a vă familiariza cu bunurile noastre, vă trimitem astăzi catalogul
nostru.
10. Contul dumnneavoastră este descoperit cu suma de 1200 de dolari.

164
B . Translate into Romanian:
Banks fall mainly into two categories: retail bank and wholesale banks. The
terms retail and wholesale are primarily used in trade, where the former refers
to selling in small quantities by the piece- to individual customers- and the
latter to selling in bulk to retailers. Hence retail banking refers to banks which
offer services to individual customers, while wholesale banks deals mainly
with corporations.
The most obvious type of bank is the commercial bank. Commercial banks
receive money on deposit, pay money according to customers’ instructions,
negotiate loans, buy and sell foreign exchange. They also offer investment
advice. Commercial banks make a profit from the spread, i.e. difference
between the interest rate paid to account holders, i. e. people who hold
deposits with the bank, and the interest rate charged to borrowers. The most
important provider of funds for the accounts opened with commercial banks in
the U.S.A. is the household sector which, according to some sources, accounts
for two thirds of the increase of such deposits.

C. Rephrase:
1. An increase in the family’s income means an increase in its standard of
living.
If …
2. Politicians should think of the country’s well-being when they do nothing to
prevent the decline of the national economy.
If …
3. Wages were very law because of the unsatisfactory output.
If …
4. It may be five years before you qualify as a manager.
Qualifying as a manager ….
5. I started working in this office ten years ago.
I have been…..

D. Make up sentences with the compound adjectives in the list below:
- a paper-backed book; a lion-hearted person; a black-coated man; a broad-
shouldered man; a sharp-tongued woman .

TEST 6
A. Translate into English:
1. Băncile comerciale satisfac nevoile pe termen scurt ale companiilor şi
indivizilor.
165
2. Băncile de economii primesc conturi de economii şi plătesc dobândă
depunătorilor.
3. Împrumutul pentru achiziţia de case este garantat de ipotecă.
4. Dacă ţi-ai deschide un cont curent, ai primi un carnet de cecuri.
5. Vă aducem la cunoştinţă ca trata dumneavoastră este scadentă la data de 20
aprilie.
6. Contul dumneavoastră este descoperit cu suma de 1.500 $. Vă rugăm să
rambursaţi suma pâna la data de 15 mai. Vă aducem la cunostinţă că pentru
aceasta sumă vi se va percepe o dobândă de 7 %.
7. – Aş dori să solicit un împrumut la banca dumneavoastră.
– Da, desigur. Vă rog să completaţi această cerere tip.
8. Dacă sistemul bancar funcţionează bine, comerţul si industria funcţionează
şi ele bine şi invers.

B. Fill in the missing words:
A bill of exchange, also called ……………, is defined as an unconditional
order in …………, addressed by one person (the…………) to another (the
………….) and signed by the person giving it, requiring the person to whom it
is addressed to pay on ……………, or at a fixed or determinable future time, a
specified sum of ……………., to the ……………. of a specified person (the
……………) or to bearer. There are different types of drafts. A bank draft is
one drawn by a ………….. on another bank. A demand draft is one payable on
demand, an example of it being the ……………. draft, payable on
presentation with three days of ………………..
A ……………… draft is one which …………….. or falls due after a number
of days or months after date or after sight. A ……………… draft is one
accompanied by documents, usually shipping documents, proving that the
goods have been dispatched. To illustrate the use of such a draft let us take an
example.

accept; acceptance; bank; discounted; dishonored; documentary; draft;
drawee; drawer; drawn; endorsement; grace; honour; matures; money;
negotiable; order; payee; presentation; rate; sight; time; writing.

C. Develop the following abbreviations:
WHO, CEO, UNESCO, GDP, UNICEF, IBRD, OPEC, FTA, EFTA, GNP,
VAT, EEFTA, NAFTA, NATO, GATT, IMF, CEO, CPA.

D. Translate into Romanian:
166
The accession to the European Union due in 2007, Mr. Mugur Isarescu said,
will undoubtedly represent an important step forward but the process aims at
reducing the gaps will continue a long time after this event. The accession to
the Euro zone will represent a second step forward of great importance in this
process. In keeping with the current regulations, the Euro adoption cannot be
implemented earlier than two years after the accession to this process possible,
will not be implemented since the very first year after the integration into E.U.
As a matter of fact if the accession to the Euro zone is in itself a strategic
objective of great importance, the effective moment when this decision is
enforced, will have to be weighed with the greatest care to realize which, are
the advantages but also the restrictions involved by this approach.

TEST 7

A. Translate into English :
1. Nu am deschis niciodată un cont la o bancă şi mă întreb dacă m-aţi
putea ajuta.
2. Aş dori să obţin o decoperire de cont de aproximativ 1.500 $ valabilă
până la data de 20 aprilie.
3. Dobânda plătită la contul curent este mai mică decât dobânda plătită la
contul la termen.
4. Băncile n-ar putea supravieţui dacă toţi clienţii ar alerga să-şi scoată
depunerile.
5. Puteţi retrage până la 1500 $ pe săptămână cu condiţia că soldul
dumneavoastră să rămână creditor.
6. Aş dori să obţin un împrumut de la banca comercială. Vrei să fii
girantul meu ?
7. Banca centrală reglează fluxul de capital în interior şi în afara ţării.
8. Dacă am fi o ţară dezvoltată, am avea un sistem bancar şi financiar
puternic.
B. Fill in the missing words:
The Bank of England is a ……………. One of the functions of such banks is
the ……………… of monetary policy. This includes setting of ……………..
rates, ……….. and floors, in other words establishing maximum and
minimum lending rates. It controls the credit system and money …………….
and thereby exerts an influence on decisions to ………………, as well as on
such variables as ………….... and ……………., because if money is tight
people buy less and consequently factories diminish their productive activities.
This influences the level of ……………., because when production falls the
167
number of staff decreases, too. The money supply is also influenced by the
Bank of England by setting……………… requirements to commercial banks,
that is the latter have the obligation of keeping a certain percent of their
liquidity with the Central Bank at zero …………….. If the percentage
required to be deposited with the Central Bank increases money becomes
……………. on the capital market.

ceilings; central bank; clients; demand; destroying; employment;
implementation; interest (2 times); lender of last resort; open
market; output; printing; reserve; runs; scarce; spend; supervision;
supply.


C. Develop the following abbreviations:

I.B.R.D. ; C.P.A.; I.M.F.; A.G.M.; E.M.U.


D. Translate into Romanian:
Concurrently with the beginning of the third stage of the European Monetary
Union – 1 January 1999, when the unique European currency was adopted –
the multilateral system was replaced with a bilateral one, the Exchange Rate
Mechanism II through which each participating currency has got a central
parity defined, as compared to the Euro, the fluctuation line being maintained
at the same level (+15%). The implementation of the
inflation rate target of 9% in 2004 represents the major objective of our
monetary policy this year. its implementation opens good opportunities, so
that in a very short lapse of time, but no more than two years, the annual
inflation rate could get down to 4-5%.

