WHY - WHY ANALYSIS

 OBJECTIVES:
 To understand the definition of Why - Why Analysis.  To clarify the procedure for developing a Why - Why 
Analysis. To stress the importance of each step in the Why Why Analysis.

WHY - WHY ANALYSIS

What is Why-Why Analysis?

It is a tool to identify root causes of a problem
so that countermeasures can be applied to prevent recurrence.

Why-Why Process:

Basically the process is to keep asking why
for all possible causes until you can find the root cause for each effect and, therefore, find a countermeasure for each root cause. As a thumb rule and from practical experience, 5 WHY’s are sufficient to arrive at root cause

Why-Why Analysis
 A different way to organize Cause and effect 

relationships More efficient after a Cause and effect Analysis Done on the Priority items found in a Cause and Effect Analysis

How do tools fit?
HuMan Machine Effect Material Methods EnvironMent

Cause and Effect Worksheet
Cause Effect
Type of Check 1. Direct Observation 2. Evidence from collected data 3. Expert’s experience 4. Theory 5. Others Already existing reference standard Check method to be used Check Details Thesis

Verify existence of cause and effect for this situation
Already existing Control Method Results of the check

Problem

Why

Why

Why

Why

Why

Recommneded Why-Why Analysis Approach

 Go On the Floor, at the point of the problem  See the problem  Listen to the people who live the problem

What is the Product of a Why-Why Analysis ?
It is a structured, field checked, relationship with each cause-effect relationship linked from the lowest element back to the phenomenon.

P h e n o m e n o n

WHY-WHY
W h y
?

W W h h y y
? ?

W h y
?

C RC i o a eh ou e t s lc e d k
NTrue

Why? F

Std.’ s

E x i s t ?

A p p l i e d ?

A T SOP c a E t k x i e i on s n? t ?

A (4M’s) c MM M M t a a e a c t t i n h h e o i o r i n d a n
e l

Standards

NTrue

Y
True

Y N

Restore

N

New Std.

Y N

X
New Maint. Std.

X X

Let us Break the Analysis into following Steps
1. Understanding the Problem 2. Defining the Phenomenon to be analyzed. 3. Establishing Cause-Effect Relationship through Why questioning and Field Checks. 4. Logical Review of the Analysis 5. Checking for Standards and Standard Operating Procedures

1. Understanding the Problem

Let’s See What’s going on?

1. The light bulb “doesn’t go on”

2. “He slipped”

3. The match “doesn’t light”

4. The pen “doesn’t write” Time: 10’

Understanding the problem

• • •

Form a team of qualified, knowledgeable people. Develop a general description of the problem. Develop an initial problem statement.

1. Understanding the Problem

How you focus on the Problem Greatly impacts the success of the Analysis.

1. Understanding the Problem Two Clarifying approaches
a) According to the Process or Work Flow requirements.

b) According to the physical causes.

1. Understanding the Problem
According to Process or Work Flow requirements

Identify those conditions required by the Process to correctly operate and check all of them before start doing the analysis. (Checklist)

Advantages: +Simpler +More practical +Faster

1. Understanding the Problem According to physical causes.
Identify the mechanics that generates the phenomenon and start the analysis based on it.

Advantages: +More complete +More precise +More effective This material considers this approach as the standard way to perform why-why analysis.

2. Defining the Phenomenon to be analyzed.

Define the Phenomenon
 We intend to define the mechanics that
generate the phenomenon, in other words, the way or process through which what we are describing occurs.  Break the problem down into specific, observable phenomena.  Align the team on what success looks like.

General Problem vs Phenomenon
 General

Problem

An intricate, unsettled question or issue A source of perplexity or distress Made up of many observable
phenomenon
 Phenomena

Specific, observable facts or events

Problem vs Phenomenon Example
Problem: The room is too dark

Better: The light bulb “doesn’t turn on”

Best: There seems to be no flow of electric current through the filament

Problem vs Phenomenon Examples
Examples
Process reliability is below 90%
The heat exchanger plates are cracked The reactor pump seals leak

Problems? Phenomena?

