Lecture 5
The zDomain
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G. Hovland 20042006
yref u y
Controller System

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D/A A/D
yref
Controller System

Digital to Analog (D/A) Converter
D/A Converter
Comparator
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Circuit
Higher/
Lower
In general,
Quantisation
M / 2n voltage
Errors
levels.
a. switch opening
and closing;
b. product of time
waveform and
sampling waveform
0 t
Tw
Laplace of a delayed step is
e − Tw s 1
u(tTw)
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s
0 t
Tw
Laplace of a pulse is
1 − e − Tw s u(t)  u(tTw)
1
s
0 t
Tw
METR4202/7202 – Advanced Control & Robotics, Semester 2, 2006: Page: 9 The Sampled Function f*Tw
k =∞
f *TW (t ) = f (t ) s(t ) = f (t ) k = −∞
u(t − kT ) − u (t − kT − Tw )
k: integer
f (t ) = f ( kT )
f ( kT )[u(t − kT ) − u(t − kT − Tw )]
k =∞
f *TW (t ) = k = −∞
f ( kT )[u(t − kT ) − u(t − kT − Tw )]
k =∞
f *TW (t ) = k = −∞
k = −∞
s s
k =∞ 1 − e −Tw s −kTs
= k = −∞
f ( kT ) e
s
k =∞ 1 − e −Tw s −kTs
F *
Tw ( s) = k = −∞
f ( kT ) e
s
(Tw s ) 2
1 − 1 − Tw s + −
k =∞ 2!
= k = −∞
f ( kT ) e −kTs
s
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Assuming Tw small
k =∞
≈ k = −∞
f ( kT )Twe −kTs
Inverse Laplace Dirac delta function
k =∞
f *Tw (t ) = Tw k = −∞
f ( kT )∂ (t − kT )
METR4202/7202 – Advanced Control & Robotics, Semester 2, 2006: Page: 13 Sampler Model: Uniform Rectangular Pulse Train
Ideal Sampler
k =∞
f (t ) =
*
k = −∞
f ( kT )∂ (t − kT )
1 − e −Ts
Gh ( s ) =
s
Ideal Sampler
k =∞
f (t ) =
*
k =−∞
f (kT )∂(t − kT )
sdomain (Continuous control systems)
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∞ −kTs
F ( s) =
*
k =0
f ( kT ) e
Example 13.1
Find the ztransform of a sampled unit ramp
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Open Form
METR4202/7202 – Advanced Control & Robotics, Semester 2, 2006: Page: 19 Example 13.1  cont'd
Note F(z) is closedform while F*(s) is not. This is one reason why
the new ztransform is introduced. The Laplace F(s) is closedform,
but the sampled F*(s) is not!
Example 13.4
Given a z.o.h. in cascade with G1(s) = (s+2) / (s+1) or
1 − e −Ts s + 2
G( s) =
s s +1
Find the sampleddata transfer function, G(z), if the sampling
time T=0.5 seconds
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G(s) → G(z)
Zeroorderhold
1 − e − Ts G1(s)
G2 ( s ) =
s
Again, partial
fractions!
1 z
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→
s z −1
1 z
→
s +1 z − e −T
zDomain Stability
z −1 = e −Ts
z = eTs = eT (α + jω ) = eαT e jωT = eαT ∠ωT
α = 0 : eαT = 1 Region B (marginally stable)
Bilinear transformations
z +1 s +1
s= z=
z −1 s −1
Bilinear Transformations
s = α + jω
(α + 1) + jω
z=
(α − 1) + jω
(α + 1) 2 + ω 2
z =
(α − 1) 2 + ω 2
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s +1
z= → s 3 − 19 s 2 − 45s − 17
s −1
How many
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poles outside
the unit circle
in zdomain
does the system
have?
2 z −1 1977( s + 6)
s= Gc ( s ) ≈
T z +1 ( s + 29.1)
200( z − 1)
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1977( + 6)
Gc ( z ) = z + 1
200( z − 1)
+ 29.1
z +1
1977( 200 z − 200 + 6 z + 6)
=
200 z − 200 + 29.1z + 29.1
1977( 206 z − 194)
=
229.1z − 170.9
1778 z − 1674
=
z − 0.746
Tustin
Discrete
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Bilinear
Transformations Time Domain
Analysis
(Nise Chapter 13)
Desired
Polynomials
SignalFlow charts
StateSpace Pole placement StateSpace
Control Design Observer Design
Similarity (Nise Chapter 12)
(Nise Chapter 12)
Transformations
Advantages / Disadvantages
Checklist
Polar Plots
Asymptotic Bode Plots: 1st and 2nd order zeros and poles *
Common Asymptotes
Figure 10.9
Normalised and
scaled
Bode plots for
a. G(s) = s;
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b. G(s) = 1/s;
c. G(s) = (s + a);
d. G(s) = 1/(s + a)
The Final Statement of the Nyquist Criterion
the mapping GH
Z=P–N
Only if Z=0, the system is
stable
Remember this !