TEST 8
A. Draw up an application letter

B. Fill in the blanks with suitable words from the list at the end of
the text
OK, let’s start here, in the research and development, or … … (1). This
department is responsible for thinking of ideas for new products and finding
ways to improve our existing products.
This department looks after our computer equipment. They deal with any
problems. This is … … (2) or IT.
168
… … (3) buys all the things we need to make our products. They talk to our
suppliers and try to get the best price.
This is the main factory area, the … … (4). Here we make our products. It’s
the biggest part of the company.
Here in the … … (5) they check how much the company is making and decide
how much to spend. They also pay employees’ salaries.
This department looks after the people who work here. … … (6) is responsible
for recruiting new employees, organizing, training and helping with any
problems.
… … (7) is very important. The marketing people think up the ideas for
selling our products. The sales people go out and sell our products to our
customers.
… … (8) processes orders from customers. It organizes transportation, checks
that customers have received their orders and deals with complaints.
Finally, … … (9) is responsible for transporting our products. They receive
orders from customer services, and plan how and when to transport the
products so the customers receive them at the right time.

Distribution , sales and marketing, customer services, R&D, finance
department, human resources, information technology, purchasing,
production department.

C. Translate into English:
1. Această problemă va fi trecută pe ordinea de zi a următoarei noastre
reuniuni.
2. Statutul precizează reglementările interne.
3. Deţinătorii de obligaţiuni convertibile au posibilitatea să le transforme
în acţiuni.
4. Cunosc atât operaţiunile financiare pe termen scurt cât şi pe cele pe
termen lung.
5. La ce reduceri fiscale avem dreptul?
6. Întocmim fiecare factură în trei exemplare.
7. Vă trimitem anexat extrasul de cont.
8. Bilanţul contabil este un document detaliat, întocmit la o anumită dată
şi care oferă informaţii despre situaţia financiară şi solvabilitatea
firmei.
D. Develop the following abbreviations:
G.N.P.; lb.; A.G.M.; GATT; mth. ; pls cfm; H.P.; OPEC; ASAP; PA;
VAT; FTA; p.a. NAFTA; EFTA; R&D

169
TEST 9
A. Translate into English:
1. Firma noastră tocmai a câştigat o importantă sumă de bani din
vânzarea unor utilaje.
2. Directorul de vânzări şi câţiva potenţiali cumpărători efectuează o
tranzacţie chiar acum.
3. Capitalul firmei tocmai a fost mărit.
4. De obicei trebuie să decidem foarte atent cum ne cheltuim
veniturile.
5. Banii nu au valoare în sine, ei servesc ca mijloc de schimb.
6. Furnizorii noştri evită să menţioneze termenul limită de livrare a
mărfurilor.

B. Put the verbs in brackets in the correct tense
7. I (make) a cake when the light went out. I had to finish it in the
dark.
8. On Sundays he always (wear) a bowler hat and (carry) an
umbrella.
9. He (hope) for a rise in salary for six months but he (not dare) to
ask for it yet.
10. How long you (drive)? I (drive) for ten years.
11. Ever since he came to us that man (try) to make trouble.
12. He (just be fired) because of being late for work.
13. You (ever travel) to foreign countries? No, I (never travel) abroad.
14. The workers (not get) their wages since April.
15. As I (cross) the road I (step) on a banana skin and (fall) heavily.
16. When I (hear) his knock I (go) to the door and (open) it, but I (not
recognize) him at first because I (not wear) my glasses.

C. Translate into Romanian
Managers have to identify and set the objectives for their company. They are
involved in long-term strategic planning, as well as in the drawing up of short-
term, tactical plans. Managers must organize the company, decide on
allocation and use of the company’s resources. They select and train the staff
that should be able to suitably carry out the tasks of the organization. In the
implementation of their programme they must command, delegate, motivate
and communicate effectively with all the levels of their company. It has been
pointed out that good relations at work, among workers and between workers
and manage favourably influence output, the quality of work and motivation.
The feeling of belonging to a group has a positive impact on the behaviour of
170
employees. Successful managers always involve their staff in performing
important tasks, delegating them some activities, this leading to improved
results of the company. The control activity means measuring the performance
of their staff, setting obtained results against objectives – the management by
objectives technique is but one example in this respect.

D. Fill in the gaps with words from the list at the end of the text.
A business cycle, also called a (1) ... cycle, is the fluctuating movement of a
country’s economy. So if at the moment production has reached a peak,
employment rates, wages and salaries are high, this stage of the cycle is called
a (2) ... .Sooner or later, sales of goods will decline, and so will output, as well
as the rate of (3) ... . This means a (4) ... . has set in. if the decline becomes
very severe, the demand for goods reaches a minimum, unemployment (5 )...
dramatically, while output (6) …, the cycle has reached the moment of (7).…,
also called slump. This does not happen very often, as economies do not
always reach the minimum level before starting up (8) ... Depressions are
usually accompanied by a general fall in the level of prices, a phenomenon
termed (9)... When the increase in output and demand for commodities has
started and unemployment (10)… down, we say we have reached the point in
the cycle called (11)…

again, boom, deflation, depression,employment, is falling, goes, recession,
recovery, rises, trade.

TEST 10
A. Translate into English:
1.Profitul a fost nesatisfăcător anul trecut.
2. Cenzorii au verificat documentele contabile şi au redactat procesul verbal
al controlului financiar.
3.Economiştii încearcă să măsoare costurile şomajului.
4. O creştere a venitului familiei înseamna o creştere a nivelului de trai.
5. Cu mintea ta şi cu puţină hărnicie poţi reuşi.
6. Maşina a venit în ultima clipă ca să ne ducă la gară.
7. Noii investitori tocmai au sosit.
8. Consiliul de administraţie este în şedinţă acum. Se discută despre salarii.
9. De obicei trebuie să decidem foarte atent cum ne cheltuim veniturile.
10. Capitalul firmei tocmai a fost marit.

B. Put the verb in brackets into correct tense: The secretary …(already
finish) the report.
171
They … (work) in this office for a month.
How long … (you live) in this town?
Mr. Brown … (have lunch) right now.
Sometimes the Danube … (freeze) in January.
The accounts department … (draw) the invoices yesterday.
Michael… (fly) to London last Sunday.
The students are in the study-room now. They … (do) a translation.
C. Match the names of the departments (1-9) with the phrases (a-i) to
make a short description of each department.
1. Sales and marketing
2. Information technology
3. Customer services
4. Human resources .
5. Purchasing
6. Production
7. R&D
8. Finance
9. Distribution

a. transports the products.
b. pays the salaries.
c. sells the products.
d. makes the products
e. looks after the computers.
f. think of ideas for new products
g. recruits new staff.
h. processes orders from customers
i. Buys parts from suppliers.

D. Fill in each blank with the appropriate word from the list:
... is hard to find at the moment.
I work in a garage as a car ...
Mrs. Williams is the … of the shop, not the owner.
Who is the … of the Boston Symphony Orchestra?
His … at school has given him report.
An … designs bridges and roads.
There had been a burglary, so we called the … .
I can’t use a … , never mind a word processor.
Michael is a … of mine at the office.
It is useful to be a good … if you use a computer.
172

Boss, chauffeur, mechanic, chef, college, colleague, conductor, doctor,
engineer, job, manager, nurse, owner, police, policeman, professor, teacher,
typist, typewriter, work.

E. Job or work?
1. Christmas is a very busy time for us. We always have a lot of …at this time.
2. I have applied for a … as the assistant of the Production manager. I think it
will be a very interesting post.
3. I think he has a very well-paid … Have you seen the house he lives in?
4. It’s always hard to go back to … after the holidays. You are no longer in the
rhythm.
5. It’s quite hard … being a gardener, actually physically demanding but great
to be outdoors all day.
6. Now that she has two children, she would like a part time … so she can
spend time with them.
7. She often brings … home at the weekend which is not very good really.
8. The children are grown up now so I would like to find a new ….
9. When you are student, you can always find some … in a bar or restaurant.
10. Who does most of the … around the house?