Product quality deviations are excessive
Bottle product labels are scratched Bottle are being underfilled by 2 ounces per bottle The family car is worn out

The engine is using one quart of oil every 500 miles
The car seats are ripped

What’s the problem? – Identify it clearly to focus in right direction

Focus One – People are the problem

Focus Two – Weak Rope is the problem

Focus Three – Water pool with wild creatures is the problem

2. Defining the Phenomenon to be analyzed.

What’s going on?
Workgroup activity (4)

 Define each of the following phenomena:

1. The light bulb “doesn’t go on”

2. “He slipped”

3. The match “doesn’t light”

4. The pen “doesn’t write” Time: 10’

2. Defining the Phenomenon to be analyzed.

What’s going on?
1. The light bulb “doesn’t go on”
The phenomenon that produces light is the heating of the filament when electrons or electric current flows through it. DESCRIPTION OF THE PHENOMENON: There is insufficient or no flow of electric current through the filament.

2. Defining the Phenomenon to be analyzed.

What’s going on?
2. “He slipped”
Slipping occurs when the force of friction is less than the force that caused him to slide.

F = Impulse that caused him to slide.
f = Force of friction DESCRIPTION OF THE PHENOMENON: F > f

2. Defining the Phenomenon to be analyzed.

What’s going on?
3. The match “won’t light”
In order for a match to light, 3 conditions need to be met: a) Fuel.- Met with the striking material and the match head. (OK.) b) Oxygen.- Provided by the environment. (OK.) c) Heat.- Caused by the friction of the match head against the rough strip on the matchbox. DESCRIPTION OF THE PHENOMENON: There is not enough friction between the match head and the rough strip on the matchbox to produce the heat needed for ignition.

2. Defining the Phenomenon to be analyzed.

What’s going on?
4. The pen “doesn’t work.”
In order for the pen to write, ink needs to flow to the pen’s ballpoint and over it onto a surface where it is deposited.

DESCRIPTION OF THE PHENOMENON: Ink doesn’t flow over the pen’s point.

3. Establishing Cause-Effect Relationship.

First “Why” about the Phenomenon

 This question needs to be answered from a  
physical and/or logical point of view. The question needs to be answered for each element involved in the description made in the previous step. At this point, focus on the evidence of the flaws, that is:  Verify the evidence of the causes of the problem in the field (whether it exists or not, stopping the analysis for

that branch when the cause doesn’t exist). If it is possible to put a direct countermeasure to the cause into place, do it and stop the analysis ensure that procedures or standards are in place to maintain condition achieved..

3. Establishing Cause-Effect Relationship.

Why does it happen?
Work group activity (4)  Ask the first “Why?” question and answer it for each phenomenon.

1. The light bulb “doesn’t go on”

2. “He slipped”

3. The match “won’t light”

4. The pen “doesn’t work” Time: 15’

3. Establishing Cause-Effect Relationship.

Why does that happen?
1. The light bulb “doesn’t go on”
FIRST WHY: Why is the flow of electric current through the filament insufficient or non-existent?

a) There aren’t any free electrons in the material (The filament material is a dielectric) b) There’s no energy to move the electrons c) There is not enough energy d) There is nowhere for the electrons to flow (The filament is broken)

Eliminated by evidence.

3. Establishing Cause-Effect Relationship.

Why does that happen?
2. “He slipped”
FIRST WHY:
F = Impulse that provokes the slide.

Why is F > f ?

f = Force of friction

OBSERVING “F”: a) The person is leaning Eliminated, too much. b) Some outside force of nothing pushed impulse added to F. him c) The person’s inertia is high.

OBSERVING “f”: a) The surfaces between his sole and the floor present little friction. b) There is a lubricant between the surfaces.