Examples
Frequency Response
Polar Plots
Z=PN
Figure 10.25
Mapping examples:
a. contour does
not enclose
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closedloop poles;
b. contour does
enclose
closedloop poles
Class Question:
Are the closedloop systems a,b stable or unstable?
Sketching the Nyquist Diagram (10.4)
Figure 10.26
a. Turbine and
generator;
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b. block diagram
of speed control
system for
Example 10.4
a. vectors on contour
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at low frequency;
b. vectors on contour
around infinity;
c. Nyquist diagram
Class Question:
Is the closedloop system stable?
Example 10.7
K Doublecheck
G( s) = 2
( s + 2 s + 2)( s + 2) this calculation
K
G( s) =
( s 2 + 2 s + 2)( s + 2)
4(1 − w2 ) − jw(6 − w2 )
G ( jw) =
16(1 − w2 ) 2 + w2 (6 − w2 ) 2
Gain and Phase Margin via Nyquist (10.6)
Figure 10.35
Nyquist diagram
showing gain
and phase
margins
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Gain
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Margin
Phase
Margin
Overview: StateSpace Analysis and Design
Similarity Transformations *
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Figure 5.31
Statespace forms for
C (s) s+3
=
R( s ) ( s + 4)( s + 6)
y = c(t )
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Controllability /Observability
by inspection
PhaseVariable Form
x1 0 1 0 0 x1 0
x2 0 0 1 0 x2 0
= + u
xn −1 0 0 0 1 xn −1 0
xn − a0 − a1 − an −1 xn 1
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A Matrix
B Vector
0 1 0 0 Major
advantage of
0 0 1 0
the phase
A − BK = variable and
0 0 0 1 controller
canonical
− ( a0 + k1 ) − ( a1 + k2 ) − ( an −1 + kn ) forms
PhaseVariable Form
s n + an −1s n −1 + + a1s + a0 = 0
s n + ( an −1 + kn ) s n −1 + + ( a1 + k2 ) s + (a0 + k1 ) = 0
P from controllability matrix CM
z = Az z + Bz u
and the phasevariable form
x1 0 1 0 0 x1 0
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x2 0 0 1 0 x2 0
= + u = Ax x + Bx u
xn −1 0 0 0 1 xn −1 0
xn − a0 − a1 − an −1 xn 1
x = Ax + Bu = Ax + B( r − Kx ) = ( A − BK ) x + Br y = Cx
4
= 0.60 wn = = 9.0
Tsζ
20( s + 5)
G1 ( s ) = and
( s + 5.1)( s 2 + 2ζwn + wn )
2
20
G2 ( s ) =
( s 2 + 2ζwn + wn )
2
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In general:
Use extra poles to cancel
out zeros. If no cancellations
required, place poles far away
from 2nd order pole.
20( s + 5)
G( s) =
s( s + 1)( s + 4)
How?
0 1 0
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A= 0 0 1
0 −4 −5
C = [100 20 0]
Example 12.1: Controller Gains
0 1 0
A − BK = 0 0 1
− k1 − ( 4 + k2 ) − (5 + k3 )
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Characteristic equation:
s 3 + (5 + k3 ) s 2 + ( 4 + k2 ) s + k1 = 0
Must match design requirements:
( s 2 + 2ζwn s + wn )( s + p ) = s 3 + 15.9 s 2 + 136.08s + 413.1
2
0 0 1
CM = [ B AB A2 B ] = 0 1 − 3
1 −1 1
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1 1
= 3
( s + 1)( s + 2)( s + 5) s + 8s 2 + 17 s + 10
x1 0 1 0 x1 0 Phasevariable
x2 = 0 0 1 x2 + 0 u form
− 10 − 17 − 8 x3
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x3 1
0 0 1
CM = [ B AB A2 B ] = 0 1 −8
1 −8 47
1 0 0
−1
P = CMZ * CMX = 5 1 0
10 7 1
Ex 12.4: Desired Response
20.8% overshoot and settling time Ts=4.0
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4
= 0.447 wn = = 2.24
Tsζ
= ( s 2 + 2 s + 5)( s + 4) = s 3 + 6s 2 + 13s + 20
StateFeedback Controller
0 1 0
A − BK = 0 0 1
− (10 + k1 ) − (17 + k2 ) − (8 + k3 )
Desired:
( s 2 + 2ζwn s + wn )( s + p )
2
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= ( s 2 + 2 s + 5)( s + 4) = s 3 + 6s 2 + 13s + 20