173
ENGLISH - ROMANIAN VOCABULARY

A
abide vb. – a consimţi, a permite, a respecta, a se supune;
abiding adj. – permanent, insistent, stabil;
ability s. – abilitate, capacitate;
abrogate vb. – a aboli, a abroga, a anula, a nega, a interzice;
accelerated depreciation s. – amortizare accelerată;
accept vb.- a accepta;
acceptance s. – 1. accept (la cambie) 2. acceptarea de depozite ale clienţilor;
acceptance bill s. – cambie acceptată;
account s. – cont;
accountancy s. – profesiunea de contabil;
accountant s. – contabil;
account book s. – registru contabil;
accounting s. – contabilitate;
accounting period s. – exerciţiu financiar;
accounts payable – conturi de creditor;
accounts receivable s.pl. – conturi debitoare – de creanţe;
active partner s. – asociat activ (care participă la managementul firmei);
actuary s. actuar – specialist în calcularea riscului de asigurare, pe baza
statisticii;
advance s. – anticipat; payment in advance – plata anticipat;
advice of dispatch s.- aviz de expediţie;
advising bank s.- bancă ce avizează deschiderea unui acreditiv;
adviser s. – consultant;
advisory adj. – consultativ;
aegis s. – egidă;
afford v. – a-şi permite;
agency s. – agenţie;
agent s. – agent, comisionar, mandatar;
aggregate vb. – a se acumula, a grupa, a conglomera; s – total general,
agregare, acumulare; adj.- global, total, general;
agreed adj. – convenit, agreat;
agreement s. – acord;
A.G.M. s. – Adunarea Generală Anuală a Acţionarilor;
alimony s. – pensie alimentară;
allocation s. – distribuire, alocare, repartiţie;
allowance s. 1. indemnizaţie 2. alocaţie;
amendment s.- modificare a condiţiilor unui acreditiv documentar;
174
amicable adj. – amiabil;
amicably adv. - în mod amiabil;
amount s. – sumă, cantitate;
analysis s. – analiză;
analytical accounts – contabilitate analitică a societăţii;
anchorage s. - 1. loc de ancorare 2. taxă pentru ancorare;
apologize vb. – a prezenta scuze;
apology s. – scuză;
applicant s. – solicitant, candidat;
application s. – cerere, solicitare;
appointment s. – numire, oră rezervată, întrevedere;
appraisal s. – evaluare, apreciere;
appraisal fee s. – comision de evaluare;
appraise vb. – a evalua;
appraised value - valoare de estimare;
appreciation s. – creşterea valorii;
appropriation s. – alocare ; individualizare;
area s. – spaţiu, suprafaţă, loc, arie;
argument s. – conflict verbal, controversş, altercaţie;
array s. – aranjament, clasificare, colocare;
ascertain vb. – a constata ; a stabili;
as per expr. – conform cu …;
assert vb. – a atesta, a declara, a pleda în favoarea cuiva;
assertion s.- afirmaţie, exprimare, profesiune, declaraţie;
assertive adj. – asertiv, autoritar, influent, potent;
assess vb.- a asuma responsibilitatea, a-şi asuma riscul;
assessment s. – evaluare, estimare, rating, calculare, alocare a unor fonduri;
assessor s. – evaluator;
asset s. – element, poziţie de activ;
assign vb. – a aloca, a atribui, a distribui;
assignable adj. consignabil, transferabil, atribuibil;
assigned adj. – transferat, cedat, numit;
assignee s. – cesionar, beneficiar;
assets s.pl. - 1.activ 2.fond;
(life) assurance s. – asigurare pe viaţă;
at a discount expr. – la un preţ mai mic;
at a premium expr. – cu un preţ mai mare decât valoarea nominală;
auction s. – licitaţie;
auctioneer s. – agent însărcinat cu efectuarea licitaţiilor;
audit s.- audit, revizie contabilă;
175
auditor s. – auditor, revizie contabilă;
average s. – avarie (în asigurări).

B
bachelor of law - licenţiat în drept;
bachelor of sciences - licenţiat în ştiinţe;
backdate vb. – a avea efect retroactiv;
backdating s. – antedatare;
backed s.- garantat, persoană pentru care s-a garantat;
backer s. – susţinător, suporter, ajutor, complice;
back-up line of credit - linie de credit de susţinere;
backward economy - economie subdezvoltată;
bad debt s.- credit neperformant;
bail s.- garanţie; cauţiune;
bailee s.- primitor al garanţiei, cauţiunii;
bailor s. – deponent de cauţiune;
balance s. – sold;
balance of payment s. – balanţă de plăţi;
balance of trade s. – balanţă comercială;
balance sheet s.- bilanţ contabil;
bale s.- balot;
bank s. – bancă;
bank account s. – cont bancar;
bank run s. – retragere masivă şi rapidă a depunerilor de la o bancă;
bankrupt adj. – falit;
bankruptcy s. – faliment;
bear s.- operator la bursa care vinde anticipând scăderea preţului; vb. – 1. a
suporta (cheltuieli) 2. a purta (dobândă);
bearer s. – purtător;
bear market s. – piaţă unde valorile se vând anticipându-se scăderea preţului;
beneficiary s.- beneficiar;
bid s. – curs, ofertă de cumpărare;
bidder s.- ofertant pentru a cumpăra;
bid price s. – preţul oferit pentru a cumpăra;
bill of exchange s. – cambie, trată;
bill of lading s. – conosament;
binding adj. – care angajează din punct de vedere juridic;
blue chip s.- acţiune cu capitalizare bursieră foarte mare;
board of directors s. – consiliu de administraţie;
bond s. – obligaţiune;
176
bonus s. – primă;
bonus issue s. – acţiuni distribuite acţionarilor în locul dividendului cuvenit;
bookkeeping s. – evidenţă contabilă;
book of prime entry s. – registru contabil de evidenţă primară
boom s. – perioadă de avânt; înviorare;
boost vb. – a spori;
bottom line s. – marjă finală a profitului;
bottom out vb. – a atinge punctul cel mai scăzut;
bounce back vb. – a-şi reveni;
bracket s. – categorie, interval (cu referire la venituri în vederea stabilirii
tranşelor, procentelor de impozitare);
breakage s. – riscul de spargere a obiectelor din sticlă, porţelan etc.;
budget s. – buget;
budgetary adj.- bugetar;
budgeting control - control bugetar;
building society s.- tip de instituţie financiară în Marea Britanie, specializată în
acordarea de credite pentru construcţii;
bulk s. – grămadă, vrac; încărcătură;
bulky adj. – voluminous;
bull s. – operator care cumpără acţiuni, anticipând creşterea preţurilor;
bull market s. – piaţă de valori unde se cumpără anticipându-se creşterea
preţurilor;
burglary s. – riscul de furt prin efracţie;
busy adj. – ocupat (despre linii telefonice);
buy out s. – achiziţionare de firme în vederea obţinerii controlului lor.
C
cabinet s. - cabinet, comisie restrânsă;
calculation s.- calcul, calculare;
call s. – convorbire telefonică;
cancel vb. – a anula;
cancellation s. – anulare;
capital market s. – piaţă de capital;
cardboard s. – carton;
cargo s. – încărcătură, caric; marfă în timpul transportului;
cargo boat s. – cargou;
carriage s. – transport;
carrier s. – cărăuş;
carton s. – cutie din carton;
cash s. – numerar;
cash book s. – registru de casă, de încasări;
177
cash card s. – card bancar;
cash discount s. – rabat pentru plata în numerar;
cash dispenser s. – bancomat;
cash flow s. – flux de numerar;
cash with order s. – plata în numerar la darea comenzii;
casual adj. – fortuit, hazardat incidental;
cease vb. – a anula, a abroga;
ceiling s. – plafon, limită superioară;
central bank s. – bancă centrală;
certified accountant s. – contabil autorizat, membru al unei asociaţii a
contabililor autorizaţi;
certified public accountant s. – (în S.U.A) contabil autorizat; revizor contabil;
chairman s.- preşedinte al unei companii;
chartered accountant s. – expert contabil, membru al unei asociaţii oficiale din
Anglia;
clause adj. – cu rezerve (despre documente);
clean adj. – curat (despre documente);
collateral s. – garanţie pentru un împrumut bancar;
collecting bank s. – bancă ce încasează o cambia;
collection s. – încasare;
commercial bank s. – bancă comercială;
commodity market s. – piaţă de materii prime; piaţă de mărfuri;
common stock s. – (în S.U.A) acţiune ordinară;
confirming bank s. – bancă ce confirmă un acreditiv;
consign vb. – a expedia mărfuri
consignee s. – destinatar;
consignment s. – lot de mărfuri expediate;
consignor s. – expeditor
contingency s. – situaţie neprevăzută;
contingency clause s. – (în cadrul unui contract) clauză de forţă majoră;
correspondent bank s. – bancă corespondentă;
corrugated carton s. – carton ondulat;
cost accounting s. – contabilitatea costurilor;
crane s. – macara;
credit s. – credit;
credit vb. – a credita;
credit card s. – carte de credit;
credit entry s. – înregistrare la rubrica de credite;
credit worthiness s. – bonitate;
current account s. – cont curent;
178
current assets s. – active curente, capital circulant;
current liabilities s.pl. – datorii curente (cu scadenţă în perioada contabilă
prezentă);
current price s.- preţul curent;
cut out vb. – a stopa.

