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Ribs

The ribs, together with the sternum form the rib cage, which protects the vital organs
and serves as attachment sites for muscles. There are usually twelve pairs of ribs. The
ribs are crescent-shaped blades with a flattened end and a rounded end. The rounded
ends articulate with the thoracic vertebras and the flattened ends are the sternal ends.
At birth, the ribs are easy to recognize.

The first 7 pairs of ribs articulate with the sternum via cartilage and are known as true
ribs. The 8
th
, 9
th
and 10
th
ribs have cartilage that ventrally connects with the cartilage
of the ribs above. The last two ribs, 11
th
and 12
th
, are known as free ribs because they
do not have cartilaginous connection with the other ribs or to the sternum and hangs
free. Ribs increase in length from the first to the seventh, and then decreases in length
till the twelfth rib.

The first rib is the flattest, broadest and most curved rib and it is also the shortest.







Figure 24: First rib (from Grays Anatomy of the Human Body)
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Figure 25: Central rib, left side (from Grays Anatomy of the Human Body)



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Figure 26: Anterior surface of the sternum and costal cartilages (from Grays
Anatomy of the Human Body)






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Figure 27: Posterior view of the thorax (from Grays Anatomy of the Human Body)




















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Humerus


The humerus is the major bone of the arm and is the largest and longest bone of the
upper extremity. It is a paired long bone. It is smaller than the femur and tibia but
larger than the radius and ulna and the fibula. It articulates proximally with the
scapula and distally with the radius and ulna. It is divided into a shaft, a proximal
extremity (head, neck and two tubercles) and a distal extremity (two epicondyles and
articular surfaces for the ulna (trochlea) and radius (capitulum)). At birth, the humerus
is represented by the shaft and is distinguishable from the femur and tibia by the deep
depression of the olecranon fossa (posterior, distal end).

The head is nearly hemispherical in form and is directed upwards, medially and
articulates with the scapula at the glenoid cavity.

The body of the shaft is almost cylindrical in the upper half and prismatic and
flattened at the distal end. The nutrient foramen is located on the medial side of the
bone and is directed distally.

The distal end consists of the lateral and medial epicondyles, the capitulum and
trochlea and the olecranon fossa. The lateral epicondyle is a small, tuberculated
eminence and the medial epicondyle is larger and more prominent. The capitulum
(lateral) is a smooth, rounded eminence. The trochlea is located medially. The
olecranon fossa is a deep, triangular fossa.

In standard anatomical position, the distal end points down with the olecranon fossa
facing you, and the proximal end projects medially. At the distal end, the bone is
curved more medially, while the lateral side is relatively straight.






















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Figure 28: Left humerus, anterior view (from Grays Anatomy of the Human Body)
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Figure 29: Left humerus, posterior view (from Grays Anatomy of the Human Body)

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Radius

The radius is one of the two bones located in the lower arm. It is a paired long bone. It
lies on the lateral side in standard anatomical position. It articulates with the ulna and
humerus proximally and distally with the ulna and the scaphoid and lunate (carpal
bones or hand bones). At birth, the radius is represented by the shaft and is easily
distinguishable by the radial tuberosity.

The upper end of the radius is small. The head is cylindrical in shape and the upper
surface has a shallow cup or fovea for articulation with the capitulum. On the medial
surface, there is an eminence called the radial tuberosity.

The body or shaft is prismoid in form, narrower above and is slightly curved. The
nutrient foramen is found on the anterior surface and is directed proximally.

The distal end is large and flares bilaterally (thin, wedge-shaped). It is also concave
for articulation with the lunate and the styloid process articulates with the navicular
bone. The medial surface contains the ulnar notch.

For siding identification, firstly, take note of the radial tuberosity, which signifies the
proximal end. The nutrient foramina signifies the anterior surface and the anterior
surface is smooth and is fairly flat to slightly concave. In standard anatomical position
with the head towards you, the nutrient foramen anterior and the distal end away from
you, the styloid process is always on the lateral side and on the side the bone is from.
The radial tuberosity and the interosseous crest are medial and on the opposite site the
bone comes from. Ulnar notch is also medial.























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Ulna

The ulna is the medial bone in the lower arm in standard anatomical position. It is a
paired long bone. It articulates with the humerus and radius proximally, and distally,
directly with the radius. At birth, the ulna is represented by the shaft.

The proximal end is irregular in shape and is the thickest and strongest part of the
bone. The olecranon process fits into the olecranon fossa of the humerus. The
semilunar notch articulates with the trochlea of the humerus. The radial notch is for
the articulation with the disk head shape of the radius.

Throughout the shaft, its shape is three sided but towards the end, it becomes rounded
and smooth. The nutrient foramen is directed proximally.

The distal end is small and consists of the head. The styloid process projects from
the medial and posterior part of the bone.

For siding identification, while holding the bone in standard anatomical position with
the proximal end towards you and semilunar notch up, the radial notch, the
interosseous crest and the nutrient foramen will be on the side the bone is from.





























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Figure 30: Ulna and radius, anterior view (from Grays Anatomy of the Human Body)
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Figure 31: Ulna and radius, posterior view (from Grays Anatomy of the Human
Body)
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