3. Establishing Cause-Effect Relationship.

Why does that happen?
3. The match “won’t light”
FIRST WHY: Why is there not enough friction between the match head and the matchbox strip to produce the heat needed to cause ignition?
(Friction generates heat necessary for ignition) a) The pressure applied between the match and the matchbox is too low. b) The surface of the matchbox is not rough enough. c) The surface of the match head is not rough enough. d) There is a lubricant between the surfaces. e) The friction duration is not long enough to heat the match head and produce ignition.

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November 9th 2009

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NEWSLETTER FOR MANUFACTURING COMMUNITY

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Solution for Last week Techuzzle
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EclipseCrossword.com

REACTIVE—r stands for _______ in KVAr, usual rating standard for capacitors DELTA—Most of the three capacitor wirings are _____ connected LEADING—Power factor more than one indicates a _______ current scenario PARALLEL—Capacitors are added in ______ circuit to increase capacitance LAGGING—Power factor less than unity indicates a _______ current scenario

Down
2. 3. 4. COMPENSATION—Adjusting PF using capacitors is generally called ________ HEALING—H stands for _______ in SH or N-SH type capacitors METALLIZED—M stands for _______ MPP type capacitors

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November 9th 2009

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This week Techuzzle
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EclipseCrossword.com

Expand LC, commonly used in measuring instruments Common name for Ishikawa Diagram is _____ Diagram

Down
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Chart which looks like tall buildings next to each other P stands for _____ in SPC A stands for _______ in QA C stands for ______ in QC L stands for _____ in LCL or UCL A stands for _____ in RCA

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November 9th 2009

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This week’s Quality Month Special Techuzzle

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EclipseCrossword.com

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1. 5. 7. Six Sigma implies appearance of 3.4 defects per ____ (Million, Billion, Thousand) Broadly, how many steps are involved in Six Sigma Methodology (Ten, Seven, Twelve, Six) This person founded Six Sigma Academy (Mikel Harry, Jurong, Taylor)

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1. 2. 3. 4. 6. This company was instrumental in developing Six Sigma Concepts (Motorola, Mercedes, Ford) Second Belt of Six Sigma Sigma, in statistics, is a basic indication of Standard _____ (distribution, deviation, dispersion) Third (Final) Level of Six Sigma First Belt of Six Sigma

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 (SIGMA)
Sigma is a Greek Symbol which identifies many parameters in different fields. But, its main and very popular usage has been indicating STANDARD DEVIATION in the field of Statistics. November is “celebrated” worldwide as Quality month. And, no quality measurement is possible without making direct or indirect reference to this tiny little sigma symbol. In very general terms, STANDARD DEVIATION can be considered as CONFIDENCE in any statistical measurements. For example, if we can announce that the average life of a radial tire is 50000 kilometers (29760 miles) with a STANDARD DEVIATION of only 100 kilometers (60 miles), it implies that we are very CONFIDENT and SURE of our entire manufacturing process to manufacture tires with certain quality parameters. Standard Deviation measures the spread of deviation around an ARTHIMETIC MEAN. Smaller value of STANDARD DEVIATION implies the processes are EXCELLENT and the CONFIDENCE level in such process is extremely HIGH. It also means that the measurement methods involved are extremely good and have minimal error

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Dr. Mikel Harry
Although it is quite difficult to trace and isolate the evolution of Six Sigma to one specific person, Dr. Mikel Harry has to his credit making it one of most popular and long-term quality sustaining tools in the world. Although Six Sigma seems to be a tough path to take on, with Dr.Harry’s immense contribution the perception began to change. He was instrumental in introducing Six Sigma concept at ABB (Asea Brown Boveri). But his association with Motorola, one of world’s leading communications company gave Six Sigma lot of practical perspective. He also founded Six Sigma Academy in 1994 which is helping many companies to be competitive, productive and cost-efficient. Dr.Harry has more than 50 publications to his credit and one of his book, Six Sigma: The Management Strategy Revolutionizing the World's Top Corporations has been one of the best seller books worldwide on Six Sigma. You can visit the website http://www.isixsigma.com for learning on Dr. Harry and SIX SIGMA.

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