D
damage s. – pagubă, deteriorare;
damage vb. – a deteriora;
damages s.pl. – despăgubiri;
deadline s. – termen limită;
debenture s. – recunoaştere de datorie, act de gaj, scrisoare de gaj;
debit s. – intrări în cont, debit;
debit card s. – card de debit;
debit entry s. – înregistrare în coloana de debite;
debt s.- datorie;
debtor s. – debitor;
decrease s. – scădere, reducere; vb. – a scădea, a se reduce;
decree s. – decret, hotărâre, hotărâre judecătorească, sentinţă;
deduct vb. – a deduce (dintr-o sumă), a scădea, a ajunge la o concluzie;
deductible adj. – deductibil, prezumabil;
deduction s. - deducere, bonificaţie, scăzământ, reducere;
deed s. – act, document, titlu, înscris, act notarial;
deffer vb. – a amâna, a opri, a întrerupe;
deffered adj. – amânat, eşalonat, reportat, întârziat;
deferred share s. – acţiune la care o plată a dividendelor se face cu întârziere;
deferring of sentence – amânarea pronunţării sentinţei;
deliver vb. – a livra;
delivery s. – livrare;
demand s. – cerere;
demurrage s.- contrastalii;
deposit account s. – cont de depozit făcut pe termen;
depreciation s. – 1. amortizare 2. devalorizare;
derivative instrument s. – instrument derivat, de tipul contractului de opţiuni la
bursă;
development s. – dezvoltare, planificarea producerii de noi produse;
direct adj. – direct;
direct costs s. – costuri directe;
direct labour s. - muncă ce se calculează ca fiind cheltuieli directe de
producţie;
179
direct materials s.pl. – materiale ce intră la cheltuieli directe de producţie;
discount s. – rabat, reducere de preţ;
discrepancy s. – neconcordanţă;
dishonour vb. – a nu achita (o cambie, un cec);
dispatch s. – expediere;
distribution s. – distribuţie;
distribution costs s.pl. – cheltuieli, costuri de distribuţie;
dividend s. – dividend;
documentary collection s. – incaso documentar;
documentary credit s. – acreditiv documentar;
documents against payment expr. – documente contra plată (metodă de plată);
donation s. – donaţie;
donee s. – donatar;
donor sb. – donator;
double-entry bookkeeping s. –contabilitate în partidă dublă;
draft s. – trată;
drawee s. – tras, persoană care achită o poliţă;
drawer s. – trăgător;
due adj. – datorat, cuvenit;
due date s. – scadenţă;

E
earn vb. – a câştiga, a primi (salariu), a realiza venituri;
earned adj.- câştigat;
efficiency s. – eficienţă;
employ vb. – a angaja;
employee s. – angajat;
employer s. – angajator, patron;
employer’s liability s. – răspunderea angajatorului (în caz de accident de
muncă)
employment s. – 1. folosire a forţei de muncă 2. serviciu, post;
endorse vb. – a andosa, a gira;
endorsee s. – andosant, giratar;
endorsement s. – gir, andosare;
endorser s. – girant;
end user s. – utilizator final, consummator;
engagement s. – angajament;
entitle to vb. – a îndreptăţi;
entity s. – entitate;
entry s. – înregistrare într-un registru contabil;
180
equities s.pl. – acţiuni obişnuite;
equity s. – valoarea capitalului aflat în proprietatea acţionarilor;
exchange s. – 1. bursă 2. schimb;
exchange rate s. – curs de schimb;
excise duty s. – acciză;
expenditure s. – cheltuială;
expense s.pl. – cheltuieli;
expiration s. – expirare;
expire vb. – a expira;
extend the validity of a document expr. – a prelungi valabilitatea unui
document;
extension s. – prelungire;
external adj. – extern;
external auditor s. – auditor din afara firmei.

F
face value s. – valoare nominală;
fail vb. – a nu reuşi;
fair adj. – corect;
fall vb. – a scădea;
fall due expr. – a ajunge la scadenţă;
falling market s. – o piaţă pe care preţurile sunt în scădere;
favourable adj. – excedentar, favorabil;
favourable balance of trade s. – balanţă comercială excedentară;
Fed, presc. de la Federal Reserve System - sistemul băncilor federale de
rezervă;
fee s. – onorariu, comision;
file vb. – 1. a face o cerere 2. a îndosaria;
fill a demand expr. – a satisface o cerere;
financial adj. – financiar;
financial accounting s. – contabilitate fianciară;
financial statement s. – situaţii, rapoarte financiare;
fixed assets s.pl. – active fixe;
floating adj. – fluctuant; exchange rate- rata de schimb fluctuantă; s. - 1.
lansarea, pentru prima dată, a acţiunilor unei firme; 2. lăsarea valutelor să îşi
găsească cursul de schimb conform legilor pieţei libere;
floor s. – limită minimă;
flotation s. – deschiderea, prin vânzarea de acţiuni, a unei noi firme;
flow s. – flux;
foreign exchange s. – devize;
181
foreign exchange market s. – piaţă valutară;
format s. – prezentare;
forward adj. – la termen;
forward market s. – piaşa tranzacţiilor la termen;
forward rate s. – curs pentru tranzacţii la termen;
free adj. – liber;
free market s. – piaţă liberă;
freight s. - 1. navlu 2. preţul transportului 3. marfă transportată;
freight charges s.pl. – cheltuieli de transport;
freight train s. – tren de marfă;
fringe benefit s. – beneficiu suplimentar;
full-time (job) adj. – cu normă întreagă;
funds s.pl. – fonduri;
futures s. - contracte la termen;
futures market s. – piaţă la termen.

G
gearing s. – raportul dintre capitalul împrumutat de o firma, cu o dobândă
fixă, şi capitalul propriu;
get out of debt expr. – a scăpa de datorii;
get through to vb – a obţine legătură telefonică;
gilt-edged securities s.pl. – titluri de valoare sigure, obligaţiuni de stat;
gilts s.pl. – vezi gilt-edged securities
glut s. – supraabundenţă; saturaţie; vb.- a satura, a inunda piaţa;
grade vb.- a sorta;
gross adj. – brut ; gross weight – greutate brută;

H
hang on vb. – a rămâne la aparat/telefon;
hang up vb. – a pune receptorul in furcă; a întrerupe legătura;
hard currency – valută forte;
hedging s. – protejare împotriva riscului unor pierderi datorate creşterii de
preţuri prin contracte la termen;
hold on vb. – a rămâne la telefon;
hold steady expr.- a rămâne constant;
hold the line expr. – a rămâne la telefon;
hostile takeover bid s. – ofertă de cumpărare a unei alte firme, primită
negativ/neagreată de către consiliul de administraţie al acesteia din urmă;

I
182
impair vb. – a avea o influenţă negativă/nefavorabilă;
in bulk expr. – în vrac, în cantităţi mari;
in cash expr.- în numerar;
income tax s.- impozit pe venit;
incur vb.- a(-şi) face, a-şi crea; to great expense- a se băga la mare cheltuială, a
suporta mari cheltuieli ; to debts- a face datorii; a suferi (pierderi);
indelible adj. – care nu se şterge, indelebil;
inland revenue service s.- serviciul de încasări impozite pe venit;
insolvent adj. – insolvabil;
intangible assets s.pl.- active necorporale;
interview s.- 1. întrevedere 2. interviu; examinare a unui candidat;
interviewee s.- candidat; examinat;
interviewer s. – cel care examinează un candidat pentru evaluarea calificării;
investment bank s.- bancă de investiţii;
invisible trade s. – comerţ invizibil;
invoice amount s.- sumă facturată;
issue s.- emitere; emisiune (de acţiuni, de monedă);
issue vb. – a emite (acţiuni, bani);
issuing bank s.- bancă emitentă a unui acreditiv;

J
jettison s. – încărcătură aruncată în mare (în caz de pericol de scufundare a
navei);
job sharing s.- ocuparea unui post de către două persoane, fiecare cu jumătate
de normă;
joint account s. – cont comun;
jump vb. – a creşte brusc (despre preţuri);
junk bond s. – obligaţiune cu risc mare;

K
knock down vb. – a adjudeca (la licitaţie);

L
landowner s.- proprietar de pământ; moşier;
lay days s.- stalii;
leak vb. – a se scurge (din butoaie, rezervoare);
leakage s.- (riscul de) scurgere a unui lichid;
ledger s. – carte mare ; registru contabil;
lender s.- împrumutător, creditor;
lender of last resort s.- împrumutător în ultimă instanţă;
183
level off vb.- a se nivela; a se stabiliza;
leveraged buy out expr.- cumpărarea acţiunilor unei firme, garantând cu
activul acesteia împrumuturile necesare acoperirii plăţii;
levy vb.- a percepe (impozite);
liabilities s.pl. – datorii, pasiv (la bilanţ);
liability s.- răspundere;
lien s. – drept de retenţie asupra mărfurilor (unui datornic);
life assurance s.- asigurare pe viaţă;
lighter s. – slep, salandă, mahonă;
limited liability s. – răspundere limitată;
lined adj.- căptuşit;
liquid assets s.pl. – active lichide;
liquidation a. – lichidare;
lodge vb.- a depune/a face o reclamaţie ; a ridica pretenţii (la despăgubiri);
long-term liabilities s.pl.- datorii cu scadenţă îndepărtată

M
made out to bearer expr. – emis la purtător (despre cecuri, cambii);
maintenance s. – întreţinere;
make a call expr. – a efectua o convorbire telefonică;
make an appointment expr. – a stabili o întrevedere;
managed adj. – dirijat, controlat (despre cursul de schimb);
managed exchange rate s.- curs de schimb dirijat;
management s. – conducere;
management by objectives expr. – metodă de conducere bazată pe evaluarea
atingerii obiectivelor propuse;
management/ managerial accounting s.- contabilitate pentru uzul conducerii;
managerial accounting s. – contabilitate managerială;
man-made adj. – făcut de om; artificial;
market s. – piaţă;
marketing s.- marketing;
marketing mix s. – combinaţie referitoare la strategiile de preţ; produs,
promovare si distribuţie;
marketer s.- formator de piaţă; agent bursier specializat în hârtii de valoare
comercializabile;
market price – preţul pieţei;
market value s. – valoare de piaţă;
mature vb. – a ajunge la scadenţă;
maturity s. – scadenţă;
meet a deadline expr. – a se încadra într-un termen limită;
184
meet a demand expr. – a satisface o cerere;
merchant bank s.- bancă de afaceri/ de investiţii;
miss a deadline expr. – a nu se încadra în termen;
moisture s. – umiditate;
money supply s. – masă monetară;
mortgage s. – credit ipotecar, ipotecă.

N
national bank s. – bancă naţională;
negotiable adj. – negociabil (despre trate, conosamente etc.);
net adj. – net; net weight – greutate netă ; net current assets-active nete
curente; net debt – datorie netă;
nominal value s. – valoare nominală;
non-contributory adj. – care nu presupune contribuţia angajatului (la fondul
de pensii);
non-payment s. – neplată;
notice account/deposit s. – depozit/cont bancar la vedere, cu preaviz de
ridicare de n zile;
notice of readiness – notificarea căpitanului în sensul că vasul e gata de
încărcare/descărcare;

O
offer without engagement s. – ofertă fără angajament;
option s. – opţiune;
order s. – comandă; vb. – a comanda;
ore carrier s. – vas mineralier;
outlays s.pl. – cheltuieli;
outstanding adj. – neachitat; debt – datorie neachitată;
overdraft s. – aranjamente între bancă şi client privind plăţi efectuate cu
depăşirea sumelor existente în cont;
overdraw vb. – a depăşi la retrageri suma existentă în cont;
overdue adj. – întârziat; neplătit la scadenţă;
overhead(s) s.pl. – cheltuieli de regie; cheltueli indirecte;
overshipment s. – expediere de marfă peste cantitatea constractată;
overstaffed adj. – cu personal ce depăşeste necesităţile, din punct de vedere al
numărului;
overstaffing s. – încărcarea unei firme cu personal peste necesităţile reale;
over-the-counter market s. – piaţă secundară (a acţiunilor);
overtime s. – ore suplimentare prestate;
owner s – proprietar;
185
ownership s. – drept de proprietate;

P
par/nominal/face value s. – valoare nominală
particular average – avarie particulară (în asigurări);
partner s. – asociat;
partnership s.- parteneriat; asociere;
part-time (job) adj. – cu program de lucru parţial;
pass on vb. – a transmite; a message- a transmite un mesaj;
pay vb. – a plăti, a onora;
payee s. – beneficiar (al unei cambii);
payment s – plată;
payroll s. – stat de plată;
peak s. – vârf; vb. – a atinge un maximum;
peak hour s. – ora de vârf; ora de maximă aglomeraţie;
pegged adj. – fix (cu referire la cursul de schimb);
perishables s.pl. – mărfuri perisabile;
pick up vb. – a creşte;
piecework s – lucru în acord; lucru plătit la bucată;
pier s. – 1.picior de pod 2. debarcader; dig ; chei ; dană;
plummet vb.- a scădea vertiginous;
plunge vb. – a scădea;
policy s. – poliţă (de asigurare);
portofolio s. – portofoliu;
post vb. – a trece dintr-un registru contabil în cartea mare ;
preference share s. – acţiune privilegiată;
premises s.pl. – sediu; incintă;
premium s. – primă de asigurare;
price s. – preţ;
price list s. – listă de preţuri;
progressive tax s. – impozit progresiv;
public liability s. – răspunderea proprietarului (în cazul unui accident suferit
de cineva în magazinul acestuia);
put through to vb. – a da legatura la telefon.

Q
qualifications (s) s.pl.-1.competenţă, calificare 2. rezervă; îndoială;
qualified adj. – cu rezerve (despre conosament; raportul de audit);
quantity discount s.- rabat pentru cumpărarea unor cantităţi mari;
quotation s. – cotaţie;
186
quote vb.- a cota.

R
raise vb. – a procura, a colecta, a strânge (fonduri, capital);
rally vb. – a-şi reveni ; a se înviora;
raw material s. – materie primă;
receipt s. – 1.chitanţă 2.primire;
receiver s. – 1.destinatar, primitor ; 2.lichidator;
receivership s. – instituţia lichidatorului;
recession s. – recesiune;
recover vb. – 1. a recupera 2. a-şi reveni; a se redresa;
recovery s. – redresare;
relocation s. – mutare;
remitting bank s. – bancă ce remite o cambie spre plată;
repeat order s. – comandă repetată;
report to somb. expr. – a fi în subordinea cuiva;
research and development expr. – cercetare-dezvoltare (departament în cadrul
companiilor);
reserve price s. – preţ de rezervă (minim) (la licitaţie);
retail bank s. – bancă ce oferă servicii persoanelor fizice;
retail banking s. – servicii bancare pentru clienţi persoane fizice;
retailer s.– vânzator cu amănuntul;
retail price s. – preţ cu amănuntul;
retrieval sb. – regăsire/recuperare (a informaţiei stocate in calculator);
(tax) return s. – declaraţie de venituri/impunere;
revenue s. – venit;
rights issue s. – acordarea către acţionari a dreptului de a cumpăra noi acţiuni
la un preţ avantajos;
rocket vb. – a urca vertiginos;
run up a debt expr. – a acumula o datorie;

S
scrip issue s. – emitere de acţiuni către acţionarii existenţi, pentru mărirea
capitalului;
seaworthiness s. – ăn stare de navigabilitate;
seaworthy adj. – în bună stare de navigabilitate;
securities s.pl. – titluri de valoare;
security s. – garanţie (pentru un împrumut bancar);
set vb. – a stabili (un obiectiv, un termen);
set a deadline expr. – a stabili un termen limită;
187
settle a debt expr. – a achita o datorie;
share s. – acţiune;
shareholder s. – acţionar;
ship owner s. – armator;
shoot up vb. – a urca vertiginos;
short shipment s. – expediere de marfă cu minus în ceea ce priveşte cantitatea;
short-shipped adj. – (despre un transport de marfă) cu lipsă din punct de
vedere cantitativ;
shrink vb. – a se contracta;
shrinkage s. – contractare (risc ce priveşte marfa în timpul transportului);
sight draft s. – trată la vedere;
sleeping partner s. – partener care are acţiuni, dar nu participă la
managementul firmei;
slump s.– scădere bruscă a preţurilor (la bursă); perioadă de declin economic;
soft currency .s. – valută slabă, instabilă;
sole trader s.– comerciant în nume propriu;
solvent adj. – solvabil;
spot market s. – piaţa tranzacţiilor la vedere;
spread s. – ecart;
spread out vb. – a eşalona;
staff s. – personal;
standing order s. – serviciu bancar constând în plata la date regulate a unor
facturi ale titularilor de cont;
status s. – statut, loc in ierarhia socială;
storage s. – înmagazinare, depozitare;
stowage s. – arhivare, stivuire;
straight line depreciation s. – amortizare liniară;
subsidiary s. – filială;
subsidy s. – subventţie;
supplier s. – furnizor;
supply s. – 1.ofertă 2. aprovizionare, provizie.

T
take a call expr.- a primi un apel telephonic;
take n% off expr. – a scădea n% din preţ;
takeover s. – preluare, cumpărare a peste 50% din acţiunile unei firme;
takeover bid s. – ofertă de preluare;
tallyman s. – pontator;
tangible assets s.pl. – active corporale;
tank s. – rezervor;
188
tank car s. – vagon cisternă;
tanker s. – vas cisternă;
tare s. – tara (greutatea ambalajului);
target customer s. – client-ţintă;
tax accounting s. – contabilitatea pentru impozite;
tax heaven s. – paradis fiscal;
tax shelter s. – înţelegere financiară;
tenor (of a bill of exchange) s. – perioadă de timp până la ajungerea la
scadenţă a unei cambii;
third party liability s. – răspundere faţă de terţe părţi (în asigurări);
tied up adj. – ocupat(ă) (despre o linie telefonică);
time draft s. – trată la termen;
time policy s. – poliţă pe o perioada definită;
time-saving adj. – care economiseşte timpul;
time-sharing s. – 1. folosinţă exclusivă a unei proprietăţi comune, pe intervale
de timp stabilite prin rotaţie între proprietari 2. folosire (a unui computer ) de
către mai mulţi parteneri (simultan);
time wasting adj. – care iroseşte timpul;
tipping lorry s. – camion basculantă;
trade s. – comerţ;
trade discount s. – rabat comercial;
transshipment s. – transbordare;
treasury bill s. – bon de tezaur;
trial order s. – comandă de probă;

U
under shipment s. – transport de mărfuri cu cantitate în minus faţă de cea
contractată;
underwrite vb. – 1. a garanta o emisiune de acţiuni 2. a emite poliţe de
asigurare;
underwriter s. – emitent de poliţe de asigurare;
unlimited liability s. – răspundere nelimitată;
unlisted securities market s. – piaţă secundară (a acţiunilor);
unwarehoused adj. – neînmagazinat(ă).

V
vacancy s. – post neocupat/vacant;
validity s. – valabilitate;
value s. – valoare;
value-added tax s. – taxa pe valoare adaugată;
189
valued policy s. – poliţă cu valoare stabilită;
visible trade s. – comerţul vizibil;
void adj. – nul;
voucher s. – document justificativ ; dovadă efectuarii unei plăţi;
voyage policy s. – poliţă pentru o călătorie;

W
wage(s) s.(pl.) – salariu (plătit săptămânal);
warehouse s. – magazie, depozit;
warehouse vb. – a depozita;
warning s. – avertisment;
wasting assets s.pl. – active epuizabile;
weak currency s. – valută slabă, instabilă;
wear out vb. – a se uza;
wholesale bank s. – bancă ce oferă servicii exclusiv marilor firme;
wholesale banking s. – servicii bancare exclusiv pentru companii;
wholesale price s. – preţ cu ridicata; preţ en gros;
wholesaler s. – angrosist;
wind up (a company) vb.- a lichida, a închide o firmă;
write off vb. – a şterge, a anula; a debt – a anula o datorie;









Bibliography

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16. Hollinger, Al. et al., Ghid de corespondenţă comercială, ASE, 1990
17. Jones, L. & Alexander, A., International Business English, Cambridge,
Cambridge University Press, 1989.
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Jovanovich, Inc., New York, 1973.
21. Lesikar, R.V., Basic Business Communication, Irwin, 1991
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Ştiinţifică si Enciclopedică, 1984.
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24. Mackenzie, I., Management & Marketing, Prentice Hall, 2001.
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Următorul tabel prezintă verbele neregulate din limba engleză. Unele dintre
acestea au două variante de conjugare, regulată si neregulată. În acest caz,
varianta mai uzitată este trecută prima.
IRREGULAR VERBS
Infinitiv Past Tense Participiu trecut Traducerea
infinitivu-lui
(sensul principal)
arise arose arisen a se ridica
192
awake awoke
awaked
awoken
awaked
a se trezi
backslide backslid backslidden
backslid
a decădea
be was / were been a fi
bear bore borne
born
a purta,a suporta
beat beat beaten
beat
a bate
become became become a deveni
begin began begun a începe
bend bent bent a se îndoi
bet bet
betted
bet
betted
a paria
bid bid
bade
bid
bidden
a licita, a porunci
bind bound bound a lega
bite bit bitten a mușca
bleed bled bled a sângera
blow blew blown a sufla, a bate
break broke broken a sparge
breed bred bred a crește, a educa
bring brought brought a aduce
broadcast broadcast
broadcasted
broadcast
broadcasted
a difuza
browbeat browbeat browbeaten a intimida
193
browbeat
build built built a construi
burn burned
burnt
burned
burnt
a arde
burst burst burst a izbucni, a năvăli,
a crăpa
bust busted
bust
busted
bust
a rupe, a strica
buy bought bought a cumpăra
cast cast cast a arunca
catch caught caught a prinde
choose chose chosen a alege
cling clung clung a se agăta
clothe clothed
clad
clothed
clad
a (se) îmbrăca
come came come a veni
cost cost cost a costa
creep crept crept a se târî, a se furişa
cut cut cut a tăia
daydream Day
dreamed
day
dreamt
daydreamed
daydreamt
a visa cu ochii
deschişi
deal dealt dealt a trata, a se ocupa
de
dig dug dug a săpa
194
disprove Dis
proved
disproved
disproven
a infirma
dive dived
dove
dived a plonja
do did done a face
draw drew drawn a trage, a desena
dream dreamed
dreamt
dreamed
dreamt
a visa
drink drank drunk a bea
drive drove driven a şofa, a mâna
dwell dwelt
dwelled
dwelt
dwelled
a locui
eat ate eaten a mânca
fall fell fallen a cădea
feed fed fed a hrăni
feel felt felt a (se) simţi
fight fought fought a (se) lupta
find found found a găsi
fit fitted
fit
fitted
fit
a se potrivi
flee fled fled a fugi, a se refugia
fling flung flung a arunca
fly flew flown a zbura
forbid forbade
forbad
forbidden a interzice
195
forecast forecast
forecasted
forecast
forecasted
a prevedea
forego Fore
went
foregone a preceda
foresee foresaw foreseen a prevedea
foretell foretold foretold a prezice
forget forgot forgotten a uita
forgive forgave forgiven a ierta
forsake forsook forsaken a părăsi
freeze froze frozen a îngheţa
frostbite frostbit frostbitten a degera
get got gotten a primi, a obţine
give gave given a da
go went gone a merge
grind ground ground a măcina
grow grew grown a creşte
hand-feed hand-fed hand-fed a hrăni cu mâna
handwrite Hand
wrote
handwritten a scrie de mână
hang hung hung a atârna,a spânzura
have had had a avea
hear heard heard a auzi
hew hewed hewn
hewed
a despica
hide hid hidden a (se) ascunde
196
hit hit hit a lovi
hold held held a ţine
hurt hurt hurt a lovi, a răni, a
durea
inbreed inbred inbred a procrea
inlay inlaid inlaid a încrusta
input input
inputted
input
inputted
a introduce
interbreed interbred interbred a încrucişa
jerry-build jerry-built jerry-built a construi prost
keep kept kept a ţine, a păstra
kneel knelt
kneeled
knelt
kneeled
a îngenunchia
knit knitted
knit
knitted
knit
a tricota
know knew known a şti, a cunoaşte
lay laid laid a pune, a aşeza
lead led led a conduce
lean leaned
leant
leaned
leant
a se apleca, a se
sprijini
leap leaped
leapt
leaped
leapt
a sări
learn learned
learnt
learned
learnt
a învăţa
leave left left a pleca, a lăsa
lend lent lent a da cu împrumut
197
let let let a lăsa, a permite
lie lay lain a zăcea, a se afla
light lit
lighted
lit
lighted
a aprinde
lip-read lip-read lip-read a citi pe buze
lose lost lost a pierde
make made made a face
mean meant meant a însemna
meet met met a (se) întâlni
miscast miscast miscast a distribui într-un
rol nepotrivit
misdeal misdealt misdealt a împărţi cărtile
greşit
misdo misdid misdone a face greşit
mishear misheard misheard a auzi greşit
mislay mislaid mislaid a pierde
mislead misled misled a îndruma greşit
mislearn mislearned
mislearnt
mislearned
mislearnt
a învăţa greşit
misread misread misread a citi greşit
misset misset misset a aseza greşit
misspeak misspoke misspoken a se exprima greşit
misspell miss
pelled
misspelt
misspelled
misspelt
a ortografia greşit
198
misspend misspent misspent a risipi
mistake mistook mistaken a greşi
misteach mistaught mistaught a instrui greşit
misunder-stand misunder-stood misunder-stood a întelege greşit
miswrite miswrote miswritten a scrie greşit
mow mowed mowed
mown
a cosi
offset offset offset a compensa
outbid outbid outbid a licita mai mult ca
outbreed outbred outbred a încrucişa cu altă
varietate
outdo outdid outdone a întrece
outdraw outdrew outdrawn a scoate mai repede
ca
outdrink outdrank outdrunk a bea prea mult
outfight outfought outfought a lupta mai bine ca
outfly outflew outflown a depăşi în zbor
outgrow outgrew outgrown a (se) face prea
mare
outleap outleaped
outleapt
outleaped
outleapt
a depăşi în săritură
outride outrode outridden a întrece
outrun outran outrun a întrece
outsell outsold outsold a (se) vinde mai
bine ca
199
outshine outshone
outshined
outshone
outshined
a eclipsa
outshoot outshot outshot a trage mai bine ca
outsing outsang outsung a cânta mai bine ca
outsit outsat outsat a sta mai mult
decât
outsleep outslept outslept a dormi prea mult
outspeak outspoke outspoken a vorbi tare
outspend outspent outspent a cheltui mai mult
decât
outthink outthought outthought a fi mai deştept ca
outthrow outthrew outthrown a arunca mai bine
ca
outwrite outwrote outwritten a scrie mai bine ca
overbid overbid overbid a supralicita
overbreed overbred overbred a(se)
supraînmulţ
overbuild overbuilt overbuilt a (se) construi în
exces
overcome overcame overcome a covârşi
overdo overdid overdone a exagera
overdraw overdrew overdrawn a depăşi
overdrink overdrank overdrunk a bea în exces
overeat overate overeaten a mânca în exces
overfeed overfed overfed a (se) supra
alimenta
200
overhang overhung overhung a atârna peste
overhear overheard overheard a auzi din
întâmplare
overlay overlaid overlaid a pune peste
overpay overpaid overpaid a plăti prea mult
override overrode overridden a încălca
overrun overran overrun a depăşi
oversee oversaw overseen a suprave-
ghea
oversell oversold oversold a supraevalua
oversew over
sewed
oversewn
oversewed
a coase marginile
împreună
overshoot overshot overshot a trece peste
oversleep overslept overslept a dormi prea mult
overspeak over
spoke
over
spoken
a vorbi prea mult
overspend overspent overspent a cheltui prea mult
overtake overtook overtaken a depăşi
overthrow overthrew over
thrown
a răsturna
overwind over
wound
overwound a răsuci prea mult
overwrite overwrote over
written
a suprascrie
partake partook partaken a împărtăşi
pay paid paid a plăti
201
plead pleaded
pled
pleaded
pled
a pleda
prepay prepaid prepaid a plăti în avans
presell presold presold a vinde în avans
preset preset preset a preconfi-
gura
proofread proofread proofread a corecta
prove proved proven
proved
a (se) dovedi
put put put a pune
quick-freeze quick-froze quick-frozen a îngheţa rapid
quit quit
quitted
quit
quitted
a abandona
read read read a citi
reawake reawoke reawaken a se retrezi
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt a reconstrui
recast recast recast a remodela
recut recut recut a tăia din nou
redo redid redone a reface
redraw redraw redrawn a retrasa
refit refitted
refit
refitted
refit
a reutila
regrow regrow regrown a recreste
rehear reheard reheard a reaudia
relearn relearned relearned a reînvăta
202
relearnt relearnt
relight relit
relighted
relit
relighted
a (se) reaprinde
remake remade remade a reface
repay repaid repaid a recompensa
reread reread reread a reciti
rerun reran rerun a relua
resell resold resold a revinde
resend resent resent a retrimite
reset reset reset a reaşeza
resew resewed resewn
resewed
a recoase
retake retook retaken a relua
reteach retaught retaught a reinstrui
retell retold retold a repovesti
rethink rethought rethought a regândi
retread retread retread a parcurge din nou
rewake rewoke
rewaked
rewaken
rewaked
a (se) retrezi
rewed rewed
rewedded
rewed
rewedded
a se recăsători
rewin rewon rewon a recâstiga
rewind rewound rewound a derula înapoi
rewrite rewrote rewritten a rescrie
rid rid rid a scăpa de, a se
203
descotorosi
ride rode ridden a călări
ring rang rung a suna
rise rose risen a răsări, a se ridica
run ran run a fugi
saw sawed sawn
sawed
a tăia cu fierăstrăul
say said said a spune
see saw seen a vedea
seek sought sought a căuta
sell sold sold a vinde
send sent sent a trimite
set set set a pune
sew sewed sewn
sewed
a coase
shake shook shaken a scutura, a tremura
shave shaved shaved
shaven
a (se) rade
shear sheared sheared
shorn
a tunde oi
shed shed shed a vărsa (lacrimi,
sânge)
shine shone
shined
shone
shined
a străluci
shoe shod shod a potcovi
204
shoot shot shot a împusca
show showed shown a arăta
shrink shrank shrunk a se strânge, a se
scoroji
shut shut shut a închide
sight-read sight-read sight-read a citi la prima
vedere
sing sang sung a cânta
sink sank sunk a (se) scufunda
sit sat sat a sedea
slay slew
slayed
slain
slayed
a ucide
sleep slept slept a dormi
slide slid slid a aluneca
sling slung slung a arunca
slink slunk slunk a se furisa
slit slit slit a (se) crăpa
smell smelled
smelt
smelled
smelt
a mirosi
sneak sneaked
snuck
sneaked
snuck
a se furisa
sow sowed sown
sowed
a semăna
speak spoke spoken a vorbi
speed sped
speeded
sped
speeded
a grăbi, a accelera
205
spell spelled
spelt
spelled
spelt
a ortografia
spellbind spellbound spellbound a fermeca
spend spent spent a cheltui, a petrece
spill spilled
spilt
spilled
spilt
a vărsa
spin spun spun a toarce
spit spat
spit
spat
spit
a scuipa
split split split a despica
spoil spoiled
spolit
spoiled
spoilt
a răsfăţa
spoon-feed spoon-fed spoon-fed a hrăni cu lingurita
spread spread spread a (se) întinde
spring sprang
sprung
sprung a izvorî, a sări
stand stood stood a sta (în picioare)
steal stole stolen a fura, a se furişa
stick stuck stuck a lipi
sting stung stung a înţepa
stink stunk
stank
stunk a mirosi urât
strew strewed strewn
strewed
a presăra
stride strode stridden a merge cu pasi
mari
206
strike struck struck
stricken
a lovi
string strung strung a înşira (pe o aţă)
strive strove
strived
striven
strived
a năzui
sublet sublet sublet a subînchiria
sunburn sunburned
sunburnt
sunburned
sunburnt
a se arde de soare
swear swore sworn a jura, a înjura
sweat sweat
sweated
sweat
sweated
a transpira
sweep swept swept a mătura
swell swelled swollen
swelled
a se umfla
swim swam swum a înota
swing swung swung a legăna
take took taken a lua
teach taught taught a învăţa, a preda
tear tore torn a rupe, a sfâşia
telecast telecast telecast a teledifuza
tell told told a spune, a povesti
test-drive test-drove test-driven a testa o maşină
test-fly test-flew test-flown a testa un avion
think thought thought a (se) gândi
thrive throve thriven a prospera
207
throw threw thrown a arunca
thrust thrust thrust a înfige
tread trod trodden
trod
a călca
typecast typecast typecast a distribui într-un
rol tipic
typeset typeset typeset a culege pentru
tipar
typewrite typewrote type
written
a dactilo-
grafia
unbend unbent unbent a (se) dezdoi
unbind unbound unbound a dezlega
unclothe unclothed
clad
unclothed
clad
a (se) dezbrăca
underbid underbid underbid a oferi un pret prea
mic
undercut undercut undercut a submina
underfeed underfed underfed a subalimenta
undergo under
went
undergone a trece prin
underlie underlay underlain a sta la baza
undersell undersold undersold a vinde mai ieftin
decât concurenţa
underspend underspent underspent a cheltui prea puţin
understand understood understood a înţelege
undertake undertook undertaken a lua asupra sa
208
underwrite underwrote underwritten a subscrie
undo undid undone a anula
unfreeze unfroze unfrozen a dezgheţa
unhide unhid unhidden a ieşi din ascunză-
toare
unlearn unlearned
unlearnt
unlearned
unlearnt
a dezvăţa
unsew unsewed unsewn
unsewed
a descoase
unwind unwound unwound a desfăşura
uphold upheld upheld a susţine
upset upset upset a tulbura
wake woke
waked
woken
waked
a se trezi
waylay waylaid waylaid a acosta
wear wore worn a purta
weave wove
weaved
woven
weaved
a tese
wed wed
wedded
wed
wedded
a (se) cununa
weep wept wept a plânge
wet wet
wetted
wet
wetted
a uda
win won won a câştiga
wind wound wound a răsuci
withdraw withdrew withdrawn a (se) retrage
209
withhold withheld withheld a reţine
withstand withstood withstood a rezista la
wring wrung wrung a stoarce
write wrote written a scrie

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